Science.gov

Sample records for indirect detection experiments

  1. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  2. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The growth of microorganisms in a sample is detected and monitored by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium and detecting a change in potential between two electrodes, separated from the microbial growth by a barrier which is permeable to charged paticles but microorganism impermeable.

  3. Indirect electroanalytical detection of phenols.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-05-01

    A novel indirect electrochemical protocol for the electroanalytical detection of phenols is presented for the first time. This methodology is demonstrated with the indirect determination of the target analytes phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through an electrochemically adapted optical protocol. This electrochemical adaptation allows the determination of the above mentioned phenols without the use of any oxidising agents, as is the case in the optical method, where pyrazoline compounds (mediators) chemically react with the target phenols forming a quinoneimine product which is electrochemically active providing an indirect analytical signal to measure the target phenol(s). A range of commercially available pyrazoline substitution products, namely 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, antipyrine, 3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one, 3-amino-1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-Pyrazolin-5-one, 4-amino-1,2-dimethyl-3-pentadecyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride, 3-amino-1-(2-amino-4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride and 4-aminoantipyrine are evaluated as mediators for the indirect detection of phenols. The indirect electrochemical detection of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through the use of 4-aminoantipyrine as a mediator are successfully determined in drinking water samples at analytically useful levels. Finally, the comparison of the direct (no mediator) and the proposed indirect determination (with 4-aminoantipyrine) towards the analytical detection of the target phenols in drinking water is presented. The limitation of the proposed electroanalytical protocol is quantified for all the four target phenols. PMID:25771897

  4. Cosmic Ray Experiments and the Implications for Indirect Detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of cosmic-ray antiprotons was first reported by Golden et al. in 1979 and their existence was firmly established by the BESS and IMAX collaborations in the early 1990s. Increasingly precise measurements of the antiproton spectrum, most recently from BESS-Polar and PAMELA, have made it an important tool for investigating cosmic-ray transport in the galaxy and heliosphere and for constraining dark-matter models. The history of antiproton measurements will be briefly reviewed. The current status will be discussed, focusing on the results of BESS-Polar II and their implications for the possibility of antiprotons from primordial black hole evaporation. The current results of the BESS-Polar II antihelium search are also presented.

  5. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  6. Scalar dark matter: direct vs. indirect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Michael; Pérez, Pavel Fileviez; Smirnov, Juri

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 92 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.

  7. Deducing the nature of dark matter from direct and indirect detection experiments in the absence of collider signatures of new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, Maria; Hooper, Dan; Kolb, Edward W.; Krusberg, Zosia A. C.

    2009-08-15

    Despite compelling arguments that significant discoveries of physics beyond the standard model are likely to be made at the Large Hadron Collider, it remains possible that this machine will make no such discoveries, or will make no discoveries directly relevant to the dark matter problem. In this article, we study the ability of astrophysical experiments to deduce the nature of dark matter in such a scenario. In most dark matter studies, the relic abundance and detection prospects are evaluated within the context of some specific particle physics model or models (e.g., supersymmetry). Here, assuming a single weakly interacting massive particle constitutes the Universe's dark matter, we attempt to develop a model-independent approach toward the phenomenology of such particles in the absence of any discoveries at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we consider generic fermionic or scalar dark matter particles with a variety of interaction forms, and calculate the corresponding constraints from and sensitivity of direct and indirect detection experiments. The results may provide some guidance in disentangling information from future direct and indirect detection experiments.

  8. Remote Leak Detection: Indirect Thermal Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The Indirect Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and tested in the laboratory.

  9. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. PMID:23887149

  10. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  11. (In)direct detection of boosted dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Cui, Yanou; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse

    2014-10-01

    We initiate the study of novel thermal dark matter (DM) scenarios where present-day annihilation of DM in the galactic center produces boosted stable particles in the dark sector. These stable particles are typically a subdominant DM component, but because they are produced with a large Lorentz boost in this process, they can be detected in large volume terrestrial experiments via neutral-current-like interactions with electrons or nuclei. This novel DM signal thus combines the production mechanism associated with indirect detection experiments (i.e. galactic DM annihilation) with the detection mechanism associated with direct detection experiments (i.e. DM scattering off terrestrial targets). Such processes are generically present in multi-component DM scenarios or those with non-minimal DM stabilization symmetries. As a proof of concept, we present a model of two-component thermal relic DM, where the dominant heavy DM species has no tree-level interactions with the standard model and thus largely evades direct and indirect DM bounds. Instead, its thermal relic abundance is set by annihilation into a subdominant lighter DM species, and the latter can be detected in the boosted channel via the same annihilation process occurring today. Especially for dark sector masses in the 10 MeV-10 GeV range, the most promising signals are electron scattering events pointing toward the galactic center. These can be detected in experiments designed for neutrino physics or proton decay, in particular Super-K and its upgrade Hyper-K, as well as the PINGU/MICA extensions of IceCube. This boosted DM phenomenon highlights the distinctive signatures possible from non-minimal dark sectors.

  12. (In)direct detection of boosted dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Cui, Yanou; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse E-mail: cuiyo@umd.edu E-mail: jthaler@mit.edu

    2014-10-01

    We initiate the study of novel thermal dark matter (DM) scenarios where present-day annihilation of DM in the galactic center produces boosted stable particles in the dark sector. These stable particles are typically a subdominant DM component, but because they are produced with a large Lorentz boost in this process, they can be detected in large volume terrestrial experiments via neutral-current-like interactions with electrons or nuclei. This novel DM signal thus combines the production mechanism associated with indirect detection experiments (i.e. galactic DM annihilation) with the detection mechanism associated with direct detection experiments (i.e. DM scattering off terrestrial targets). Such processes are generically present in multi-component DM scenarios or those with non-minimal DM stabilization symmetries. As a proof of concept, we present a model of two-component thermal relic DM, where the dominant heavy DM species has no tree-level interactions with the standard model and thus largely evades direct and indirect DM bounds. Instead, its thermal relic abundance is set by annihilation into a subdominant lighter DM species, and the latter can be detected in the boosted channel via the same annihilation process occurring today. Especially for dark sector masses in the 10 MeV–10 GeV range, the most promising signals are electron scattering events pointing toward the galactic center. These can be detected in experiments designed for neutrino physics or proton decay, in particular Super-K and its upgrade Hyper-K, as well as the PINGU/MICA extensions of IceCube. This boosted DM phenomenon highlights the distinctive signatures possible from non-minimal dark sectors.

  13. (In)Direct detection of boosted dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Cui, Yanou; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-05-01

    We present a new multi-component dark matter model with a novel experimental signature that mimics neutral current interactions at neutrino detectors. In our model, the dark matter is composed of two particles, a heavier dominant component that annihilates to produce a boosted lighter component that we refer to as boosted dark matter. The lighter component is relativistic and scatters off electrons in neutrino experiments to produce Cherenkov light. This model combines the indirect detection of the dominant component with the direct detection of the boosted dark matter. Directionality can be used to distinguish the dark matter signal from the atmospheric neutrino background. We discuss the viable region of parameter space in current and future experiments.

  14. Neutralino Dark Matter: Update on Direct and Indirect Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scopel, S.

    2005-12-02

    Neutralinos represent a viable solution to the Dark Matter problem. In particular, while I discuss here a wide range for their masses, I will deserve a special attention to light neutralinos, which arise in supersymmetric models without unifications conditions of gaugino masses at the GUT scale. They have sizeable direct and indirect detection signals, which are bounded from below by the cosmological constraint on their relic abundance, but are not yet excluded by present direct and indirect searches, including limits coming from the BR(Bs {yields} {mu}+ + {mu}-) decay rate. They represent so an interesting experimental challenge. An intriguing aspect of light neutralinos is also that they could explain the DAMA modulation effect in a still existing compatibility window with other direct search experiments. I also discuss the gamma-ray signal from dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy and give some examples of external objects, namely the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) and M87. Predictions for the fluxes turn out to be below the level required to explain the possible indications of a {gamma}-ray excess shown by EGRET, CANGAROO-II and HESS (toward the Galactic Center) and HEGRA (from M87). As far as future experiments are concerned, only the signal from the galactic center could be accessible to both satellite-borne experiments and to ACTs, even though this requires very steep dark matter density profiles.

  15. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie E-mail: katz.andrey@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  16. Indirect detections and analyses of GRBs by ionospheric response

    SciTech Connect

    Slosiar, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-05-25

    We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID--Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency), and discus its possible impact on GRB science and investigations in general. Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss examples of such VLF/SID detection of GRBs 060124A, GRB080319D a GRB080320A. A network of SID monitors has been created and is operated to detect more GRBs. The importance of these detections for GRB analyses and GRB science in general is still to be further and in full detail exploited. Some possible outcomes in this direction will be outlined and discussed.

  17. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    PubMed

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. PMID:26301728

  18. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Ullio, Piero; Tavakoli, Maryam E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov E-mail: maryam.tavakoli@desy.de

    2014-07-01

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow ≅ 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  19. The Indirect Detection of GRBs by Ionospheric Response - Detection of GRB060124A

    SciTech Connect

    Slosiar, Rudolf; Hudec, Rene

    2008-05-22

    We report on the independent and indirect detection of GRBs by their ionospheric response (SID-Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) observed at VLF (Very Low Frequency). Although few such detections have been already reported in the past, the capability of such alternative and indirect investigations of GRBs still remains to be investigated in more details. We present and discuss an example of such VLF/SID detection of the GRB 060124A.

  20. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Fischer, Larry E.; Felter, Thomas E.

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  1. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  2. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Farinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  3. Indirect target detection method in FLIR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hu; Zhang, Tianxu; Deng, Lizhen

    2013-09-01

    Due to the complexity of the scene, target detection in forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery is a challenging problem, especially for occluded target. The main contribution of this paper is to propose an indirect detection method for improving the recognition probability and effectiveness of target detection method in FLIR image sequences under complex conditions. The proposed method mainly includes four steps: preparation of forward-looking reference image of landmark, extraction of the real-time scene image, template matching and target location, in which some key technologies are proposed, such as perspective transformation used to solve projective problems, position prediction for improving real-time performance, and target location used for identifying the target's position. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of proposed method in FLIR image sequences.

  4. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays.

    PubMed

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles. PMID:24821791

  5. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today—80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles. PMID:24821791

  6. Direct/indirect detection signatures of nonthermally produced dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Minoru; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2008-09-15

    We study direct and indirect detection possibilities of neutralino dark matter produced nonthermally by, e.g., the decay of long-lived particles, as is easily implemented in the case of anomaly or mirage-mediation models. In this scenario, large self-annihilation cross sections are required to account for the present dark matter abundance, and it leads to significant enhancement of the gamma-ray signature from the galactic center and the positron flux from the dark matter annihilation. It is found that GLAST and PAMELA will find the signal or give tight constraints on such nonthermal production scenarios of neutralino dark matter.

  7. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  8. Indirect detection of dryout in simulated LMFBR fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The method of indirect dryout detection was developed by an examination of the data from THORS Bundle 6A. This was a 19-pin bundle of FFTF configuration. The pin size, wire-wrap size and axial pitch were identical to those in Bundle 9; the major difference between the Bundle 6A and Bundle 9 FPSs was the length of the upper unheated zone, which simulated, in Bundle 6A, the reflector and fission gas plenum in FFTF (1.19 m) and, in Bundle 9, the upper axial blanket and fission gas plenum in CRBR (1.54 m). In addition, Bundle 6A had half-size (0.71 mm) edge channel wire-wraps and a low thermal inertia (0.51 mm thick) duct wall surrounded by calcium silicate insulation in an attempt to flatten the bundle temperature profile.

  9. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1995-06-02

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm{sup 3}; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction {sup 2}H({sup 3}H,n){sup 4}He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measured results.

  10. Indirect electrochemical detection for total bile acids in human serum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Mingsong; Xu, Biao; Cui, Yue; Tian, Gang; Shi, Zhenghu; Ding, Min

    2016-11-15

    Bile acids level in serum is a useful index for screening and diagnosis of hepatobiliary diseases. As bile acids concentration is closely related to the degree of hepatobiliary diseases, detecting it is a vital factor to understand the stage of the diseases. The prevalent determination for bile acids is the enzymatic cycling method which has low sensitivity while reagent-consuming. It is desirable to develop a new method with lower cost and higher sensitivity. An indirect electrochemical detection (IED) for bile acids in human serum was established using the screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Since bile acids do not show electrochemical signals, they were converted to 3-ketosteroids by 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), which was reduced to NADH. NADH could then be oxidized on the surface of SPCE, generating a signal that was used to calculate the total bile acids (TBA) concentration. A good linear calibration for TBA was obtained at the concentration range from 5.00μM to 400μM in human serum. Both the precisions and recoveries were sufficient to be used in a clinical setting. The TBA concentrations in 35 human serum samples by our IED method didn't show significant difference with the result by enzymatic cycling method, using the paired t-test. Moreover, our IED method is reagent-saving, sensitive and cost-effective. PMID:27236139

  11. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  12. A micro-capture ELISA for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM: comparison with indirect immunofluorescence and indirect ELISA.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Sillis, M.

