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Sample records for indirect approach focusing

  1. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  2. Understanding and quantifying focused, indirect groundwater recharge from ephemeral streams using water table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Acworth, R. I.; Andersen, M. S.; Larsen, J. R.; McCallum, A. M.; Rau, G. C.; Tellam, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and managing groundwater resources in drylands is a challenging task, but one that is globally important. The dominant process for dryland groundwater recharge is thought to be as focused, indirect recharge from ephemeral stream losses. However, there is a global paucity of data for understanding and quantifying this process and transferable techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge in such contexts are lacking. Here we develop a generalized conceptual model for understanding water table and groundwater head fluctuations due to recharge from episodic events within ephemeral streams. By accounting for the recession characteristics of a groundwater hydrograph, we present a simple but powerful new water table fluctuation approach to quantify focused, indirect recharge over both long term and event time scales. The technique is demonstrated using a new, and globally unparalleled, set of groundwater observations from an ephemeral stream catchment located in NSW, Australia. We find that, following episodic streamflow events down a predominantly dry channel system, groundwater head fluctuations are controlled by pressure redistribution operating at three time scales from vertical flow (days to weeks), transverse flow perpendicular to the stream (weeks to months), and longitudinal flow parallel to the stream (years to decades). In relative terms, indirect recharge decreases almost linearly away from the mountain front, both in discrete monitored events as well as in the long-term average. In absolute terms, the estimated indirect recharge varies from 80 to 30 mm/a with the main uncertainty in these values stemming from uncertainty in the catchment-scale hydraulic properties.

  3. Indirect laminate veneer: a conservative novel approach.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Paranjay; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Naveen, Y G; Patel, Jayanti R

    2013-01-01

    Various treatment options and materials are available for restoration of an endodontically treated tooth. Laminate veneer is conservative treatment usually employed for aesthetic correction or improvement. The indirect composite is available in a wide range of shades and specific characterisation is easily performed chair side in the operatory area, which makes it a quick procedure and time saving for both the patient and the dentist. The physical properties and optical properties are good enough to use it as indirect restorative material, so in this particular case it was the material of choice for fabrication of laminate veneer on anterior tooth. In this case, the endodontically treated tooth with a fractured incisal edge was restored with indirect composite material. PMID:23975914

  4. NEW APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING INDIRECT PHOTOLYSIS RATES IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indirect photoreactions in aquatic environments are driven by reactive species, most of which are oxygen centered. Humic substances play an important role in photosensitizing the production of these reactive species, which include singlet molecular oxygen, superoxide ions, hydrog...

  5. Using Focus Groups To Design a Quantitative Measure: Women's Indirect "No" to Sexual Intimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Heidi M.

    This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the reasons many women use indirect messages to say "no" to men's attempts to escalate sexual intimacy. Subjects were six female students at a large southwestern university. At one time, one group had four women, at another time the group had two women. All were Caucasian. The room…

  6. Spirituality and Rehabilitation: A Focus Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Kenneth D.; Miller, Doreen M.; Duncan, Cecil

    The purpose of this study was to assess the rehabilitation counselor issues regarding the integration of spirituality into rehabilitation counseling. Rehabilitation counseling, from its inception, has espoused the concept of holism. The holistic approach to rehabilitation counseling recognizes the importance of working with the whole person, to…

  7. Can we predict indirect interactions from quantitative food webs?--an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Tack, Ayco J M; Gripenberg, Sofia; Roslin, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    1. Shared enemies may link the dynamics of their prey. Recently, quantitative food webs have been used to infer that herbivorous insect species attacked by the same major parasitoid species will affect each other negatively through apparent competition. Nonetheless, theoretical work predicts several alternative outcomes, including positive effects. 2. In this paper, we use an experimental approach to link food web patterns to realized population dynamics. First, we construct a quantitative food web for three dominant leaf miner species on the oak Quercus robur. We then measure short- and long-term indirect effects by increasing leaf miner densities on individual trees. Finally, we test whether experimental results are consistent with natural leaf miner dynamics on unmanipulated trees. 3. The quantitative food web shows that all leaf miner species share a minimum of four parasitoid species. While only a small fraction of the parasitoid pool is shared among Tischeria ekebladella and each of two Phyllonorycter species, the parasitoid communities of the congeneric Phyllonorycter species overlap substantially. 4. Based on the structure of the food web, we predict strong short- and long-term indirect interactions between the Phyllonorycter species, and limited interactions between them and T. ekebladella. As T. ekebladella is the main source of its own parasitoids, we expect to find intraspecific density-dependent parasitism in this species. 5. Consistent with these predictions, parasitism in T. ekebladella was high on trees with high densities of conspecifics in the previous generation. Among leaf miner species sharing more parasitoids, we found positive rather than negative interactions among years. No short-term indirect interactions (i.e. indirect interactions within a single generation) were detected. 6. Overall, this study is the first to experimentally demonstrate that herbivores with overlapping parasitoid communities may exhibit independent population dynamics

  8. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  9. An automated approach to the segmentation of HEp-2 cells for the indirect immunofluorescence ANA test.

    PubMed

    Tonti, Simone; Di Cataldo, Santa; Bottino, Andrea; Ficarra, Elisa

    2015-03-01

    The automatization of the analysis of Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) images is of paramount importance for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. This paper proposes a solution to one of the most challenging steps of this process, the segmentation of HEp-2 cells, through an adaptive marker-controlled watershed approach. Our algorithm automatically conforms the marker selection pipeline to the peculiar characteristics of the input image, hence it is able to cope with different fluorescent intensities and staining patterns without any a priori knowledge. Furthermore, it shows a reduced sensitivity to over-segmentation errors and uneven illumination, that are typical issues of IIF imaging. PMID:25614095

  10. Ferromagnetism of magnetic impurities coupled indirectly via conduction electrons: Insights from various theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titvinidze, Irakli; Schwabe, Andrej; Potthoff, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic ground-state properties of the periodic Anderson model with a regular depletion of the correlated sites are analyzed within different theoretical approaches. We consider the model on the one-dimensional chain and on the two-dimensional square lattice with hopping between nearest neighbors. At half-filling and with correlated impurities present at every second site, the depleted Anderson lattice is the most simple system where the indirect magnetic coupling mediated by the conduction electrons is ferromagnetic. We discuss the underlying electronic structure and the possible mechanisms that result in ferromagnetic long-range order. To this end, different numerical and analytical concepts are applied to the depleted Anderson and also to the related depleted Kondo lattice and are contrasted with each other. This includes numerical approaches, i.e., Hartree-Fock theory, density-matrix renormalization and dynamical mean-field theory, as well as analytical concepts, namely a variant of the Lieb-Mattis theorem and the concept of flat-band ferromagnetism, and, finally, perturbative approaches, i.e., the effective RKKY exchange in the limit of weak coupling and the "inverse indirect magnetic exchange" in the limit of strong coupling between the conduction band and the impurities.

  11. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  12. Indirect approach to invariant point determination for SLR and VLBI systems: an assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, John; Sarti, Pierguido; Johnston, Gary M.; Vittuari, Luca

    2007-06-01

    We assess the accuracy of some indirect approaches to invariant point (IVP), or system reference point, determination of satellite laser ranging (SLR) and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) systems using both observed and simulated survey data sets. Indirect IVP determination involves the observation of targets located on these systems during specific rotational sequences and by application of geometrical models that describe the target motion during these sequences. Of concern is that most SLR and VLBI systems have limited rotational freedom thereby placing constraint on the reliability of parameter estimation, including the IVP position. We assess two current approaches to IVP analysis using survey data observed at the Yarragadee (Australia) SLR and the Medicina (Italy) VLBI sites and also simulated data of a large rotationally constrained (azimuth-elevation) VLBI system. To improve reliability we introduce and assess some new geometric conditions, including inter-axis, inter-circle and inter-target conditions, to existing IVP analysis strategies. The error component of a local tie specifically associated with the indirect determination of SLR and VLBI IVP is less than 0.5 mm. For systems with significant rotational limits we find that the inter-axis and inter-circle conditions are critical to the computation of unbiased IVP coordinates at the sub-millimetre level. When the inter-axis and inter-circle geometric conditions are not imposed, we retrieve biased vertical coordinates of the IVP (in our simulated VLBI system) in the range of 1.2 3.4 mm. Using the new geometric conditions we also find that the axis-offset estimates can be recovered at the sub- millimetre accuracy (0.5 mm).

  13. Minimally invasive clinical approach in indirect pulp therapy and healing of deep carious lesions.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Dhindsa, A; Taluja, T

    2014-01-01

    Indirect pulp treatment is a conservative vital pulp procedure performed in deep carious lesion approximating the pulp, but without signs or symptoms of pulp degeneration. Removing the carious biomass along with sealing the residual caries from extrinsic substrate and oral bacteria makes residual caries after the first excavation less active. This allows time for pulpo dentinal complex to form tertiary dentine so that at the second excavation, there is less likelihood of pulpal exposure. It has also been suggested that by changing the cavity environment from an active lesion into a more slowly progressing lesion, will be accompanied by more regular tubular tertiary dentin formation. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by various randomized controlled studies comparing conventional treatment of such lesions with stepwise excavation. These results are echoed at clinical, radiographic, macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural level during follow up visits. This study reviews promising concepts and rationale of minimally invasive indirect pulp therapy technique where conventional wisdom of caries removal is challenged PMID:25095310

  14. Solution-focused approach therapy for mental health nursing students.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicola; Evans, Anne-Marie

    Solution-focused therapy is a model of therapy that builds on the client's strengths, is future-focused and can be generally offered as a brief intervention. It can be used across multiple clinical settings and is not limited to being useful for clients accessing mental health services. Learning the underlying principles and developing a foundation level of skill in the approach was found to be achievable in an undergraduate nursing course, with students reporting an increase in their knowledge of the model and confidence in basic therapeutic skills in just one day of training. In this paper, we introduce the solution-focused approach in relation to nursing practice. We describe the template used for the training day offered to undergraduate mental health nurses. Students reported that this method of learning a therapeutic approach was helpful and increased both their knowledge and skill base. PMID:24280922

  15. Mie scattering of highly focused, scalar fields: an analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole J; Alonso, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    We present a method for modeling the scattering of a focused scalar field incident on a spherical particle. This approach involves the expansion of the incident field in an orthonormal basis of closed-form solutions of the Helmholtz equation which are nonparaxial counterparts of Laguerre-Gaussian beams. This method also allows for the analytic calculation of the forces and torques exerted on a particle at any position with respect to the beam's focus. PMID:27409679

  16. New Approach to Characterize the Configuration of Fractured Rock Surface Indirectly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye Xue; Li, Zheng; Fan, Jian Hui; Jia, Zhi Yong

    2015-11-01

    A novel approach called the YUV dimension method is proposed in this study to indirectly characterize fractured rock surface topography. This model is based on YUV color model theory in iconography and graphics. The process is described in detail as follows. A true-color photo with m pixels is selected. Y is denoted by gray scale, U by hue, and V by the saturation components of the pixel color. These components are applied to create the z, x and y coordinates of the point in the coordinate system that originates from the pixel. A similar method is applied in each pixel. M points are created in the coordinate space. The number of created points is equivalent to one of the pixels. The m points are then connected and a rough YUV surface is established. Otherwise, the calculation method for the self-affine dimension of a n - 1 n-dimensional fractal body is presented by fractal Brownian motion theory and then degenerated to one between the 2D and 3D case. The approach is applied to evaluate the dimension of the YUV surface, i.e. the YUV dimension. To validate the feasibility of YUV dimension theory, numerical studies on the YUV dimension are conducted through a laser profilometer scanning experiment and scanning electron microscopy with the same specimens. The surface characteristics of similar samples are analyzed by probing into the YUV, general and grayscale dimensions of the specimens. The comparison shows that the YUV and general dimensions of similar specimens are fundamentally identical, and the complete trends of the YUV and gray dimensions remain consistent with changing specimens. The result indicates that YUV dimension theory is reasonable and feasible. In short, the YUV dimension is a new method that exhibits more advantages than the general and grayscale dimensions. This method characterizes surface configuration indirectly.

  17. Sound focusing in rooms: the time-reversal approach.

    PubMed

    Yon, Sylvain; Tanter, Mickael; Fink, Mathias

    2003-03-01

    New perspectives in audible range acoustics, such as virtual sound space creation and active noise control, rely on the ability of the rendering system to recreate precisely a desired sound field. This ability to control sound in a given volume of a room is directly linked to the capacity to focus acoustical energy both in space and time. However, sound focusing in rooms remains a complicated problem, essentially because of the multiple reflections on obstacles and walls occurring during propagation. In this paper, the technique of time-reversal focusing, well known in ultrasound, is experimentally applied to audible range acoustics. Compared to classical focusing techniques such as delay law focusing, time reversal appears to considerably improve quality of both temporal and spatial focusing. This so-called super-resolution phenomenon is due to the ability of time reversal to take into account all of the different sound paths between the emitting antenna and the focal point, thus creating an adaptive spatial and temporal matched filter for the considered propagation medium. Experiments emphasize the strong robustness of time-reversal focusing towards small modifications in the medium, such as people in motion or temperature variations. Sound focusing through walls using the time-reversal approach is also experimentally demonstrated. PMID:12656388

  18. Focused Ubiquity: A Purposeful Approach to Providing Students with Laptops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Mike; Weiler, Spencer C.; Maas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Laptops have been introduced into classroom across the nation as a way to improve teaching and learning. In 2007 Littleton Public Schools (LPS) introduced a focused approach to providing all students with a laptop at a significantly lower cost to the traditional ubiquitous laptop programs. The purpose of this study was to document the LPS model…

  19. Approaching Early Grammatical Intervention from a Sentence-Focused Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this response to Kamhi (2014), a sentence-focused framework is presented to help clinicians select treatment targets as part of a comprehensive approach to early grammatical intervention. Method: The literature on the relationship between lexical verbs, sentence structure, and tense/agreement morphemes is reviewed, and developmental…

  20. High Focus Drawing: A Revolutionary Approach to Drawing the Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, James

    This book encourages art students to draw the entire human figure at once, rather than isolated portions of the body. The approach focuses on the energy that suffuses every part of the body and produces liverly, seamless figure drawings without construction lines. Examples from Master works and student works are used to demonstrate the approach…

  1. Teaching the Indirect Method of the Statement of Cash Flows in Introductory Financial Accounting: A Comprehensive, Problem-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickner, Daniel R.; McCombs, Gary B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an instructional resource for presenting the indirect method of the statement of cash flows (SCF) in an introductory financial accounting course. The authors focus primarily on presenting a comprehensive example that illustrates the "why" of SCF preparation and show how journal entries and T-accounts can be…

  2. Original Approach for Automated Quantification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Daniel; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Bongrand, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is the gold standard method for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) which are essential markers for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. For the discrimination of positive and negative samples, we propose here an original approach named Immunofluorescence for Computed Antinuclear antibody Rational Evaluation (ICARE) based on the calculation of a fluorescence index (FI). Methods. We made comparison between FI and visual evaluations on 237 consecutive samples and on a cohort of 25 patients with SLE. Results. We obtained very good technical performance of FI (95% sensitivity, 98% specificity, and a kappa of 0.92), even in a subgroup of weakly positive samples. A significant correlation between quantification of FI and IIF ANA titers was found (Spearman's ρ = 0.80, P < 0.0001). Clinical performance of ICARE was validated on a cohort of patients with SLE corroborating the fact that FI could represent an attractive alternative for the evaluation of antibody titer. Conclusion. Our results represent a major step for automated quantification of IIF ANA, opening attractive perspectives such as rapid sample screening and laboratory standardization. PMID:24454469

  3. Donor Activation Focused Rehabilitation Approach: Maximizing Outcomes After Nerve Transfers.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Lorna Canavan; Moore, Amy M

    2016-05-01

    As nerve transfers become the mainstay in treatment of brachial plexus and isolated nerve injuries, the preoperative and postoperative therapy performed to restore motor function requires continued dedication and appreciation. Through the understanding of the general principles of muscle activation and patient education, the therapist has a unique impact on the return of function in patients with nerve injuries. As surgeons continue to develop novel nerve transfers, the perioperative training, education, and implementation of the donor activation focused rehabilitation approach model is critical to ensure successful outcomes. PMID:27094897

  4. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement. PMID:26412738

  5. Treatment of a Woman With Emetophobia: A Trauma Focused Approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A disproportionate fear of vomiting, or emetophobia, is a chronic and disabling condition which is characterized by a tendency to avoid a wide array of situations or activities that might increase the risk of vomiting. Unlike many other subtypes of specific phobia, emetophobia is fairly difficult to treat. In fact, there are only a few published cases in the literature. This paper presents a case of a 46-year old woman with emetophobia in which a trauma-focused treatment approach was applied; that is, an approach particularly aimed at processing disturbing memories of a series of events which were considered to be causal in the etiology of her condition. Four therapy sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) produced a lasting decrease in symptomatology. A 3-year follow up showed no indication of relapse. PMID:25478106

  6. Treatment of a woman with emetophobia: a trauma focused approach.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Ad

    2012-07-26

    A disproportionate fear of vomiting, or emetophobia, is a chronic and disabling condition which is characterized by a tendency to avoid a wide array of situations or activities that might increase the risk of vomiting. Unlike many other subtypes of specific phobia, emetophobia is fairly difficult to treat. In fact, there are only a few published cases in the literature. This paper presents a case of a 46-year old woman with emetophobia in which a trauma-focused treatment approach was applied; that is, an approach particularly aimed at processing disturbing memories of a series of events which were considered to be causal in the etiology of her condition. Four therapy sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) produced a lasting decrease in symptomatology. A 3-year follow up showed no indication of relapse. PMID:25478106

  7. Using chemical approaches to study selenoproteins - focus on thioredoxin reductases

    PubMed Central

    Hondal, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The study of selenocysteine-containing proteins is difficult due to the problems associated with the heterologous production of these proteins. These problems are due to the intricate recoding mechanism used by cells to translate the UGA codon as a sense codon for selenocysteine. The process is further complicated by the fact that eukaryotes and prokaryotes have different UGA recoding machineries. This review focuses on chemical approaches to produce selenoproteins and study the mechanism of selenoenzymes. The use of intein-mediated peptide ligation is discussed with respect to the production of the mammalian selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase and selenoprotein R, also known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1. New methods for removing protecting groups from selenocysteine post-synthesis and methods for selenosulfide/diselenide formation are also reviewed. Chemical approaches have also been used to study the enzymatic mechanism of thioredoxin reductase. The approach divides the enzyme into two modules, a large protein module lacking selenocysteine and a small, synthetic selenocysteine-containing peptide. Study of this semisynthetic enzyme has revealed three distinct enzymatic pathways that depend on the properties of the substrate. The enzyme utilizes a macromolecular mechanism for protein substrates, a second mechanism for small molecule substrates and a third pathway for selenium-containing substrates such as selenocystine. PMID:19406205

  8. Determining Cross Sections for Reactions on Unstable Nuclei: A Consideration of Indirect Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J; Dietrich, F S

    2005-05-24

    An indirect method for determining cross sections for reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus is presented. The appropriate theoretical framework for applications of this method is reviewed and theoretical and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in applications of the method are outlined. Two approximations are considered and their advantages and limitations are discussed.

  9. Determining Cross Sections for Reactions on Unstable Nuclei: A Consideration of Indirect Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J.; Dietrich, F.S.

    2005-10-14

    An indirect method for determining cross sections for reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus is presented. The appropriate theoretical framework for applications of this method is reviewed and theoretical and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in applications of the method are outlined. Two approximations are considered and their advantages and limitations are discussed.

  10. Direct and indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, Jean; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    A bridge is highlighted between the direct inversion and the indirect inversion. They are based on fundamental different approaches: one is looking after a projection from the data space to the model space while the other one is reducing a misfit between observed data and synthetic data obtained from a given model. However, it is possible to obtain similar structures for model perturbation, and we shall focus on P-wave velocity reconstruction. This bridge is built up through the Born approximation linearizing the forward problem with respect to model perturbation and through asymptotic approximations of the Green functions of the wave propagation equation. We first describe the direct inversion and its ingredients and then we focus on a specific misfit function design leading to a indirect inversion. Finally, we shall compare this indirect inversion with more standard least-squares inversion as the FWI, enabling the focus on small weak velocity perturbations on one side and the speed-up of the velocity perturbation reconstruction on the other side. This bridge has been proposed by the group led by Raul Madariaga in the early nineties, emphasizing his leading role in efficient imaging workflows for seismic velocity reconstruction, a drastic requirement at that time.

  11. New Modeling Approaches to Study DNA Damage by the Direct and Indirect Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is damaged both by the direct and indirect effects of radiation. In the direct effect, the DNA itself is ionized, whereas the indirect effect involves the radiolysis of the water molecules surrounding the DNA and the subsequent reaction of the DNA with radical products. While this problem has been studied for many years, many unknowns still exist. To study this problem, we have developed the computer code RITRACKS [1], which simulates the radiation track structure for heavy ions and electrons, calculating all energy deposition events and the coordinates of all species produced by the water radiolysis. In this work, we plan to simulate DNA damage by using the crystal structure of a nucleosome and calculations performed by RITRACKS. The energy deposition events are used to calculate the dose deposited in nanovolumes [2] and therefore can be used to simulate the direct effect of the radiation. Using the positions of the radiolytic species with a radiation chemistry code [3] it will be possible to simulate DNA damage by indirect effect. The simulation results can be compared with results from previous calculations such as the frequencies of simple and complex strand breaks [4] and with newer experimental data using surrogate markers of DNA double ]strand breaks such as . ]H2AX foci [5].

  12. A simple unified approach for estimating natural direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Lange, Theis; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Bekaert, Maarten

    2012-08-01

    An important problem within both epidemiology and many social sciences is to break down the effect of a given treatment into different causal pathways and to quantify the importance of each pathway. Formal mediation analysis based on counterfactuals is a key tool when addressing this problem. During the last decade, the theoretical framework for mediation analysis has been greatly extended to enable the use of arbitrary statistical models for outcome and mediator. However, the researcher attempting to use these techniques in practice will often find implementation a daunting task, as it tends to require special statistical programming. In this paper, the authors introduce a simple procedure based on marginal structural models that directly parameterize the natural direct and indirect effects of interest. It tends to produce more parsimonious results than current techniques, greatly simplifies testing for the presence of a direct or an indirect effect, and has the advantage that it can be conducted in standard software. However, its simplicity comes at the price of relying on correct specification of models for the distribution of mediator (and exposure) and accepting some loss of precision compared with more complex methods. Web Appendixes 1 and 2, which are posted on the Journal's Web site (http://aje.oupjournals.org/), contain implementation examples in SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) and R language (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). PMID:22781427

  13. Hazard and risk assessment for indirect potable reuse schemes: An approach for use in developing Water Safety Plans.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Chicas, Angelina; Scrimshaw, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop an approach for facilitating an initial hazard assessment and risk characterisation for a proposed indirect potable reuse scheme, as part of the water safety plan recommended by the World Health Organization. The process involved a description and evaluation of the catchment, which was the sewerage system supplying the sewage treatment works that would provide the effluent to supply the pilot scale indirect potable reuse water treatment plant. Hazards, sources and barriers throughout the proposed system were identified and evaluated. An initial assessment of the possible hazards, highlighted chemical hazards as predominating, and assessment of risks, using a heat map as output, categorised most hazards as medium or high risk. However, this outcome has been influenced by a precautionary approach which assigned a high likelihood to the occurrence of hazards where no data was available on their occurrence in the system. As more data becomes available, and the waster safety plan develops, it is anticipated that the risk heat map will become more specific. Additionally, high quality targets, to drinking water standards, have been set, although water from the potable reuse plant will be discharged to receiving waters where it will undergo natural attenuation prior to further treatment to potable standards before distribution. The assessment has demonstrated the usefulness of the approach where data is initially limited, in generating a heat map allowing for prioritisation of hazards to a practical level. PMID:20673951

  14. Effective Student Focus Groups: The Bright and Early Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, E. Alana

    1996-01-01

    At Mount Royal College (Alberta), the perceptions of enrolled college students are seen as an important part of academic program review, but identification of appropriate scheduling of meetings may be difficult. The solution found was to obtain faculty assistance in selecting students and to schedule focus groups as breakfast meetings, which…

  15. Individualized Child-Focused Curriculum: A Differentiated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Gaye

    2016-01-01

    How do you focus on each individual child in a full classroom? Learn to integrate individualized curriculum into daily practice with this step-­by-­step guide. Even good observers and documenters do not always use these insights to inform their curriculum planning. Using Developmental Studies, a new tool created and successfully field­-tested by…

  16. Ramadan focused diabetes education; a much needed approach.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan Fasting is passionately practiced by millions of Muslims with diabetes across the globe. Structured education is recommended by the various diabetes societies to empower the person with diabetes to better self manage their condition. Indeed, Ramadan focused diabetes education has been shown to be beneficial to Muslim persons with diabetes wishing to fast in the Holy month of Ramadan. Hence, many national and international guidelines stress the importance of Ramadan focused structured education. Such education is targeted at the general public including the religious authorities to raise their awareness about diabetes and Ramadan, healthcare professionals to improve their clinical skills on managing diabetes during Ramadan and most importantly for the person with diabetes to help them to sail through the month of Ramadan safely. Consequently, any educational programme needs to be simple, clear and in the person with diabetes own language. Studies have shown that such a practice whether in a group session or one to one can help to reduce risk of hypoglycaemia and indeed other possible complications. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a crucial element of Ramadan focused diabetes education to empower the person with the information and help in behaviour change for safer fast during Ramadan. PMID:26013796

  17. A Comparison of Three Approaches to Correct for Direct and Indirect Range Restrictions: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaffel, Andreas; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    A common methodological problem in the evaluation of the predictive validity of selection methods, e.g. in educational and employment selection, is that the correlation between predictor and criterion is biased. Thorndike's (1949) formulas are commonly used to correct for this biased correlation. An alternative approach is to view the selection…

  18. Strengthening the Focus on Business Results: The Need for Systems Approaches in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2009-01-01

    Current Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) research and practice may be characterized as either behavior focused or results focused. These two approaches stem from different origins and have different characteristics. The behavior-focused approach stems from applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods and emphasizes direct observation of and…

  19. The indirect nature of social motives: the relation of social approach and avoidance motives with likeability via extraversion and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-02-01

    The current study tested assumptions derived from the whole-trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which proposes a connection between personality and motivation. We hypothesized that individual differences in social approach and avoidance motives are associated with personality as observed by others. In addition, we expected that observed personality links social approach and avoidance motives to interpersonal outcomes. The sample was composed of 83 young adults (25.3% males, Mage  = 21.66 years) who had recently moved into a shared apartment. Roommates (N = 83; 50.6% males, Mage  = 22.83 years) evaluated the newcomers on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and likeability. Approach motives had an indirect positive effect on likeability through other-reported Extraversion and Agreeableness. Although avoidance motives had some negative effects on likeability mediated through low Extraversion, they were positively associated with Agreeableness. These results demonstrate the complexity of social approach and avoidance motives. Moreover, they highlight the importance of motivational factors for observed personality. PMID:24372488

  20. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  1. A Graph Algorithmic Approach to Separate Direct from Indirect Neural Interactions.