    1985-01-01

    A mu-capture ELISA was developed for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific IgM, and compared with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) technique and an indirect ELISA. mu-capture ELISA and IFA compared well and were found to be the most sensitive assays. The IFA test can be completed in 2 h whilst the results of the mu-capture ELISA can be available in 24 h. Both tests are amenable to routine diagnostic use and have similar sensitivity. Indirect ELISA was found to be less sensitive and less specific, giving high assay values with several sera having undetectable M. pneumoniae CF antibody or CF antibody in low titre. Serum samples obtained from 11 patients at various times after M. pneumoniae infection showed maximum antibody levels within the first month by all assays, with a gradual fall in amount of IgM with time when assayed by mu-capture ELISA, a more gradual decline by IFA and hardly any decline with indirect ELISA. It was concluded that the indirect ELISA is unsuitable for the investigation of possible M. pneumoniae infection because the sustained high assay values with serum samples taken many months after infection, make interpretation of the test results very difficult. PMID:3921607

  13. Impact of dark matter microhalos on signatures for direct and indirect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Aurel; Moore, Ben; Krauss, Lawrence

    2010-09-15

    Detecting dark matter as it streams through detectors on Earth relies on knowledge of its phase space density on a scale comparable to the size of our Solar System. Numerical simulations predict that our galactic halo contains an enormous hierarchy of substructures, streams and caustics, the remnants of the merging hierarchy that began with tiny Earth-mass microhalos. If these bound or coherent structures persist until the present time, they could dramatically alter signatures for the detection of weakly interacting elementary particle dark matter. Using numerical simulations that follow the coarse grained tidal disruption within the Galactic potential and fine grained heating from stellar encounters, we find that microhalos, streams, and caustics have a negligible likelihood of impacting direct detection signatures implying that dark matter constraints derived using simple smooth halo models are relatively robust. We also find that many dense central cusps survive, yielding a small enhancement in the signal for indirect detection experiments.

  14. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edwards; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  15. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  16. Indirect chiral separation of tryptophan enantiomers by high performance liquid chromatography with indirect chemiluminiscence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Chen, Shanshan; Sun, Fang; Luo, Pei; Du, Qiuzheng; Zhao, Suzhen

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the study of chiral compounds in vivo has received much attention. In this study, a novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the separation of tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers. o-Phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-l-cysteine were used as chiral derivatization reagents for Trp before it can be detected by HPLC-CL method. The separation was carried out on an ODS column using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.01mol/L phosphate buffer (40/60, v/v). Under the optimum conditions, satisfactory results were obtained, including complete separation, good relative standard deviations and low detection limits. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining Trp in biological samples. Linear responses (r>0.9990) were observed over the range of 2.5×10(-7) to 1.2×10(-5)g/mL of Trp enantiomers, with quantitation limit of 2.5×10(-7)g/mL. The assay method shows good specificity to Trp enantiomers, and thus it will have great potential application in clinical diagnosis. The mean extraction efficiency of Trp enantiomers in mice plasma samples were 98.48% and 97.40%, respectively. The mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of Trp enantiomers were <3%. PMID:26523665

  17. Characterization of cationic copolymers by capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection and contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Anik, Nadia; Airiau, Marc; Labeau, Marie-Pierre; Vuong, Chi-Thanh; Cottet, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    For many industrial applications, the combination of two different monomers in statistical or diblock copolymers enhances the properties of the corresponding polymer. However, during the polymerization reaction, homopolymers might be formed and can influence the properties for the applications. Consequently, the separation and the quantification of the homopolymers contained in copolymer samples are crucial. In addition, the charge density distribution of the statistical copolymer is an important characteristic for the applications. The purpose of this work was to study the characterization of a statistical copolymer of acrylic acid (AA) and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in acidic conditions (cationic copolymers). For that purpose, a free solution electrophoretic separation was carried out according to the charge rate (chemical composition) independently of the molar mass. The second objective was to compare contactless conductivity detection and indirect UV absorbance modes for the quantification of DADMAC homopolymers present in copolymer samples. Different coated capillaries based on neutral or positively charged modification were also compared. The comparison of indirect absorbance UV and contactless conductimetric detection demonstrated that both detection modes can be used for a complete CE characterization of non-UV absorbing PAA-DADMAC copolymers. PMID:22169192

  18. A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) is a rapid, high-throughput, quantitative immunoassay for the selective detection of target antigens. The general principle behind an ELISA is antibody mediated capture and detection of an antigen with a measureable substrate. Numerous incarnations of th...

  19. Flow biosensing and sampling in indirect electrochemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Francesco; Luni, Camilla; Zambon, Alessandro; Andrea Serra, Pier; Giomo, Monica; Elvassore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Miniaturization in biological analyses has several advantages, such as sample volume reduction and fast response time. The integration of miniaturized biosensors within lab-on-a-chip setups under flow conditions is highly desirable, not only because it simplifies process handling but also because measurements become more robust and operator-independent. In this work, we study the integration of flow amperometric biosensors within a microfluidic platform when analyte concentration is indirectly measured. As a case study, we used a platinum miniaturized glucose biosensor, where glucose is enzymatically converted to H2O2 that is oxidized at the electrode. The experimental results produced are strongly coupled to a theoretical analysis of fluid dynamic conditions affecting the electrochemical response of the sensor. We verified that the choice of the inlet flow rate is a critical parameter in flow biosensors, because it affects both glucose and H2O2 transport, to and from the electrode. We identify optimal flow rate conditions for accurate sensing at high time resolution. A dimensionless theoretical analysis allows the extension of the results to other sensing systems according to fluid dynamic similarity principles. Furthermore, we developed a microfluidic design that connects a sampling unit to the biosensor, in order to decouple the sampling flow rate from that of the actual measurement. PMID:22655022

  20. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have large speeds relative to the probes or satellites that encounter them. Development and testing of instruments that look for dust in space therefore depends critically on the availability of fast, well-characterized dust grains in the laboratory. One challenge for the experimentalist is to precisely measure the speed and mass of laboratory dust particles without disturbing them. Detection systems currently in use exploit the well-known effect of image charge to register the passage of dust grains without changing their speed or mass. We describe the principles of image charge detection and provide a simple classroom demonstration of the technique using soup cans and pith balls.

  1. Indirect detection of light neutralino dark matter in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Francesc; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Profumo, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    We explore the prospects for indirect detection of neutralino dark matter in supersymmetric models with an extended Higgs sector (next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, or NMSSM). We compute, for the first time, one-loop amplitudes for NMSSM neutralino pair annihilation into two photons and two gluons, and point out that extra diagrams (with respect to the minimal supersymmetric standard model, or MSSM), featuring a potentially light CP-odd Higgs boson exchange, can strongly enhance these radiative modes. Expected signals in neutrino telescopes due to the annihilation of relic neutralinos in the Sun and in the Earth are evaluated, as well as the prospects of detection of a neutralino annihilation signal in space-based gamma-ray, antiproton and positron search experiments, and at low-energy antideuteron searches. We find that in the low mass regime the signals from capture in the Earth are enhanced compared to the MSSM, and that NMSSM neutralinos have a remote possibility of affecting solar dynamics. Also, antimatter experiments are an excellent probe of galactic NMSSM dark matter. We also find enhanced two-photon decay modes that make the possibility of the detection of a monochromatic gamma-ray line within the NMSSM more promising than in the MSSM, although likely below the sensitivity of next generation gamma-ray telescopes.

  2. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Kanmi

    2011-01-01

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., 13C and 15N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., 1H and 19F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in 1H detected 2D 1H{l_brace}13C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional 13C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear 1H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5m$\\bar{x}$, PMLG5mm$\\bar{x}$x and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based

  3. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  4. Indirect detection imprint of a C P violating dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a simple scenario involving fermionic dark matter (χ ) and singlet scalar mediators that may account for the Galactic center GeV γ -ray excess while satisfying present direct detection constraints. C P violation in the scalar potential leads to a mixing between the Standard Model Higgs boson and the scalar singlet, resulting in three scalars, h1 ,2 ,3, of indefinite C P -transformation properties. This mixing enables s -wave χ χ ¯ annihilation into discalar states, followed by decays into four-fermion final states. The observed γ -ray spectrum can be fitted while respecting present direct detection bounds and Higgs boson properties for mχ=60 ˜80 GeV , and mh 3˜mχ. Searches for the Higgs exotic decay channel h1→h3h3 at the 14 TeV LHC should be able to further probe the parameter region favored by the γ -ray excess.

  5. Indirect Detection of Forming Protoplanets via Chemical Asymmetries in Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Harries, Tim J.

    2015-07-01

    We examine changes in the molecular abundances resulting from increased heating due to a self-luminous planetary companion embedded within a narrow circumstellar disk gap. Using 3D models that include stellar and planetary irradiation, we find that luminous young planets locally heat up the parent circumstellar disk by many tens of Kelvin, resulting in efficient thermal desorption of molecular species that are otherwise locally frozen out. Furthermore, the heating is deposited over large regions of the disk, ±5 AU radially and spanning ≲ 60^\\circ azimuthally. From the 3D chemical models, we compute rotational line emission models and full Atacama Large Millimeter Array simulations, and find that the chemical signatures of the young planet are detectable as chemical asymmetries in ∼ 10h observations. HCN and its isotopologues are particularly clear tracers of planetary heating for the models considered here, and emission from multiple transitions of the same species is detectable, which encodes temperature information in addition to possible velocity information from the spectra itself. We find submillimeter molecular emission will be a useful tool to study gas giant planet formation in situ, especially beyond R≳ 10 AU.

  6. The WIMP Forest: Indirect Detection of a Chiral Square

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C.B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The spectrum of photons arising from WIMP annihilation carries a detailed imprint of the structure of the dark sector. In particular, loop-level annihilations into a photon and another boson can in principle lead to a series of lines (a WIMP forest) at energies up to the WIMP mass. A specific model which illustrates this feature nicely is a theory of two universal extra dimensions compactified on a chiral square. Aside from the continuum emission, which is a generic prediction of most dark matter candidates, we find a 'forest' of prominent annihilation lines that, after convolution with the angular resolution of current experiments, leads to a distinctive (2-bump plus continuum) spectrum, which may be visible in the near future with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST).

  7. Indirect detection of subsurface outflow from a rift valley lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, W. G.; Allen, D. J.; Armannsson, H.

    1990-02-01

    Naivasha, highest of the Kenya (Gregory) Rift Valley lakes, has no surface outlet. However, unlike other Rift lakes it has not become saline despite high potential evaporation rates, which indicates that there must be some subsurface drainage. The fate of this outflow has been the subject of speculation for many years, especially during the general decline in lake water level during the 1980's. Particularly to the south of the lake, there are few opportunities to obtain information from direct groundwater sampling. However, the stable isotopic composition of fumarole steam from late Quaternary volcanic centres in the area has been used to infer groundwater composition. Using a simple mixing model between Rift-flank groundwater and highly-evaporated lakewater, this has enabled subsurface water flow to be contoured by its lakewater content. By this method, outflow can still be detected some 30 km to the south of the lake. Stable isotope data also confirm that much of the steam used by the local Olkaria geothermal power station is derived from lakewater, though simple balance considerations show that steam use cannot alone be responsible for the fall in lake level observed during the 1980's.

  8. The impact of the phase-space density on the indirect detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Francesc; Hunter, Daniel R.

    2013-09-01

    We study the indirect detection of dark matter when the local dark matter velocity distribution depends upon position, as expected for the Milky Way and its dwarf spheroidal satellites, and the annihilation cross-section is not purely s-wave. Using a phase-space distribution consistent with the dark matter density profile, we present estimates of cosmic and gamma-ray fluxes from dark matter annihilations. The expectations for the indirect detection of dark matter can differ significantly from the usual calculation that assumes that the velocity of the dark matter particles follows a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.

  9. Liquid chromatographic analysis of glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements using indirect fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Min; Tomellini, Sterling A

    2007-02-01

    A method of using indirect fluorescence detection is evaluated for the analysis of glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements following chromatographic separation. In this method, the eluting analyte, glucosamine, was detected by monitoring an increase in the fluorescence signal for L-tryptophan (L-Trp) or DL-5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) after glucosamine complexed with a copper(II) ion and released either L-Trp or 5-MTP from a copper(II) complex, which is introduced postcolumn. The fluorescence of L-Trp and 5-MTP are quenched when complexed with the copper(II) ion. The results obtained using indirect fluorescence detection are compared with the results obtained for precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate. Statistical analysis is performed to compare the results obtained for the two postcolumn interaction components, Cu(L-Trp)2 and Cu(5-MTP)2, as well as the results obtained using the indirect fluorescence detection method and a precolumn derivatization method. The indirect fluorescence detection method provided an alternative to precolumn derivatization for determining the concentration of glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements. The stability of the glucosamine-o-phthalaldehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid derivative is also evaluated to investigate the applicability of the popular precolumn derivatization reagent, o-phthalaldehyde-3-mercaptopropionic acid, for this analysis. PMID:17425135

  10. Light neutralino dark matter: direct/indirect detection and collider searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Liu, Zhen; Su, Shufang

    2014-08-01

    We study the neutralino being the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) as a cold Dark Matter (DM) candidate with a mass less than 40 GeV in the framework of the Next-to-Minimal-Supersymmetric-Standard-Model (NMSSM). We find that with the current collider constraints from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC, there are three types of light DM solutions consistent with the direct/indirect searches as well as the relic abundance considerations: ( i) A 1, H 1-funnels, ( ii) stau coannihilation and ( iii) sbottom coannihilation. Type-( i) may take place in any theory with a light scalar (or pseudo-scalar) near the LSP pair threshold; while Type-( ii) and ( iii) could occur in the framework of Minimal-Supersymmetric-Standard-Model (MSSM) as well. We present a comprehensive study on the properties of these solutions and point out their immediate relevance to the experiments of the underground direct detection such as superCDMS and LUX/LZ, and the astro-physical indirect search such as Fermi-LAT. We also find that the decays of the SM-like Higgs boson may be modified appreciably and the new decay channels to the light SUSY particles may be sizable. The new light CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons will decay to a pair of LSPs as well as other observable final states, leading to interesting new Higgs phenomenology at colliders. For the light sfermion searches, the signals would be very challenging to observe at the LHC given the current bounds. However, a high energy and high luminosity lepton collider, such as the ILC, would be able to fully cover these scenarios by searching for events with large missing energy plus charged tracks or displaced vertices.

  11. PRECONCENTRATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES FROM WATER DETERMINED BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH INDIRECT UV DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preconcentration methodology based on adsorption chromatographies for enriching aliphatic amines (c1 to C4 substituted primary, secondary, and tertiary) and alkanolamines in water was studied by free zone capillary electrophoresis (CZE)with indirect UV detection. The solid-phase ...

  12. Using Indirect Questions to Detect Intimate Partner Violence: The SAFE-T Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulfer, Jamie L.; Tyler, Jillian J.; Choi, Natalie J. S.; Young, Jill A.; Verhulst, Steven J.; Kovach, Regina; Dorsey, J. Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A screening instrument for detecting intimate partner violence (IPV) was developed using indirect questions. The authors identified 5 of 18 items studied that clearly distinguished victims of IPV from a random group of health conference attendees with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 87%. This 5-item instrument (SAFE-T) was then tested on…

  13. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples’ actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability’s power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company’s previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  14. Dark matter direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrodán Undagoitia, Teresa; Rauch, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, several detector technologies have been developed with the quest to directly detect dark matter interactions and to test one of the most important unsolved questions in modern physics. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed due to a constant development of the detectors and analysis methods, proving uniquely suited devices to solve the dark matter puzzle, as all other discovery strategies can only indirectly infer its existence. Despite the overwhelming evidence for dark matter from cosmological indications at small and large scales, clear evidence for a particle explaining these observations remains absent. This review summarises the status of direct dark matter searches, focusing on the detector technologies used to directly detect a dark matter particle producing recoil energies in the keV energy scale. The phenomenological signal expectations, main background sources, statistical treatment of data and calibration strategies are discussed.

  15. Combined Direct and Indirect CT Venography (Combined CTV) in Detecting Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Wang, Li-Wei; Wang, Shao-Juan; Yin, Xin-Dao; Gu, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined direct and indirect CT venography (combined CTV) in the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and patients or qualifying family members provided informed consent. A total of 96 consecutive patients undergoing combined CTV were prospectively enrolled. A combined examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) plus duplex ultrasonography (US) was used as the criterion standard. Three observers were blinded to clinical, DSA, and US results, and they independently analyzed all combined CTV datasets. Interobserver agreement was expressed in terms of the Cohen k value for categorical variables. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of combined CTV in the detection of LEDVT were determined by using patient- and location-based evaluations. Of the 96 patients, DSA plus US revealed LEDVT in 125 segmental veins in 63 patients. Patient-based evaluation with combined CTV yielded an accuracy of 96.9% to 97.9%, a sensitivity of 95.2% to 96.8%, a specificity of 100% to 100%, a PPV of 100% to 100%, and an NPV of 91.7% to 94.3% in the detection of LEDVT. Location-based evaluation yielded similar results. Through combined direct and indirect CTV, patients obtained a combined CT angiogram on the diseased limb and an indirect CT angiogram on the opposite side. The image quality of combined CTV was superior to an indirect venogram. Combined CTV shows promising diagnostic accuracy in the detection of LEDVT with 3-dimensional modeling of the lower limb venous system. PMID:26986113

  16. Combined Direct and Indirect CT Venography (Combined CTV) in Detecting Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Wang, Li-Wei; Wang, Shao-Juan; Yin, Xin-Dao; Gu, Jian-Ping

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined direct and indirect CT venography (combined CTV) in the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and patients or qualifying family members provided informed consent. A total of 96 consecutive patients undergoing combined CTV were prospectively enrolled. A combined examination with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) plus duplex ultrasonography (US) was used as the criterion standard. Three observers were blinded to clinical, DSA, and US results, and they independently analyzed all combined CTV datasets. Interobserver agreement was expressed in terms of the Cohen k value for categorical variables. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of combined CTV in the detection of LEDVT were determined by using patient- and location-based evaluations. Of the 96 patients, DSA plus US revealed LEDVT in 125 segmental veins in 63 patients. Patient-based evaluation with combined CTV yielded an accuracy of 96.9% to 97.9%, a sensitivity of 95.2% to 96.8%, a specificity of 100% to 100%, a PPV of 100% to 100%, and an NPV of 91.7% to 94.3% in the detection of LEDVT. Location-based evaluation yielded similar results. Through combined direct and indirect CTV, patients obtained a combined CT angiogram on the diseased limb and an indirect CT angiogram on the opposite side. The image quality of combined CTV was superior to an indirect venogram. Combined CTV shows promising diagnostic accuracy in the detection of LEDVT with 3-dimensional modeling of the lower limb venous system. PMID:26986113

  17. Comparison of various NMR methods for the indirect detection of nitrogen-14 nuclei via protons in solids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming; Trébosc, Julien; O'Dell, Luke A; Lafon, Olivier; Pourpoint, Frédérique; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We present an experimental comparison of several through-space Hetero-nuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation experiments, which allow the indirect observation of homo-nuclear single- (SQ) or double-quantum (DQ) (14)N coherences via spy (1)H nuclei. These (1)H-{(14)N} D-HMQC sequences differ not only by the order of (14)N coherences evolving during the indirect evolution, t1, but also by the radio-frequency (rf) scheme used to excite and reconvert these coherences under Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS). Here, the SQ coherences are created by the application of center-band frequency-selective pulses, i.e. long and low-power rectangular pulses at the (14)N Larmor frequency, ν0((14)N), whereas the DQ coherences are excited and reconverted using rf irradiation either at ν0((14)N) or at the (14)N overtone frequency, 2ν0((14)N). The overtone excitation is achieved either by constant frequency rectangular pulses or by frequency-swept pulses, specifically Wide-band, Uniform-Rate, and Smooth-Truncation (WURST) pulse shapes. The present article compares the performances of four different (1)H-{(14)N} D-HMQC sequences, including those with (14)N rectangular pulses at ν0((14)N) for the indirect detection of homo-nuclear (i) (14)N SQ or (ii) DQ coherences, as well as their overtone variants using (iii) rectangular or (iv) WURST pulses. The compared properties include: (i) the sensitivity, (ii) the spectral resolution in the (14)N dimension, (iii) the rf requirements (power and pulse length), as well as the robustness to (iv) rf offset and (v) MAS frequency instabilities. Such experimental comparisons are carried out for γ-glycine and l-histidine.HCl monohydrate, which contain (14)N sites subject to moderate quadrupole interactions. We demonstrate that the optimum choice of the (1)H-{(14)N} D-HMQC method depends on the experimental goal. When the sensitivity and/or the robustness to offset are the major concerns, the D-HMQC sequence allowing the indirect detection of (14)N SQ

  18. Comparison of various NMR methods for the indirect detection of nitrogen-14 nuclei via protons in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ming; Trébosc, Julien; O'Dell, Luke A.; Lafon, Olivier; Pourpoint, Frédérique; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We present an experimental comparison of several through-space Hetero-nuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation experiments, which allow the indirect observation of homo-nuclear single- (SQ) or double-quantum (DQ) 14N coherences via spy 1H nuclei. These 1H-{14N} D-HMQC sequences differ not only by the order of 14N coherences evolving during the indirect evolution, t1, but also by the radio-frequency (rf) scheme used to excite and reconvert these coherences under Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS). Here, the SQ coherences are created by the application of center-band frequency-selective pulses, i.e. long and low-power rectangular pulses at the 14N Larmor frequency, ν0(14N), whereas the DQ coherences are excited and reconverted using rf irradiation either at ν0(14N) or at the 14N overtone frequency, 2ν0(14N). The overtone excitation is achieved either by constant frequency rectangular pulses or by frequency-swept pulses, specifically Wide-band, Uniform-Rate, and Smooth-Truncation (WURST) pulse shapes. The present article compares the performances of four different 1H-{14N} D-HMQC sequences, including those with 14N rectangular pulses at ν0(14N) for the indirect detection of homo-nuclear (i) 14N SQ or (ii) DQ coherences, as well as their overtone variants using (iii) rectangular or (iv) WURST pulses. The compared properties include: (i) the sensitivity, (ii) the spectral resolution in the 14N dimension, (iii) the rf requirements (power and pulse length), as well as the robustness to (iv) rf offset and (v) MAS frequency instabilities. Such experimental comparisons are carried out for γ-glycine and L-histidine.HCl monohydrate, which contain 14N sites subject to moderate quadrupole interactions. We demonstrate that the optimum choice of the 1H-{14N} D-HMQC method depends on the experimental goal. When the sensitivity and/or the robustness to offset are the major concerns, the D-HMQC sequence allowing the indirect detection of 14N SQ coherences should be employed. Conversely

  19. An indirect conductimetric screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in bovine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Sipilä, Hannu; Nuotio, Lasse; Niemi, Anneli; Honkanen-Buzalski, Tuula

    2002-09-01

    An indirect conductimetric screening method using three test bacterium-medium combinations was developed for rapid detection of antibiotic residues in bovine carcasses. The detection time (DT), i.e. the point when the growth of the test bacterium was detected, was determined by observing the rate of change in the conductance plotted against time. This detection time averaged half of the reference time recorded by the instrument software. Total change in conductance (TC) was used as a further measure of growth. Threshold values for DT and TC were determined with inhibitor-free kidney samples. The presence of a residue was indicated if the DT exceeded the respective threshold value and was confirmed if the TC remained below the TC threshold value. The limits of detection (LODs) determined with fortified samples were at about or below the MRLs for cephalexin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, dihydrostreptomycin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and penicillin G. The LODs for penicillin G, oxytetracycline and the sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also estimated with incurred samples; these samples were also analysed using liquid chromatography. The LODs determined with fortified and incurred samples were in close agreement. Given its rapid detection, good sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and ease of performance, the indirect conductimetric method developed here would seem to offer an appealing alternative to agar diffusion tests. PMID:12375852

  20. Determination of chloride, chlorate and perchlorate by PDMS microchip electrophoresis with indirect amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Ai; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2008-03-15

    In this work, chloride, chlorate and perchlorate are fast separated on PDMS microchip and detected via in-channel indirect amperometric detection mode. With PDMS/PDMS microchip treated by oxygen plasma, anions chloride (Cl-), chlorate (ClO3-), and perchlorate (ClO4-) are separated within 35s. Some parameters including buffer salt concentration, buffer pH, separation voltage and detection potential are investigated in detail. The separation conditions using 15 mM (pH 6.12) of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES)+L-histidine (L-His) as running buffer, -2000 V as separation voltage and 0.7 V as detection potential are optimized. Under this condition, the detection limits of Cl-, ClO3-, and ClO4- are 1.9, 3.6, and 2.8 microM, respectively. PMID:18371861

  1. Detection of typhoid fever by Widal and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rai, G P; Zachariah, K; Shrivastava, S

    1989-01-01

    Widal test is a conventional method for the detection of typhoid fever. However, it takes 18-24 hours to complete the test. In the present study indirect fluorescent antibody test has been compared with the Widal test using single serum specimens and was found to be rapid, sensitive and specific. Serum specimens from 41 culture proven cases of typhoid fever, 14 clinically suspected cases and 22 normal individuals were collected. Whereas Widal test detected 63.41% positive cases, IFA test detected 87.80% from among culturally proven typhoid cases. Among the clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever, IFA test detected 85.71% (28.57 + 57.14%) while Widal test detected only 57.13% (35.71 + 21.42%) positive cases out of above 14 cases. PMID:2478615

  2. Detection of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in acid mine environments by indirect fluorescent antibody staining.