    PubMed

    Wollstadt, Patricia; Meyer, Ulrich; Wibral, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Network graphs have become a popular tool to represent complex systems composed of many interacting subunits; especially in neuroscience, network graphs are increasingly used to represent and analyze functional interactions between multiple neural sources. Interactions are often reconstructed using pairwise bivariate analyses, overlooking the multivariate nature of interactions: it is neglected that investigating the effect of one source on a target necessitates to take all other sources as potential nuisance variables into account; also combinations of sources may act jointly on a given target. Bivariate analyses produce networks that may contain spurious interactions, which reduce the interpretability of the network and its graph metrics. A truly multivariate reconstruction, however, is computationally intractable because of the combinatorial explosion in the number of potential interactions. Thus, we have to resort to approximative methods to handle the intractability of multivariate interaction reconstruction, and thereby enable the use of networks in neuroscience. Here, we suggest such an approximative approach in the form of an algorithm that extends fast bivariate interaction reconstruction by identifying potentially spurious interactions post-hoc: the algorithm uses interaction delays reconstructed for directed bivariate interactions to tag potentially spurious edges on the basis of their timing signatures in the context of the surrounding network. Such tagged interactions may then be pruned, which produces a statistically conservative network approximation that is guaranteed to contain non-spurious interactions only. We describe the algorithm and present a reference implementation in MATLAB to test the algorithm's performance on simulated networks as well as networks derived from magnetoencephalographic data. We discuss the algorithm in relation to other approximative multivariate methods and highlight suitable application scenarios. Our approach is a

  2. A Practical Approach to Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common problem that is important to recognize and address. Initial steps in management are generally straightforward and only the most advanced cases would require referral to a subspecialist. Of particular concern is that of driving safety. There is a broad differential diagnosis for conditions contributing to EDS but a few common conditions account for the majority of clinical presentations. Subjective self-reporting will often lead to identification of potential problems, but this is often unreliable. Traditional neurophysiologic tests can help in objectively quantifying symptoms but current tests are not always practical clinically and may have little validation in real world situations. There are many treatment options that should generally be able to sufficiently manage most patients presenting with hypersomnolence. This review provides a practical clinical approach to the problem based on current guidelines. PMID:27445538

  3. A Practical Approach to Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common problem that is important to recognize and address. Initial steps in management are generally straightforward and only the most advanced cases would require referral to a subspecialist. Of particular concern is that of driving safety. There is a broad differential diagnosis for conditions contributing to EDS but a few common conditions account for the majority of clinical presentations. Subjective self-reporting will often lead to identification of potential problems, but this is often unreliable. Traditional neurophysiologic tests can help in objectively quantifying symptoms but current tests are not always practical clinically and may have little validation in real world situations. There are many treatment options that should generally be able to sufficiently manage most patients presenting with hypersomnolence. This review provides a practical clinical approach to the problem based on current guidelines. PMID:27445538

  4. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Annabel K.; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user’s regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User’s also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user’s understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered. PMID:26554836

  5. Introduction to Focus Issue: Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Réka; Collins, James J.; Glass, Leon

    2013-06-01

    All cells of living organisms contain similar genetic instructions encoded in the organism's DNA. In any particular cell, the control of the expression of each different gene is regulated, in part, by binding of molecular complexes to specific regions of the DNA. The molecular complexes are composed of protein molecules, called transcription factors, combined with various other molecules such as hormones and drugs. Since transcription factors are coded by genes, cellular function is partially determined by genetic networks. Recent research is making large strides to understand both the structure and the function of these networks. Further, the emerging discipline of synthetic biology is engineering novel gene circuits with specific dynamic properties to advance both basic science and potential practical applications. Although there is not yet a universally accepted mathematical framework for studying the properties of genetic networks, the strong analogies between the activation and inhibition of gene expression and electric circuits suggest frameworks based on logical switching circuits. This focus issue provides a selection of papers reflecting current research directions in the quantitative analysis of genetic networks. The work extends from molecular models for the binding of proteins, to realistic detailed models of cellular metabolism. Between these extremes are simplified models in which genetic dynamics are modeled using classical methods of systems engineering, Boolean switching networks, differential equations that are continuous analogues of Boolean switching networks, and differential equations in which control is based on power law functions. The mathematical techniques are applied to study: (i) naturally occurring gene networks in living organisms including: cyanobacteria, Mycoplasma genitalium, fruit flies, immune cells in mammals; (ii) synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli and yeast; and (iii) electronic circuits modeling genetic networks

  6. Approaches to measuring calcium in zebrafish: focus on neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Rachel

    2004-05-01

    Calcium ions are known to act as important cellular signals during nervous system development. In vitro studies have provided significant information on the role of calcium signals during neuronal development; however, the function of this messenger in nervous system maturation in vivo remains to be established. The zebrafish has emerged as a valuable model for the study of vertebrate embryogenesis. Fertilisation is external and the rapid growth of the transparent embryo, including development of internal organs, can be observed easily making it well suited for imaging studies. The developing nervous system is relatively simple and has been well characterised, allowing individual neurons to be identified. Using the zebrafish model, both intracellular and intercellular calcium signals throughout embryonic development have been characterised. This review summarises technical approaches to measure calcium signals in developing embryonic and larval zebrafish, and includes recent developments that will facilitate the study of calcium signalling in vivo. The application of calcium imaging techniques to investigate the action of this messenger during embryogenesis in intact zebrafish is illustrated by discussion of their contribution to our understanding of neuronal development in vivo. PMID:15003849

  7. The Direct and Indirect Effect of Motivation for Learning on Students' Approaches to Learning through the Perceptions of Workload and Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Cascallar, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the direct and indirect influence of motivation for learning, as understood by the self-determination theory, on students' approaches to learning. Concerning the direct influence of motivation, results show that autonomous motivation is positively related to a deep approach to learning and negatively to a surface…

  8. Teacher and Student-Focused Approaches: Influence of Learning Approach and Self-Efficacy in a Psychology Postgraduate Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Linda K.; Brewer, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined approaches to teaching in a postgraduate psychology sample. This included considering teaching-focused (information transfer) and student-focused (conceptual changes in understanding) approaches to teaching. Postgraduate teachers of psychology (N = 113) completed a questionnaire measuring their use of a teacher- or…

  9. A Missing Data Approach to Correct for Direct and Indirect Range Restrictions with a Dichotomous Criterion: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffel, Andreas; Kollmayer, Marlene; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    A recurring methodological problem in the evaluation of the predictive validity of selection methods is that the values of the criterion variable are available for selected applicants only. This so-called range restriction problem causes biased population estimates. Correction methods for direct and indirect range restriction scenarios have widely studied for continuous criterion variables but not for dichotomous ones. The few existing approaches are inapplicable because they do not consider the unknown base rate of success. Hence, there is a lack of scientific research on suitable correction methods and the systematic analysis of their accuracies in the cases of a naturally or artificially dichotomous criterion. We aim to overcome this deficiency by viewing the range restriction problem as a missing data mechanism. We used multiple imputation by chained equations to generate complete criterion data before estimating the predictive validity and the base rate of success. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to investigate the accuracy of the proposed correction in dependence of selection ratio, predictive validity, and base rate of success in an experimental design. In addition, we compared our proposed missing data approach with Thorndike’s well-known correction formulas that have only been used in the case of continuous criterion variables so far. The results show that the missing data approach is more accurate in estimating the predictive validity than Thorndike’s correction formulas. The accuracy of our proposed correction increases as the selection ratio and the correlation between predictor and criterion increase. Furthermore, the missing data approach provides a valid estimate of the unknown base rate of success. On the basis of our findings, we argue for the use of multiple imputation by chained equations in the evaluation of the predictive validity of selection methods when the criterion is dichotomous. PMID:27019277

  10. From Nonlinear Optimization to Convex Optimization through Firefly Algorithm and Indirect Approach with Applications to CAD/CAM

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Fitting spline curves to data points is a very important issue in many applied fields. It is also challenging, because these curves typically depend on many continuous variables in a highly interrelated nonlinear way. In general, it is not possible to compute these parameters analytically, so the problem is formulated as a continuous nonlinear optimization problem, for which traditional optimization techniques usually fail. This paper presents a new bioinspired method to tackle this issue. In this method, optimization is performed through a combination of two techniques. Firstly, we apply the indirect approach to the knots, in which they are not initially the subject of optimization but precomputed with a coarse approximation scheme. Secondly, a powerful bioinspired metaheuristic technique, the firefly algorithm, is applied to optimization of data parameterization; then, the knot vector is refined by using De Boor's method, thus yielding a better approximation to the optimal knot vector. This scheme converts the original nonlinear continuous optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, solved by singular value decomposition. Our method is applied to some illustrative real-world examples from the CAD/CAM field. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme can solve the original continuous nonlinear optimization problem very efficiently. PMID:24376380

  11. Global height system unification with GOCE: a simulation study on the indirect bias term in the GBVP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Christian; Rummel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    One of the main objectives of ESA's Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation mission GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation mission, 1999) is to allow global unification of height systems by directly providing potential differences between benchmarks in different height datum zones. In other words, GOCE provides a globally consistent and unbiased geoid. If this information is combined with ellipsoidal (derived from geodetic space techniques) and physical heights (derived from leveling/gravimetry) at the same benchmarks, datum offsets between the datum zones can be determined and all zones unified. The expected accuracy of GOCE is around 2-3 cm up to spherical harmonic degree n max ≈ 200. The omission error above this degree amounts to about 30 cm which cannot be neglected. Therefore, terrestrial residual gravity anomalies are necessary to evaluate the medium and short wavelengths of the geoid, i.e. one has to solve the Geodetic Boundary Value Problem (GBVP). The theory of height unification by the GBVP approach is well developed, see e.g. Colombo (A World Vertical Network. Report 296, Department of Geodetic Science and Surveying, 1980) or Rummel and Teunissen (Bull Geod 62:477-498, 1988). Thereby, it must be considered that terrestrial gravity anomalies referring to different datum zones are biased due to the respective datum offsets. Consequently, the height reference surface of a specific datum zone deviates from the unbiased geoid not only due to its own datum offset ( direct bias term) but is also indirectly affected by the integration of biased gravity anomalies. The latter effect is called the indirect bias term and it considerably complicates the adjustment model for global height unification. If no satellite based gravity model is employed, this error amounts to about the same size as the datum offsets, i.e. 1-2 m globally. We show that this value decreases if a satellite-only gravity model is used. Specifically for GOCE with n max

  12. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  13. First Vocabulary for Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Focused Language Stimulation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Susan Hendler

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a 4-step protocol for selecting and facilitating production of a first vocabulary in children with specific language impairment using a focused language stimulation approach. Focused language stimulation includes general language stimulation techniques and, in addition, requires frequent, highly concentrated repetitions of…

  14. New approaches in the indirect quantification of thermal rock properties in sedimentary basins: the well-log perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Numerical temperature models generated for geodynamic studies as well as for geothermal energy solutions heavily depend on rock thermal properties. Best practice for the determination of those parameters is the measurement of rock samples in the laboratory. Given the necessity to enlarge databases of subsurface rock parameters beyond drill core measurements an approach for the indirect determination of these parameters is developed, for rocks as well a for geological formations. We present new and universally applicable prediction equations for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity in sedimentary rocks derived from data provided by standard geophysical well logs. The approach is based on a data set of synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastic rocks, carbonates and evaporates) composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities varying between 0 and 30%. Petrophysical properties are assigned to both the rock-forming minerals and the pore-filling fluids. Using multivariate statistics, relationships then were explored between each thermal property and well-logged petrophysical parameters (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) on a regression sub set of data (70% of data) (Fuchs et al., 2015). Prediction quality was quantified on the remaining test sub set (30% of data). The combination of three to five well-log parameters results in predictions on the order of <15% for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, and of <10% for specific heat capacity. Comparison of predicted and benchmark laboratory thermal conductivity from deep boreholes of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin results in 3 to 5% larger uncertainties with regard to the test data set. With regard to temperature models, the use of calculated TC borehole profiles approximate measured temperature logs with an

  15. An introduction to the indirect exposure assessment approach: modeling human exposure using microenvironmental measurements and the recent National Human Activity Pattern Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, N E

    1999-01-01

    Indirect exposure approaches offer a feasible and accurate method for estimating population exposures to indoor pollutants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In an effort to make the indirect exposure assessment approach more accessible to people in the health and risk assessment fields, this paper provides examples using real data from (italic>a(/italic>) a week-long personal carbon monoxide monitoring survey conducted by the author; and (italic>b(/italic>) the 1992 to 1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) for the United States. The indirect approach uses measurements of exposures in specific microenvironments (e.g., homes, bars, offices), validated microenvironmental models (based on the mass balance equation), and human activity pattern data obtained from questionnaires to predict frequency distributions of exposure for entire populations. This approach requires fewer resources than the direct approach to exposure assessment, for which the distribution of monitors to a representative sample of a given population is necessary. In the indirect exposure assessment approach, average microenvironmental concentrations are multiplied by the total time spent in each microenvironment to give total integrated exposure. By assuming that the concentrations encountered in each of 10 location categories are the same for different members of the U.S. population (i.e., the NHAPS respondents), the hypothetical contribution that ETS makes to the average 24-hr respirable suspended particle exposure for Americans working their main job is calculated in this paper to be 18 microg/m3. This article is an illustrative review and does not contain an actual exposure assessment or model validation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10350522

  16. Assessing the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tollbooths of a highway toll station via direct and indirect approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Perng-Jy; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Hsiao-Lung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2002-11-15

    The present study was set out to assess the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three types of tollbooths at a highway toll station via direct and indirect approaches. Direct sampling results show that no significant difference could be found in the PAH homologue distributions for samples collected from the car lane/ticket-payment and car lane/cash-payment tollbooths, but both were significantly different from that for the bus/ truck lane tollbooth. The above results could be due to the former two types of tollbooths that were designed for the same type of traffic (i.e., cars and vans), but the latter was designed for a different type of traffic (i.e., buses and trucks). For any given type of tollbooth, the total-PAH content (C(Total-PAHs)) found during the day shift (= 9,370-15,500 ng/m3) were not significantly different from that found during the night shift (= 9,550-14,900 ng/m3), but both were significantly higher than that found during the late-night shift (= 5,560-11,100 ng/m3). During any given work shift we found C(Total-PAH5) for the three types of tollbooths as the following: bus/truck lane (= 11,100-15,500 ng/m3) > car lane/ticket-payment (= 7,260-13,500 ng/m3) > car lane/ cash-payment (= 5,560-9,550 ng/m3). After conducting multivariate regression analyses, we found that none of the three environmental factors (i.e., wind speed,temperature, and relative humidity), except for the vehicle flow rate (Q(Vehicle)) had a significant effect on C(Total-PAHs) for any given type of tollbooth. Considering directly measuring PAH contents was labor-consuming and costly, and the above results suggest the possibility of using Q(Vehicle) to predict C(Total-PAHs) for any given type of tollbooth. After conducting simple linear regression analyses, we found that (1) all resultant regression coefficients were found with positive values indicating that an increase in the Q(Vehicle) would lead to an increase in the C(Total-PHHs). (2) from the magnitude of

  17. Comparison of Integrated Systemic and Emotionally Focused Approaches to Couples Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, A.; Greenberg, L.

    1992-01-01

    Compared couples receiving 2 marital therapy approaches and control group over 10-week treatment period. Integrated systemic therapy (IST) and emotionally focused approach (EFT) both were found to be superior to control and to be equally effective in alleviating marital distress, facilitating conflict resolution and goal attainment, and reducing…

  18. An Integrated Approach for Strategic Development of Engineering Curricula: Focus on Students' Design Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, H.-u.; Said, R. A.; Al-assaf, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated approach for developing the engineering curricula with a specific focus on engineering design. The proposed approach allows a continuous and coherent development of engineering students' design skills throughout the entire undergraduate curriculum. This ongoing design experience is delivered at an involvement and…

  19. Brief Counseling That Works: A Solution-Focused Approach for School Counselors and Administrators. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklare, Gerald B.

    2004-01-01

    With caseloads often exceeding 500 students, counselors cannot afford to spend countless hours on traditional approaches to individual problems. Solution-Focused Brief Counseling (SFBC) offers counselors an effective approach that leads to rapid, observable change in students. This guidebook combines step-by-step instructions with vivid case…

  20. Indirect adaptive control for synchronous generator: comparison of MLP/RBF neural networks approach with Lyapunov stability analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Wook; Harley, Ronald G; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh K

    2004-03-01

    This paper compares two indirect adaptive neurocontrollers, namely a multilayer perceptron neurocontroller (MLPNC) and a radial basis function neurocontroller (RBFNC) to control a synchronous generator. The different damping and transient performances of two neurocontrollers are compared with those of conventional linear controllers, and analyzed based on the Lyapunov direct method. PMID:15384538

  1. Indirect Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Mukul R.

    This book is the Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Sydney, Australia, August 30-September 2, 1983. The meeting was sponsored by the International Union of Radio Science and the International Astronomical Union.Indirect imaging is based upon the principle of determining the actual form of brightness distribution in a complex case by Fourier synthesis, using information derived from a large number of Fourier components. The main topic of the symposium was how to get the best images from data obtained from telescopes and other similar imaging instruments. Although the meeting was dominated by radio astronomers, with the consequent dominance of discussion of indirect imaging in the radio domain, there were quite a few participants from other disciplines. Thus there were some excellent discussions on optical imaging and medical imaging.

  2. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Campus Community: A Focus Group Approach. Professional File. Number 95, Spring 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David X.

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a focus group approach to the understanding of student perceptions of campus community. Using the Strange and Banning (2001) framework of community, the author argues that students' sense of campus community should be studied as it exists within the institutional environment. The results of the study include: 1) There is a strong…

  3. Accompanying Readings & Tools for Enhancing Classroom Approaches for Addressing Barriers to Learning: Classroom-Focused Enabling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This publication presents a set of readings and tools that accompany the education modules "Enhancing Classroom Approaches to Addressing Barriers to Learning: Classroom-Focused Enabling." Together, they delineate a preservice/inservice teacher preparation curriculum covering how regular classrooms and schools should be designed to ensure all…

  4. Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

  5. Brief Counseling That Works: A Solution-Focused Approach for School Counselors. Practical Skills for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklare, Gerald B.

    School counselors often face large caseloads of students and cannot spend hours of time addressing each student's problems using traditional approaches. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions on how to use solution-focused brief counseling (SFBC) with elementary and secondary students is provided here. School counselors can utilize this…

  6. Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

  7. Predicting the contents of BTEX and MTBE for the three types of tollbooth at a highway toll station via the direct and indirect approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Perng-Jy; Lee, Ching-Chang; Chen, Mei-Ru; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    This study was set out to assess the contents of five volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including BTEX (the acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), in three types of tollbooth (including the car lane/ticket-collecting, car lane/cash-collecting, and bus/truck lane tollbooths) at a highway toll station via the direct and indirect approaches. For the direct approach, VOC samples were collected from the breathing zone of booth attendants at all selected tollbooths during the three workshifts. For samples collected during the dayshift, we found VOC contents of BTEX and MTBE in both the car lane/ticket-collecting (=6.23, 21.93, 3.24, 8.56, and 5.63 ppb, respectively) and car lane/cash-collecting tollbooths (=5.98, 21.71, 3.25, 8.59, and 6.04 ppb, respectively) were quite comparable, but both were significantly higher than that in the bus/truck lane tollbooth (=3.13, 13.91, 2.05, 4.52, and 2.70 ppb, respectively). The same pattern can also be found for the other two workshifts. For the indirect approach, we conducted multivariate regression analyses to predict VOC contents for any given type of tollbooth by using the four independent variables of the vehicle flowrate, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperature. We found that, except the vehicle flowrate, the other three factors did not have a significant effect on VOC contents in the three types of tollbooth. In addition, the magnitudes of the effect of the vehicle flowrate on VOC contents for the three types of tollbooth were: car lane/cash-collecting>bus/truck lane>car lane/ticket-collecting. All regression results yielded R2-values in the range of 0.41-0.74 indicating that the developed indirect approach was able to predict VOC contents for three types of tollbooth.

  8. An edge-from-focus approach to 3D inspection and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fuqin; Chen, Jia; Liu, Jianyang; Zhang, Zhijun; Deng, Jiangwen; Fung, Kenneth S. M.; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2015-02-01

    We propose an edge-based depth-from-focus technique for high-precision non-contact industrial inspection and metrology applications. In our system, an objective lens with a large numerical aperture is chosen to resolve the edge details of the measured object. By motorizing this imaging system, we capture the high-resolution edges within every narrow depth of field. We can therefore extend the measured range and keep a high resolution at the same time. Yet, on the surfaces with a large depth variation, a significant amount of data around each measured point are out of focus within the captured images. Then, it is difficult to extract the valuable information from these out-of-focus data due to the depth-variant blur. Moreover, these data impede the extraction of continuous contours for the measurement objects in high-level machine vision applications. The proposed approach however makes use of the out-of-focus data to synthesize a depth-invariant smoothed image, and then robustly locates the positions of high contrast edges based on non-maximum suppression and hysteresis thresholding. Furthermore, by focus analysis of both the in-focus and the out-of-focus data, we reconstruct the high-precision 3D edges for metrology applications.

  9. The comparative cost-effectiveness of an equity-focused approach to child survival, health, and nutrition: a modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Carlos; Azrack, Adeline; Begkoyian, Genevieve; Pfaffmann, Jerome; Ribaira, Eric; O'Connell, Thomas; Doughty, Patricia; Aung, Kyaw Myint; Prieto, Lorena; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Sharkey, Alyssa; Chopra, Mickey; Knippenberg, Rudolf

    2012-10-13

    Progress on child mortality and undernutrition has seen widening inequities and a concentration of child deaths and undernutrition in the most deprived communities, threatening the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Conversely, a series of recent process and technological innovations have provided effective and efficient options to reach the most deprived populations. These trends raise the possibility that the perceived trade-off between equity and efficiency no longer applies for child health--that prioritising services for the poorest and most marginalised is now more effective and cost effective than mainstream approaches. We tested this hypothesis with a mathematical-modelling approach by comparing the cost-effectiveness in terms of child deaths and stunting events averted between two approaches (from 2011-15 in 14 countries and one province): an equity-focused approach that prioritises the most deprived communities, and a mainstream approach that is representative of current strategies. We combined some existing models, notably the Marginal Budgeting for Bottlenecks Toolkit and the Lives Saved Tool, to do our analysis. We showed that, with the same level of investment, disproportionately higher effects are possible by prioritising the poorest and most marginalised populations, for averting both child mortality and stunting. Our results suggest that an equity-focused approach could result in sharper decreases in child mortality and stunting and higher cost-effectiveness than mainstream approaches, while reducing inequities in effective intervention coverage, health outcomes, and out-of-pocket spending between the most and least deprived groups and geographic areas within countries. Our findings should be interpreted with caution due to uncertainties around some of the model parameters and baseline data. Further research is needed to address some of these gaps in the evidence base. Strategies for improving child nutrition and survival, however

  10. IR spectral density of weak H-bonds involving indirect damping. I. A new approach using non-Hermitean effective Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belharaya, Khedidja; Blaise, Paul; Henri-Rousseau, Olivier

    2003-08-01

    A new approach of the combined effects of quantum direct and indirect dampings (within the adiabatic approximation) on the infrared lineshapes of the νX-H stretching mode of simple and single weak H-bonds is proposed. The approach is based on our precedent model dealing only with bare weak H-bonds [B. Boulil, O. Henri-Rousseau , P. Blaise Chem. Phys. 126 (1988) 263; B. Boulil, J.-L. Déjardin, N. El-Ghandour, O. Henri-Rousseau, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 314 (1994) 83]. As in this initial model, the indirect relaxation of the H-bond bridge is described by the aid of the driven damped quantum harmonic oscillator model [W. Louisell, L. Walker, Phys. Rev. 137 (1965) 204]. It is shown that the Hamiltonian characterizing the driven damped quantum harmonic oscillator may be obtained in a non-Hermitean reduced form, allowing, contrarily to the initial approach, the possibility of generalizations to more complex situations than those of bare H-bonds.

  11. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  12. Indirect study of non-covalent protein complexes by MALDI mass spectrometry: Origins, advantages, and applications of the "intensity-fading" approach.

    PubMed

    Downard, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    This review article describes the origins, advantages, and application of an indirect approach with which to study protein and other macromolecular complexes and identify the nature and site of interaction interfaces by means of conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). First reported in 1999, it involves the detection of ion depletion or the absence of ions associated with a binding partner or domain in the MALDI mass spectrum of a mixture of interacting components compared to that for an untreated control. Later referred to as intensity-fading in some applications, the method offers numerous advantages over the direct detection of protein and other macromolecule complexes by MALDI-MS and even electrospray ionization (ESI) MS. The origins of this indirect method, its development for use with gel-separated components, validation using companion biochemical assays, and application to a range of protein-antibody and protein-drug complexes are reviewed together with software specifically developed to aid with data interpretation. The sensitivity of the approach for revealing how subtle differences in the structure of the binding partners can be detected by MALDI-MS is also demonstrated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:559-573, 2016. PMID:26250984

  13. A principal stratification approach for evaluating natural direct and indirect effects in the presence of treatment-induced intermediate confounding.

    PubMed

    Taguri, Masataka; Chiba, Yasutaka

    2015-01-15

    Recently, several authors have shown that natural direct and indirect effects (NDEs and NIEs) can be identified under the sequential ignorability assumptions, as long as there is no mediator-outcome confounder that is affected by the treatment. However, if such a confounder exists, NDEs and NIEs will generally not be identified without making additional identifying assumptions. In this article, we propose novel identification assumptions and estimators for evaluating NDEs and NIEs under the usual sequential ignorability assumptions, using the principal stratification framework. It is assumed that the treatment and the mediator are dichotomous. We must impose strong assumptions for identification. However, even if these assumptions were violated, the bias of our estimator would be small under typical conditions, which can be easily evaluated from the observed data. This conjecture is confirmed for binary outcomes by deriving the bounds of the bias terms. In addition, the advantage of our estimator is illustrated through a simulation study. We also propose a method of sensitivity analysis that examines what happens when our assumptions are violated. We apply the proposed method to data from the National Center for Health Statistics. PMID:25312003

  14. Direct and indirect indicators to identify potential leakage of contaminants associated with unconventional oil and gas development based on conceptual geochemical and isotopic monitoring approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Negrel, P. J.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Kloppmann, W.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Nightingale, M.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of tightly bound natural gas and oil raises environmental concerns regarding shallow drinking water resources. These concerns include impacts of migration of contaminants through induced and natural fractures, drilling imperfections, wastewater discharge and accidental spills. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants through long-term monitoring, and sharing of data between industry, regulators and researchers will help to effectively manage risks for shallow water resources associated with the unconventional gas and oil industry. Based on the North-American experiences related to unconventional oil and gas resources and monitoring approaches developed in the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) context, we suggest conceptual models for monitoring the potential contamination of shallow aquifers overlying production zones. The strength of sensitive geochemical tracers is demonstrated based on conceptual approaches (e.g. diffusion model) and field and tracer studies (e.g. geochemical and isotopic monitoring) with three objectives: 1) characterize subsurface derived contaminants as direct geochemical and isotopic indicators; 2) assess geochemical processes enhanced by the fluid intrusion; 3) understand parameters and processes which could impact or alter the geochemical and isotopic signatures of the contaminants (e.g. microbial oxidation, migration or transport processes etc.) to determine indirect indicators of potential contaminant leakage. This comprehensive geochemical and isotope approach using direct and indirect indicators with the analyses of major and minor ions, trace elements, and δ11B, δ7Li, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4, 87Sr/86Sr, δ18OH2O, and δ2HH2O values in the CO2FIELDLAB project (Humez et al., 2014) allowed discriminating reactive mechanisms from non-reactive mixing processes associated with gas leakage within a shallow aquifer. These and other results indicate that this conceptual approach is promising for monitoring

  15. A comparison of consumptive-use estimates derived from the simplified surface energy balance approach and indirect reporting methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Kenny, Joan F.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in remote-sensing technology and Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) when used with satellite observations of irrigated lands. Estimates of ET are generally considered equivalent to consumptive use (CU) because they represent the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated, transpired, or otherwise not available for immediate reuse. The U.S. Geological Survey compared ET estimates from SSEB methods to CU data collected for 1995 using indirect methods as part of the National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP). Ten-year (2000-2009) average ET estimates from SSEB methods were derived using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1-kilometer satellite land surface temperature and gridded weather datasets from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS). County-level CU estimates for 1995 were assembled and referenced to 1-kilometer grid cells to synchronize with the SSEB ET estimates. Both datasets were seasonally and spatially weighted to represent the irrigation season (June-September) and those lands that were identified in the county as irrigated. A strong relation (R2 greater than 0.7) was determined between NWUIP CU and SSEB ET data. Regionally, the relation is stronger in arid western states than in humid eastern states, and positive and negative biases are both present at state-level comparisons. SSEB ET estimates can play a major role in monitoring and updating county-based CU estimates by providing a quick and cost-effective method to detect major year-to-year changes at county levels, as well as providing a means to disaggregate county-based ET estimates to sub-county levels. More research is needed to identify the causes for differences in state-based relations.

  16. Factors Affecting Adherence to Osteoporosis Medications: A Focus Group Approach Examining Viewpoints of Patients and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Maura D; Vora, Ruchita R; Servi, Amber; Solomon, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative study using a focus group approach, conducted to determine factors influencing adherence to osteoporosis medications among older adults. Thirty-two patients aged 65 to 85 years from the greater Boston area who were prescribed an osteoporosis medication, 11 general medicine physicians and 1 nurse practitioner were recruited from Boston based hospitals affiliated with a large healthcare system. Focus groups consisting of 6 to 8 subjects including males and females were held separately for providers and patients and conducted until thematic saturation was reached. Responses were obtained from patients and providers during the focus group interviews conducted by a trained focus group moderator. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a medical transcriptionist. According to patients, factors affecting adherence to osteoporosis drugs included lack of knowledge about osteoporosis, dissatisfaction with their doctor visits, side effects, and difficulty or failure to remember instructions for taking medications. Physicians reported lack of patient knowledge, structural barriers, medication side effects, and the inability to track patients’ adherence to their medications as barriers to adherence. This study identifies the extent of and reasons for non-adherence as perceived by patients and providers, and provides insights into strategies to modify treatment plans to address non-adherence. The results from this study were used to develop a RCT to conduct and evaluate patient and physician targeted interventions to improve adherence to osteoporosis medications and to examine cost effectiveness of alternative strategies. PMID:21937896

  17. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  18. Current Approaches to Neuromodulation in Primary Headaches: Focus on Vagal Nerve and Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Puledda, Francesca; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Neuromodulation is a promising, novel approach for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Neuromodulation offers a new dimension in the treatment that is both easily reversible and tends to be very well tolerated. The autonomic nervous system is a logical target given the neurobiology of common primary headache disorders, such as migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). This article will review new encouraging results of studies from the most recent literature on neuromodulation as acute and preventive treatment in primary headache disorders, and cover some possible underlying mechanisms. We will especially focus on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) since they have targeted autonomic pathways that are cranial and can modulate relevant pathophysiological mechanisms. The initial data suggests these approaches will find an important role in headache disorder management going forward. PMID:27278441

  19. Direct and indirect single electron transfer (SET)-photochemical approaches for the preparation of novel phthalimide and naphthalimide-based lariat-type crown ethers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae Won

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this review, we describe direct and indirect photochemical approaches that have been developed for the preparation of phthalimide- and naphthalimide-based, lariat-type crown ethers. The direct route utilizes a strategy in which nitrogen-linked side chains containing polyethoxy-tethered phthalimides and naphthalimides, possessing terminal α-trialkylsilyl groups, are synthesized utilizing concise routes and UV-irradiation to form macrocyclic ring systems. In contrast, the indirect route developed for the synthesis of lariat-type crown ethers employs sequences in which SET-promoted macrocyclization reactions of α-trialkylsilyl-terminated, polyethoxy-tethered phthalimides and naphthalimides are followed by a side chain introduction through substitution reactions at the amidol centers in the macrocyclic ethers. The combined observations made in these investigations demonstrate the unique features of SET-promoted photocyclization reactions that make them well-suited for the use in the synthesis of functionalized crown ethers. In addition, while some limitations exist for the general use of SET-photochemical reactions in large-scale organic synthesis, important characteristics of the photoinduced macrocyclization reactions make them applicable to unique situations in which high temporal and spatial control is required. PMID:24605169

  20. Indirect Cost Reimbursement: An Industrial View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The meaning of indirect costs in an industrial environment is discussed. Other factors considered are corporate policies; nature of work being supported; the uniqueness of the work; who is doing the negotiating for industry; and indirect rates. Suggestions are offered for approaches to indirect cost reimbursement. (Author/MLW)

  1. Indirect mechanisms of genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Vanhauwaert, Annelies; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Decordier, Ilse

    2003-04-11

    Indirect mechanisms of genotoxicity correspond to interactions of mutagens with non-DNA targets, and are expected to show threshold concentration-effect response curves. If these thresholds can be proven experimentally they may provide a third alternative for risk assessment, besides the No Effect Level/Safety Factor approach and the low dose linear extrapolation method. We contributed significantly to the in vitro assessment of thresholds in human lymphocytes exposed to the spindle inhibitors nocodazole and carbendazim showing dose dependency and existence of lower thresholds for induction of non-disjunction as compared to chromosome loss. Micronuclei correlated with p53-independent or p53-dependent apoptosis and elimination of aneuploid cells. Extrapolation from in vitro threshold values to the in vivo situation remains unsolved. Comparing the in vitro threshold values for griseofulvin in human and rat lymphocytes with in vivo NOAEL/LOAEL in bone marrow/gut/erythrocytes suggests that the in vitro human system is the most sensitive. The threshold for induction of non-disjunction in in vitro maturing, nocodazole-exposed mouse oocytes was in the same low range. Regulators (UK Committee on Mutagenicity, http://www.doh.gov.uk/com/com.htm) considered the importance of thresholds for indirect mechanisms of genotoxicity. Acceptance of a non-linear extrapolation for mutagens requires mechanistic studies identifying the mutagen/target interactions. Moreover appropriate risk evaluation will require additional studies on individual susceptibility for indirect mutagenic effects and on interactions of aneugens in complex mixtures. PMID:12676452

  2. Usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Ad; Holmshaw, Manda; Carswell, Wilson; van Wijk, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Despite its prevalence and potential impact on functioning, there are surprisingly little data regarding the treatment responsiveness of travel phobia. The purpose of this non-randomized study was to evaluate the usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia, or milder travel anxiety arising as a result of a road traffic accident. Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT), and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing were used to treat a sample of 184 patients, who were referred to a psychological rehabilitation provider. Patients in both treatment groups were encouraged to encounter their feared objects and situations between sessions. Specific (i.e., travel) phobia was diagnosed in 57% of cases. Patients in both treatment conditions showed equally large, and clinically significant, decreases in symptoms as indexed by three validated measures (Impact of Event Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and General Health Questionnaire), therapist ratings of treatment outcome, and a return to driving or travelling by car or motorbike. These improvements were obtained within an average course of 7.3 sessions of 1 hour each. Patients with travel phobia responded with a greater reduction of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than those with milder travel anxiety. Passengers reported higher levels of trauma symptoms than drivers, but no difference in effectiveness of treatment was found between these groups. The results suggest that trauma-focused psychological interventions can be a treatment alternative for patients with travel anxiety. Given the seriousness of the clinical problems related to road traffic accidents more rigorous outcome research is warranted and needed. PMID:20146201

  3. Geopotential Stress: A global approach with focus on the North-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Christian; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2013-04-01

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth's lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth's Stress Field. In theory the GPE is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid measurements. However, this approach depresses signals from long-wavelength lateral density variations within the lithosphere (e.g. the oceanic lithosphere and large scale geological provinces) while deeper situated wavelength contributions might still be included. Existing global density models are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral pressure variations at the base of the lithosphere. From this density model we calculate global Geopotential Stresses by solving the equations of stress equilibrium using a finite element code with triangular thick shell elements with 15 degrees of freedom each. We present global results and focus more detailed on the North Atlantic state of stress and its significance for the unique geodynamical setting including a spreading system, the Icelandic magmatic anomaly and surrounding passive margins. The results show excellent agreement with the present observed stress directions.

  4. Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach.

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Escalona, Marisela; Marshall, Clare; Vivas-Martínez, Sarai; Botto, Carlos; Joseph, Lawrence; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged > or =15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86%) villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic. PMID:12973640

  5. An odor identification approach based on event-related pupil dilation and gaze focus.

    PubMed

    Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Naudin, Marine; Roché, Laëtitia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Belzung, Catherine; Martineau, Joëlle; Atanasova, Boriana

    2015-06-01

    Olfactory disorders constitute a potential marker of many diseases and are considered valuable clues to the diagnosis and evaluation of progression for many disorders. The most commonly used test for the evaluation of impairments of olfactory identification requires the active participation of the subject, who must select the correct name of the perceived odor from a list. An alternative method is required because speech may be impaired or not yet learned in many patients. As odor identification is known to be facilitated by searching for visual clues, we aimed to develop an objective, vision-based approach for the evaluation of odor identification. We used an eye tracking method to quantify pupillary and ocular responses during the simultaneous presentation of olfactory and visual stimuli, in 39 healthy participants aged from 19 to 77years. Odor presentation triggered an increase in pupil dilation and gaze focus on the picture corresponding to the odor presented. These results suggest that odorant stimuli increase recruitment of the sympathetic system (as demonstrated by the reactivity of the pupil) and draw attention to the visual clue. These results validate the objectivity of this method. PMID:25835549

  6. Tensions between Knowledge Transmission and Student-Focused Teaching Approaches to Assessment Purposes: Helping Students Improve through Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study surveyed 1064 Chinese school teachers' approaches to teaching and conceptions of assessment, and examined their inter-relationship using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Three approaches to teaching (i.e. Knowledge Transmission, Student-Focused, and Examination Preparation) and six conceptions of assessment…

  7. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  8. Physical Violence Among a Prospective Cohort of Injection Drug Users: A Gender-Focused Approach

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Fairbairn, Nadia; Li, Kathy; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Although dramatically heightened rates of violence have been observed among injection drug users (IDU), little is known about the gender differences associated with violence among this population. Employing a risk environment framework, we performed an analysis of the factors associated with experiencing violence among participants enrolled in a prospective cohort study of IDU during the years 1996-2005 using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Among 1114 individuals, 291 (66%) of females and 470 (70%) of males reported experiencing violence during the study period. In multivariate analyses, mental illness, frequent alcohol use, frequent crack use, homelessness, Downtown Eastside residency, and requiring help injecting were positively associated with experiencing violence for both sexes (all p < 0.05). For females, binge drug use (AOR = 1.30) and drug dealing (AOR = 1.42) were positively associated with violence, while younger age (AOR = 1.02), frequent heroin injection (AOR = 1.24), and incarceration (AOR = 1.50) were significant for males. Women were more likely to be attacked by acquaintances, partners, and sex trade clients, while men were more likely to experience violence from strangers and the police. These findings indicate that susceptibility to violence among IDU is structured by environmental factors such as homelessness and drug-related factors such as frequent alcohol use and involvement in drug economies. Furthermore, important gender differences with respect to the predictors and characteristics of violent attacks do exist. These findings indicate an urgent need for the development of comprehensive programs and structural interventions that take a gender-focused approach to violence among IDU. PMID:18487025

  9. Confounding effects of indirect connections on causality estimation.

    PubMed

    Vakorin, Vasily A; Krakovska, Olga A; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2009-10-30

    Addressing the issue of effective connectivity, this study focuses on effects of indirect connections on inferring stable causal relations: partial transfer entropy. We introduce a Granger causality measure based on a multivariate version of transfer entropy. The statistic takes into account the influence of the rest of the network (environment) on observed coupling between two given nodes. This formalism allows us to quantify, for a specific pathway, the total amount of indirect coupling mediated by the environment. We show that partial transfer entropy is a more sensitive technique to identify robust causal relations than its bivariate equivalent. In addition, we demonstrate the confounding effects of the variation in indirect coupling on the detectability of robust causal links. Finally, we consider the problem of model misspecification and its effect on the robustness of the observed connectivity patterns, showing that misspecifying the model may be an issue even for model-free information-theoretic approach. PMID:19628006

  10. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  11. The Teaching and Acquisition of Focus Constructions: An Integrated Approach to Language Awareness across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callies, Marcus; Keller, Wolfram R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined a group of advanced German L2 learners' awareness and use of English focusing devices. Recent studies suggest that learners are aware of lexical resources, but lack awareness of grammatical structures. Focus constructions, i.e. pragmatically motivated word order variations, are pivotal to any text where…

  12. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds source contributions in Paris: Measurement and modeling approaches. Focus on the traffic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Valerie; Petetin, Hervé; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Kalogridis, Cerise; Baudic, Alexia; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Bonsang, Bernard; Xueref-Rémy, Irène; Ammoura, Lamia; Le Priol, Tiphaine; François Petit, Jean; Sanchez, Olivier; Rosso, Amandine; Perrussel, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sciare, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Paris is one of the few European megacities and with 11 Million inhabitants, almost 1/5 French population lives in Paris and its region. The EU-MEGAPOLI project allowed a detailed characterization of gaseous and particulate pollution in Paris in summer (July 2009) and winter (Jan-Feb 2010). Studies about VOCs source contributions performed for these periods have suggested the importance of traffic emissions, in contradiction with the local emission inventory, for which solvent source is the dominant VOC source in Paris. In order to examine the representativity of such conclusions, one-year (March 2010- March 2011) of continuous measurements of VOCs have been performed at the same urban site in Paris (as part of a French program PRIMEQUAL-FRANCIPOL). In addition, VOCs measurements (along with other gaseous and aerosol compounds) have been performed in a tunnel in order to better characterize the traffic source (October 2012, PRIMEQUAL -PREQUALIF project). Preliminary results will be presented here from this unique dataset, with a focus made on oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone) and aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylens...). We will show that the daily variability of oxygenated compounds is mainly linked to the local traffic source, as suggested by their co-variation with other compounds related to traffic emissions (CO, xylens...). In addition to this local source, we will show that oxygenated compounds baseline concentration levels are significantly enhanced during specific events (of a few day duration) characterized by continental air masses. Surprisingly other long-lived compounds (CO) appear to be much less affected by these events, providing evidences that the nature of these continental sources is not yet well established. Results from VOCs source contributions identification, quantification and geographical origin (Positive Matrix Factorization and Potential Source Contribution Function approaches) will be presented as well as

  14. The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Mustafa, Zainol; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Idris, Fazli; Abdullah, Mokhtar

    2013-04-01

    Culture and employee-focused criteria are important factors for the success of any organization. These factors have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to gear ahead for excellence. Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values. The hypothesized relationship was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the PLS estimation technique. 429 questionnaires were returned from the target population. The results of the modelling revealed that the PLS estimation confirmed all the hypotheses tested as in the hypothesized model. The results generally support significant relationships between culture values, employee-focused values and productivity-focused values. The study also confirmed the mediating role of employee-focused values for the relationship between culture values and productivity-focused values. In conclusion, the empirically validated results supported the adequacy of the hypothezised model of the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in HEI through value-based indicators.

  15. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing on active lesion into on arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented. PMID:18615988

  16. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing an active lesion into an arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented. PMID:18565369

  17. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  18. A Focus on Purpose: Using a Genre Approach in an EFL Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

    2010-01-01

    This article shows how a genre approach has been used in an EFL high school writing course to teach the university application letter genre to students preparing for post-secondary studies. The authors discuss specific classroom materials to illustrate how a genre-based approach can be employed, not simply to teach static textual patterns but to…

  19. Machine vision approach for improving accuracy of focus-based depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryll, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Focus-based depth (Z) measurements are used extensively in industrial metrology and microscopy. Typically, a peak in the focus figure-of-merit of a region is found while moving the lens towards or away from the surface, allowing local recovery of depth. These focus-based measurements are susceptible to errors caused by: (1) Optical aberrations and characteristics of the lens (astigmatism, field curvature); (2) Optical and image sensor misalignments; (3) Image sensor shape errors. Depth measurements of the same artifact can therefore significantly vary depending on the prevailing orientation of the surface texture (due to lens astigmatism) or on the specific position in the field of view. We present a vision-based algorithm to reduce errors in focus-based depth measurements. The algorithm consists of two steps: 1. Offline calibration: We generate a calibration table for the optical system, consisting of a set of Z calibration curves for different locations in the field of view. 2. Run-time correction: During measurement, we determine the Z correction to the focus position using the stored Z calibration curves and a measurement of the local orientation of the surface texture. In our tests, the correction algorithm reduced the depth measurement errors by a factor of 2, on average, for a wide range of surfaces and conditions.

  20. Bidimensional Lens Systems : A Rational Approach To Group Displacements During Focusing And/Or Zooming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angénieux, J. P. L.

    1987-06-01

    Modern objective lenses for cinematography, television or photography, and particularly zoom lenses, are composed of several groups of lenses which are axially displaced during zooming and/or focusing. The number of these groups has increased recently as well as the complexity of their relative movements and functions. In this paper, we give a short history of zooming and focusing techniques ; we discuss the inconvenience of traditional solutions. We then introduce the concept of bidimensional law. We propose a systematic classification of possible lens-types according to the 4 possible types of group. We finally present a few types of lenses in the form of truth tables and parametered diagrams explaining which groups move and how during focusing and/or zooming.

  1. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribble, R. E.; Bertulani, C. A.; La Cognata, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  2. Alternative approaches for the treatment of airway diseases: focus on nanoparticle medicine.

    PubMed

    Ratemi, E; Sultana Shaik, A; Al Faraj, A; Halwani, R

    2016-08-01

    Despite the various treatment options and international guidelines currently available for the appropriate therapeutic management of asthma, a large population of patients with asthma continues to have poorly controlled disease. There is therefore a need for novel approaches to achieve better asthma control, especially for severe asthmatics. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles for the specific targeting of inflammatory pathways as a promising approach for the effective control of severe persistent asthma as well as other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27404025

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development: The Need for a Student-Focused Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter; Porritt, Vivienne

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that evaluation of professional development (PD) requires a focus on student learning and an evidential baseline to enable practitioners and school leaders to determine the impact of the PD in which they are engaged. Several models of evaluating PD are briefly considered and it is suggested that most of these enable programme…

  4. Solution-Focused Therapy as a Culturally Acknowledging Approach with American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Dixie D.; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2013-01-01

    Limited literature is available applying specific theoretical orientations with American Indians. Solution-focused therapy may be appropriate, given the client-identified solutions, the egalitarian counselor/client relationship, the use of relationships, and the view that change is inevitable. However, adaption of scaling questions and the miracle…

  5. Pulling on the Heart Strings: An Emotionally Focused Approach to Family Life Cycle Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankoski, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    Open communication and processing of primary attachment emotions are crucial when family systems change. Emotionally focused therapy (EFT) can be helpful by encouraging family members to express primary emotions. Expression then fosters renegotiation of bonds and clarification of attachment concerns. Case examples illustrate how EFT can be applied…

  6. Community College Dual Enrollment Faculty Orientation: A Utilization-Focused Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Hara D.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2010-01-01

    The current climate of accountability demands that institutions engage in data-driven program evaluation. In order to promote quality dual enrollment (DE) programs, institutions must support the adjunct faculty teaching college courses in high schools. This study uses Patton's utilization-focused model (1997) to conduct a formative evaluation of a…

  7. A New Approach: The Cairo Conference. Focus: Education, Population, and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolis, Cilla Ungerth, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This bulletin provides news on the follow-up to the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990) at which 155 countries pledged to provide education for all children and adults and massively reduce illiteracy before the year 2000. This bulletin focuses on the September 1994 Cairo (Egypt) Population Conference and the issues of…

  8. Virtual Focus Groups in Extension: A Useful Approach to Audience Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    As change agents, Extension educators may begin their program planning by identifying the audience's perceived barriers and benefits to adopting some behavior that will benefit the community. Extension professionals and researchers have used in-person focus groups to understand an audience, and they can also administer them as…

  9. Focus on the Hands: A Beginning Approach to Teaching Typing to Visually Impaired, Multiply Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibble, Frances J. Bauer

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the value to visually impaired and multiply handicapped students of a good typewriting curriculum. She discusses hand and finger exercises and notes benefits to students from focusing on the hands as well as on the rudiments and total communicative value of typing. (CL)

  10. Benefits, Barriers, and Cues to Action of Yoga Practice: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.; Permuth-Levine, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action of yoga practice among adults. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with persons who had never practiced yoga, practitioners of one year or less, and practitioners for more than one year. The Health Belief Model was the theoretical foundation of inquiry. Results: All…

  11. Learning Cycles and Focus Groups: A Complementary Approach to the A3 Thinking Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortorella, Guilherme Luz; Viana, Samanta; Fettermann, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to propose a complementary method to the A3 information collection, data analysis and capturing and sharing knowledge to facilitate problem solving in a general framework. The incorporation of this method minimizes the difficulties identified in the literature focused on continuous improvement of processes. The method…

  12. Focusing on the Complexity of Emotion Issues in Academic Learning: A Dynamical Component Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynde, Peter Op 't; Turner, Jeannine E.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the interrelations among students' cognitive, emotional, motivational, and volitional processes is an emergening focus in educational psychology. A dynamical, component systems theory of emotions is presented as a promising framework to further unravel these complex interrelations. This framework considers emotions to be a process…

  13. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schöttker, Ben; Lühmann, Dagmar; Boulkhemair, Dalila; Raspe, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Health political background The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b) but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA)) are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background Randomised controlled head-to-head trials which directly compare the effects of different therapies are considered the gold standard methodological approach for the comparison of the efficacy of interventions. Because this type of trial is rarely found, comparisons of efficacy often need to rely on indirect comparisons whose validity is being controversially debated. Research questions Research questions for the current assessment are: Which (statistical) methods for indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions do exist, how often are they applied and how valid are their results in comparison to the results of head-to-head trials? Methods In a systematic literature research all medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) are searched for methodological papers as well as applications of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews. Results of the literature analysis are summarized qualitatively for the characterisation of methods and quantitatively for the frequency of their application. The validity of the results from indirect comparisons is checked by comparing them to the results from the gold standard – a direct comparison. Data sets from systematic reviews which use both direct and indirect comparisons are tested for consistency by of the z-statistic. Results 29 methodological papers and 106 applications of indirect methods in systematic reviews are being analysed. Four methods for indirect comparisons can be identified: Unadjusted indirect comparisons include, independent of

  14. Dual-core mass-balance approach for evaluating mercury and210Pb atmospheric fallout and focusing to lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Fuller, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Determining atmospheric deposition rates of mercury and other contaminants using lake sediment cores requires a quantitative understanding of sediment focusing. Here we present a novel approach that solves mass-balance equations for two cores algebraically to estimate contaminant contributions to sediment from direct atmospheric fallout and from watershed and in-lake focusing. The model is applied to excess 210Pb and Hg in cores from Hobbs Lake, a high-altitude lake in Wyoming. Model results for excess 210Pb are consistent with estimates of fallout and focusing factors computed using excess 210Pb burdens in lake cores and soil cores from the watershed and model results for Hg fallout are consistent with fallout estimated using the soil-core-based 210Pb focusing factors. The lake cores indicate small increases in mercury deposition beginning in the late 1800s and large increases after 1940, with the maximum at the tops of the cores of 16-20 ??g/m 2year. These results suggest that global Hg emissions and possibly regional emissions in the western United States are affecting the north-central Rocky Mountains. Hg fallout estimates are generally consistent with fallout reported from an ice core from the nearby Upper Fremont Glacier, but with several notable differences. The model might not work for lakes with complex geometries and multiple sediment inputs, but for lakes with simple geometries, like Hobbs, it can provide a quantitative approach for evaluating sediment focusing and estimating contaminant fallout.