    PubMed

    Apel, W A; Dugan, P R; Filppi, J A; Rheins, M S

    1976-07-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) staining technique was developed for the rapid detection of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The specificity of the FA stain for T. ferrooxidans was demonstrated with both laboratory and environmental samples. Coal refuse examined by scanning electron microscopy exhibited a rough, porous surface, which was characteristically covered by water-soluble crystals. Significant numbers of T. ferrooxidans were detected in the refuse pores. A positive correlation between numbers of T. ferrooxidans and acid production in coal refuse in the laboratory was demonstrated with the FA technique. PMID:61736

  3. Indirect laser-induced breakdown of transparent thin gel layer for sensitive trace element detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Negre, Erwan; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Optical emissions from major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected when the gel was spread in thin film on a metallic substrate and a plasma was induced on the substrate surface using nanosecond infrared pulsed laser. Such emissions are due to indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. Temperature higher than 15 000 K determined in the plasma allows considering sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  4. Simple J-factors and D-factors for indirect dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.; Sanders, J. L.; Geringer-Sameth, Alex

    2016-05-01

    J-factors (or D-factors) describe the distribution of dark matter in an astrophysical system and determine the strength of the signal provided by annihilating (or decaying) dark matter respectively. We provide simple analytic formulas to calculate the J-factors for spherical cusps obeying the empirical relationship between enclosed mass, velocity dispersion and half-light radius. We extend the calculation to the spherical Navarro-Frenk-White model, and demonstrate that our new formulas give accurate results in comparison to more elaborate Jeans models driven by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Of the known ultrafaint dwarf spheroidals, we show that Ursa Major II, Reticulum II, Tucana II and Horologium I have the largest J-factors and so provide the most promising candidates for indirect dark matter detection experiments. Amongst the classical dwarfs, Draco, Sculptor and Ursa Minor have the highest J-factors. We show that the behavior of the J-factor as a function of integration angle can be inferred for general dark halo models with inner slope γ and outer slope β . The central and asymptotic behavior of the J-factor curves are derived as a function of the dark halo properties. Finally, we show that models obeying the empirical relation on enclosed mass and velocity dispersion have J-factors that are most robust at the integration angle equal to the projected half-light radius of the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) divided by heliocentric distance. For most of our results, we give the extension to the D-factor which is appropriate for the decaying dark matter picture.

  5. Characterization of an indirect X-ray imaging detector by simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Doshi, C; van Riessen, G; Balaur, E; de Jonge, M D; Peele, A G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive model of a commercial indirect X-ray imaging detector that accurately predicts the detector point spread function and its dependence on X-ray energy. The model was validated by measurements using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and extended to polychromatic X-ray sources. Our approach can be used to predict the performance of an imaging detector and can be used to optimize imaging experiments with broad-band X-ray sources. PMID:25203971

  6. Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent-antibody stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, V L; Yajko, D M; McPhaul, L W; Gartner, I; Byford, B; Goodman, C D; Nassos, P S; Sanders, C A; Howes, E L; Leoung, G

    1990-01-01

    Two prospective studies were undertaken to evaluate a commercial indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) stain for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens from individuals at risk for or with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first study compared IFA with Diff-Quik (DQ; a rapid Giemsa-like stain) for detecting P. carinii in 95 induced sputa obtained from 77 asymptomatic patients who had survived one previous episode of P. carinii pneumonia and who were being treated prophylactically with aerosolized pentamidine. Only one induced sputum specimen was found to contain P. carinii; organisms were detected by both stains. The second study compared the performance of the IFA stain versus DQ, modified toluidine blue O, and Gomori methenamine silver stains for detecting P. carinii in symptomatic individuals at risk for or with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Of 182 specimens examined, P. carinii was detected in 105 by one or more stains; the DQ stain detected 73 (70%), the modified toluidine blue O stain detected 75 (71%), the Gomori methenamine silver stain detected 76 (72%), and the IFA stain detected 95 (90%). The IFA stain was more sensitive (P less than 0.01) than the other traditional stains for detecting P. carinii; however, a subsequent clinical evaluation revealed that a subset of IFA-positive-only specimens were from patients whose clinical symptoms resolved without specific anti-P. carinii therapy. Images PMID:1693631

  7. Experience of the Indirect Neutron Radiography Method Based on the X-ray Imaging Plate at CARR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guohai; Han, Songbai; Wang, Hongli; He, Linfeng; Wang, Yu; Wu, Meimei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng

    Indirect neutron radiography (INR) experiments by X-ray imaging plate were carried out at the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). The key experiment parameters were optimized, especially the exposure time of the neutron converter andimaging plate. The optimized total exposure time is 37.25 min, it is two-fifths of the timebased on the film method under the same experimental conditions. The qualitative and quantitativeinspections were tested with dummy nuclear fuel rods and a water temperaturesensor ofa motor vehicle. The spring in the sensor and the defects of the dummy fuel rod's pellets can be qualitatively detected. The thickness of the tape at one position on the cladding of the dummy nuclear fuel rodwas quantitatively calculated to be 9.57 layers with the relative error of ±4.3%.

  8. Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ki-Young; Restrepo, Diego; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Zapata, Oscar E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co E-mail: pfozapata@eia.edu.co

    2010-10-01

    It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below M{sub W} typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W*l and Z*ν. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into γν and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

  9. An indirect immunofluorescent test for detection of rabies virus antibodies in foxes.

    PubMed

    Hostnik, P; Grom, J

    1997-01-01

    The blood-containing fluids in the thoracic cavity or blood from the heart from 177 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia were evaluated for rabies antibodies by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an adapted indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF) in 1994. We evaluated the usefulness of anti-dog fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate instead of anti-fox FITC conjugate in detection of antibodies against rabies virus in fox sera. In the RFFIT test, 92 (52%) of the fox samples were positive and 70 (40%) samples were negative for rabies antibodies; 15 (8.5%) samples were not suitable for examination in this test. In the IIF test, 98 (55%) fox samples were positive and 79 (45%) sera were negative. The IIF test was suitable for the rapid detection of antibodies against rabies virus in foxes, as often required for vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:9027703

  10. Progress in indirect and direct-drive planar experiments on hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front

    SciTech Connect

    Casner, A. Masse, L.; Huser, G.; Galmiche, D.; Liberatore, S.; Riazuelo, G.; Delorme, B.; Martinez, D.; Remington, B.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Igumenshchev, I.; Michel, D. T.; Froula, D.; Seka, W.; Goncharov, V. N.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Fujioka, S.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and the fuel mix are the key elements for achieving ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Cryogenic indirect-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility have evidenced that the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is a driver of the hot spot mix. This motivates the switch to a more flexible higher adiabat implosion design [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056313 (2014)]. The shell instability is also the main candidate for performance degradation in low-adiabat direct drive cryogenic implosions [Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014)]. This paper reviews recent results acquired in planar experiments performed on the OMEGA laser facility and devoted to the modeling and mitigation of hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front. In application to the indirect-drive scheme, we describe results obtained with a specific ablator composition such as the laminated ablator or a graded-dopant emulator. In application to the direct drive scheme, we discuss experiments devoted to the study of laser imprinted perturbations with special phase plates. The simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase reversal during the shock transit phase are challenging, and of crucial interest because this phase sets the seed of the RTI growth. Recent works were dedicated to increasing the accuracy of measurements of the phase inversion. We conclude by presenting a novel imprint mitigation mechanism based on the use of underdense foams. The foams induce laser smoothing by parametric instabilities thus reducing the laser imprint on the CH foil.

  11. Indirect detection of ethylene glycol oligomers using a contactless conductivity detector in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Toyohide; Sedyohutomo, Anang; Lim, Lee Wah

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene glycol oligomers were visualized by indirect conductimetric detection based on dilution of the mobile phase due to the analytes. A high electrical conductivity background was maintained by the addition of 5 mM sodium nitrate in the mobile phase, and the analytes were visualized by decreases in the background when they eluted. A capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector was convenient to monitor effluents from the microcolumn with minimum extra-column band broadening. The signals as negative peaks were linear to the concentration of the analytes, and a concentration detection limit of 0.025% was achieved for tetraethylene glycol at S/N=3, corresponding to the mass detection limit of 38 ng for 0.15 microl injection. The logarithm of the retention factor of ethylene glycol oligomers was linear to the degree of polymerization (DP) as well as to the acetonitrile composition in the mobile phase. These situations allowed us to estimate the DP of eluted ethylene glycol oligomers by using a few oligomers with known DP. The dynamic reserve, defined as the ratio of the background to its noise level achieved under the present conditions, was 2.3 x 10(5) which was much larger than that achieved by UV absorption detection. The present method was applied to profile ethylene glycol oligomers contained in commercially available PEG reagents. PMID:19609021

  12. Indirect-drive ablative Rayleigh-Taylor growth experiments on the Shenguang-II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. F.; Fan, Z. F.; Zheng, W. D.; Wang, M.; Pei, W. B.; Zhu, S. P.; Zhang, W. Y.; Miao, W. Y.; Yuan, Y. T.; Cao, Z. R.; Deng, B.; Jiang, S. E.; Liu, S. Y.; Ding, Y. K.; Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H. He, X. T.

    2014-04-15

    In this research, a series of single-mode, indirect-drive, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability experiments performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility [X. T. He and W. Y. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 227 (2007)] using planar target is reported. The simulation results from the one-dimensional hydrocode for the planar foil trajectory experiment indicate that the energy flux at the hohlraum wall is obviously less than that at the laser entrance hole. Furthermore, the non-Planckian spectra of x-ray source can strikingly affect the dynamics of the foil flight and the perturbation growth. Clear images recorded by an x-ray framing camera for the RT growth initiated by small- and large-amplitude perturbations are obtained. The observed onset of harmonic generation and transition from linear to nonlinear growth regime is well predicted by two-dimensional hydrocode simulations.

  13. Electro-Weak Dark Matter: Non-perturbative effect confronting indirect detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Eung Jin; Park, Jong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    We update indirect constraints on Electro-Weak Dark Matter (EWDM) considering the Sommerfeld-Ramsauer-Townsend (SRT) effect for its annihilations into a pair of standard model gauge bosons assuming that EWDM accounts for the observed dark matter (DM) relic density for a given DM mass and mass gaps among the multiplet components. For the radiative or smaller mass splitting, the hypercharged triplet and higher multiplet EWDMs are ruled out up to the DM mass ≈ 10- 20 TeV by the combination of the most recent data from AMS-02 (antiproton), Fermi-LAT (gamma-ray), and HESS (gamma-line). The Majorana triplet (wino-like) EWDM can evade all the indirect constraints only around Ramsauer-Townsend dips which can occur for a tiny mass splitting of order 10 MeV or less. In the case of the doublet (Higgsino-like) EWDM, a wide range of its mass ≳ 500 GeV is allowed except Sommerfeld peak regions. Such a stringent limit on the triplet DM can be evaded by employing a larger mass gap of the order of 10 GeV which allows its mass larger than about 1 TeV. However, the future CTA experiment will be able to cover most of the unconstrained parameter space.