  15. A Dual Approach to Fostering Under-Prepared Student Success: Focusing on Doing and Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Suzanne C.; Eshbach, Barbara E.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    A paired course model for under-prepared college students incorporates a dual instructional approach, academic skill building and lifelong learning development, to help students do more academically and become stronger lifelong learners. In a reading support course, students improved their reading skills and applied them directly to the paired…

  16. Interdisciplinary Approaches in the New Curriculum in Greece: A Focus on Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysostomou, Smaragda

    2004-01-01

    The new Interdisciplinary Unified Curriculum Framework (2001), as declared by its name, is based on the 1997 Unified Curriculum Framework, but a new stress is placed on interdisciplinary approaches to teaching and learning. The general aim of education remains unaltered. However, it is heavily emphasized that, in this new curriculum, the growth of…

  17. Evaluating impacts using a BACI design, ratios, and a Bayesian approach with a focus on restoration.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mary M; Saunders, W Carl; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Jordan, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Before-after-control-impact (BACI) designs are an effective method to evaluate natural and human-induced perturbations on ecological variables when treatment sites cannot be randomly chosen. While effect sizes of interest can be tested with frequentist methods, using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods, probabilities of effect sizes, such as a ≥20 % increase in density after restoration, can be directly estimated. Although BACI and Bayesian methods are used widely for assessing natural and human-induced impacts for field experiments, the application of hierarchal Bayesian modeling with MCMC sampling to BACI designs is less common. Here, we combine these approaches and extend the typical presentation of results with an easy to interpret ratio, which provides an answer to the main study question-"How much impact did a management action or natural perturbation have?" As an example of this approach, we evaluate the impact of a restoration project, which implemented beaver dam analogs, on survival and density of juvenile steelhead. Results indicated the probabilities of a ≥30 % increase were high for survival and density after the dams were installed, 0.88 and 0.99, respectively, while probabilities for a higher increase of ≥50 % were variable, 0.17 and 0.82, respectively. This approach demonstrates a useful extension of Bayesian methods that can easily be generalized to other study designs from simple (e.g., single factor ANOVA, paired t test) to more complicated block designs (e.g., crossover, split-plot). This approach is valuable for estimating the probabilities of restoration impacts or other management actions. PMID:27613291

  18. Concerns about contraceptive side effects among young Latinas: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Melissa L; Warden, Meredith; Goldstein, Chava; Tapia, Beatriz

    2004-10-01

    To identify perceptions and attitudes about contraceptive side effects in young, low-income Latina adolescents through focus-group conversations. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with Latino females in an outpatient clinic and community setting. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze data. Participants were recruited from the outpatient gynecology clinic at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and from the Easter Seals Day Care Center. Women were recruited if they were Latino and between the ages of 18 and 26 years (N = 40). Participants cited both perceptions of side effects as well as personal experience with side effects as reasons for not using or discontinuing the use of contraception. Women also demonstrated incorrect knowledge about contraception, and tended to value anecdotal information over information from health professionals. These factors led to reliance on less-effective methods of contraception, placing participants at risk for unintended pregnancy. Concern about side effects, fear of health consequences and misinformation were identified as barriers to effective contraceptive use in young, low-income Latinas. Providers caring for this population should address potential concerns about side effects of contraception as well as assess patients' understanding in light of cultural and language barriers. PMID:15451334

  19. Controlled fabrication of nanopores using a direct focused ion beam approach with back face particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, N.; Adams, D. P.; Hodges, V. C.; Vasile, M. J.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.

    2008-06-01

    We report a direct, ion drilling technique that enables the reproducible fabrication and placement of nanopores in membranes of different thickness. Using a 30 keV focused Ga ion beam column combined with an in situ, back face, multi-channelplate particle detector, nanopores are sputtered in Si3N4 and W/Si3N4 to have diameters as small as 12 nm. Transmission electron microscopy shows that focused ion beam-drilled holes are near-conical with the diameter decreasing from entry to exit side. By monitoring the detector signal during ion exposure, the drilled hole width can be minimized such that the exit-side diameter is smaller than the full width at half-maximum of the nominally Gaussian-shaped incident beam. Judicious choice of the beam defining aperture combined with back face particle detection allows for reproducible exit-side hole diameters between 18 and 100 nm. The nanopore direct drilling technique does not require potentially damaging broad area exposure to tailor hole sizes. Moreover, this technique successfully achieves breakthrough despite the effects of varying membrane thickness, redeposition, polycrystalline grain structure, and slight ion beam current fluctuations.

  20. Controlled fabrication of nanopores using a direct focused ion beam approach with back face particle detection.

    PubMed

    Patterson, N; Adams, D P; Hodges, V C; Vasile, M J; Michael, J R; Kotula, P G

    2008-06-11

    We report a direct, ion drilling technique that enables the reproducible fabrication and placement of nanopores in membranes of different thickness. Using a 30 keV focused Ga ion beam column combined with an in situ, back face, multi-channelplate particle detector, nanopores are sputtered in Si(3)N(4) and W/Si(3)N(4) to have diameters as small as 12 nm. Transmission electron microscopy shows that focused ion beam-drilled holes are near-conical with the diameter decreasing from entry to exit side. By monitoring the detector signal during ion exposure, the drilled hole width can be minimized such that the exit-side diameter is smaller than the full width at half-maximum of the nominally Gaussian-shaped incident beam. Judicious choice of the beam defining aperture combined with back face particle detection allows for reproducible exit-side hole diameters between 18 and 100 nm. The nanopore direct drilling technique does not require potentially damaging broad area exposure to tailor hole sizes. Moreover, this technique successfully achieves breakthrough despite the effects of varying membrane thickness, redeposition, polycrystalline grain structure, and slight ion beam current fluctuations. PMID:21825787

  1. A preceptor focus group approach to evaluation of a dietetic internship.

    PubMed

    Kruzich, Laurie A; Anderson, Jean; Litchfield, Ruth E; Wohlsdorf-Arendt, Susan; Oakland, Mary Jane

    2003-07-01

    Geographical dispersion of preceptors within dietetic internship programs creates educational challenges. Iowa State University's dietetic internship utilizes preceptors from more than 90 facilities statewide. Three preceptor focus groups were conducted to identify strengths and areas needing improvement in the internship, including preceptor and intern needs and expectations. Of the more than 90 preceptors representing medical nutrition therapy, foodservice management, and community nutrition, 36 were contacted and 18 preceptors participated, resulting in 5 to 7 participants per focus group. Emerging themes included effective feedback; preceptor networking; and communication between internship program/faculty, interns, and preceptors. Geographic isolation and minimal use of Internet-based resources may contribute to these themes. Whereas the majority of preceptors had access to the Internet, only 7 (38%) had accessed the Internet-based resources provided by the program. Preceptor suggestions can provide new perspectives for enhancing the learning environment. Regional workshops and e-mail list-serves can help facilitate communication and networking among preceptors. PMID:12830030

  2. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24 000 W∕cm2. The inputs to a Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W∕cm2, lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields. PMID:19062878

  3. L'Interrogation Indirecte (Indirect Interrogation). Montreal Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieger, Monique; Paradis, Monique

    This study is divided into two sections: the first examines Standard French indirect interrogation, noting several distinct verb classes which are discussed in terms of permutations of WH-words, reduction, multiple WH-words, cleavage, semantic compatibility, and the "que-" completive; the second part focuses on indirect interrogation and relatives…

  4. New design approaches for a very high resolution spectrograph for the combined focus of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Dekker, Hans; Avila, Gerardo

    2008-07-01

    To achieve very-high spectral resolutions (R>100,000) with large telescopes (D>8m) new optical solutions have been investigated in the context of the ESPRESSO project for the VLT, starting from the initial design of CODEX for the E-ELT. ESPRESSO is a high-efficiency, high-stability, high-resolution visible spectrograph for the combined Coude focus of the VLT. Among these new solutions, we can mention: free-form optics, used to design an all-mirror anamorphic pupil slicer, large mosaic echelle grating, slanted VPH gratings, super-corrected atmospheric dispersion corrector. All these solutions have been usefully applied to design the spectrograph for ESPRESSO, and its Coude relay system.

  5. Size-Controlled Fabrication of Polyaniline Microfibers Based on 3D Hydrodynamic Focusing Approach.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Imsung; Song, Simon; Uh, Kyungchan; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-07-01

    Owing to the relatively high conductivity and unique redox behavior, polyaniline (PANI) has been one of the most technologically promising conducting polymers. Although various methodologies have been developed, fabrication of PANI microfibers has been a challenging task owing to the poor solubility in most organic solvents. By taking advantage of a microfluidic technology and organic soluble acid labile t-Boc-protected PANI (t-Boc-PANI) as the conducting polymer precursor, fabrication of PANI microfibers in a size-controlled manner is possible. Introduction of a THF solution containing t-Boc-PANI, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as a core flow, and water as a sheath flow into a microfluidic channel with a 3D hydrodynamic focusing effect results in crystallization of the polymer fiber. By changing the flow rate, linear PANI microfibers that range from 16.2 to 39.4 μm in diameter are readily obtained. PMID:25882095

  6. Safe sex? Misconceptions, gender differences and barriers among injection drug users: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S H; Weston, C B; Quirinale, J

    1993-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission is one factor involved in the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within the injection drug use (IDU) population and between IDU and non-IDU individuals. Insufficient information is currently available to reduce this heterosexual transmission. As a basis for designing a questionnaire aimed at the IDU population, we conducted 5 focus groups to collect information on knowledge of and attitudes toward safe sex as held by male and female IDUs in methadone treatment. We identified misconceptions related to HIV infection, condoms, and sexual behavior. We also found gender-based differences in knowledge and learning style. Also, while individuals felt a responsibility to prevent HIV transmission, they lacked sufficient control to do so. The wide range of responses on questions concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condoms, reproductive decisions, and methods of promoting safe sex provides a basis for developing a questionnaire designed to identify and target specific subgroups for educational intervention. PMID:8297708

  7. Triboelectrification: A review of experimental and mechanistic modeling approaches with a special focus on pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Naik, Shivangi; Mukherjee, Raj; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2016-08-20

    The continuous relative motion of particles against solid surfaces in pharmaceutical manufacturing triggers multiple physio-chemical alterations generating contact charging or triboelectrification. Charged particles in manufacturing processes can actuate multiple impediments including agglomeration, segregation during flow or adhesion to process equipment. Generation of excess charge might lead to electrostatic discharges inducing severe imperilments of fire and explosions. Despite its prevalence, the electrostatic charging process is not fully understood, owing to the diverse physical, chemical and environmental factors that can affect the phenomenon. In the course of this review, some of the basic concepts involved in charge transfer have been briefly discussed highlighting the different experimental approaches employed in measuring electrostatic charges and summarizing the constituent factors responsible. Pertinent numerical models have been further conferred to analyze the different hypotheses of particle charging. PMID:27353731

  8. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    PubMed

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. PMID:24325238

  9. Mediators of effects of a selective family-focused violence prevention approach for middle school students.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how parenting and family characteristics targeted in a selective prevention program mediated effects on key youth proximal outcomes related to violence perpetration. The selective intervention was evaluated within the context of a multi-site trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, a selective family-focused intervention with a subset of high-risk students, a condition combining these two interventions, and a no-intervention control condition. Two cohorts of sixth-grade students (total N = 1,062) exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence were the sample for this study. Analyses of pre-post change compared to controls using intent-to-treat analyses found no significant effects. However, estimates incorporating participation of those assigned to the intervention and predicted participation among those not assigned revealed significant positive effects on student aggression, use of aggressive strategies for conflict management, and parental estimation of student's valuing of achievement. Findings also indicated intervention effects on two targeted family processes: discipline practices and family cohesion. Mediation analyses found evidence that change in these processes mediated effects on some outcomes, notably aggressive behavior and valuing of school achievement. Results support the notion that changing parenting practices and the quality of family relationships can prevent the escalation in aggression and maintain positive school engagement for high-risk youth. PMID:21932067

  10. Efficacy of a trauma-focused treatment approach for dental phobia: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Doering, Stephan; Ohlmeier, Marie-Christin; de Jongh, Ad; Hofmann, Arne; Bisping, Vanessa

    2013-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that treatment specifically focused on resolving memories of negative dental events might be efficacious for the alleviation of anxiety in patients with dental phobia. Thirty-one medication-free patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) criteria of dental phobia were randomly assigned to either Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) or a waitlist control condition. Dental anxiety was assessed using the Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (DAS), the Dental Fear Survey (DFS), a behavior test, and dental attendance at 1-yr of follow up. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was associated with significant reductions of dental anxiety and avoidance behavior as well as in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effect sizes for the primary outcome measures were d = 2.52 (DAS) and d = 1.87 (DFS). These effects were still significant 3 months (d = 3.28 and d = 2.28, respectively) and 12 months (d = 3.75 and d = 1.79, respectively) after treatment. After 1 yr, 83.3% of the patients were in regular dental treatment (d = 3.20). The findings suggest that therapy aimed at processing memories of past dental events can be helpful for patients with dental phobia. PMID:24206075

  11. New approaches to the management of schizophrenia: focus on aberrant hippocampal drive of dopamine pathways

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease affecting up to 1% of the population. Current therapies are based on the efficacy of chlorpromazine, discovered over 50 years ago. These drugs block dopamine D2-like receptors and are effective at primarily treating positive symptoms in a subset of patients. Unfortunately, current therapies are far from adequate, and novel treatments require a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. Here we review the dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia and describe a pathway whereby a loss of inhibitory signaling in ventral regions of the hippocampus actually drives a dopamine hyperfunction. Moreover, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches aimed at attenuating ventral hippocampal activity in a preclinical model of schizophrenia, namely the MAM GD17 rat. Specifically, pharmacological (allosteric modulators of the α5 GABAA receptor), neurosurgical (deep brain stimulation), and cell-based (GABAergic precursor transplants) therapies are discussed. By better understanding the underlying circuit level dysfunctions in schizophrenia, novel treatments can be advanced that may provide better efficacy and a superior side effect profile to conventional antipsychotic medications. PMID:25061280

  12. Shifting the focus: Nonpathologizing approaches to healing from betrayal trauma through an emphasis on relational care.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jennifer M; Lewis, Jenn K; Noll, Laura K; Smidt, Alec M; Birrell, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    As the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders has become increasingly medicalized (Conrad & Slodden, 2013), consideration for the relational nature of trauma has been minimized in the healing process. As psychiatrist R. D. Laing (1971) outlined in his essays, the medical model is an approach to pathology that seeks to find medical treatments for symptoms and syndromes based on categorized diagnoses. We argue that such a model implicitly locates the pathology of trauma within the individual instead of within the person(s) who perpetrated the harm or the social and societal contexts in which it took place. In this article, we argue that this framework is pathologizing insofar as it both prioritizes symptom reduction as the goal of treatment and minimizes the significance of relational harm. After providing a brief overview of betrayal trauma (Freyd, 1996) and the importance of relational processes in healing, we describe standard treatments for betrayal trauma that are grounded in the medical model. In discussing the limitations of this framework, we offer an alternative to the medicalization of trauma-related distress: relational cultural therapy (e.g., Miller & Stiver, 1997). Within this nonpathologizing framework, we highlight the importance of attending to contextual, societal, and cultural influences of trauma as well as how these influences might impact the therapeutic relationship. We then detail extratherapeutic options as additional nonpathologizing avenues for healing, as freedom to choose among a variety of options may be particularly liberating for people who have experienced trauma. Finally, we discuss the complex process of truly healing from betrayal trauma. PMID:26460888

  13. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    SciTech Connect

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  14. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Wai Tong; Leung, Sau Fong; Yeung, Frederick KK; Wong, Wai Kit

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients’ long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major health care databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy), psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the

  15. Ultrasound energy focused in a glass probe: an approach to the simultaneous and fast extraction of trace elements from sediments.

    PubMed

    de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Barrena, Ana; Arana, Gorka; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2009-12-15

    The 3051 USEPA method (or alternatively, the 3051A) can be considered nowadays as a reference method to extract metals from sediments. However, after microwave heating, the sample must be allowed to cool down, which results in a considerable lengthening of the whole analytical process. Microwave ovens and their maintenance are, in addition, expensive, and its use is relatively dangerous. The use of ultrasound focused energy to assist the extraction of chemicals from solid samples is a safe and relatively cheap technique. In this work we propose a new method to extract simultaneously several elements from sediments using ultrasound energy focused in a glass probe to accelerate the process, and check its possibilities to become an alternative to the EPA3051(A) approach. The optimised procedure allows extracting 13 elements in only 6 min, with similar recoveries and, in general, better repetitivities than the EPA3051. In addition, the suspension is only slightly heated during the leaching process. PMID:19836500

  16. Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption Using the “Focus of Infection” Approach in 2 Hospitals in Ujjain, India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Mahadik, Kalpana; Dhaneria, Surya Prakesh; Sharma, Ashish; Eriksson, Bo; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic surveillance initiatives are limited in resource-constrained settings. In the present study, a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections in 2 hospitals in India was performed using the “focus of infection” approach to identify targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prescription patterns in hospitalized patients. Methods This observational study was carried out in one teaching and one nonteaching hospital. All the patients with suspected bacterial etiology were included. Data on the prescribed antibiotics and the focus of infection were prospectively collected using a structured questionnaire. Each diagnosis was further reviewed and confirmed by an independent consultant. The prescribed antibiotics were coded according to the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Classification (ATC) index with the defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. Focus-specific DDDs were calculated per hundred patient days (DDD/HPD). Results A total of 6026 patients were included from 72 participating physicians out of available 75 physicians. Overall antibiotic prescribing was higher by 5 percentage points in the teaching hospital (95%) than in the nonteaching hospital (90%). Quinolones (ciprofloxacin constituting 86% of DDD/HPD) were the highest prescribed class in the teaching hospital, and third-generation cephalosporins (with ceftriaxone and ceftriaxone/sulbactam constituting 40% and 28% of the DDD/HPD, respectively), in the nonteaching hospital. The targets identified for improvement were the following: longer than recommended duration of prophylaxis and lack of distinction between prophylaxis and therapy among surgical patients; irrational antibiotic prescribing in gastroenteritis; overuse of quinolones and lack of use of penicillin in pneumonia; overuse of quinolones and lack of use of doxycycline and macrolides in genital infections; and overreliance on antibiotics for treating skin and soft tissue infections. Conclusions

  17. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. PMID:25313189

  18. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  19. The Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART): A body-mind-spirit approach to trauma management.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cecilia L W; Chan, Timothy H Y; Ng, Siv Man

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the Strength-focused and Meaning- oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART) as a model of crisis intervention, which aims at discovering inner strengths through meaning reconstruction. Limitations of conventional crisis management and current findings in post-traumatic growth research are discussed. Instead of adopting a pathological framework, the SMART approach holds a holistic view of health, employs facilitative strategies, and promotes dynamic coping. Intervention components include Eastern spiritual teachings, physical techniques such as yoga and meditation, and psycho-education that promotes meaning reconstruction. Efficacy of the SMART model is assessed with reference to two pilot studies conducted in Hong Kong at the time when the SARS pandemic caused widespread fear and anxiety in the community. Response to potential criticisms of the SMART model is attempted. PMID:16956851

  20. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  1. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  2. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  3. Indirect visual cryptography scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiubo; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    Visual cryptography (VC), a new cryptographic scheme for image. Here in encryption, image with message is encoded to be N sub-images and any K sub-images can decode the message in a special rules (N>=2, 2<=K<=N). Then any K of the N sub-images are printed on transparency and stacked exactly, the message of original image will be decrypted by human visual system, but any K-1 of them get no information about it. This cryptographic scheme can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, and it has high security. But this scheme lacks of hidden because of obvious feature of sub-images. In this paper, we introduce indirect visual cryptography scheme (IVCS), which encodes sub-images to be pure phase images without visible strength based on encoding of visual cryptography. The pure phase image is final ciphertexts. Indirect visual cryptography scheme not only inherits the merits of visual cryptography, but also raises indirection, hidden and security. Meanwhile, the accuracy alignment is not required any more, which leads to the strong anti-interference capacity and robust in this scheme. System of decryption can be integrated highly and operated conveniently, and its process of decryption is dynamic and fast, which all lead to the good potentials in practices.

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. Novel approaches for the treatment of psychostimulant and opioid abuse – focus on opioid receptor-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Chris P.; Husbands, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psychostimulant and opioid addiction are poorly treated. The majority of abstinent users relapse back to drug-taking within a year of abstinence, making ‘anti-relapse’ therapies the focus of much current research. There are two fundamental challenges to developing novel treatments for drug addiction. Firstly, there are 3 key stimuli that precipitate relapse back to drug-taking: stress, presentation of drug-conditioned cue, taking a small dose of drug. The most successful novel treatment would be effective against all 3 stimuli. Secondly, a large number of drug users are poly-drug users: taking more than one drug of abuse at a time. The ideal anti-addiction treatment would therefore be effective against all classes of drugs of abuse. Areas Covered In this review, the authors discuss the clinical need and animal models used to uncover potential novel treatments. There is a very broad range of potential treatment approaches and targets currently being examined as potential anti-relapse therapies. These broadly fit into 2 categories: ‘memory-based’ and ‘receptor-based’ and the authors discuss the key targets here within. Expert opinion Opioid receptors and ligands have been widely studied, and research into how different opioid subtypes affect behaviours related to addiction (reward, dysphoria, motivation) suggests that they are tractable targets as anti-relapse treatments. Regarding opioid ligands as novel ‘anti-relapse’ medications targets - research suggests that a ‘non-selective’ approach to targeting opioid receptors will be the most effective. PMID:25253272

  6. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  7. A unified approach to combine temperature estimation and elastography for thermal lesion determination in focused ultrasound thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Li, Meng-Lin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Shi; Huang, Sheng-Min; Bai, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Sonogram-based temperature estimation and elastography have both shown promise as methods of monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments to induce thermal ablation in tissue. However, each method has important limitations. Temperature estimates based on echo delays become invalid when the relationship between sound speed and temperature is nonlinear, and are further complicated by thermal expansion and other changes in tissue. Elastography can track thermal lesion formation over a wider range of elasticity, but with low specificity and high noise. Furthermore, this method is poor at small lesion detection. This study proposes integrating the two estimates to improve the quality of monitoring FUS-induced thermal lesions. Our unified computational kernel is tested on three types of phantoms. Experiments with type I and type II phantoms were conducted to calibrate the thermal mapping and elastography methods, respectively. The optimal settings were then used in experiments with the type III phantom, which contains ex vivo swine liver tissue. Three different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (I(spta); 35, 133 and 240 W cm(-2)) were delivered with a sonication time of 60 s. The new procedure can closely monitor heating while identifying the dimensions of the thermal lesion, and is significantly better at the latter task than either approach alone. This work may help improve the current clinical practice, which employs sonograms to guide the FUS-induced thermal ablation procedure. PMID:21149945

  8. A unified approach to combine temperature estimation and elastography for thermal lesion determination in focused ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Li, Meng-Lin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Shi; Huang, Sheng-Min; Bai, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Sonogram-based temperature estimation and elastography have both shown promise as methods of monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments to induce thermal ablation in tissue. However, each method has important limitations. Temperature estimates based on echo delays become invalid when the relationship between sound speed and temperature is nonlinear, and are further complicated by thermal expansion and other changes in tissue. Elastography can track thermal lesion formation over a wider range of elasticity, but with low specificity and high noise. Furthermore, this method is poor at small lesion detection. This study proposes integrating the two estimates to improve the quality of monitoring FUS-induced thermal lesions. Our unified computational kernel is tested on three types of phantoms. Experiments with type I and type II phantoms were conducted to calibrate the thermal mapping and elastography methods, respectively. The optimal settings were then used in experiments with the type III phantom, which contains ex vivo swine liver tissue. Three different spatial-peak temporal-average intensities (Ispta; 35, 133 and 240 W cm-2) were delivered with a sonication time of 60 s. The new procedure can closely monitor heating while identifying the dimensions of the thermal lesion, and is significantly better at the latter task than either approach alone. This work may help improve the current clinical practice, which employs sonograms to guide the FUS-induced thermal ablation procedure.

  9. Building a Tiered Approach to In Vitro Predictive Toxicity Screening: A Focus on Assays with In Vivo Relevance

    PubMed Central

    McKim, James M

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry today is the failure of promising new drug candidates due to unanticipated adverse effects discovered during preclinical animal safety studies and clinical trials. Late stage attrition increases the time required to bring a new drug to market, inflates development costs, and represents a major source of inefficiency in the drug discovery/development process. It is generally recognized that early evaluation of new drug candidates is necessary to improve the process. Building in vitro data sets that can accurately predict adverse effects in vivo would allow compounds with high risk profiles to be deprioritized, while those that possess the requisite drug attributes and a lower risk profile are brought forward. In vitro cytotoxicity assays have been used for decades as a tool to understand hypotheses driven questions regarding mechanisms of toxicity. However, when used in a prospective manner, they have not been highly predictive of in vivo toxicity. Therefore, the issue may not be how to collect in vitro toxicity data, but rather how to translate in vitro toxicity data into meaningful in vivo effects. This review will focus on the development of an in vitro toxicity screening strategy that is based on a tiered approach to data collection combined with data interpretation. PMID:20053163

  10. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  11. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  12. Conducting indirect-treatment-comparison and network-meta-analysis studies: report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hoaglin, David C; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P; Scott, David A; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for judiciously selecting the best treatment(s). Mixed treatment comparisons, a special case of network meta-analysis, combine direct evidence and indirect evidence for particular pairwise comparisons, thereby synthesizing a greater share of the available evidence than traditional meta-analysis. This report from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices Task Force provides guidance on technical aspects of conducting network meta-analyses (our use of this term includes most methods that involve meta-analysis in the context of a network of evidence). We start with a discussion of strategies for developing networks of evidence. Next we briefly review assumptions of network meta-analysis. Then we focus on the statistical analysis of the data: objectives, models (fixed-effects and random-effects), frequentist versus Bayesian approaches, and model validation. A checklist highlights key components of network meta-analysis, and substantial examples illustrate indirect treatment comparisons (both frequentist and Bayesian approaches) and network meta-analysis. A further section discusses eight key areas for future research. PMID:21669367

  13. An Indirect Mixed-Sensitivity Approach to Microgravity Vibration Isolation: The Exploitation of Kinematic Coupling In Frequency-weighting Design-Filter Selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station have been appropriately modeled using relative position relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency-weighting design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H2 or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability and performance characteristics. In practice, however, the kinematic coupling among the various states can lead, through the associated frequency-weighting-filters, to conflicting demands on the Riccati design "machinery." The results can be numerically ill-conditioned regulator and estimator Riccati equations and/or reduced intuition in the design process. In addition, kinematic coupling can result in a redundancy in the demands imposed by the frequency weights. Failure properly to account for this type of coupling can lead to an unnecessary increase in controller dimensionality and, in turn, controller complexity. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency-weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  14. An Indirect Mixed-Sensitivity Approach to Microgravity Vibration Isolation: The Exploitation of Kinematic Coupling In Frequency-Weighting Design-Filter Selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many space science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station have been appropriately modeled using relative position, relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H, or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability- and performance characteristics. In practice. however, the kinematic coupling among the various states can lead, through the associated frequency-weighting-filters, to conflicting demands on the Riccati design "machinery." The results can be numerically ill-conditioned regulator and estimator Riccati equations and/or reduced intuition in the design process. In addition, kinematic coupling can result in a redundancy in the demands imposed by the frequency weights. Failure properly to account for this type of coupling can lead to an unnecessary increase in controller dimensionality and, in turn, controller complexity. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  15. A New Approach to Studying Biological and Soft Materials Using Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB SEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, D. J.; Morrissey, F.; Lich, B. H.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last decade techniques such as confocal light microscopy, in combination with fluorescent labelling, have helped biologists and life scientists to study biological architectures at tissue and cell level in great detail. Meanwhile, obtaining information at very small length scales is possible with the combination of sample preparation techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is well known for the determination of surface characteristics and morphology. However, the desire to understand the three dimensional relationships of meso-scale hierarchies has led to the development of advanced microscopy techniques, to give a further complementary approach. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used as a nano-scalpel and hence allows us to reveal internal microstructure in a site-specific manner. Whilst FIB instruments have been used to study and verify the three-dimensional architecture of man made materials, SEM and FIB technologies have now been brought together in a single instrument representing a powerful combination for the study of biological specimens and soft materials. We demonstrate the use of FIB SEM to study three-dimensional relationships for a range of length scales and materials, from small-scale cellular structures to the larger scale interactions between biomedical materials and tissues. FIB cutting of heterogeneous mixtures of hard and soft materials, resulting in a uniform cross-section, has proved to be of particular value since classical preparation methods tend to introduce artefacts. Furthermore, by appropriate selection, we can sequentially cross-section to create a series of 'slices' at specific intervals. 3D reconstruction software can then be used to volume-render information from the 2D slices, enabling us to immediately see the spatial relationships between microstructural components.

  16. A universal scheme for indirect quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layden, David; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    The goal of indirect quantum control is to coherently steer a quantum system solely by acting on a quantum actuator to which it is coupled. This approach to quantum control is convenient in many physical settings, as it allows one to avoid direct addressing of the system--and any associated difficulties--altogether. While it is known in principle that control of the actuator typically yields universal control of the system, the practical details of how such indirect control can be achieved are less clear. This deficiency has led to a number of implementation- and model-specific indirect control schemes, in lieu of a general recipe applicable to any physical setting. Here, we present such a recipe, in the form of an open-loop control scheme which implements arbitrary unitary operations on the system by exploiting open dynamics in the actuator. arXiv:1506.06749.

  17. Regularized focusing inversion of time-lapse electrical resistivity data: an approach to parametrize the minimum gradient support functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Inversion of time-lapse resistivity data allows obtaining 'snapshots' of changes occurring in monitored systems for applications such as aquifer storage, geothermal heat exchange, site remediation or tracer tests. Based on these snapshots, one can infer qualitative information on the location and morphology of changes occurring in the subsurface but also quantitative estimates on the degree of changes in certain property such as temperature or total dissolved solid content. Analysis of these changes can provide direct insight into flow and transport and associated processes and controlling parameters. However, the reliability of the analysis is dependent on survey geometry, measurement schemes, data error, and regularization. Survey design parameters may be optimized prior to the monitoring survey. Regularization, on the other hand, may be chosen depending on available information collected during the monitoring. Common approaches consider smoothing model changes both in space and time but it is often needed to obtain a sharp temporal anomaly, for example in fractured aquifers. We here propose to use the alternative regularization approach based on minimum gradient support (MGS) (Zhdanov, 2002) for time-lapse surveys which will focus the changes in tomograms snapshots. MGS will limit the occurrences of changes in electrical resistivity but will also restrict the variations of these changes inside the different zones. A commonly encountered difficulty by practitioners in this type of regularization is the choice of an additional parameter, the so-called β, required to define the MGS functional. To the best of our knowledge, there is no commonly accepted or standard methodology to optimize the MGS parameter β. The inversion algorithm used in this study is CRTomo (Kemna 2000). It uses a Gauss-Newton scheme to iteratively minimize an objective function which consists of a data misfit functional and a model constraint functional. A univariate line search is performed

  18. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  19. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  20. Students' Approaches to Case-Based Instruction: The Role of Perceived Value, Learning Focus, and Reflective Self-Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Newby, Timothy J.

    This exploratory study examined how students responded to, and approached learning from, case-based instruction. Students' responses were defined in terms of their perceived interest, relevance, and confidence for learning from this method. Students' approaches were defined by goals, self-regulation strategies, and the evaluation criteria they…

  1. Back Translating: An Integrated Approach to Focus Learners' Attention on Their L2 Knowledge Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yun; Gao, Cun

    2014-01-01

    Integration of the four language skills can be enhanced by focusing on back translating--translating an English text into the students' first language and then back into English. This article describes a three-step process for using back translation in reading classes as a way to help students identify gaps in their English competence.

  2. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  3. Maternal Responses to the Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities in Children: A Qualitative Study Using a Focus Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A study explored maternal response to the diagnosis of mental retardation in children using a focus group of six mothers. Findings identified four themes: differences between antenatal and postnatal diagnosis; a cycle of bereavement; issues relating to causation; and examples of poor interpersonal skills from medical personnel. (Contains…

  4. Focus:HOPE--A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jeffery W.; Turner-Meikeljohn, Susan; Conway, Maureen

    This case study on Focus: HOPE is the fourth of six sectoral studies to provide an in-depth look at individual sectoral employment development programs and their interaction within distinct economic and industry environments. It explores HOPE, a Detroit civil rights organization with a highly developed machinist training program. Section 1…

  5. Through a Different Lens: Reflecting on a Strengths-Based, Talent-Focused Approach for Twice-Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Susan M.; Schader, Robin M.; Hébert, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand the experiences of a cohort of students who entered a strengths-based private school for twice-exceptional students during middle school and successfully completed graduation requirements. Using a case study design, the researchers analyzed data collected from student and teacher interviews, parent focus groups,…

  6. A Tailored Approach to Launch Community Coalitions Focused on Achieving Structural Changes: Lessons Learned From a HIV Prevention Mobilization Study.

    PubMed

    Chutuape, Kate S; Willard, Nancy; Walker, Bendu C; Boyer, Cherrie B; Ellen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Public health HIV prevention efforts have begun to focus on addressing social and structural factors contributing to HIV risk, such as unstable housing, unemployment, and access to health care. With a limited body of evidence-based structural interventions for HIV, communities tasked with developing structural changes need a defined process to clarify their purpose and goals. This article describes the adaptations made to a coalition development model with the purpose of improving the start-up phase for a second group of coalitions. Modifications focused on preparing coalitions to more efficiently apply structural change concepts to their strategic planning activities, create more objectives that met study goals, and enhance coalition procedures such as building distributed coalition leadership to better support the mobilization process. We report on primary modifications to the process, findings for the coalitions, and recommendations for public health practitioners who are seeking to start a similar coalition. PMID:26785397

  7. Reshaping the Focus and Structure of Vocational Teacher Education and Training Strategy in Lithuania--A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestutis, Pukelis; Lauzackas, Rimantas

    2004-01-01

    In this article the contemporary state of pedagogical qualification of Lithuanian vocational teachers is discussed. The new role of VET teacher and VET school in vocational teacher training, following the lifelong learning paradigm, are discussed. Main approaches, principles and parameters of the new vocational teacher training strategy in…

  8. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    PubMed Central

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  9. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  10. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  11. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  12. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  13. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system. PMID:27444774

  14. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  15. When is success not satisfying? Integrating regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories to explain the relation between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ferris, D Lance; Johnson, Russell E; Rosen, Christopher C; Djurdjevic, Emilija; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Tan, James A

    2013-03-01

    Integrating implications from regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories, we present a framework wherein motivational orientations toward positive (approach motivation orientation) or negative (avoidance motivation orientation) stimuli interact with workplace success to mediate the relation of core self-evaluation (CSE) with job satisfaction. Using data collected from supervisor-subordinate dyads (Sample 1) and time-lagged data (Sample 2), we found that the results from two studies indicated that the interaction of workplace success and avoidance motivation orientation mediated relations of CSE with job satisfaction. Although approach motivation orientation did not interact with workplace success, it did mediate the CSE-job satisfaction relation on its own. Implications for the CSE and approach/avoidance literatures are discussed. PMID:22963514

  16. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article. PMID:27405995

  17. A Systems Approach to Evaluating Ionizing Radiation: Six Focus Areas to Improve Quality, Efficiency, and Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Mower, Laura; Bushe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Ionizing radiation is an essential component of the care process. However, providers and patients may not be fully aware of the risks involved, the level of ionizing radiation delivered with various procedures, or the potential for harm through incidental overexposure or cumulative dose. Recent high-profile incidents demonstrating the devastating short-term consequences of radiation overexposure have drawn attention to these risks, but applicable solutions are lacking. Although various recommendations and guidelines have been proposed, organizational variability challenges providers to identify their own practical solutions. To identify potential failure modes and develop solutions to preserve patient safety within a large, national healthcare system, we assembled a multidisciplinary team to conduct a comprehensive analysis of practices surrounding the delivery of ionizing radiation. Workgroups were developed to analyze existing culture, processes, and technology to identify deficiencies and propose solutions. Six focus areas were identified: competency and certification; equipment; monitoring and auditing; education; clinical pathways; and communication and marketing. This manuscript summarizes this comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and systemic analysis of risk and provides examples to illustrate how these focus areas can be used to improve the use of ionizing radiation. The proposed solutions, once fully implemented, may advance patient safety and care. PMID:26042626

  18. A Systems Approach to Evaluating Ionizing Radiation: Six Focus Areas to Improve Quality, Efficiency, and Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Jonathan B; Mower, Laura; Bushe, Chris

    2013-09-19

    Ionizing radiation is an essential component of the care process. However, providers and patients may not be fully aware of the risks involved, the level of ionizing radiation delivered with various procedures, or the potential for harm through incidental overexposure or cumulative dose. Recent high-profile incidents demonstrating the devastating short-term consequences of radiation overexposure have drawn attention to these risks, but applicable solutions are lacking. Although various recommendations and guidelines have been proposed, organizational variability challenges providers to identify their own practical solutions. To identify potential failure modes and develop solutions to preserve patient safety within a large, national healthcare system, we assembled a multidisciplinary team to conduct a comprehensive analysis of practices surrounding the delivery of ionizing radiation. Workgroups were developed to analyze existing culture, processes, and technology to identify deficiencies and propose solutions. Six focus areas were identified: competency and certification; equipment; monitoring and auditing; education; clinical pathways; and communication and marketing. This manuscript summarizes this comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and systemic analysis of risk and provides examples to illustrate how these focus areas can be used to improve the use of ionizing radiation. The proposed solutions, once fully implemented, may advance patient safety and care. PMID:24102690

  19. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

  20. A systems approach to evaluating ionizing radiation: six focus areas to improve quality, efficiency, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Jonathan B; Mower, Laura; Bushe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an essential component of the care process. However, providers and patients may not be fully aware of the risks involved, the level of ionizing radiation delivered with various procedures, or the potential for harm through incidental overexposure or cumulative dose. Recent high-profile incidents demonstrating the devastating short-term consequences of radiation overexposure have drawn attention to these risks, but applicable solutions are lacking. Although various recommendations and guidelines have been proposed, organizational variability challenges providers to identify their own practical solutions. To identify potential failure modes and develop solutions to preserve patient safety within a large, national healthcare system, we assembled a multidisciplinary team to conduct a comprehensive analysis of practices surrounding the delivery of ionizing radiation. Workgroups were developed to analyze existing culture, processes, and technology to identify deficiencies and propose solutions. Six focus areas were identified: competency and certification; equipment; monitoring and auditing; education; clinical pathways; and communication and marketing. This manuscript summarizes this comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and systemic analysis of risk and provides examples to illustrate how these focus areas can be used to improve the use of ionizing radiation. The proposed solutions, once fully implemented, may advance patient safety and care. PMID:26042626

  1. The neural correlates of emotional face-processing in adolescent depression: a dimensional approach focusing on anhedonia and illness severity.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Sarah E; Vallejo, Ana I; Ely, Benjamin A; Kang, Guoxin; Krain Roy, Amy; Pine, Daniel S; Stern, Emily R; Gabbay, Vilma

    2014-12-30

    Deficits in emotion processing, a known clinical feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), have been widely investigated using emotional face paradigms and neuroimaging. However, most studies have not accounted for the high inter-subject variability of symptom severity. Similarly, only sparse research has focused on MDD in adolescence, early in the course of the illness. Here we sought to investigate neural responses to emotional faces using both categorical and dimensional analyses with a focus on anhedonia, a core symptom of MDD associated with poor outcomes. Nineteen medication-free depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) were scanned during presentation of happy, sad, fearful, and neutral faces. ANCOVAs and regressions assessed group differences and relationships with illness and anhedonia severity, respectively. Findings included a group by valence interaction with depressed adolescents exhibiting decreased activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), putamen and premotor cortex. Post-hoc analyses confirmed decreased STG activity in MDD adolescents. Dimensional analyses revealed associations between illness severity and altered responses to negative faces in prefrontal, cingulate, striatal, and limbic regions. However, anhedonia severity was uniquely correlated with responses to happy faces in the prefrontal, cingulate, and insular regions. Our work highlights the need for studying specific symptoms dimensionally in psychiatric research. PMID:25448398

  2. The neural correlates of emotional face-processing in adolescent depression: a dimensional approach focusing on anhedonia and illness severity

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sarah E.; Vallejo, Ana I.; Ely, Benjamin A.; Kang, Guoxin; Roy, Amy Krain; Pine, Daniel S.; Stern, Emily R.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing, a known clinical feature of major depression (MDD), have been widely investigated using emotional face paradigms and neuroimaging. However, most studies have not accounted for the high inter-subject variability of symptom severity. Similarly, only sparse research has focused on MDD in adolescence, early in the course of the illness. Here we sought to investigate neural responses to emotional faces using both categorical and dimensional analyses with a focus on anhedonia, a core symptom of MDD associated with poor outcomes. Nineteen medication-free depressed adolescents and eighteen healthy controls were scanned during presentation of happy, sad, fearful, and neutral faces. ANCOVAs and regressions assessed group differences and relationships with illness and anhedonia severity, respectively. Findings included a group by valence interaction with depressed adolescents exhibiting decreased activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), putamen and premotor cortex. Post-hoc analyses confirmed decreased STG activity in MDD adolescents. Dimensional analyses revealed associations between illness severity and altered responses to negative faces in prefrontal, cingulate, striatal, and limbic regions. However, anhedonia severity was uniquely correlated with responses to happy faces in the prefrontal, cingulate, and insular regions. Our work highlights the need for studying specific symptoms dimensionally in psychiatric research. PMID:25448398

  3. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    PubMed

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget. PMID:25589866

  4. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens

    PubMed Central

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget. PMID:25589866

  5. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  6. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    PubMed Central

    Roex, Ann; Clarebout, Geraldine; Dory, Valerie; Degryse, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epistemological beliefs (EB) are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions). Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18) were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11) met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI), participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify knowledge are likely to be

  7. Moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the mechanisms for cooperation, and seems to be of particular interest for the evolution of human societies. A large part is based on assessing reputations and acting accordingly. This paper gives a brief overview of different assessment rules for indirect reciprocity, and studies them by using evolutionary game dynamics. Even the simplest binary assessment rules lead to complex outcomes and require considerable cognitive abilities. PMID:21473870

  8. Successful palliative approach with high-intensity focused ultrasound in a patient with metastatic anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ungaro, Antonio; Orsi, Franco; Casadio, Chiara; Galdy, Salvatore; Spada, Francesca; Cella, Chiara Alessandra; Tonno, Clementina Di; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Murgioni, Sabina; Frezza, Anna Maria; Fazio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a metastatic anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma (APC). After an early tumour progression on first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine, even though it was badly tolerated, he was treated with a combination of systemic modified FOLFIRI and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on the pancreatic mass. A tumour showing partial response with a clinical benefit was obtained. HIFU was preferred to radiotherapy because of its shorter course and minimal side effects, in order to improve the patient’s clinical conditions. The patient is currently on chemotherapy, asymptomatic with a good performance status. In referral centres, with specific expertise, HIFU could be safely and successfully combined with systemic chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27170835

  9. Successful palliative approach with high-intensity focused ultrasound in a patient with metastatic anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Antonio; Orsi, Franco; Casadio, Chiara; Galdy, Salvatore; Spada, Francesca; Cella, Chiara Alessandra; Tonno, Clementina Di; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Murgioni, Sabina; Frezza, Anna Maria; Fazio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a metastatic anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma (APC). After an early tumour progression on first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine, even though it was badly tolerated, he was treated with a combination of systemic modified FOLFIRI and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on the pancreatic mass. A tumour showing partial response with a clinical benefit was obtained. HIFU was preferred to radiotherapy because of its shorter course and minimal side effects, in order to improve the patient's clinical conditions. The patient is currently on chemotherapy, asymptomatic with a good performance status. In referral centres, with specific expertise, HIFU could be safely and successfully combined with systemic chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27170835

  10. Interstellar Pickup Ion Acceleration in the Turbulent Magnetic Field at the Solar Wind Termination Shock Using a Focused Transport Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Junye; le Roux, Jakobus A.; Arthur, Aaron D.

    2016-08-01

    We study the physics of locally born interstellar pickup proton acceleration at the nearly perpendicular solar wind termination shock (SWTS) in the presence of a random magnetic field spiral angle using a focused transport model. Guided by Voyager 2 observations, the spiral angle is modeled with a q-Gaussian distribution. The spiral angle fluctuations, which are used to generate the perpendicular diffusion of pickup protons across the SWTS, play a key role in enabling efficient injection and rapid diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) when these particles follow field lines. Our simulations suggest that variation of both the shape (q-value) and the standard deviation (σ-value) of the q-Gaussian distribution significantly affect the injection speed, pitch-angle anisotropy, radial distribution, and the efficiency of the DSA of pickup protons at the SWTS. For example, increasing q and especially reducing σ enhances the DSA rate.

  11. Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors re-engage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, re-engage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members. PMID:26270387

  12. A culturally competent approach to cancer news and education in an inner city community: focus group findings.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jonnie P; Reed, Wornie; Colby, Kay; Dunn, R A; Mosavel, M; Ibrahim, Said A

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic minorities who live in socioeconomically disenfranchised communities suffer disproportionately from many health problems including cancer. In an effort to reduce these disparities, many health-care practitioners and scholars have promoted "culturally competent" health education efforts. One component of culturally competent education is a grounded knowledge base. To obtain knowledge about the cancer-related ideas of members of one African American community, researchers conducted focus groups with public housing residents and used the findings to develop a five-part television news series about breast, prostate, and cervix cancers. We found that participants gathered information from the folk, popular, and professional health sectors and constructed their cancer-related ideas from this information. Furthermore, experiences of racism, sexism, and classism colored their beliefs and behaviors regarding the prevention, detection, and treatment of common cancers. For this community "cancer" represents a giant screen upon which individual fears and societal ethnic, political, and economic tensions are projected. PMID:15204825

  13. A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH TO THE TIME-DEPENDENT SHOCK ACCELERATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES AT A FAST TRAVELING SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2012-02-10

    Some of the most sophisticated models for solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejection driven shocks are based on standard diffusive shock acceleration theory. However, this theory, which only applies when SEP pitch-angle anisotropies are small, might have difficulty in describing first-order Fermi acceleration or the shock pre-heating and injection of SEPs into first-order Fermi acceleration accurately at lower SEP speeds where SEP pitch-angle anisotropies upstream near the shock can be large. To avoid this problem, we use a time-dependent focused transport model to reinvestigate first-order Fermi acceleration at planar parallel and quasi-parallel spherical traveling shocks between the Sun and Earth with high shock speeds associated with rare extreme gradual SEP events. The focused transport model is also used to investigate and compare three different shock pre-heating mechanisms associated with different aspects of the nonuniform cross-shock solar wind flow, namely, the convergence of the flow (adiabatic compression), the shear tensor of the flow, and the acceleration of the flow, and a fourth shock pre-heating mechanism associated with the cross-shock electric field, to determine which pre-heating mechanism contributes the most to injecting shock pre-heated source particles into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. The effects of variations in traveling shock conditions, such as increasing shock obliquity and shock slowdown, and variations in the SEP source with increasing shock distance from the Sun on the coupled processes of shock pre-heating, injection, and first-order Fermi acceleration are analyzed. Besides the finding that the cross-shock acceleration of the solar wind flow yields the dominant shock pre-heating mechanism at high shock speeds, we find that first-order Fermi acceleration at fast traveling shocks differs in a number of respects from the predictions and assumptions of standard steady-state diffusive shock

  14. Universal scheme for indirect quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layden, David; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2016-04-01

    We consider a bipartite quantum object, composed of a quantum system and a quantum actuator which is periodically reset. We show that the reduced dynamics of the system approaches unitarity as the reset frequency of the actuator is increased. This phenomenon arises because quantum systems interacting for a short time can impact each other faster than they can become significantly entangled. In the high reset-frequency limit, the effective Hamiltonian describing the system's unitary evolution depends on the state to which the actuator is reset. This makes it possible to indirectly implement a continuous family of effective Hamiltonians on one part of a bipartite quantum object, thereby reducing the problem of indirect control (via a quantum actuator) to the well-studied one of direct quantum control.