  14. Use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantitate in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; el-Maghrabi, M R; Gomez, F A

    2000-04-01

    The use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantify reaction products of in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions is described. Migrating in a capillary under conditions of electrophoresis, plugs of enzyme and substrate are injected and allowed to react. Capillary electrophoresis is subsequently used to measure the extent of reaction. This technique is demonstrated using two model systems: the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fructose-biphosphate aldolase (ALD, EC 4.1.2.13), and the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-1,6-bisphospatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11). These procedures expand the use of the capillary as a microreactor and offer a new approach to analyzing enzyme-mediated reactions. PMID:10892022

  15. Indirect detection of NMR via geometry-dependent dipolar fields, revisited.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Meriles, C A

    2007-06-01

    We explore the dipolar interactions between two separate nuclear spin ensembles in a mixture containing oil and water. Here we expand initial results [C.A. Meriles, W. Dong, J. Magn. Reson. 181 (2006) 331.] to the case in which both systems have the shape of flat, stacked disks. We find that-in spite of the strong inhomogeneity of the coupling dipolar field-the signal encoded in one of the components can be made approximately proportional to the magnetization in the other. This allows us to use one of these systems as a 'sensor' to indirectly reconstruct the resonance spectrum or to determine the relaxation time of the 'sample' system. In the regime in which dipolar interactions are sufficiently strong, our method can be set to scale-up weaker signals in a non-linear fashion, which, potentially, could allow one to introduce contrast or to improve detection sensitivity of less magnetized samples. PMID:17363306

  16. Design and synthesis of immunoconjugates and development of an indirect ELISA for rapid detection of 3, 5-dinitrosalicyclic Acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Wei; Lei, Hong-Tao; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2008-01-01

    In this study novel immunoconjugates were designed, synthesized and then used to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive indirect ELISA method to directly detect residues of 3,5-dinitrosalicyclic acid hydrazide (DNSH), a toxic metabolite of nifursol present in chicken tissues. The hapten DNSHA was first designed and used to covalently couple to BSA to form an immunogen which was immunized to rabbits to produce a polyclonal antibody against DNSH. Furthermore, a novel 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acidovalbumin (DNSA-OVA) immunoconjugate structurally different from DNSHA-OVA was designed and used as a "substructural coating antigen" to improve the sensitivity of an indirect ELISA analysis for a direct DNSH detection. Based on the "substructural coating antigen" concept, an optimized indirect ELISA method was established that exhibited good specificity and high sensitivity for detecting DNSH, with a cross-reactivity of less than 0.1% (excluding the parent compound nifursol), IC(50) of 0.217 nmol/mL and detection limit of 0.018 nmol/mL. Finally, a simple and efficient analysis of DNSH samples in chicken tissues showed that the average recovery rate of the indirect ELISA analysis was 82.3%, with the average coefficient of variation 15.9%. Thus, the developed indirect ELISA method exhibited the potential for a rapid detection of DNSH residues in tissue. PMID:18830153

  17. Indirect monitoring shot-to-shot shock waves strength reproducibility during pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Ozaki, N.; Hartley, N. J.; Albertazzi, B.; Matsuoka, T.; Takahashi, K.; Habara, H.; Tange, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Ochante, R.; Sueda, K.; Sakata, O.; Sekine, T.; Sato, T.; Umeda, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabuuchi, T.; Togashi, T.; Katayama, T.; Yabashi, M.; Harmand, M.; Morard, G.; Koenig, M.; Zhakhovsky, V.; Inogamov, N.; Safronova, A. S.; Stafford, A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Pikuz, S. A.; Okuchi, T.; Seto, Y.; Tanaka, K. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present an indirect method of estimating the strength of a shock wave, allowing on line monitoring of its reproducibility in each laser shot. This method is based on a shot-to-shot measurement of the X-ray emission from the ablated plasma by a high resolution, spatially resolved focusing spectrometer. An optical pump laser with energy of 1.0 J and pulse duration of ˜660 ps was used to irradiate solid targets or foils with various thicknesses containing Oxygen, Aluminum, Iron, and Tantalum. The high sensitivity and resolving power of the X-ray spectrometer allowed spectra to be obtained on each laser shot and to control fluctuations of the spectral intensity emitted by different plasmas with an accuracy of ˜2%, implying an accuracy in the derived electron plasma temperature of 5%-10% in pump-probe high energy density science experiments. At nano- and sub-nanosecond duration of laser pulse with relatively low laser intensities and ratio Z/A ˜ 0.5, the electron temperature follows Te ˜ Ilas2/3. Thus, measurements of the electron plasma temperature allow indirect estimation of the laser flux on the target and control its shot-to-shot fluctuation. Knowing the laser flux intensity and its fluctuation gives us the possibility of monitoring shot-to-shot reproducibility of shock wave strength generation with high accuracy.

  18. Exercise Experiences and Changes in Affective Attitude: Direct and Indirect Effects of In Situ Measurements of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sudeck, Gorden; Schmid, Julia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise experiences (perceptions of competence, perceived exertion, acute affective responses to exercise) and affective attitudes toward exercise. This relationship was analyzed in a non-laboratory setting during a 13-weeks exercise program. Materials and Methods: 56 women and 49 men (aged 35–65 years; Mage = 50.0 years; SD = 8.2 years) took part in the longitudinal study. Affective responses to exercise (affective valence, positive activation, calmness) as well as perceptions of competence and perceived exertion were measured at the beginning, during, and end of three exercise sessions within the 13-weeks exercise program. Affective attitude toward exercise were measured before and at the end of the exercise program. A two-level path analysis was conducted. The direct and indirect effects of exercise experiences on changes in affective attitude were analyzed on the between-person level: firstly, it was tested whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion directly relate to changes in affective attitude. Secondly, it was assessed whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion indirectly relate to changes in affective attitudes—imparted via the affective response during exercise. Results and Conclusion: At the between-person level, a direct effect on changes in affective attitude was found for perceptions of competence (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). The model revealed one significant indirect pathway between perceived exertion and changes in affective attitude via positive activation: on average, the less strenuous people perceive physical exercise to be, the more awake they will feel during exercise (β = -0.57, p < 0.05). Those people with higher average levels of positive activation during exercise exhibit more improvements in affective attitudes toward exercise from the beginning to the end of the 13-weeks exercise program (β = 0.24, p < 0.05). Main study results

  19. An indirect measurement of the width of the w boson at the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Telford, Paul; /Manchester U.

    2006-08-01

    This thesis presents an indirect measurement of the width of the W boson using data collected at the D0 experiment, a multipurpose particle detector utilizing the Fermilab Tevatron. The W width was determined from the ratio of W {yields} {mu}{nu} to Z {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} cross sections to be {Gamma}{sub W} = 2168 {+-} 22(stat) {+-} 62(syst){sub -16}{sup +24}(pdf) {+-} 4(other) MeV, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction and other experimental measurements. In addition there is a description of how work made towards this measurement has been used to improve the parameterized detector simulation, a vital tool in the obtention of physics results from signals observed in the detector, and in estimating the uncertainty due to choice of PDF, which is of interest for all measurements made at hadron colliders.

  20. Indirect versus direct detection methods of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti-Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections. Methods Two tests were used, ELISA for the initial screening test, and a specific and sensitive Western blot (Wb) as a confirmatory test. The circulation of anti-Trichinella IgG was determined in hunted wild boar muscle juice samples in 9 provinces of 5 Italian regions. Results From 1,462 muscle fluid samples, 315 (21.5%, 95% C.I. 19.51-23.73) were tested positive by ELISA. The 315 ELISA-positive muscle fluid samples were further tested by Wb and 32 (10.1%, 95% C.I. 7.29-13.99) of these were positive with a final seroprevalence of 2.2% (95% C.I 1.55-3.07; 32/1,462). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected by artificial digestion in muscle tissues of one (0.07%, 95%C.I. 0.01-0.39) out of the 1,462 hunted wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in Wb-negative wild boar. From 2006 to 2012, a prevalence of 0.017% was detected by muscle digestion in wild boar hunted in the whole Italian territory. Conclusions The combined use of both serological methods had a sensitivity 31.4 times higher than that of the digestion (32/1,462 versus 1/1,462), suggesting their potential

  1. Exchange facilitated indirect detection of hyperpolarized 15ND 2-amido-glutamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barb, A. W.; Hekmatyar, S. K.; Glushka, J. N.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    Hyperpolarization greatly enhances opportunities to observe in vivo metabolic processes in real time. Accessible timescales are, however, limited by nuclear spin relaxation times, and sensitivity is limited by magnetogyric ratios of observed nuclei. The majority of applications to date have involved direct 13C observation of metabolites with non-protonated carbons at sites of interest ( 13C enriched carbonyls, for example), a choice that extends relaxation times and yields moderate sensitivity. Interest in 15N containing metabolites is equally high but non-protonated sites are rare and direct 15N observation insensitive. Here an approach is demonstrated that extends applications to protonated 15N sites with high sensitivity. The normally short relaxation times are lengthened by initially replacing protons (H) with deuterons (D) and low sensitivity detection of 15N is avoided by indirect detection through protons reintroduced by H/D exchange. A pulse sequence is presented that periodically samples 15N polarization at newly protonated sites by INEPT transfer to protons while returning 15N magnetization of deuterated sites to the + Z axis to preserve polarization for subsequent samplings. Applications to 15ND 2-amido-glutamine are chosen for illustration. Glutamine is an important regulator and a direct donor of nitrogen in cellular metabolism. Potential application to in vivo observation is discussed.

  2. Indirect immunofluorescence detection of E. coli O157:H7 with fluorescent silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze-Zhong; Cai, Li; Chen, Min-Yan; Lin, Yi; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2015-04-15

    A method of fluorescent nanoparticle-based indirect immunofluorescence assay using either fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry for the rapid detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. The dye-doped silica nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using W/O microemulsion methods with the combination of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and polymerization reaction with carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CEOS). Protein A was immobilized at the surface of the NPs by covalent binding to the carboxyl linkers and the surface coverage of Protein A on NPs was determined by the Bradford method. Rabbit anti-E. Coli O157:H7 antibody was used as primary antibody to recognize E. coli O157:H7 and then antibody binding protein (Protein A) labeled with FITC-doped silica NPs (FSiNPs) was used to generate fluorescent signal. With this method, E. Coli O157:H7 in buffer and bacterial mixture was detected. In addition, E. coli O157:H7 in several spiked background beef samples were measured with satisfactory results. Therefore, the FSiNPs are applicable in signal-amplified bioassay of pathogens due to their excellent capabilities such as brighter fluorescence and higher photostability than the direct use of conventional fluorescent dyes. PMID:25460888

  3. Development of an indirect competitive ELISA for simultaneous detection of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-tang; Jiang, Jin-qing; Wang, Zi-liang; Chang, Xin-yao; Liu, Xing-you; Wang, San-hu; Zhao, Kun; Chen, Jin-shan

    2011-01-01

    Modified 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropy) carbodiimide (EDC) method was employed to synthesize the artificial antigen of enrofloxacin (ENR), and New Zealand rabbits were used to produce anti-ENR polyclonal antibody (pAb). Based on the checkerboard titration, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standard curve was established. This assay was sensitive and had a linear range from 0.6 to 148.0 μg/kg (R 2=0.9567), with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and limit of detection (LOD) values of 9.4 μg/kg and 0.2 μg/kg, respectively. Of all the competitive analogues, the produced pAb exhibited a high cross-reactivity to ciprofloxacin (CIP) (87%), the main metabolite of ENR in tissues. After optimization, the matrix effects can be ignored using a 10-fold dilution in beef and 20-fold dilution in pork. The overall recoveries and coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the ranges of 86%–109% and 6.8%–13.1%, respectively. It can be concluded that the established ELISA method is suitable for simultaneous detection of ENR and CIP in animal tissues. PMID:22042652

  4. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Howe, E. Lance; Murphy, James J.; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation PMID:27442434

  5. Evaluation of laser light specularly reflected by the hohlraum surface on OMEGA indirect implosion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Nobuhiko; Turner, R. E.; Landen, O. L.; Wallace, R. J.; Koch, R. A.

    2003-10-01

    Due to the cylindrical shape of hohlraums typically used in indirect implosion experiments, the laser beams specularly reflected by the inner hohlraum surface are focused onto the capsule surface. This effect, which is known as the glint light effect, is important during the early stages of laser irradiation ( ˜200 ps), and might seed undesirable hydrodynamic instabilities which could grow during the implosion. We performed ray-trace calculations to evaluate this effect, and found that with a typical laser configuration the peak intensity of glint light can be up to 4 × 10^14 W/cm^2. We also performed experiments to measure of glint light effect at Omega using a time resolved x-ray re-emission technique, and evaluated the effect of rough hohlraum walls on the glint light intensity and spatial distribution. The results of the calculations and experiments will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  6. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Howe, E Lance; Murphy, James J; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation. PMID:27442434

  7. [Determination of organic acids in cane vinasse by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanjin; Xu, Guiping; Wei, Yuanan

    2006-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with indirect ultraviolet (UV) detection method for the separation and determination of several organic acids in cane vinasse, including malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acids, were developed. Electrophoretic conditions were as follows: uncoated fused silica capillary (56 cm/ 64 cm (effective/total length), 50 microm i. d. ), 7.5 mmol/L potassium acid phthalate-1. 5 mmol/L cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) at pH = 6.50 as buffer solution, applied voltage -25 kV, temperature 25 degrees C, detection wavelength 300 nm, reference wavelength 210 nm. Good linearities were obtained for nine organic acids, and the detection limits were 0.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L for malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for migration times and peak areas of nine organic acids within a day were 0.4% - 0.6% and 2.3% - 4.8%, respectively. The corresponding data for five days were 0.5% -0.7% and 3.3% - 5.2%. The recoveries of acid standards were above 93%. The method can be applied to determine the organic acids in cane vinasse with satisfactory results. PMID:16827307

  8. Determination of the detective quantum efficiency of a prototype, megavoltage indirect detection, active matrix flat-panel imager.

    PubMed

    El-Mohri, Y; Jee, K W; Antonuk, L E; Maolinbay, M; Zhao, Q

    2001-12-01

    After years of aggressive development, active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) have recently become commercially available for radiotherapy imaging. In this paper we report on a comprehensive evaluation of the signal and noise performance of a large-area prototype AMFPI specifically developed for this application. The imager is based on an array of 512 x 512 pixels incorporating amorphous silicon photodiodes and thin-film transistors offering a 26 x 26 cm2 active area at a pixel pitch of 508 microm. This indirect detection array was coupled to various x-ray converters consisting of a commercial phosphor screen (Lanex Fast B, Lanex Regular, or Lanex Fine) and a 1 mm thick copper plate. Performance of the imager in terms of measured sensitivity, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is reported at beam energies of 6 and 15 MV and at doses of 1 and 2 monitor units (MU). In addition, calculations of system performance (NPS, DQE) based on cascaded-system formalism were reported and compared to empirical results. In these calculations, the Swank factor and spatial energy distributions of secondary electrons within the converter were modeled by means of EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations. Measured MTFs of the system show a weak dependence on screen type (i.e., thickness), which is partially due to the spreading of secondary radiation. Measured DQE was found to be independent of dose for the Fast B screen, implying that the imager is input-quantum-limited at 1 MU, even at an extended source-to-detector distance of 200 cm. The maximum DQE obtained is around 1%--a limit imposed by the low detection efficiency of the converter. For thinner phosphor screens, the DQE is lower due to their lower detection efficiencies. Finally, for the Fast B screen, good agreement between calculated and measured DQE was observed. PMID:11797959

  9. [Comparative study of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and ELISA techniques in the detection of parvovirus B19].

    PubMed

    González, M; Hassanhi, M; Rivera, S; Bracho, M P

    2000-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies against Parvovirus B19 (P. B19), we studied the sera of 53 patients with different hematologic disorders and the sera of 15 controls using indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and the ELISA method. The prevalence of IgG in the control group was 46.6%, in patients with aplastic crisis was 83.3% (IFI) and 66.7% (ELISA) and, in patients without crisis was 68.9% (IFI) and 72.4% (ELISA). IgM was negative except for patients with crisis: 8.3% (IFI) and 29.1% (ELISA). The higher seroprevalence (IgG) found in patients in comparison with controls might be due to a greater exposure of of patients to the virus. The agreement for both techniques was 81%(IgG) and 93% (IgM) however ELISA technique was more sensitive for detecting IgM of P. B19. In spite of serologic evidence and evaluating a simple serum sample per patient, we could establish an association between aplastic crisis and viral infection for IgM ELISA but not for IgG between hematologic disorders and infection for the P. B19. PMID:10758696

  10. SERS detection of indirect viral DNA capture using colloidal gold and methylene blue as a Raman label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An indirect capture model assay using colloidal Au nanoparticles is demonstrated for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy detection of DNA. The sequence targeted for capture is derived from the West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA genome and was selected on the basis of exhibiting minimal seco...

  11. Indirect drive ablative Rayleigh-Taylor experiments with rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Huser, G.; Jadaud, J.-P.; Liberatore, S.; Vandenboomgaerde, M.

    2009-09-15

    Results of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth experiments performed in indirect drive on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] are reported. These experiments aim at benchmarking hydrocodes simulations and ablator instabilities growth in conditions relevant to ignition in the framework of the Laser MegaJoule [C. Cavailler, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 389 (2005)]. The modulated samples under study were made of germanium-doped plastic (CHGe), which is the nominal ablator for future ignition experiments. The incident x-ray drive was provided using rugby-shaped hohlraums [M. Vandenboomgaerde, J. Bastian, A. Casner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 065004 (2007)] and was characterized by means of absolute time-resolved soft x-ray power measurements through a dedicated diagnostic hole, shock breakout data and one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) side-on radiographies. All these independent x-ray drive diagnostics lead to an actual on-foil flux that is about 50% smaller than laser-entrance-hole measurements. The experimentally inferred flux is used to simulate experimental optical depths obtained from face-on radiographies for an extensive set of initial conditions: front-side single-mode (wavelength {lambda}=35, 50, and 70 {mu}m) and two-mode perturbations (wavelength {lambda}=35 and 70 {mu}m, in phase or in opposite phase). Three-dimensional pattern growth is also compared with the 2D case. Finally the case of the feedthrough mechanism is addressed with rear-side modulated foils.

  12. Optimizing the hohlraum gas density for better symmetry control of indirect drive implosion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Nobuhiko; Hall, G. N.; Nagel, S. R.; Khan, S.; Rygg, R. R.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Ho, D. D.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Jones, O. S.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.

    2014-10-01

    To achieve a spherically symmetric implosion, control of drive uniformity is essential. Both the ablation pressure and the mass ablation rate on the capsule surface should be made as uniform as possible for the duration of the drive. For an indirect drive implosion, the drive uniformity changes during the pulse because of: (1) the dynamic movement of the laser spots due to blow-off of the hohlraum wall, and (2) cross-beam energy transfer caused by laser-plasma interaction in the hohlraum. To tamp the wall blow-off, we use gas filled hohlraums. The cross-beam energy transfer can be controlled by applying a wave length separation between the cones of the laser beams. However, both of those dynamic effects are sensitive to the initial density of the hohlraum gas fill. To assess this, we performed implosion experiments with different hohlraum gas densities and tested the effect on drive asymmetry. The uniformity of the acceleration was measured by in-flight x-ray backlit imaging of the capsule. The uniformity of the core assembly was observed by imaging the self emission x-ray from the core. We will report on the experimental results and compare them to hydrodynamic simulations. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-626372.

  13. Experimental demonstration of early time, hohlraum radiation symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J.; Thomas, C.; Kline, J.; Sorce, C.; Glenn, S.; Landen, O. L.

    2011-09-01

    Early time radiation symmetry at the capsule for indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] will be inferred from the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern of a high-Z sphere replacing the ignition capsule. This technique was tested on the OMEGA laser facility [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, T. Boehly et al., Laser Part. Beams 11, 317 (1991)] in near full ignition scale vacuum hohlraums using an equivalent experimental setup to the one planned for NIF. Two laser cones entering each laser entrance hole heat the hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 100 eV, mimicking the NIF ignition pulse foot drive. The experiments have demonstrated accuracies of ±1.5% (±2%) in inferred P2/P0 (P4/P0) Legendre mode incident flux asymmetry and consistency between 900 eV and 1200 eV re-emission patterns. We have also demonstrated the expected tuning capability of P2/P0, from positive (pole hot) to negative (waist hot), decreasing linearly with the inner/outer beams power fraction. P4/P0 on the other hand shows very little variation with power fraction. We developed a simple analytical viewfactor model that is in good agreement with both measured P2/P0 and P4/P0 and their dependence on inner beam power fraction.

  14. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Andrei N. Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H.; Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D.

    2014-02-15

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  15. Indirect-detection single-photon-counting x-ray detector for breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Kaercher, Joerg; Durst, Roger

    2016-03-01

    X-ray mammography is a crucial screening tool for early identification of breast cancer. However, the overlap of anatomical features present in projection images often complicates the task of correctly identifying suspicious masses. As a result, there has been increasing interest in acquisition of volumetric information through digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) which, compared to mammography, offers the advantage of depth information. Since DBT requires acquisition of many projection images, it is desirable that the noise in each projection image be dominated by the statistical noise of the incident x-ray quanta and not by the additive noise of the imaging system (referred to as quantum-limited imaging) and that the cumulative dose be as low as possible (e.g., no more than for a mammogram). Unfortunately, the electronic noise (~2000 electrons) present in current DBT systems based on active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) is still relatively high compared with modest x-ray gain of the a-Se and CsI:Tl x-ray converters often used. To overcome the modest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limitations of current DBT systems, we have developed a large-area x-ray imaging detector with the combination of an extremely low noise (~20 electrons) active-pixel CMOS and a specially designed high resolution scintillator. The high sensitivity and low noise of such system provides better SNR by at least an order of magnitude than current state-of-art AMFPI systems and enables x-ray indirect-detection single photon counting (SPC) at mammographic energies with the potential of dose reduction.

  16. Application of photostable quantum dots for indirect immunofluorescent detection of specific bacterial serotypes on small marine animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decho, Alan W.; Beckman, Erin M.; Chandler, G. Thomas; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2008-06-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence approach was developed using semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals to label and detect a specific bacterial serotype of the bacterial human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, attached to small marine animals (i.e. benthic harpacticoid copepods), which are suspected pathogen carriers. This photostable labeling method using nanotechnology will potentially allow specific serotypes of other bacterial pathogens to be detected with high sensitivity in a range of systems, and can be easily applied for sensitive detection to other Vibrio species such as Vibrio cholerae.

  17. Separation and detection of VX and its methylphosphonic acid degradation products on a microchip using indirect laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Heleg-Shabtai, Vered; Gratziany, Natzach; Liron, Zvi

    2006-05-01

    The application of indirect LIF (IDLIF) technique for on-chip electrophoretic separation and detection of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) and its major phosphonic degradation products, ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) was demonstrated. Separation and detection of MPA degradation products of VX and the nerve agent isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB) are presented. The negatively charged dye eosin was found to be a good fluorescent marker for both the negatively charged phosphonic acids and the positively charged VX, and was chosen as the IDLIF visualization fluorescent dye. Separation and detection of VX, EMPA, and MPA in a simple-cross microchip were completed within less than a minute, and consumed only a 50 pL sample volume. A characteristic system peak that appeared in all IDLIF electropherograms served as an internal standard that increased the reliability of peak identification. The negative peak of both VX and the MPAs is in agreement with indirect detection theory and with previous reports in the literature. The LOD of VX and EMPA by IDLIF was 30 and 37 microM, respectively. Despite the fact that the detection sensitivity is relatively low, the rapid simultaneous on-chip analysis of both VX and its degradation products as well as the separation and detection of the MPA degradation products of both VX and GB, increases detection reliability and may present a choice when sensitivity is not critical compared with speed and simplicity of the assay. PMID:16703628

  18. Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Siewerdsen, J H; Antonuk, L E; el-Mohri, Y; Yorkston, J; Huang, W; Cunningham, I A

    1998-05-01

    The performance of an indirect-detection, active matrix flat-panel imager (FPI) at diagnostic energies is reported in terms of measured and theoretical signal size, noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Based upon a 1536 x 1920 pixel, 127 microns pitch array of a-Si:H thin-film transistors and photodiodes, the FPI was developed as a prototype for examination of the potential of flat-panel technology in diagnostic x-ray imaging. The signal size per unit exposure (x-ray sensitivity) was measured for the FPI incorporating five commercially available Gd2O2S:Tb converting screens at energies 70-120 kVp. One-dimensional and two-dimensional NPS and DQE were measured for the FPI incorporating three such converters and as a function of the incident exposure. The measurements support the hypothesis that FPIs have significant potential for application in diagnostic radiology. A cascaded systems model that has shown good agreement with measured individual pixel signal and noise properties is employed to describe the performance of various FPI designs and configurations under a variety of diagnostic imaging conditions. Theoretical x-ray sensitivity, NPS, and DQE are compared to empirical results, and good agreement is observed in each case. The model is used to describe the potential performance of FPIs incorporating a recently developed, enhanced array that is commercially available and has been proposed for testing and application in diagnostic radiography and fluoroscopy. Under conditions corresponding to chest radiography, the analysis suggests that such systems can potentially meet or even exceed the DQE performance of existing technology, such as screen-film and storage phosphor systems; however, under conditions corresponding to general fluoroscopy, the typical exposure per frame is such that the DQE is limited by the total system gain and additive electronic noise. The cascaded systems analysis provides a valuable means of identifying the

  19. Flight experience with windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifel, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Windshear alerts resulting from the Honeywell Windshear Detection and Guidance System are presented based on data from approximately 248,000 revenue flights at Piedmont Airlines. The data indicate that the detection system provides a significant benefit to the flight crew of the aircraft. In addition, nuisance and false alerts were found to occur at an acceptably low rate to maintain flight crew confidence in the system. Data from a digital flight recorder is also presented which shows the maximum and minimum windshear magnitudes recorded for a representative number of flights in February, 1987. The effect of the boundary layer of a steady state wind is also discussed.