  15. Indirect electroanalytical detection of phenols.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-05-01

    A novel indirect electrochemical protocol for the electroanalytical detection of phenols is presented for the first time. This methodology is demonstrated with the indirect determination of the target analytes phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through an electrochemically adapted optical protocol. This electrochemical adaptation allows the determination of the above mentioned phenols without the use of any oxidising agents, as is the case in the optical method, where pyrazoline compounds (mediators) chemically react with the target phenols forming a quinoneimine product which is electrochemically active providing an indirect analytical signal to measure the target phenol(s). A range of commercially available pyrazoline substitution products, namely 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, antipyrine, 3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one, 3-amino-1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-Pyrazolin-5-one, 4-amino-1,2-dimethyl-3-pentadecyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride, 3-amino-1-(2-amino-4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride and 4-aminoantipyrine are evaluated as mediators for the indirect detection of phenols. The indirect electrochemical detection of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through the use of 4-aminoantipyrine as a mediator are successfully determined in drinking water samples at analytically useful levels. Finally, the comparison of the direct (no mediator) and the proposed indirect determination (with 4-aminoantipyrine) towards the analytical detection of the target phenols in drinking water is presented. The limitation of the proposed electroanalytical protocol is quantified for all the four target phenols. PMID:25771897

  16. The logic of indirect speech

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  17. Lean systems approaches to health technology assessment: a patient-focused alternative to cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bridges, John F P

    2006-12-01

    Many countries now use health technology assessment (HTA) to review new and emerging technologies, especially with regard to reimbursement, pricing and/or clinical guidelines. One of the common, but not universal, features of these systems is the use of economic evaluation, normally cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), to confirm that new technologies offer value for money. Many have criticised these systems as primarily being concerned with cost containment, rather than advancing the interests of patients or innovators. This paper calls into question the underlying principles of CEA by arguing that value in the healthcare system may in fact be unconstrained. It is suggested that 'lean management principles' can be used not only to trim waste from the health system, but as a method of creating real incentives for innovation and value creation. Following the lean paradigm, this value must be defined purely from the patients' perspective, and the entire health system needs to work towards the creation of such value. This paper offers as a practical example a lean approach to HTA, arguing that such an approach would lead to better incentives for innovation in health, as well as more patient-friendly outcomes in the long run. PMID:23389493

  18. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems.

    PubMed

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; Wintersen, Arjen; Devilee, Jeroen; Swartjes, Frank A

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for which sustainable solutions are sought. Wicked problems are multi-faceted, and deriving of a management solution requires an approach that is participative, iterative, innovative, and transparent in its definition of sustainability and translation to sustainability metrics. We suggest to add the use of a solution-focused approach. The SfSA framework is collated from elements from risk assessment, risk governance, adaptive management and sustainability assessment frameworks, expanded with the 'solution-focused' paradigm as recently proposed in the context of risk assessment. The main innovation of this approach is the broad exploration of solutions upfront in assessment projects. The case study concerns the sustainable management of slightly contaminated sediments continuously formed in ditches in rural, agricultural areas. This problem is wicked, as disposal of contaminated sediment on adjacent land is potentially hazardous to humans, ecosystems and agricultural products. Non-removal would however reduce drainage capacity followed by increased risks of flooding, while contaminated sediment removal followed by offsite treatment implies high budget costs and soil subsidence. Application of the steps in the SfSA-framework served in solving this problem. Important elements were early exploration of a wide 'solution-space', stakeholder involvement from the onset of the assessment, clear agreements on the risk and sustainability metrics of the problem and on the interpretation and decision procedures, and adaptive management. Application of the key elements of the SfSA approach eventually resulted in adoption of a novel sediment management policy. The stakeholder

  19. SGLT2 inhibitors – an insulin-independent therapeutic approach for treatment of type 2 diabetes: focus on canagliflozin

    PubMed Central

    Seufert, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of a great variety of medications, a significant proportion of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not able to achieve or maintain adequate glycemic control. Beyond improved glucose control, novel treatments would ideally provide a reduction of cardiovascular risk, with a favorable impact on excess weight, and a low intrinsic hypoglycemia risk, as well as a synergistic mechanism of action for broad combination therapy. With the development of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, an antidiabetic pharmacologic option has recently become available that comes close to meeting these requirements. For the first time, SGLT2 inhibitors offer a therapeutic approach acting directly on the kidneys without requiring insulin secretion or action. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are the SGLT2 inhibitors approved to date. Taken once a day, these medications can be combined with all other antidiabetic medications including insulin, due to their insulin-independent mechanism of action, with only a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. SGLT2 inhibitors provide additional reductions in body weight and blood pressure due to the therapeutically induced excretion of glucose and sodium through the kidneys. These “concomitant effects” are particularly interesting with regard to the increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. In many cases, T2DM treatment requires a multidimensional approach where the treatment goals have to be adapted to the individual patient. While there is a consensus on the use of metformin as a first-line drug therapy, various antidiabetics are used for treatment intensification. New mechanisms of action like that of SGLT2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin, which can be used both in early and late stages of diabetes, are a welcome addition to expand the treatment options for patients at every stage of T2DM. The efficacy and tolerability of canagliflozin have been tested in an extensive clinical trial program

  20. Depth and all-in-focus images obtained by multi-line-scan light-field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štolc, Svorad; Huber-Mörk, Reinhold; Holländer, Branislav; Soukup, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We present a light-field multi-line-scan image acquisition and processing system intended for the 2.5/3-D inspection of fine surface structures, such as small parts, security print, etc. in an industrial environment. The system consists of an area-scan camera, that allows for a small number of sensor lines to be extracted at high frame rates, and a mechanism for transporting the inspected object at a constant speed. During the acquisition, the object is moved orthogonally to the camera's optical axis as well as the orientation of the sensor lines. In each time step, a predefined subset of lines is read out from the sensor and stored. Afterward, by collecting all corresponding lines acquired over time, a 3-D light field is generated, which consists of multiple views of the object observed from different viewing angles while transported w.r.t. the acquisition device. This structure allows for the construction of so-called epipolar plane images (EPIs) and subsequent EPI-based analysis in order to achieve two main goals: (i) the reliable estimation of a dense depth model and (ii) the construction of an all-in-focus intensity image. Beside specifics of our hardware setup, we also provide a detailed description of algorithmic solutions for the mentioned tasks. Two alternative methods for EPI-based analysis are compared based on artificial and real-world data.

  1. E-prescribing: a focused review and new approach to addressing safety in pharmacies and primary care.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    E-prescribing, the health information technology (HIT) that enables prescribers to electronically transmit prescriptions to community pharmacies, has been touted as a solution for improving patient safety and overall quality of care. However, the impact of HIT, such as e-prescribing on medication errors in acute care settings, has been widely studied and shows that if poorly designed or implemented, HIT can pose a risk to patient safety by introducing a source of medication errors. Unlike acute care settings, safety issues related to e-prescribing in primary care settings (where e-prescriptions are generated and transmitted) and pharmacies (where e-prescriptions are received) have not received as much attention in the literature. This paper provides a focused review of patient safety issues related to using e-prescribing systems in primary care and pharmacies. In addition, the paper proposes using human factors engineering concepts to study e-prescribing safety in pharmacies and primary care settings to identify safety problems and possible mechanisms for improvement. PMID:23062769

  2. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  3. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  4. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  5. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion. PMID:25333855

  6. The Use of Total Human Bone Marrow Fraction in a Direct Three-Dimensional Expansion Approach for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications: Focus on Angiogenesis and Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion. PMID:25333855

  7. Focus: Teaching by Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Frances N., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The focus of this bulletin is teaching the various literary genres in the secondary English class. Contents include "The Song Within: An Approach to Teaching Poetry,""Teaching Folk-Rock,""Approaches to Teaching Poetry,""Focus on an Elective Program: Twentieth Century Lyrical Poetry,""Hoffman and Poe: Masters of the Grotesque,""Plays: Shared and…

  8. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  9. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  10. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  11. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  12. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  13. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  14. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  15. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  16. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost... assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54...

  18. 24 CFR 576.109 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Indirect costs. 576.109 Section 576... § 576.109 Indirect costs. (a) In general. ESG grant funds may be used to pay indirect costs in.... Indirect costs may be allocated to each eligible activity under § 576.101 through § 576.108, so long...

  19. 24 CFR 576.109 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect costs. 576.109 Section 576... § 576.109 Indirect costs. (a) In general. ESG grant funds may be used to pay indirect costs in.... Indirect costs may be allocated to each eligible activity under § 576.101 through § 576.108, so long...

  20. 24 CFR 578.63 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect costs. 578.63 Section 578... Indirect costs. (a) In general. Continuum of Care funds may be used to pay indirect costs in accordance with OMB Circulars A-87 or A-122, as applicable. (b) Allocation. Indirect costs may be allocated...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture..., unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as in-kind matching contributions...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture..., unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as in-kind matching contributions...

  3. 24 CFR 578.63 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Indirect costs. 578.63 Section 578... Indirect costs. (a) In general. Continuum of Care funds may be used to pay indirect costs in accordance with OMB Circulars A-87 or A-122, as applicable. (b) Allocation. Indirect costs may be allocated...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture..., unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as in-kind matching contributions...

  5. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  6. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  7. Water Rockets and Indirect Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that teaches a number of scientific concepts including indirect measurement, Newton's third law of motion, manipulating and controlling variables, and the scientific method of inquiry. Uses process skills such as observation, inference, prediction, mensuration, and communication as well as problem solving and higher-order…

  8. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  9. Modeling Indirect Tunneling in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Edward

    Indirect tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the indirect tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of indirect tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the indirect tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.

  10. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis. PMID:26654371

  11. L'indirection: Procede d'expression et de persuasion en communication publique (Indirection: Process of Expression and Persuasion in Public Communication).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the indirection process presented in Searle's and Vanderveken's theory of speech acts: the performance of a primary speech act by means of the accomplishment of a secondary speech act. Discusses indirection mechanisms used in advertising and in political communication. (Author/VWL)

  12. 3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport.

    PubMed

    OToole, Matthew; Mather, John; Kutulakos, Kiriakos N

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture. PMID:27295455

  13. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Indirect Complaint among Japanese ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This interlanguage pragmatics study of linguistic expressions of affect focuses on how Japanese learners of English may express themselves in an affect-laden speech act of indirect complaint. The English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' data are compared with the baseline data of native speakers of Japanese (JJ) and American English (AA). The…

  14. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  15. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  16. An integrated approach to the evaluation of a metabolomic fingerprint for a phytocomplex. Focus on artichoke [Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus] leaf.

    PubMed

    Fodaroni, Giada; Burico, Michela; Gaetano, Anna; Maidecchi, Anna; Pagiotti, Rita; Mattoli, Luisa; Traldi, Pietro; Ragazzi, Eugenio

    2014-04-01

    The availability of reliable herbal formulations is essential in order to assure the maximal activity and to limit unwanted side-effects. The correct concentration of declared components of herbal products is a matter of health legislation and regulation, but is still a topic under debate in the field of quality control assessment. In the present work specific constituents of artichoke leaf extracts, considered as a test herbal product, were measured by standard spectrophotometric and HPLC methods (for quantitative determination of some components only), and results were correlated with the ESI-MS (showing the full metabolomic fingerprint). Phytocomplex stability over time was also investigated in batches submitted to different storage conditions. The results indicated excellent agreement between the two approaches in the measurement of total caffeoylquinic acids and chlorogenic acid contents, but the metabolomic ESI-MS method approach provides a more complete evaluation and monitoring of the composition of a herbal product, without focusing only on a single/few compound measurements. Therefore, the ESI-MS method can be proposed for the evaluation of the quality of complex matrices, such as those in a phytocomplex. Another aspect lies in the possibility to obtain a broad-spectrum stability control of herbal formulations, requiring minimal sample pre-processing procedures. PMID:24868885

  17. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  18. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  19. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  20. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  1. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  2. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  3. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  4. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  5. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  7. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  8. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  9. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  10. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  11. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  12. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  13. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  14. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  15. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  16. 19 CFR 10.2024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.2024 Section 10.2024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.2013(i), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  17. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  18. 19 CFR 10.3024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.3013(h), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is...

  19. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  20. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  1. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  2. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.044 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044...

  3. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.044 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044...

  4. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost of that or any other final cost objective. (c) The contractor shall accumulate indirect costs by... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  5. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  6. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  7. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost of that or any other final cost objective. (c) The contractor shall accumulate indirect costs by... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  8. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  9. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  10. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  11. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  12. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  13. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  14. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  15. Focusing the surgical microscope.

    PubMed

    Socea, Sergiu D; Barak, Yoreh; Blumenthal, Eytan Z

    2015-01-01

    A well-focused operating microscope addresses several needs that are all secondary to the surgeon's need to see clearly at all times. These needs include: the assistant; the sharpness of the video and monitor; as well as field of view, asthenopia, and focusing issues related to zoom, accommodation, and presbyopia. We provide a practical approach to achieve optimal focus that we call the sloping paper calibration method. PMID:25891029

  16. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. PMID:23887149

  17. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Raciborski, Filip; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment. PMID:27407258

  18. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  19. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  20. Design-Focused Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an approach to the writing of evaluation questions is outlined and developed which focuses attention on the question of the effectiveness of an educational design for bringing about the learning it is intended to facilitate. The approach develops from the idea that all educational designs rely on instructional alignment, implicitly…

  1. The application of artificial neural networks in indirect cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Estimating of the costs of construction project is one of the most important task in the management of the project. The total costs can be divided into direct costs that are related to executing the works, and indirect costs that accompany delivery. A precise costs estimation is usually a highly labour and time-intensive task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predicting index of indirect cost of construction projects in Poland. A quantitative study was undertaken on the factors conditioning indirect costs of polish construction projects and a determination was made of the actual costs incurred by enterprises during project implementation. As a result of these studies, a data set was assembled covering 72 real-life cases of building projects constructed in Poland.

  2. Integrating a family-focused approach into child obesity prevention: Rationale and design for the My Parenting SOS study randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity). Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. Methods This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management) and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls) and physical activity (accelerometry), general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Discussion Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348 PMID:21639940

  3. Infant feeding counselling in Uganda in a changing environment with focus on the general population and HIV-positive mothers - a mixed method approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health workers' counselling practices are essential to improve infant feeding practices. This paper will assess how infant feeding counselling was done and experienced by counsellors and mothers in Eastern Uganda in the context of previous guidelines. This has implications for implementation of the new infant feeding guidelines from 2009. Methods This paper combines qualitative and quantitative data from Mbale District in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected from 2003 to 2005 in a mixed methods approach. This includes: key-informant interviews among eighteen health workers in the public hospital, health clinics and non-governmental organisations working with people living with HIV, fifteen focus group discussions in the general population and among clients from an HIV clinic, two cross-sectional surveys including 727 mothers from the general population and 235 HIV-positive mothers. Results The counselling sessions were often improvised. Health workers frequently had pragmatic approaches to infant feeding as many clients struggled with poverty, stigma and non-disclosure of HIV. The feasibility of the infant feeding recommendations was perceived as challenging among health workers, both for HIV-positive mothers and in the general population. Group counselling with large groups was common in the public health service. Some extra infant feeding teaching capacities were mobilised for care-takers of undernourished children. A tendency to simplify messages giving one-sided information was seen. Different health workers presented contradicting simplified perspectives in some cases. Outdated training was a common concern with many health workers not being given courses or seminars on infant feeding since professional graduation. Other problems were minimal staffing, lack of resources, and programs being started and subsequently stopped abruptly. Many of the HIV-counsellors in the non-governmental organisations got extended training in counselling which seemed to be

  4. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  5. Tsunami focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  6. Utilization and Indirect Suggestion in Multiple-Family Group Therapy with Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovern, John D.; Zohn, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Describes techniques of utilization and indirect suggestion in multiple-family group therapy as a component of an alcoholism treatment program. Techniques include: unconscious conditioning, therapeutic binds, indirect suggestion, and the utilization approach. Describes how a set of specific goals can be achieved using these techniques. (Author/KMF)

  7. Direct and indirect measurements on electrocaloric effect: Recent developments and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-09-01

    It has been ten years since the discovery of the giant electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric materials showed that it is possible to employ this effect for substantial cooling applications. This last decade has been marked by increasing research interest, especially in characterizing and measuring the electrocaloric effect using both the so-called indirect and direct approaches. In this context, a comprehensive summary and careful reexamination of these approaches are very timely and of great importance to justify the assumptions used in different measurement techniques. This review is therefore dedicated to cover recent important and rapid advances from both the indirect and direct measurements and provides critical insights relevant for quantifying the electrocaloric effect. It involves electrocaloric materials from normal ferroelectrics, antiferroelectrics, and relaxors, and it fundamentally focuses on how the electrocaloric entropy changes in response to electric field in these typical electrocalorics. The article addresses recent developments, especially during the past three years, such as technical selection of proper polarization-electric field loops, negative electrocaloric effect in antiferroelectrics and relaxors, the controversial debate on the indirect method in relaxors, the important role of field dependence of specific heat, kinetic factors, and so on. Moreover, this review also is concerned with extracting reliable data by direct measurements. Four typical techniques and devices used recently, such as thermocouples, differential scanning calorimeters, specifically designed calorimeters, and scanning thermal microscopy, are briefly reviewed, while infrared cameras are emphasized. We hope that our review will not only provide a useful background to understand fundamentally the electrocaloric effect and what one really measures but also may act as a practical guide to exploit and develop electrocalorics towards the design of suitable devices.

  8. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  9. Indirect conductimetric assay of antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sawai, J; Doi, R; Maekawa, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Kojima, H

    2002-11-01

    The applicability of indirect conductimetric assays for evaluation of antibacterial activity was examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained by the indirect method was consistent with that by the direct conductimetric assay and the turbidity method. The indirect assay allows use of growth media, which cannot be used in the direct conductimetric assay, making it possible to evaluate the antibacterial activity of insoluble or slightly soluble materials with high turbidity, such as antibacterial ceramic powders. PMID:12407467

  10. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  11. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness. PMID:26164838

  12. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  13. Resource Construction and Evaluation for Indirect Opinion Mining of Drug Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Noferesti, Samira; Shamsfard, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Opinion mining is a well-known problem in natural language processing that has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Existing approaches are mainly limited to the identification of direct opinions and are mostly dedicated to explicit opinions. However, in some domains such as medical, the opinions about an entity are not usually expressed by opinion words directly, but they are expressed indirectly by describing the effect of that entity on other ones. Therefore, ignoring indirect opinions can lead to the loss of valuable information and noticeable decline in overall accuracy of opinion mining systems. In this paper, we first introduce the task of indirect opinion mining. Then, we present a novel approach to construct a knowledge base of indirect opinions, called OpinionKB, which aims to be a resource for automatically classifying people’s opinions about drugs. Using our approach, we have extracted 896 quadruples of indirect opinions at a precision of 88.08 percent. Furthermore, experiments on drug reviews demonstrate that our approach can achieve 85.25 percent precision in polarity detection task, and outperforms the state-of-the-art opinion mining methods. We also build a corpus of indirect opinions about drugs, which can be used as a basis for supervised indirect opinion mining. The proposed approach for corpus construction achieves the precision of 88.42 percent. PMID:25962135

  14. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  15. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United

  16. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  17. Direct and Indirect ENSO Influences on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the strongest signals in the tropics and imposes large influences on climate in many regions, such as the Indian summer monsoon, central American precipitation, and the South China Sea precipitation. ENSO affects regional climate variability both directly and indirectly. The direct influence is through concurrent atmospheric circulation response to anomalous heating associated with equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies. The indirect influence is by first inducing regional SST anomalies through the so-called "atmospheric bridge" and then atmospheric circulation response to the regional SST anomalies. Previous studies are either focused on the direct influence of ENSO via concurrent atmospheric change or the indirect influence of ENSO via regional SST anomalies. In this talk, the presenter will distinguish the direct and indirect influences of ENSO and demonstrate how the two types of influences may play together in leading to regional climate variability. Summer climate anomalies in three regions will be used for illustration: the Indian summer monsoon, central American summer precipitation, and the South China Sea summer precipitation.

  18. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 Indirect... final cost objectives. No final cost objective shall have allocated to it as an indirect cost any...

  19. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  20. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  1. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  2. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  3. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  4. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  5. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  6. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  7. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  8. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  9. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  10. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  11. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... considered originating. Although non-originating material B must undergo the applicable tariff shift in order... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  12. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... considered originating. Although non-originating material B must undergo the applicable tariff shift in order... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  13. Indirect Costs of Federally Supported Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kenneth T.

    1981-01-01

    Addressed is the problem of increasing indirect costs in federally supported research at universities and colleges. Effects of this increase are examined, using data on National Institutes of Health grants to educational institutions for examples. Discussed is the establishment of uniform indirect cost rates to modify the present policy. (CS)

  14. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203 Section 31.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 Indirect costs. (a) For contracts subject...

  15. Indirect Costs in Universities. ACE Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Raymond J.

    Indirect costs of sponsored research projects and educational programs are as necessary as are the direct costs. This report demonstrates that they are real costs and that sponsors such as the Federal Government receive more than equitable treatment in the computation and application of indirect costs. The areas discussed include: the computation…

  16. Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voet, Tony Vander

    This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

  17. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award and Closeout § 2500.044 Indirect...

  18. Indirect Cost Rate Composition and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Stephen E.

    1984-01-01

    In response to criticism of the rise in indirect cost rates and their effect on federally funded research, the methods for calculating and applying indirect costs rates according to the new cost principles applicable to sponsored agreements are examined, and specific criticisms are addressed. (MSE)

  19. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration....

  1. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration....

  2. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate...

  3. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate...

  4. Indirect Costs of Health Research--How They are Computed, What Actions are Needed. Report by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    A review by the General Accounting Office of various aspects of indirect costs associated with federal health research grants is presented. After an introduction detailing the scope of the review and defining indirect costs and federal participation, the report focuses on the causes of the rapid increase of indirect costs. Among findings was that…

  5. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  6. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  7. Clinical aspects of indirect immunofluorescence for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghanadan, Alireza; Saghazadeh, Amene; Jahanzad, Issa; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-05-01

    Because the most common term used in conversations considering autoimmunity is autoantibodies, it is well-expected that the indirect immunofluorescence assay, which detects antibodies directed against various antigens, is one of our most impressive techniques for investigating autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Roughly speaking, the current literature corroborates that this immunopathologic investigation means that autoantibodies detection makes a considerable contribution to both diagnostic and prognostic aspects of AIDs in the clinical setting. However, it varies between different AIDs, autoantibodies, ethnicities or detection methodologies. Directly focusing on the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we present evidence to support this multidimensional variation regarding the subject via reviewing briefly the best-investigated autoantibodies in the well-documented AIDs, including vasculitis, inflammatory bowel disease, scleroderma, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:25786676

  8. Mechanisms of xenobiotic receptor activation: Direct vs. indirect.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, Bryan; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-09-01

    The so-called xenobiotic receptors (XRs) have functionally evolved into cellular sensors for both endogenous and exogenous stimuli by regulating the transcription of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, as well as those involving energy homeostasis, cell proliferation, and/or immune responses. Unlike prototypical steroid hormone receptors, XRs are activated through both direct ligand-binding and ligand-independent (indirect) mechanisms by a plethora of structurally unrelated chemicals. This review covers research literature that discusses direct vs. indirect activation of XRs. A particular focus is centered on the signaling control of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We expect that this review will shed light on both the common and distinct mechanisms associated with activation of these three XRs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:26877237

  9. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  10. Indirect readout: detection of optimized subsequences and calculation of relative binding affinities using different DNA elastic potentials

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Nils B.; Wolff, Lars; Everaers, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Essential biological processes require that proteins bind to a set of specific DNA sites with tuned relative affinities. We focus on the indirect readout mechanism and discuss its theoretical description in relation to the present understanding of DNA elasticity on the rigid base pair level. Combining existing parametrizations of elastic potentials for DNA, we derive elastic free energies directly related to competitive binding experiments, and propose a computationally inexpensive local marker for elastically optimized subsequences in protein–DNA co-crystals. We test our approach in an application to the bacteriophage 434 repressor. In agreement with known results we find that indirect readout dominates at the central, non-contacted bases of the binding site. Elastic optimization involves all deformation modes and is mainly due to the adapted equilibrium structure of the operator, while sequence-dependent elasticity plays a minor role. These qualitative observations are robust with respect to current parametrization uncertainties. Predictions for relative affinities mediated by indirect readout depend sensitively on the chosen parametrization. Their quantitative comparison with experimental data allows for a critical evaluation of DNA elastic potentials and of the correspondence between crystal and solution structures. The software written for the presented analysis is included as Supplementary Data. PMID:17038333

  11. Doing Focus-on-Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod; Basturkmen, Helen; Loewen, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Considers the rationale for using a focus on form approach to teaching form as opposed to the more traditional focus on forms approach where linguistic features are treated sequentially. Describes methodological options for attending to form in communication. (Author/VWL)

  12. Evolution of spite through indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Rufus A.; Bshary, Redouan

    2004-01-01

    How can cooperation persist in the face of a temptation to 'cheat'? Several recent papers have suggested that the answer may lie in indirect reciprocity. Altruistic individuals may benefit by eliciting altruism from observers, rather than (as in direct reciprocity) from the recipient of the aid they provide. Here, we point out that indirect reciprocity need not always favour cooperation; by contrast, it may support spiteful behaviour, which is costly for the both actor and recipient. Existing theory suggests spite is unlikely to persist, but we demonstrate that it may do so when spiteful individuals are less likely to incur aggression from observers (a negative form of indirect reciprocity). PMID:15347514

  13. Attitudes about AIDS education and condom availability among parents of high school students in New York City: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Y; Radosh, A

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes parents' views of the New York City Public High School's AIDS Education and Condom Availability Program. It presents findings from 12 focus groups with 81 parents of students at six representative high schools. Focus groups were conducted as part of an independent, comprehensive 3-year evaluation of the program, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative components. Participants were mostly supportive of the program, citing intense concern about AIDS among adolescents, fear that teenagers do not adequately perceive themselves as being vulnerable, and personal experiences with infected relatives and friends. Implications of these findings for program development are discussed and recommendations for social policy changes are presented. PMID:9083588

  14. Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Nabity, Paul D.; Zavala, Jorge A.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Herbivory reduces leaf area, disrupts the function of leaves, and ultimately alters yield and productivity. Herbivore damage to foliage typically is assessed in the field by measuring the amount of leaf tissue removed and disrupted. This approach assumes the remaining tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate into remaining undamaged leaf tissue. Scope and Conclusions This review briefly examines the indirect effects of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four mechanisms contributing to the indirect suppression of photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues: severed vasculature, altered sink demand, defence-induced autotoxicity, and defence-induced down-regulation of photosynthesis. We review the chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal imaging techniques used to gather layers of spatial data and discuss methods for compiling these layers to achieve greater insight into mechanisms contributing to the indirect suppression of photosynthesis. We also elaborate on a few herbivore-induced gene-regulating mechanisms which modulate photosynthesis and discuss the difficult nature of measuring spatial heterogeneity when combining fluorescence imaging and gas exchange technology. Although few studies have characterized herbivore-induced indirect effects on photosynthesis at the leaf level, an emerging literature suggests that the loss of photosynthetic capacity following herbivory may be greater than direct loss of photosynthetic tissues. Depending on the damage guild, ignoring the indirect suppression of photosynthesis by arthropods and other organisms may lead to an underestimate of their physiological and ecological impacts. PMID:18660492

  15. Hidden risks and benefits of natural enemy-mediated indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Kaser, Joe M; Ode, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Polyphagous natural enemies can mediate a variety of indirect interactions between resource populations. Such indirect interactions are often reciprocally negative (i.e. apparent competition), but the sign of effects between resource populations can be any combination of positive (+), negative (-), or neutral (0). In this article we focus on parasitoids to illustrate the importance of natural enemy-mediated indirect interactions in predicting risk and efficacy in biological control. We review recent findings to illustrate how an improved understanding of parasitoid behavioral ecology may increase model accuracy. PMID:27436655

  16. Precision protection through indirect correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Fisher information of the parameters of the initial atomic state is studied, in the framework of open quantum systems, for a pair of static two-level atoms coupled to a bath of fluctuating vacuum scalar fields. Our results show that the correlations between the two atoms as well as the precision limit in quantum metrology are determined by the separation between the two atoms. Remarkably, when the separation between the two atoms approaches zero, the quantum Fisher information, thus the precision limit of the estimation of the parameters of the initial atomic state will be survived from the vacuum fluctuations after long time evolution.

  17. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO AIR QUALITY USING IN SITU, SATELLITE, AND MODELED DATA - FOCUSED ON THE FUTURE OF EARTH OBSERVATIONS SYSTEM (EOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA through statutory mandates has monitored air, water, land and human health for the past several decades. The design of the ambient air monitoring networks, for the most part, has been loosely tied single-pollutant networks focused on large urban areas. These networks supply t...

  18. Indirect Lighting--a Matter of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of indirect lighting and the use of high intensity discharge light sources reveal that the most efficient lighting system can also be the most economical. (Author/MLF)

  19. Indirect Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav

    1974-01-01

    When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon indirect ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to indirect ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to indirect induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of indirect ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889

  20. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... general practice in the insurance industry....

  1. NIH Seeks Reduction in "Indirect Costs."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1983-01-01

    The National Institute of Health (NIH) is currently seeking a reduction in indirect costs associated with the awarding of research funds. Various issues related to these costs, which are causing tension between university administrators and academic researchers, are discussed. (JN)

  2. Indirect Costs of Federally Financed Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes how indirect costs, which have been incurred by a school district or an educational agency to support Federally financed projects, may be reimbursed in accordance with 1969 amendments to the ESEA. (JF)

  3. 19 CFR 10.3024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-originating rubber gloves for use by workers in the production of good C. Good C is subject to a tariff shift... to be considered originating, the rubber gloves do not because they are indirect materials and...

  4. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  5. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  6. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  7. 40 CFR 35.940-4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indirect costs. Indirect costs shall be allowable in accordance with an indirect cost agreement negotiated... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940... the same as the actual indirect costs....

  8. 40 CFR 35.940-4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Indirect costs. Indirect costs shall be allowable in accordance with an indirect cost agreement negotiated... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indirect costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940... the same as the actual indirect costs....

  9. 40 CFR 35.940-4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Indirect costs. Indirect costs shall be allowable in accordance with an indirect cost agreement negotiated... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940... the same as the actual indirect costs....

  10. 34 CFR 76.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organizations, at 34 CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have a current indirect cost rate agreement to charge indirect costs to a grant. To obtain an indirect cost rate, a grantee must submit an indirect cost proposal... rates; exceptions. (a) The differences between direct and indirect costs and the principles...

  11. 34 CFR 76.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organizations, at 34 CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have a current indirect cost rate agreement to charge indirect costs to a grant. To obtain an indirect cost rate, a grantee must submit an indirect cost proposal... rates; exceptions. (a) The differences between direct and indirect costs and the principles...

  12. 40 CFR 35.940-4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Indirect costs. Indirect costs shall be allowable in accordance with an indirect cost agreement negotiated... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940... the same as the actual indirect costs....

  13. 48 CFR 2452.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indirect costs. As prescribed in 2442.705-70, insert the following clause in cost-reimbursement type... provisional indirect cost rates pending establishment of final indirect cost rates. Indirect Costs (APR 1984... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs....

  14. 40 CFR 35.940-4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Indirect costs. Indirect costs shall be allowable in accordance with an indirect cost agreement negotiated... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940... the same as the actual indirect costs....

  15. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  16. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Vyšín, Luděk; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Štěpán, Václav; Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Bugler, Beatrix; Legube, Gaelle; Cafarelli, Pierre; Casta, Romain; Champeaux, Jean Philippe; Sence, Martine; Vlk, Martin; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, Sebastien; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Clustered DNA damage induced by 10, 20 and 30 MeV protons in pBR322 plasmid DNA was investigated. Besides determination of strand breaks, additional lesions were detected using base excision repair enzymes. The plasmid was irradiated in dry form, where indirect radiation effects were almost fully suppressed, and in water solution containing only minimal residual radical scavenger. Simultaneous irradiation of the plasmid DNA in the dry form and in the solution demonstrated the contribution of the indirect effect as prevalent. The damage composition slightly differed when comparing the results for liquid and dry samples. The obtained data were also subjected to analysis concerning different methodological approaches, particularly the influence of irradiation geometry, models used for calculation of strand break yields and interpretation of the strand breaks detected with the enzymes. It was shown that these parameters strongly affect the results. PMID:26007308

  17. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. Method A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. Results The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government’s contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Conclusions Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. PMID:25512430

  18. Development of an immunofluorescence focus assay for Ebola virus.

    PubMed Central

    Truant, A L; Regnery, R L; Kiley, M P

    1983-01-01

    A 48-h indirect immunofluorescence focus assay for the quantitation of Ebola virus was developed, utilizing HeLa-229 cell monolayers. The dose dependency and the sensitivity of this assay as compared with conventional assays are reported. This indirect immunofluorescence focus assay can be used as a rapid, quantitative test for the detection of Ebola virus, an agent from Africa known to cause hemorrhagic fever. Images PMID:6352735

  19. The Problems with a "Fact"-Focused Approach in Environmental Communication: The Case of Environmental Risk Information about Tidal Flat Developments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    One of the main approaches used in communicating environmental issues to citizens is conveying "factual" information about a particular environment. However, despite previous research and recommendations made by critical environmental educators, there still seems to be a belief that the more "factual" information one can…

  20. MEETING REPORT OF THE EC/US WORKSHOP ON GENETIC RISK ASSESSMENT: "HUMAN GENETIC RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS, FOCUSING ON THE FEASIBILITY OF A PARALLELOGRAM APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workshop was the concept of Professor Frits Sobels who passed away on the 6th of July, 1993. he underlying idea of the Sobel's parallelogram approach is that an estimate (based on DNA adduct dosimetry) of the genetic damage in human germ cells can be obtained by measuring a ...

  1. Work First. How To Implement an Employment-Focused Approach to Welfare Reform. A How-to Guide. ReWORKing Welfare. Technical Assistance for States and Localities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amy

    This guide, which is intended for planners, administrators, and staff involved in state and local welfare reform efforts, summarizes information about the "work first" approach to welfare reform that was gained from comprehensive evaluations of work first programs and discussions with program managers, practitioners, and participants. The…

  2. A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neman, Robert Lynn

    This study was designed to assess the effects of the problem-oriented method compared to those of the traditional approach in general chemistry at the college level. The problem-oriented course included topics such as air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of…

  3. 48 CFR 242.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 242.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  4. Planar-focusing cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Noonan, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    Conventional {pi}-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and usually requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design. We have proposed a method for performing emittance compensation using a cathode-region focusing scheme. This technique allows the focusing strength to be adjusted somewhat independently of the on-axis field strength. Beam dynamics calculations indicate performance should be comparable to presently in-use emittance compensation schemes, with a simpler configuration and fewer possibilities for emittance degradation due to the focusing optics. There are several potential difficulties with this approach, including cathode material selection, cathode heating, and peak fields in the gun. We hope to begin experimenting with a cathode of this type in the near future, and several possibilities exist for reducing the peak gradients to more acceptable levels.

  5. The Value of Indirect Teaching Strategies in Enhancing Student-Coaches' Learning Engagement.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Isabel; Coutinho, Patrícia; De Martin-Silva, Luciana; Parente, Bruno; Faria, Mário; Afonso, José

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the indirect teaching strategies adopted by a coach educator in terms of promoting student-coaches' engagement in a positive and active learning environment. The participants were an expert coach educator and seven student-coaches from an academic coaching setting. A mix method approach was used to collect data. Whilst video-recording and participant observations were used to collect data from the lessons, focus groups were adopted to recall the perceptions of student-coaches. The results showed that indirect teaching strategies (i.e., asking questions, showing signs of autonomy by monitoring the pace at which they completed tasks and actively engaging in the search for solutions to tasks) implemented by the coach educator promoted a supportive and challenging learning environment which, in turn, encouraged student-coaches to be more actively involved in the lessons. Additionally, the affective aspects of the relationship established with student-coaches (tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, physical contact and humor) led them to feel confident in exposing their doubts and opinions, and in learning in a more autonomous manner. Moreover, the practical lessons proved to be crucial in helping student-coaches to reach broader and deeper forms of understanding by allowing the application of theory to coaching practice. In conclusion, this study reinforces the value of indirect teaching strategies to stimulate an active learning environment. It further highlights the value of practical learning environments to better prepare neophyte coaches for dealing with the complex and dynamic nature of their professional reality. Key pointsBoth instructional and affective teaching indirect strategies used by the coach educator promoted a positive and challenging learning environment to student-coaches.The directness profile used by this coach educator (questioning, giving autonomy for problem solving and responsibility to regulate

  6. The Value of Indirect Teaching Strategies in Enhancing Student-Coaches’ Learning Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Isabel; Coutinho, Patrícia; De Martin-Silva, Luciana; Parente, Bruno; Faria, Mário; Afonso, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the indirect teaching strategies adopted by a coach educator in terms of promoting student-coaches’ engagement in a positive and active learning environment. The participants were an expert coach educator and seven student-coaches from an academic coaching setting. A mix method approach was used to collect data. Whilst video-recording and participant observations were used to collect data from the lessons, focus groups were adopted to recall the perceptions of student-coaches. The results showed that indirect teaching strategies (i.e., asking questions, showing signs of autonomy by monitoring the pace at which they completed tasks and actively engaging in the search for solutions to tasks) implemented by the coach educator promoted a supportive and challenging learning environment which, in turn, encouraged student-coaches to be more actively involved in the lessons. Additionally, the affective aspects of the relationship established with student-coaches (tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, physical contact and humor) led them to feel confident in exposing their doubts and opinions, and in learning in a more autonomous manner. Moreover, the practical lessons proved to be crucial in helping student-coaches to reach broader and deeper forms of understanding by allowing the application of theory to coaching practice. In conclusion, this study reinforces the value of indirect teaching strategies to stimulate an active learning environment. It further highlights the value of practical learning environments to better prepare neophyte coaches for dealing with the complex and dynamic nature of their professional reality. Key points Both instructional and affective teaching indirect strategies used by the coach educator promoted a positive and challenging learning environment to student-coaches. The directness profile used by this coach educator (questioning, giving autonomy for problem solving and responsibility to

  7. The association of personal resilience with stress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: variable- and person-focused approaches.

    PubMed

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Yaptangco, Mona; Semana, Sharla; Buscaino, Emil; Thompson, Valeria; Cochrane, Katie; Tabile, Marissa; Alving, Erin; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the association between personal resilience and distress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in 50 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Resilience was defined by a factor score derived from validated instruments measuring self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem. Variable- and person-focused methodologies were used to explore these associations. Low resilience was associated with higher distress, poor quality of life, and poor glycemic control. Participants with low resilience used more maladaptive coping strategies and were at greatest risk of poor outcomes. Findings suggest that resilience is a promising candidate for interventions designed to reduce distress and improve outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24271691

  8. A Developability-Focused Optimization Approach Allows Identification of in Vivo Fast-Acting Antimalarials: N-[3-[(Benzimidazol-2-yl)amino]propyl]amides.

    PubMed

    Keurulainen, Leena; Vahermo, Mikko; Puente-Felipe, Margarita; Sandoval-Izquierdo, Elena; Crespo-Fernández, Benigno; Guijarro-López, Laura; Huertas-Valentín, Leticia; de las Heras-Dueña, Laura; Leino, Teppo O; Siiskonen, Antti; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Sanz, Laura M; Castañeda-Casado, Pablo; Jiménez-Díaz, M Belén; Martínez-Martínez, María S; Viera, Sara; Kiuru, Paula; Calderón, Félix; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2015-06-11

    Malaria continues to be a major global health problem, being particularly devastating in the African population under the age of five. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line treatment recommended by the WHO to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but clinical resistance against them has already been reported. As a consequence, novel chemotypes are urgently needed. Herein we report a novel, in vivo active, fast-acting antimalarial chemotype based on a benzimidazole core. This discovery is the result of a medicinal chemistry plan focused on improving the developability profile of an antichlamydial chemical class previously reported by our group. PMID:25906200

  9. Approach for simultaneous measurement of two-dimensional angular distribution of charged particles. III. Fine focusing of wide-angle beams in multiple lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Daimon, Hiroshi; Tóth, László; Matsui, Fumihiko

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides a way of focusing wide-angle charged-particle beams in multiple lens systems. In previous papers [H. Matsuda , Phys. Rev. E 71, 066503 (2005); 74, 036501 (2006)], it was shown that an ellipsoidal mesh, combined with electrostatic lenses, enables correction of spherical aberration over wide acceptance angles up to ±60° . In this paper, practical situations where ordinary electron lenses are arranged behind the wide-angle electrostatic lenses are taken into account using ray tracing calculation. For practical realization of the wide-angle lens systems, the acceptance angle is set to ±50° . We note that the output beams of the wide-angle electrostatic lenses have somewhat large divergence angles which cause unacceptable or non-negligible spherical aberration in additional lenses. A solution to this problem is presented showing that lens combinations to cancel spherical aberration are available, whereby wide-angle charged-particle beams can be finely focused with considerably reduced divergence angles less than ±5° .

  10. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Farinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  11. Automatic estimation of point-spread-function for deconvoluting out-of-focus optical coherence tomographic images using information entropy-based approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhong; Yousefi, Siavash; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2011-09-12

    This paper proposes an automatic point spread function (PSF) estimation method to de-blur out-of-focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The method utilizes Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to deconvolve noisy defocused images with a family of Gaussian PSFs with different beam spot sizes. Then, the best beam spot size is automatically estimated based on the discontinuity of information entropy of recovered images. Therefore, it is not required a prior knowledge of the parameters or PSF of OCT system for de-convoluting image. The model does not account for the diffraction and the coherent scattering of light by the sample. A series of experiments are performed on digital phantoms, a custom-built phantom doped with microspheres, fresh onion as well as the human fingertip in vivo to show the performance of the proposed method. The method may also be useful in combining with other deconvolution algorithms for PSF estimation and image recovery. PMID:21935179

  12. Automatic estimation of point-spread-function for deconvoluting out-of-focus optical coherence tomographic images using information entropy-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guozhong; Yousefi, Siavash; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic point spread function (PSF) estimation method to de-blur out-of-focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The method utilizes Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to deconvolve noisy defocused images with a family of Gaussian PSFs with different beam spot sizes. Then, the best beam spot size is automatically estimated based on the discontinuity of information entropy of recovered images. Therefore, it is not required a prior knowledge of the parameters or PSF of OCT system for de-convoluting image. The model does not account for the diffraction and the coherent scattering of light by the sample. A series of experiments are performed on digital phantoms, a custom-built phantom doped with microspheres, fresh onion as well as the human fingertip in vivo to show the performance of the proposed method. The method may also be useful in combining with other deconvolution algorithms for PSF estimation and image recovery. PMID:21935179

  13. A hierarchic approach to examining panArctic vegetation with a focus on the linkages between remote sensing and plot-based studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Alsos, I. G.; Bhatt, U. S.; Breen, A. L.; Buchhorn, M.; Bültmann, H.; Edwards, M. E.; Ehrich, D.; Epstein, H. E.; Gould, W. A.; Ims, R. A.; Meltofte, H.; Murray, D. F.; Raynolds, M. K.; Talbot, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    A circumpolar view of Arctic vegetation developed with the advent of satellite-derived remote-sensing products. Interpretations of what the revealed patterns mean are dependent on a foundation of in-situ plot-based observations. Despite the importance of ground-based observations, only a few areas have been intensively sampled and mapped, mainly in the vicinity of permanent Arctic observatories. Much of the information is project specific and is based on sampling protocols that are difficult to compare across sites. Here, we demonstrate a more consistent multi-level hierarchic approach for vegetation description and analysis at the Toolik Lake Field Station, Alaska. We advocate for a well-coordinated, interdisciplinary network of vegetation observation stations. Key recommendations include: (1) Complete local floras for many more areas in than presently exist. Species names should be standardized using the Pan-Arctic Flora. (2) Permanently marked and replicated vegetation monitoring plots in the full range of habitats at each station. Methods of establishing and monitoring the plots should include consistent internationally accepted standards for vegetation data collection, vegetation classification, plot markings, and standardized approaches to describe the local environment, including photo points showing the vegetation and soils up close and in landscape view. (3) Standardized approaches for collecting in-situ time-series of spectral data. Standardized methods for collecting and analyzing phytomass data are especially needed. (4) Interdisciplinary studies. Vegetation observations should be conducted in concert with observations of soils, permafrost, animals and ecosystem processes at the same plots. (5) Periodic (perhaps every 5-10 years) ground-based surveys. These should include surveys of species composition, canopy structure, biomass, leaf-area index, and NDVI, along with high-resolution satellite-based remote-sensing products at the same time.

  14. Household Health Costs: Direct, Indirect and Intangible

    PubMed Central

    YOUSEFI, Mehdi; ASSARI ARANI, Abbas; SAHABI, Bahram; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoshirvan; FAZAELI, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed at identifying components of the household health costs. Methods This study was a qualitative research conducted in two main phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. They were to identify components of the household health costs. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, indirect and intangible based on a content analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, 93 components of households’ health costs were identified. According to the content analysis, 44 components were categorized as direct costs, 10 components were indirect and 39 components were categorized as intangible. Conclusion All components of households’ health costs including: direct, indirect and intangible costs, should be considered in the planning and policy-making in the health system. PMID:26060744

  15. Positive indirect interactions between neighboring plant species via a lizard pollinator.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dennis M; Kiesbüy, Heine C; Jones, Carl G; Müller, Christine B

    2007-04-01

    In natural communities, species are embedded in networks of direct and indirect interactions. Most studies on indirect interactions have focused on how they affect predator-prey or competitive relationships. However, it is equally likely that indirect interactions play an important structuring role in mutualistic relationships in a natural community. We demonstrate experimentally that on a small spatial scale, dense thickets of endemic Pandanus plants have a strong positive trait-mediated indirect effect on the reproduction of the declining endemic Mauritian plant Trochetia blackburniana. This effect is mediated by the endemic gecko Phelsuma cepediana moving between Pandanus thickets, a preferred microhabitat, and nearby T. blackburniana plants, where it feeds on nectar and pollinates the plants. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering plant-animal interactions such as pollination at relatively small spatial scales in both basic ecological studies and applied conservation management. PMID:17262697

  16. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    PubMed

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. PMID:26301728

  17. A risk-based focused decision-management approach for justifying characterization of Hanford tank waste. June 1996, Revision 1; April 1997, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, S.D.; Gephart, R.E.; Hunter, V.L.; Janata, J.; Morgan, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes a disciplined, risk-based decision-making approach for determining characterization needs and resolving safety issues during the storage and remediation of radioactive waste stored in Hanford tanks. The strategy recommended uses interactive problem evaluation and decision analysis methods commonly used in industry to solve problems under conditions of uncertainty (i.e., lack of perfect knowledge). It acknowledges that problem resolution comes through both the application of high-quality science and human decisions based upon preferences and sometimes hard-to-compare choices. It recognizes that to firmly resolve a safety problem, the controlling waste characteristics and chemical phenomena must be measurable or estimated to an acceptable level of confidence tailored to the decision being made.

  18. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Dynamics of Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Trubenová, Barbora; Novak, Sebastian; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Background Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) occur when genes expressed in one individual alter the expression of traits in social partners. Previous studies focused on the evolutionary consequences and evolutionary dynamics of IGEs, using equilibrium solutions to predict phenotypes in subsequent generations. However, whether or not such steady states may be reached may depend on the dynamics of interactions themselves. Results In our study, we focus on the dynamics of social interactions and indirect genetic effects and investigate how they modify phenotypes over time. Unlike previous IGE studies, we do not analyse evolutionary dynamics; rather we consider within-individual phenotypic changes, also referred to as phenotypic plasticity. We analyse iterative interactions, when individuals interact in a series of discontinuous events, and investigate the stability of steady state solutions and the dependence on model parameters, such as population size, strength, and the nature of interactions. We show that for interactions where a feedback loop occurs, the possible parameter space of interaction strength is fairly limited, affecting the evolutionary consequences of IGEs. We discuss the implications of our results for current IGE model predictions and their limitations. PMID:25993124

  19. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. PMID:24894063

  20. A focused ion beam milling and lift-out approach for site-specific preparation of frozen-hydrated lamellas from multicellular organisms.