  20. Indirect detection of nitrogen spins in ammonia target at superlow temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Yu.; Doshita, N.; Gautheron, F.; Kondo, K.; Meyer, W.

    2013-05-01

    The COMPASS polarized target at CERN operates with irradiated ammonia (NH3) as a material having a reasonable content of polarizable nucleons and the highest resistance against radiation damages. We study the magnetic structure of ammonia polarized by the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) method at 0.2 K and 2.5 T. In this material, electron spins, induced by ionizing radiation, couple proton and nitrogen nuclear spins by indirect J-interactions. This coupling and the dipole-dipole interactions between nuclear spins produce an asymmetry in the proton NMR line shape depending on the value of nitrogen polarization. We consider the asymmetry as an indirect imaging of the actual nitrogen spectra, useful for research developments and, in practice, for monitoring of nitrogen polarization in the long target, instead of a complicated analysis of NMR nitrogen spectra.

  1. Flow cytometry compared with indirect immunofluorescence for rapid detection of dengue virus type 1 after amplification in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Kao, C L; Wu, M C; Chiu, Y H; Lin, J L; Wu, Y C; Yueh, Y Y; Chen, L K; Shaio, M F; King, C C

    2001-10-01

    Dengue virus (DV) was detected early in infected mosquito C6/36 cells by using indirect immunofluorescence (IF) in conjunction with flow cytometry. Three fixation-permeabilization methods and three DV serotype 1 (DEN-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies, 8-8 (anti-E), 16-4 (anti-NS1), and 15F3-1 (anti-NS1), were evaluated for the detection of DEN-1 in infected C6/36 cells. We found that these three monoclonal antibodies were capable of detecting DV in C6/36 cells as early as 24 h postinoculation by using a conventional indirect IF stain. Both 8-8 and 16-4 detected DV earlier and showed a greater number of DV-positive cells than 15F3-1. In flow cytometry, 3% paraformaldehyde plus 0.1% Triton X-100 with 16-4, the best fixation-permeabilization method for testing DV, showed higher sensitivity (up to 1 PFU) than indirect IF stain. The higher sensitivity of 16-4 in detecting DEN-1 was found with both IF and flow cytometry. Flow cytometry, which had a sensitivity similar to that of nested reverse transcription-PCR, was more sensitive in detecting DV in the infected mosquito cells 10 h earlier than the conventional IF stain. When clinical specimens were amplified in mosquito C6/36 cells and then assayed for DV using flow cytometry and conventional virus isolation at day 7 postinfection, both methods had 97.22% (35 out of 36) agreement. Moreover, among 12 positive samples which were detected by conventional culture method, the flow cytometry assay could detect DV in 58.33% (7 out of 12) of samples even at day 3 postinfection. In conclusion, both monoclonal antibodies 8-8 and 16-4 can be used for the early detection of DEN-1-infected C6/36 cells, with 16-4 (anti-NS1) being the best choice for the rapid diagnosis of DV by both the IF staining and flow cytometry methods. PMID:11574589

  2. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded ``hidden sector'', annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e+e‑ and bar p p) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  3. Use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies in sheep naturally infected with Salmonella Abortusovis.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Dittus, Sophie; Belloy, Luc; Doherr, Marcus G; Hüssy, Daniela; Sting, Reinhard; Gabioud, Patricia; Waldvogel, Andreas S

    2010-07-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified and validated to detect antibodies against Salmonella Abortusovis in naturally infected sheep. The ELISA was validated with 44 positive and 45 negative control serum samples. Compared with the immunoblot, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98% and 100%, respectively. To follow antibody levels over time, samples from 12 infected ewes were collected at 1, 3, and 10 months after abortion. All animals showed antibody levels above the cutoff value throughout the observation period. One and 3 months after abortion, high antibody levels could be detected in all but one animal, whereas after 10 months, 9 animals had markedly lower but still positive antibody levels. The test characteristics and evidence for the persistence of detectable antibody levels in all infected animals for up to 10 months indicates that the ELISA can be used for herd surveillance testing. PMID:20622222

  4. Indirect readout: detection of optimized subsequences and calculation of relative binding affinities using different DNA elastic potentials

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Nils B.; Wolff, Lars; Everaers, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Essential biological processes require that proteins bind to a set of specific DNA sites with tuned relative affinities. We focus on the indirect readout mechanism and discuss its theoretical description in relation to the present understanding of DNA elasticity on the rigid base pair level. Combining existing parametrizations of elastic potentials for DNA, we derive elastic free energies directly related to competitive binding experiments, and propose a computationally inexpensive local marker for elastically optimized subsequences in protein–DNA co-crystals. We test our approach in an application to the bacteriophage 434 repressor. In agreement with known results we find that indirect readout dominates at the central, non-contacted bases of the binding site. Elastic optimization involves all deformation modes and is mainly due to the adapted equilibrium structure of the operator, while sequence-dependent elasticity plays a minor role. These qualitative observations are robust with respect to current parametrization uncertainties. Predictions for relative affinities mediated by indirect readout depend sensitively on the chosen parametrization. Their quantitative comparison with experimental data allows for a critical evaluation of DNA elastic potentials and of the correspondence between crystal and solution structures. The software written for the presented analysis is included as Supplementary Data. PMID:17038333

  5. Advantages of an indirect semiconductor quantum well system for infrared detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chan-Lon; Somoano, Robert; Pan, Dee-Son

    1989-01-01

    The infrared intersubband absorption process in quantum well systems with anisotropic bulk effective masses, which usually occurs in indirect semiconductors was analyzed. It is found that the anisotropic effective mass can be utilized to provide allowed intersubband transitions at normal incidence to the quantum well growth direction. This transition is known to be forbidden for cases of isotropic effective mass. This property can be exploited for infrared sensor application of quantum well structures by allowing direct illumination of large surface areas without using special waveguide structures. The 10-micron intersubband absorption in quantum wells made of the silicon-based system Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) was calculated. It is found that it is readily possible to achieve an absorption constant of the order of 10,000/cm in these Si quantum wells with current doping technology.

  6. Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kohno, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life. PMID:27093250

  7. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Antibodies in a Low-Endemicity Area Using Indirect Immunofluorescence and Circumoval Precipitin Test

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho do Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Viviana Alvarado-Mora, Monica; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lúcia; Pinho, João Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin test (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's test). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303

  8. Rapid differentiation of commercial juices and blends by using sugar profiles obtained by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-03-18

    A method for the determination of sugars in several fruit juices and nectars by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV-vis detection has been developed. Under optimal conditions, commercial fruit juices and nectars from several fruits were analyzed, and the sugar and cyclamate contents were quantified in less than 6 min. A study for the detection of blends of high-value juices (orange and pineapple) with cheaper alternatives was also developed. For this purpose, different chemometric techniques, based on sugar content ratios, were applied. Linear discriminant analysis showed that fruit juices can be distinguished according to the fruit type, juice blends also being differentiated. Multiple linear regression models were also constructed to predict the adulteration of orange and pineapple juices with grape juice. This simple and reliable methodology provides a rapid analysis of fruit juices of economic importance, which is relevant for quality control purposes in food industries and regulatory agencies. PMID:25719749

  9. The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

    2010-03-30

    The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

  10. In-channel indirect amperometric detection of heavy metal ions for electrophoresis on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Ai; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-02-28

    In-channel indirect amperometric detection mode for microchip capillary electrophoresis with positive separation electric field is successfully applied to some heavy metal ions. The influences of separation voltage, detection potential, the concentration and pH value of running buffer on the response of the detector have been investigated. An optimized condition of 1200V separation voltage, -0.1V detection potential, 20mM (pH 4.46) running buffer of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES)+l-histidine (l-His) was selected. The results clearly showed that Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were efficiently separated within 80s in a 3.7cm long native separation PDMS/PDMS channel and successfully detected at a single carbon fibre electrode. The theoretical plate numbers of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 1.2x10(5), 2.5x10(5), and 1.9x10(5)m(-1), respectively. The detection limits for Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 1.3, 3.3 and 7.4muM (S/N=3). PMID:19071423

  11. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  12. Mode-shape-based mass detection scheme using mechanically diverse, indirectly coupled microresonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glean, Aldo A.; Judge, John A.; Vignola, Joseph F.; Ryan, Teresa J.

    2015-02-01

    We explore vibration localization in arrays of microresonators used for ultrasensitive mass detection and describe an algorithm for identifying the location and amount of added mass using measurements of a vibration mode of the system. For a set of sensing elements coupled through a common shuttle mass, the inter-element coupling is shown to be proportional to the ratio of the element masses to the shuttle mass and to vary with the frequency mistuning between any two sensing elements. When any two elements have sufficiently similar frequencies, mass adsorption on one element can result in measurable changes to multiple modes of the system. We describe the effects on system frequencies and mode shapes due to added mass, in terms of mass ratio and frequency spacing. In cases in which modes are not fully localized, frequency-shift-based mass detection methods may give ambiguous results. The mode-shape-based detection algorithm presented uses a single measured mode shape and corresponding natural frequency to identify the location and amount of added mass. Mass detection in the presence of measurement noise is numerically simulated using a ten element sensor array. The accuracy of the detection scheme is shown to depend on the amplitude with which each element vibrates in the chosen mode.

  13. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; Huq, A.; Wood, B.; Fuchs, G.; Faruque, A. S.; Colwell, R.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.

  14. Guidelines to indirectly measure and enhance detection efficiency of stationary PIT tag interrogation systems in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.

  15. Indirect detection of halide ions via fluorescence quenching of quinine sulfate in microcolumn ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Toyohide; Sumida, Junichi

    2004-06-01

    Halide ions could be visualized via fluorescence quenching in microcolumn ion chromatography. The fluorescence of quinine sulfate, which was contained in an acidic eluent, was quenched by halide ions. The observed fluorescence quenching values increased in this order: iodide, bromide, and chloride. The present detection system was relatively sensitive to halide ions except for fluoride: other anions gave smaller signals than halide ions. The present detection system provided quantitative information, so it could be applied to the determination of chloride in water samples. PMID:15228124

  16. Principle of indirect comparison (PIC): simulation and analysis of PIC-based anomaly detection in multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton

    2006-05-01

    The Army has gained a renewed interest in hyperspectral (HS) imagery for military surveillance. As a result, a HS research team has been established at the Army Research Lab (ARL) to focus exclusively on the design of innovative algorithms for target detection in natural clutter. In 2005 at this symposium, we presented comparison performances between a proposed anomaly detector and existing ones testing real HS data. Herein, we present some insightful results on our general approach using analyses of statistical performances of an additional ARL anomaly detector testing 1500 simulated realizations of model-specific data to shed some light on its effectiveness. Simulated data of increasing background complexity will be used for the analysis, where highly correlated multivariate Gaussian random samples will model homogeneous backgrounds and mixtures of Gaussian will model non-homogeneous backgrounds. Distinct multivariate random samples will model targets, and targets will be added to backgrounds. The principle that led to the design of our detectors employs an indirect sample comparison to test the likelihood that local HS random samples belong to the same population. Let X and Y denote two random samples, and let Z = X U Y, where U denotes the union. We showed that X can be indirectly compared to Y by comparing, instead, Z to Y (or to X). Mathematical implementations of this simple idea have shown a remarkable ability to preserve performance of meaningful detections (e.g., full-pixel targets), while significantly reducing the number of meaningless detections (e.g., transitions of background regions in the scene).