    PubMed

    Mahamid, Julia; Schampers, Ruud; Persoon, Hans; Hyman, Anthony A; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2015-11-01

    Cryo-electron tomography provides 3D views of cellular architecture with molecular resolution. A principal limitation of cryo-transmission electron microscopy performed on cells or tissues is the accessible specimen thickness. Recently it has been shown that cryo-focused ion beam milling of plunge-frozen eukaryotic cells can produce homogeneously thin, distortion free lamellas for cryo-electron tomography. Multicellular organisms and tissue cannot be properly vitrified and thinned using this technique because they are considerably thicker. High pressure freezing is therefore necessary to provide optimal preservation. Here, we describe a workflow for preparing lamellas from Caenorhabditis elegans worms using cryo-FIB applied to high pressure frozen samples. We employ cryo-planing followed by correlative cryo-fluorescence microscopy to navigate this large multicellular volume and to localize specific targets within. To produce vitreous lamellas amenable to cryo-TEM observations at these targeted locations, we have developed a dedicated lift-out procedure at cryogenic temperature. PMID:26216184

  1. Using feminist, emotion-focused, and developmental approaches to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jacqueline N

    2008-06-01

    A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique from sexual assault in adulthood are described, specifically its disruption of normal childhood development, its impact on attachment style and interpersonal relationships, its inescapability, and the stigma attached to it. Then, drawing on the developmental, emotion-focused, and feminist literatures, a number of considerations that would enhance the application of cognitive- behavioral trauma therapies to the treatment of women with PTSD related to CSA are delineated. These considerations relate to providing clients with corrective interpersonal experiences, creating new relationship events, enhancing affect regulation skills before initiating exposure therapy, considering the time elapsed since the abuse, addressing themes of power, betrayal, self-blame, stigma, and sex-related cognitions and emotions, and helping clients develop a feminist consciousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122419

  2. Indirect Fourier transform in the context of statistical inference.

    PubMed

    Muthig, Michael; Prévost, Sylvain; Orglmeister, Reinhold; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Inferring structural information from the intensity of a small-angle scattering (SAS) experiment is an ill-posed inverse problem. Thus, the determination of a solution is in general non-trivial. In this work, the indirect Fourier transform (IFT), which determines the pair distance distribution function from the intensity and hence yields structural information, is discussed within two different statistical inference approaches, namely a frequentist one and a Bayesian one, in order to determine a solution objectively From the frequentist approach the cross-validation method is obtained as a good practical objective function for selecting an IFT solution. Moreover, modern machine learning methods are employed to suppress oscillatory behaviour of the solution, hence extracting only meaningful features of the solution. By comparing the results yielded by the different methods presented here, the reliability of the outcome can be improved and thus the approach should enable more reliable information to be deduced from SAS experiments. PMID:27580204

  3. Rapid indirect trajectory optimization on highly parallel computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Thomas

    Trajectory optimization is a field which can benefit greatly from the advantages offered by parallel computing. The current state-of-the-art in trajectory optimization focuses on the use of direct optimization methods, such as the pseudo-spectral method. These methods are favored due to their ease of implementation and large convergence regions while indirect methods have largely been ignored in the literature in the past decade except for specific applications in astrodynamics. It has been shown that the shortcomings conventionally associated with indirect methods can be overcome by the use of a continuation method in which complex trajectory solutions are obtained by solving a sequence of progressively difficult optimization problems. High performance computing hardware is trending towards more parallel architectures as opposed to powerful single-core processors. Graphics Processing Units (GPU), which were originally developed for 3D graphics rendering have gained popularity in the past decade as high-performance, programmable parallel processors. The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework, a parallel computing architecture and programming model developed by NVIDIA, is one of the most widely used platforms in GPU computing. GPUs have been applied to a wide range of fields that require the solution of complex, computationally demanding problems. A GPU-accelerated indirect trajectory optimization methodology which uses the multiple shooting method and continuation is developed using the CUDA platform. The various algorithmic optimizations used to exploit the parallelism inherent in the indirect shooting method are described. The resulting rapid optimal control framework enables the construction of high quality optimal trajectories that satisfy problem-specific constraints and fully satisfy the necessary conditions of optimality. The benefits of the framework are highlighted by construction of maximum terminal velocity trajectories for a hypothetical

  4. A Focused Transport Approach to SEP acceleration at a Fast Parallel Shock in the Corona Including Self-excitation of Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    It has been argued that the acceleration of SEPS at a quasi-parallel CME-driven shock to GeV energies in the corona only occurs if strong wave-excitation by SEPs ahead of the shock reduces the parallel mean free path upstream, thus boosting the rate of diffusive shock acceleration. To investigate this issue, we modeled SEP acceleration at a fast parallel traveling shock in the corona with an existing time-dependent focused transport model. The model has been expanded recently to also feature time-dependent self-excitation and damping of Alfvén waves by SEP anisotropies ahead of the shock based on standard quasi-linear theory. Alfvén wave propagation near the traveling shock is modeled based on standard theory for wave transport in a slowly varying non-uniform plasma medium. Preliminary results will be shown to illustrate the increase in wave power driven by SEP anisotropies upstream, the effect of the shock wave in shortening the wave length and increasing the wave amplitude of Alfvén waves, and the associated acceleration of SEPs by 1st order Fermi acceleration to high energies. The role of the acceleration of the cross-shock solar wind flow, which was found to create a downstream population of shock pre-heated particles which forms an additional source for injection into 1st order Fermi acceleration, will be discussed in terms of how it affects self-excitation of Alfvén waves and the formation of high-energy SEPs by 1st order Fermi acceleration.

  5. 48 CFR 342.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 342.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) The Division of Cost Allocation, PSC, shall establish indirect cost rates, research patient care rates, and,...

  6. 2 CFR 200.19 - Cognizant agency for indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cognizant agency for indirect costs. 200.19... for indirect costs. Cognizant agency for indirect costs means the Federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals developed under...

  7. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... indirect costs shall be obtained by applying final indirect cost rates established in accordance with the Allowable Cost and Payment clause. (g) Allowable indirect costs for the period from the beginning of... clause of this contract, the allowable indirect costs under this contract shall be obtained by...

  8. 48 CFR 842.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... settlement of indirect costs for a specific contract. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 842.705 Final indirect cost...

  9. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... indirect costs shall be obtained by applying final indirect cost rates established in accordance with the Allowable Cost and Payment clause. (g) Allowable indirect costs for the period from the beginning of... clause of this contract, the allowable indirect costs under this contract shall be obtained by...

  10. 48 CFR 1542.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) The... shall be required to negotiate final indirect cost rates. (b) Contracting officers shall insert...

  11. 48 CFR 3442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 3442.705 Final indirect cost rates... establish final indirect cost rates under FAR 42.705-1 and 42.705-2....

  12. 48 CFR 842.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... settlement of indirect costs for a specific contract. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 842.705 Final indirect cost...

  13. 48 CFR 842.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... settlement of indirect costs for a specific contract. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 842.705 Final indirect cost...

  14. 48 CFR 42.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) Final indirect cost rates shall be established on the basis of— (1) Contracting...

  15. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... indirect costs shall be obtained by applying final indirect cost rates established in accordance with the Allowable Cost and Payment clause. (g) Allowable indirect costs for the period from the beginning of... clause of this contract, the allowable indirect costs under this contract shall be obtained by...

  16. 48 CFR 42.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) Final indirect cost rates shall be established on the basis of— (1) Contracting...

  17. 48 CFR 842.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... settlement of indirect costs for a specific contract. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 842.705 Final indirect cost...

  18. 48 CFR 1542.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) The... shall be required to negotiate final indirect cost rates. (b) Contracting officers shall insert...

  19. 2 CFR 200.414 - Indirect (F&A) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... indirect costs. If an extension is granted the non-Federal entity may not request a rate review until the... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles Direct and Indirect (f&a) Costs § 200.414 Indirect (F&A) costs... the types of cost which may be classified as indirect (F&A) cost in all situations....

  20. Rationale for a Pediatric-Inspired Approach in the Adolescent and Young Adult Population with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, with a Focus on Asparaginase Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Putti, Maria Caterina; Colombini, Antonella; Casagranda, Sara; Ferrari, Giulia Maria; Papayannidis, Cristina; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Abbenante, Maria Chiara; Sartor, Chiara; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades great improvements have been made in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with 5-year overall survival rates currently approaching almost 90%. In comparison, results reported in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are relatively poor. In adults, results have improved, but are still lagging behind those obtained in children. Possible reasons for this different pattern of results include an increased incidence of unfavorable and a decreased incidence of favorable cytogenetic abnormalities in AYAs compared with children. Furthermore, in AYAs less intensive treatments (especially lower cumulative doses of drugs such as asparaginase, corticosteroids and methotrexate) and longer gaps between courses of chemotherapy are planned compared to those in children. However, although favorable results obtained in AYAs receiving pediatric protocols have been consistently reported in several international collaborative trials, physicians must also be aware of the specific toxicity pattern associated with increased success in AYAs, since an excess of toxicity may compromise overall treatment schedule intensity. Cooperative efforts between pediatric and adult hematologists in designing specific protocols for AYAs are warranted. PMID:25317319

  1. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Banu, A.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.

    2010-08-12

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  2. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  3. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203...

  4. 48 CFR 2131.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect costs. 2131.203 Section 2131.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT...

  5. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  6. 48 CFR 2131.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs. 2131.203 Section 2131.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT...

  7. Indirect Costs: Daily Bread, Cake, or Cracker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The tradition of negotiating indirect costs in grants should be abandoned, and research administrators should instead offer different levels of service depending on what the sponsor wants to spend. Three levels of overhead rate are suggested (super, regular, and economy) and their corresponding levels of service are defined. (MSE)

  8. 24 CFR 576.109 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect costs. 576.109 Section 576.109 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES...

  9. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout §...

  10. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  11. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  12. 48 CFR 2131.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs. 2131.203 Section 2131.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT...

  13. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  14. 48 CFR 2131.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs. 2131.203 Section 2131.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT...

  15. 48 CFR 2131.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect costs. 2131.203 Section 2131.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT...

  16. Model Intercomparison of Indirect Aerosol Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, J. E.; Quaas, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Takemura, T.; Boucher, O.; Guo, H.; Kirkevag, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Seland, O.

    2006-01-01

    Modeled differences in predicted effects are increasingly used to help quantify the uncertainty of these effects. Here, we examine modeled differences in the aerosol indirect effect in a series of experiments that help to quantify how and why model-predicted aerosol indirect forcing varies between models. The experiments start with an experiment in which aerosol concentrations, the parameterization of droplet concentrations and the autoconversion scheme are all specified and end with an experiment that examines the predicted aerosol indirect forcing when only aerosol sources are specified. Although there are large differences in the predicted liquid water path among the models, the predicted aerosol first indirect effect for the first experiment is rather similar, about -0.6 W/sq m to -0.7 W/sq m. Changes to the autoconversion scheme can lead to large changes in the liquid water path of the models and to the response of the liquid water path to changes in aerosols. Adding an autoconversion scheme that depends on the droplet concentration caused a larger (negative) change in net outgoing shortwave radiation compared to the 1st indirect effect, and the increase varied from only 22% to more than a factor of three. The change in net shortwave forcing in the models due to varying the autoconversion scheme depends on the liquid water content of the clouds as well as their predicted droplet concentrations, and both increases and decreases in the net shortwave forcing can occur when autoconversion schemes are changed. The parameterization of cloud fraction within models is not sensitive to the aerosol concentration, and, therefore, the response of the modeled cloud fraction within the present models appears to be smaller than that which would be associated with model "noise". The prediction of aerosol concentrations, given a fixed set of sources, leads to some of the largest differences in the predicted aerosol indirect radiative forcing among the models, with values of

  17. A novel model evaluation approach focusing on local and advected contributions to urban PM2.5 levels - application to Paris, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Sciare, J.; Bressi, M.; Rosso, A.; Sanchez, O.; Ghersi, V.

    2014-07-01

    Aerosol simulations in chemistry transport models (CTMs) still suffer from numerous uncertainties, and diagnostic evaluations are required to point out major error sources. This paper presents an original approach to evaluate CTMs based on local and imported contributions in a large megacity rather than urban background concentrations. The study is applied to the CHIMERE model in the Paris region (France) and considers the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its main chemical constituents (elemental and organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium), for which daily measurements are available during a whole year at various stations (PARTICULES project). Back-trajectory data are used to locate the upwind station, from which the concentration is identified as the import, the local production being deduced from the urban concentration by subtraction. Uncertainties on these contributions are quantified. Small biases in urban background PM2.5 simulations (bias of +16%) hide significant error compensations between local and advected contributions, as well as in PM2.5 chemical compounds. In particular, winter time organic matter (OM) imports appear strongly underestimated while local OM and elemental carbon (EC) production is overestimated all along the year. Erroneous continental wood burning emissions and missing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) pathways may explain errors on advected OM, while the carbonaceous compounds is likely to be related to errors in emissions and dynamics. A statistically significant local formation of nitrate is also highlighted from observations, but missed by the model. Together with the overestimation of nitrate imports, it leads to a bias of +51% on the local PM2.5 contribution. Such an evaluation finally gives more detailed insights on major gaps in current CTMs on which future efforts are needed.

  18. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599

  19. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599

  20. Digital focusing schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Trolinger, James D.; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Since its invention in the 19th century, schlieren imaging has been an essential method for studying many aerodynamic effects, particularly convection and shock waves, but the classical method using parabolic mirrors is extremely difficult to set up and very expensive for large fields of view. Focusing schlieren methods have made large- area schlieren more feasible but have tended to be difficult to align and set up, limiting their utility in many applications We recently developed an alternative approach which utilizes recent advances in digital display technology to produce simpler schlieren system that yields similar sensitivity with greater flexibility.

  1. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  2. Accounting for the Full Cost of Research. A Study of Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiches, James J.; Vallely, Rebecca

    Faculty and administrative concern over the rising indirect cost rates at Cornell University (New York) precipitated this study, focusing on research funding and the expenses not easily identifiable with specific projects. Some of the questions addressed include: what are the costs, who pays for them, and which arrangements, policies,…

  3. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instruction on Fostering Decision-Making Competence in Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effects of different learning environments on the promotion of decision-making competence for the socioscientific issue of genetically modified crops is investigated. The comparison focuses on direct vs. indirect instructions. Therefore on the one hand a sophisticated decision-making strategy was presented to the directly…

  4. [Direct and indirect mucosal wave imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska, Paulina; Szkiełkowska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    The vocal folds play a key role in the process of phonation. Cyclical movements of the vocal folds model a space called glottis, what leads to voice formation. The space contains surface between the vocal folds and the inner surface of the arytenoid cartilages. The best indicator of the vocal folds vibratory function is the mucosal wave. The presence and size of the mucosal wave is widely recognized as an indicator of tension and plasticity of vocal folds. It is also essential in the process of creating a proper, resonant voice. In the article, current knowledge of mucosal wave imaging techniques is given. Imaging can be carried out directly and indirectly. Among the direct methods, the following are distinguished: laryngostroboscopy, laryngovideostroboscopy, videokymography and high-speed digital imaging. Indirect methods include: electroglottography, photoglottography and ultrasonography. PMID:27137829

  5. Scalar dark matter: direct vs. indirect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Michael; Pérez, Pavel Fileviez; Smirnov, Juri

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 92 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.

  6. Indirect Acquisition of Information in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Fraas, M.; Fröhlich, J.; Schubnel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Long sequences of successive direct (projective) measurements or observations of just a few "uninteresting" physical quantities pertaining to a quantum system, such as clicks of some detectors, may reveal indirect, but precise and unambiguous information on the values of some very "interesting" observables of the system. In this paper, the mathematics underlying this claim is developed; i.e., we attempt to contribute to a mathematical theory of indirect and, in particular, non-demolition observations and measurements in quantum mechanics. Our attempt leads us to make some novel uses of classical notions and results of probability theory, such as the "algebra of functions measurable at infinity", the Central Limit Theorem, results concerning relative entropy and its role in the theory of large deviations, etc.

  7. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France. PMID:19671436

  8. Indirect techniques for astrophysical reaction rates determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, F.; Oulebsir, N.; Benamara, S.; De Séréville, N.; Coc, A.; Laird, A.; Stefan, I.; Roussel, P.

    2016-05-01

    Direct measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest can be challenging. Alternative experimental techniques such as transfer reactions and inelastic scattering reactions offer the possibility to study these reactions by using stable beams. In this context, I will present recent results that were obtained in Orsay using indirect techniques. The examples will concern various astrophysical sites, from the Big-Bang nucleo synthesis to the production of radioisotopes in massive stars.

  9. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  10. A portable monocular indirect ophthalmoscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Sislowitz, M J

    1975-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and portable method of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is used as the physician's examining eye is aligned in the axis of the patient's eye, a flashlight is held against the examiner's malar area beneath the dominant eye, and the beam of the flashlight is directed to the patient's eye. A plus 30 lens is then interposed 1 or 2 inches in front of the patient's eye and the fundus viewed. PMID:1110195

  11. Indirect hemagglutination test for chlamydial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V J; Thacker, W L; Engelman, H M

    1972-07-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test is described for chlamydial antibodies in psittacosis diagnostic sera; for this test tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with a deoxycholate extract of Chlamydia psittaci grown in Vero cell monolayers were used. Adaptation of the IHA test to the Microtiter system decreased sensitivity; nevertheless, the Microtiter-IHA test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Lymphogranuloma venereum antibodies also were detected by using antigen extracted from C. psittaci. PMID:4626906

  12. The true cost of cardiovascular imaging: focusing on downstream, indirect, and environmental costs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more realistic assessment of costs, herein named “true” costs, the extra-cancer from medical radiation, environmental damage from imaging paraphernalia and radioactive wastes must be included as long-term costs from imaging examinations. It is urgent to define the “true” costs across imaging modalities as it interferes on physicians’ decision to request an exam and on research projects such as cost-effectiveness analysis. Cardiology is the specialty that most will benefit from the outcome as cardiovascular exams represent almost 30% of the total exams acquired annually worldwide. PMID:23594829

  13. The true cost of cardiovascular imaging: focusing on downstream, indirect, and environmental costs.

    PubMed

    Braga, Larissa; Vinci, Bruna; Leo, Carlo G; Picano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more realistic assessment of costs, herein named "true" costs, the extra-cancer from medical radiation, environmental damage from imaging paraphernalia and radioactive wastes must be included as long-term costs from imaging examinations. It is urgent to define the "true" costs across imaging modalities as it interferes on physicians' decision to request an exam and on research projects such as cost-effectiveness analysis. Cardiology is the specialty that most will benefit from the outcome as cardiovascular exams represent almost 30% of the total exams acquired annually worldwide. PMID:23594829

  14. Mexican Indirection: How To Help Mexican ESL Writers Channel Their Energies into Focused Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransdell, D. R.

    The fact that a writer's culture influences the composing style is undeniable. Spanish speakers writing in English often allow their points to "leap around," perhaps constituting a pattern the instructor does not see. In "Beyond Culture," Edward Hall explains that cultures operate under either "monochronic" or "polychronic" time. In the…

  15. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  16. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such “indirect defenses” can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation. PMID:19704500

  17. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Gusnard, Debra A.; Bandak, Stephen I.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine A2a receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A2a antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose-finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion MRI study of the novel adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally-focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21123574

  18. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were

  19. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kathryn E.; David, Raymond M.; Guinn, Richard; Kramarz, Kurt W.; Lampi, Mark A.; Staples, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are potentially exposed to phthalate esters (PEs) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Studies quantifying exposure to PEs include “biomarker studies” and “indirect studies.” Biomarker studies use measurements of PE metabolites in urine to back-calculate exposure to the parent diester, while indirect studies use the concentration of the PE in each medium of exposure and the rate of intake of that medium to quantify intake of the PE. In this review, exposure estimates from biomarker and indirect studies are compiled and compared for seven PEs to determine if there are regional differences and if there is a preferred approach. The indirect and biomarker methods generally agree with each other within an order of magnitude and discrepancies are explained by difficulties in accounting for use of consumer products, uncertainty concerning absorption, regional differences, and temporal changes. No single method is preferred for estimating intake of all PEs; it is suggested that biomarker estimates be used for low molecular weight PEs for which it is difficult to quantify all sources of exposure and either indirect or biomarker methods be used for higher molecular weight PEs. The indirect methods are useful in identifying sources of exposure while the biomarker methods quantify exposure. PMID:23087593

  20. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  1. The Unfocused Focus Group: Benefit or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…

  2. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    PubMed

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  3. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Giraldez, E.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moody, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Widmayer, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  4. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  5. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach. PMID:25150677

  6. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  7. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  8. Indirect Interactions in the High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  9. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  10. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  11. Quantitative results from the focusing schlieren technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. P.; Chokani, Ndaona

    1993-01-01

    An iterative theoretical approach to obtain quantitative density data from the focusing schlieren technique is proposed. The approach is based on an approximate modeling of the focusing action in a focusing schlieren system, and an estimation of an appropriate focal plane thickness. The theoretical approach is incorporated in a computer program, and results obtained from a supersonic wind tunnel experiment evaluated by comparison with CFD data. The density distributions compared favorably with CFD predictions. However, improvements to the system are required in order to reduce noise in the data, to improve specifications of a depth of focus, and to refine the modeling of the focusing action.

  12. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  13. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. 742.770 Section 742.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. Except for...

  14. 34 CFR 303.225 - Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and 34 CFR part 76 of EDGAR. (3) In charging indirect costs under paragraph (c)(2)(i) and (c)(2)(ii... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs. 303... Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs. (a) Each application must provide satisfactory assurance...

  15. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Indirect costs. As prescribed in 1542.705-70, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement type... Government representative. Pursuant to the “Allowable Cost and Payment” clause, the allowable indirect costs... account of indirect costs in excess of the ceiling rates listed below: Cost center Period Rate Base...

  16. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Payment of indirect costs to State Cooperative Institutions in connection with non-assistance cooperative... of indirect costs to non-profit institutions in connection with USDA cooperative agreement, under the... organizations. With the exception of paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, payment of indirect costs...

  17. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  18. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Payment of indirect costs to State Cooperative Institutions in connection with non-assistance cooperative... of indirect costs to non-profit institutions in connection with USDA cooperative agreement, under the... organizations. With the exception of paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, payment of indirect costs...

  19. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Payment of indirect costs to State Cooperative Institutions in connection with non-assistance cooperative... of indirect costs to non-profit institutions in connection with USDA cooperative agreement, under the... organizations. With the exception of paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, payment of indirect costs...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Indirect costs. As prescribed in 1542.705-70, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement type... Government representative. Pursuant to the “Allowable Cost and Payment” clause, the allowable indirect costs... account of indirect costs in excess of the ceiling rates listed below: Cost center Period Rate Base...

  1. 48 CFR 2442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final indirect cost rates. 2442.705 Section 2442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 2442.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  2. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific/technical meetings will not include payment for indirect costs. ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16...

  3. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  4. 34 CFR 303.225 - Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs. 303.225... against supplanting; indirect costs. (a) Each application must provide satisfactory assurance that the... charge indirect costs to its part C grant. (2) If approved by the lead agency's cognizant Federal...

  5. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific/technical meetings will not include payment for indirect costs. ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16...

  6. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certificate of indirect costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs. The designee authorized to waive...

  7. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Terminated for Convenience 49.303-4 Adjustment of indirect costs. (a) If the contract contains the clause at 52.216-7, Allowable Cost and Payment, and it appears that adjustment of indirect costs will unduly... agree with the contractor to— (1) Negotiate the amount of indirect costs for the contract period...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government representative. Pursuant to the “Allowable Cost and Payment” clause, the allowable indirect costs... account of indirect costs in excess of the ceiling rates listed below: Cost center Period Rate Base (End... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs....

  9. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific/technical meetings will not include payment for indirect costs. ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16...

  10. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  11. 34 CFR 303.225 - Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and 34 CFR part 76 of EDGAR. (3) In charging indirect costs under paragraph (c)(2)(i) and (c)(2)(ii... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs. 303... Prohibition against supplanting; indirect costs. (a) Each application must provide satisfactory assurance...

  12. 48 CFR 2442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 2442.705 Section 2442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 2442.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  13. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Terminated for Convenience 49.303-4 Adjustment of indirect costs. (a) If the contract contains the clause at 52.216-7, Allowable Cost and Payment, and it appears that adjustment of indirect costs will unduly... agree with the contractor to— (1) Negotiate the amount of indirect costs for the contract period...

  14. Indirect Costs: The Past, Present, and a Possible Institutional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyblut, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations concerning recovery of indirect costs of university research projects are changing. Institutions should explore possible alternatives for managing reporting of indirect costs for individual projects. One system, reporting indirect cost categories in the same format as direct costs, may give insight into expenditures and help…

  15. 48 CFR 2442.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 2442.705 Section 2442.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 2442.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  16. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific/technical meetings will not include payment for indirect costs. ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16...

  17. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Indirect costs. As prescribed in 1542.705-70, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement type... Government representative. Pursuant to the “Allowable Cost and Payment” clause, the allowable indirect costs... account of indirect costs in excess of the ceiling rates listed below: Cost center Period Rate Base...

  18. 48 CFR 1342.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs. 1342.703-2 Section 1342.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1342.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs... indirect cost rates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  19. 7 CFR 550.14 - Indirect cost/tuition remission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Payment of indirect costs to State Cooperative Institutions in connection with non-assistance cooperative... of indirect costs to non-profit institutions in connection with USDA cooperative agreement, under the... organizations. With the exception of paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, payment of indirect costs...

  20. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific/technical meetings will not include payment for indirect costs. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16...

  1. 48 CFR 942.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 942.705 Section 942.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.705 Final indirect cost rates....

  2. 48 CFR 952.216-15 - Predetermined indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Predetermined indirect cost rates. Alternate (AUG 2009): As prescribed in 916.307(g), modify paragraph (c) of the clause at FAR 52.216-15, Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates, by deleting the words “Subpart 31.4... and predetermined indirect cost rates are to be used....

  3. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Terminated for Convenience 49.303-4 Adjustment of indirect costs. (a) If the contract contains the clause at 52.216-7, Allowable Cost and Payment, and it appears that adjustment of indirect costs will unduly... agree with the contractor to— (1) Negotiate the amount of indirect costs for the contract period...

  4. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Indirect costs. As prescribed in 1542.705-70, insert the following clause in all cost-reimbursement type... Government representative. Pursuant to the “Allowable Cost and Payment” clause, the allowable indirect costs... account of indirect costs in excess of the ceiling rates listed below: Cost center Period Rate Base...

  5. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or indirectly by...

  6. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or indirectly by...

  7. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or indirectly by...

  8. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or indirectly by...

  9. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be considered to be a citizen or national of a foreign country, or controlled directly or indirectly by...

  10. 48 CFR 42.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certificate of indirect costs. 42.703-2 Section 42.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs. (a) General. In...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3640 Section 870.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker...

  16. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.561 Approval of indirect cost rates. (a) If the Department...

  17. 34 CFR 76.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 76.561 Section 76.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.561 Approval of indirect cost...

  18. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.561 Approval of indirect cost rates. (a) If the Department...

  19. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.561 Approval of indirect cost rates. (a) If the Department...

  20. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.561 Approval of indirect cost rates. (a) If the Department...