  17. Characterization of Antibodies and Development of an Indirect Competitive Immunoassay for Detection of Deamidated Gluten.

    PubMed

    Tranquet, Olivier; Lupi, Roberta; Echasserieau-Laporte, Valerie; Pietri, Manon; Larré, Colette; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-06-10

    Diversification of gluten applications in the food and cosmetics industries was achieved through the production of water-soluble gluten that can be obtained by deamidation. Current analytical methods dedicated to gluten detection failed to detect deamidated gluten. After immunizing mice with the peptide LQPEEPFPE conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, five mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and sequences of bound epitopes were determined as XPXEPFPE, where X is Q or E. The mAbs exhibited high specificity for deamidated gliadins and low molecular weight glutenin subunits. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on INRA-DG1 mAb was developed with an IC50% of 85 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) were <10% except for the interassay CV of the low-level control (40 ng/mL), which was 20%. This assay was capable of detecting three of the four deamidated gluten samples spiked in rice flour at 20 mg/kg. PMID:25980542

  18. Development of an indirect competitive assay-based aptasensor for highly sensitive detection of tetracycline residue in honey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Liya; Chen, Qilong; Dong, Yiyang

    2014-07-15

    Tetracycline (TC) is widely used for prevention and control of animal diseases for its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and low cost, but its abuse can seriously affect human health and may result in trade loss. Thus there is an imperative need to develop high-performing analytical technique for TC detection. In this study, we developed a biosensor based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assay (ic-ELAA). A 76mer single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer, selected by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX), was applied for the recognition and detection of TC in honey. The limit of detection was 9.6×10(-3) ng/mL with a linear working range from 0.01 to 100 ng/mL toward TC in honey, and a mean recovery rate of 93.23% in TC-spiked honey was obtained. This aptasensor can be applied to detect TC residue in food with high sensitivity and simplicity, and it is prospective to develop useful ELAA Kits for TC determination in food. PMID:24583691

  19. A novel colorimetric sandwich aptasensor based on an indirect competitive enzyme-free method for ultrasensitive detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Abnous, Khalil; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Emrani, Ahmad Sarreshtehdar; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-15

    Analytical methods for detection and quantitation of chloramphenicol in blood serum and foodstuffs arse highly in demand. In this study, a colorimetric sandwich aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) was fabricated for sensitive and selective detection of chloramphenicol, based on an indirect competitive enzyme-free assay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), biotin and streptavidin. The designed aptasensor acquires characteristics of AuNPs, including large surface area and unique optical properties, and strong interaction of biotin with streptavidin. In the absence of chloramphenicol, the sandwich structure of aptasensor forms, leading to the observation of sharp red color. In the presence of target, functionalized AuNPs could not bind to 96-well plates, resulting in a faint red color. The fabricated colorimetric aptasensor exhibited high selectivity toward chloramphenicol with a limit of detection as low as 451 pM. Moreover, the developed colorimetric aptasensor was successfully used to detect chloramphenicol in milk and serum with LODs of 697 and 601 pM, respectively. PMID:26599477

  20. Indirect effects of bioinsecticides on the nontarget fauna: The Camargue experiment calls for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Brigitte

    2012-10-01

    Following its high selectivity and low toxicity to nontarget organisms, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has become the most commonly used microbial agent to control mosquitoes worldwide. Considered non-toxic to mammals, birds, fish, plants and most aquatic organisms, Bti direct effects on the nontarget fauna are largely limited to non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Studies addressing the indirect effects of Bti through food web perturbations are scanty and showed no significant results. Mosquito-control in southern France was implemented in 1965 using various insecticides over 400 km of coast. In spite of a high mosquito nuisance, the Camargue wetlands were excluded from this control programme to preserve biodiversity. The expanding use of Bti has prompted the implementation of an experimental mosquito control in 2006 involving 2500 of the 25,000 ha of larval biotopes of the Camargue, accompanied by impact studies on the nontarget fauna. Using birds from natural and human-inhabited areas as model species, we assessed trophic perturbations caused by three years of Bti applications. The preliminary results of this 5-yr programme revealed significant effects of Bti spraying on abundance of reed-dwelling invertebrates serving as food to passerines, as well as on the diet and breeding success of house martins nesting in rural estates and small towns. Very few studies (if any) have provided such compelling evidence of an insecticide affecting vertebrate populations, putting into question the environmental-friendly character of Bti, at least in some areas. The significance of these results are discussed within a wider context and completed with an analysis of the current Bti bibliography to highlight and orient priorities for future research on this topic.

  1. Indirect Dark Matter Detection Limits from the Ultra-Faint Milky Way Satellite Segue 1

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2011-08-11

    We use new kinematic data from the ultra-faint Milky Way satellite Segue 1 to model its dark matter distribution and derive upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section. Using gamma-ray ux upper limits from the Fermi satellite and MAGIC, we determine cross-section exclusion regions for dark matter annihilation into a variety of different particles including charged leptons. We show that these exclusion regions are beginning to probe the regions of interest for a dark matter interpretation of the electron and positron uxes from PAMELA, Fermi, and HESS, and that future observations of Segue 1 have strong prospects for testing such an interpretation. We additionally discuss prospects for detecting annihilation with neutrinos using the IceCube detector, finding that in an optimistic scenario a few neutrino events may be detected. Finally we use the kinematic data to model the Segue 1 dark matter velocity dispersion and constrain Sommerfeld enhanced models.

  2. Indirect dark matter detection limits from the ultrafaint Milky Way satellite Segue 1

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D.

    2010-12-15

    We use new kinematic data from the ultrafaint Milky Way satellite Segue 1 to model its dark matter distribution and derive upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. Using gamma-ray flux upper limits from the Fermi satellite and MAGIC, we determine cross section exclusion regions for dark matter annihilation into a variety of different particles including charged leptons. We show that these exclusion regions are beginning to probe the regions of interest for a dark matter interpretation of the electron and positron fluxes from PAMELA, Fermi, and HESS, and that future observations of Segue 1 have strong prospects for testing such an interpretation. We additionally discuss prospects for detecting annihilation with neutrinos using the IceCube detector, finding that in an optimistic scenario a few neutrino events may be detected. Finally, we use the kinematic data to model the Segue 1 dark matter velocity dispersion and constrain Sommerfeld enhanced models.

  3. A new indirect impedancemeter to detect microbial contaminations in agro-food industry.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Romestant, G; Depoortere, J; Pauss, A

    2003-01-01

    The impedancemetry method can be used in Microbiology to perform the detection, quantification and even identification of some bacteria. Basic knowledge about this subject can be stated from Ur and Brown (1975), Firstenberg-Eden and Eden (1984), the reviews of Silley and Forsythe (1996), and Wawerla et al. (1999). With Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, the conductimetric responses were highly replicable, and repeatable for inocula concentrations from 1 to 10(8) CFU mL(-1). The main use of such devices could be the detection of contaminations of foodstuff. Several of these foodstuffs incubated at 37 degrees C spontaneously release quite large amounts of CO2. Our impedancemeter, however, was able to detect an Escherichia coli presence in canned French beans down to 2.35 10(-2) colony forming units (CFU) mL(-1), and a Saccharomyces cerevisae contamination of apple purée in glass jars down to 6.1 10(-3) CFU mL(-1). PMID:24757800

  4. Do chimpanzees learn reputation by observation? Evidence from direct and indirect experience with generous and selfish strangers.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Vonk, Jennifer; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Barth, Jochen

    2008-10-01

    Can chimpanzees learn the reputation of strangers indirectly by observation? Or are such stable behavioral attributions made exclusively by first-person interactions? To address this question, we let seven chimpanzees observe unfamiliar humans either consistently give (generous donor) or refuse to give (selfish donor) food to a familiar human recipient (Experiments 1 and 2) and a conspecific (Experiment 3). While chimpanzees did not initially prefer to beg for food from the generous donor (Experiment 1), after continued opportunities to observe the same behavioral exchanges, four chimpanzees developed a preference for gesturing to the generous donor (Experiment 2), and transferred this preference to novel unfamiliar donor pairs, significantly preferring to beg from the novel generous donors on the first opportunity to do so. In Experiment 3, four chimpanzees observed novel selfish and generous acts directed toward other chimpanzees by human experimenters. During the first half of testing, three chimpanzees exhibited a preference for the novel generous donor on the first trial. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees can infer the reputation of strangers by eavesdropping on third-party interactions. PMID:18357476

  5. Modified Hodge Test versus Indirect Carbapenemase Test: Prospective Evaluation of a Phenotypic Assay for Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Joanne; Sifri, Costi D.; Hazen, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The currently recommended phenotypic test for the detection of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is the modified Hodge test (MHT). However, the MHT lacks specificity. Here we demonstrate an alternative phenotypic test, the indirect carbapenemase test, for the detection of blaKPC-producing isolates that has specificity superior to that of the MHT for non-Klebsiella Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23390272

  6. Dark matter protohalos in a nine parameter MSSM and implications for direct and indirect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Roberta; Catalan, Maria Eugenia Cabrera; Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2015-09-01

    We study how the kinetic decoupling of dark matter within a minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, by adopting nine independent parameters (MSSM-9), could improve our knowledge of the properties of the dark matter protohalos. We show that the most probable neutralino mass regions, which satisfy the relic density and the Higgs mass constraints, are those with the lightest supersymmetric neutralino mass around 1 TeV and 3 TeV, corresponding to Higgsino-like and winolike neutralino, respectively. The kinetic decoupling temperature in the MSSM-9 scenario leads to a most probable protohalo mass in a range of Mph˜10-12- 10-7M⊙ . The part of the region closer to ˜2 TeV gives also important contributions from the neutralino-stau coannihilation, reducing the effective annihilation rate in the early Universe. We also study how the size of the smallest dark matter substructures correlates to experimental signatures, such as the spin-dependent and spin-independent scattering cross sections, relevant for direct detection of dark matter. Improvements on the spin-independent sensitivity might reduce the most probable range of the protohalo mass between ˜10-9M⊙ and ˜10-7M⊙, while the expected spin-dependent sensitivity provides weaker constraints. We show how the boost of the luminosity due to dark matter annihilation increases, depending on the protohalo mass. In the Higgsino case, the protohalo mass is lower than the canonical value often used in the literature (˜10-6M⊙), while ⟨σ v ⟩ does not deviate from ⟨σ v ⟩˜10-26 cm3 s-1 ; there is no significant enhancement of the luminosity. On the contrary, in the wino case, the protohalo mass is even lighter, and ⟨σ v ⟩ is two orders of magnitude larger; as its consequence, we see a substantial enhancement of the luminosity.

  7. An efficient NMR method for the characterisation of 14N sites through indirect 13C detection

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, James A.; Haies, Ibraheem M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements and plays a key role in the chemistry of biological systems. Despite its widespread distribution, the study of the naturally occurring isotope of nitrogen, 14N (99.6%), has been relatively limited as it is a spin-1 nucleus that typically exhibits a large quadrupolar interaction. Accordingly, most studies of nitrogen sites in biomolecules have been performed on samples enriched with 15N, limiting the application of NMR to samples which can be isotopically enriched. This precludes the analysis of naturally occurring samples and results in the loss of the wealth of structural and dynamic information that the quadrupolar interaction can provide. Recently, several experimental approaches have been developed to characterize 14N sites through their interaction with neighboring ‘spy’ nuclei. Here we describe a novel version of these experiments whereby coherence between the 14N site and the spy nucleus is mediated by the application of a moderate rf field to the 14N. The resulting 13C/14N spectra show good sensitivity on natural abundance and labeled materials; whilst the 14N lineshapes permit the quantitative analysis of the quadrupolar interaction. PMID:23589073

  8. Recursive Indirect-Paths Modularity (RIP-M) for Detecting Community Structure in RNA-Seq Co-expression Networks.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Bahareh; Zimmermann, Michael T; Grill, Diane E; Kennedy, Richard B; Oberg, Ann L; White, Bill C; Poland, Gregory A; McKinney, Brett A

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of genes in co-expression networks are commonly used as functional units for gene set enrichment detection and increasingly as features (attribute construction) for statistical inference and sample classification. One of the practical challenges of clustering for these purposes is to identify an optimal partition of the network where the individual clusters are neither too large, prohibiting interpretation, nor too small, precluding general inference. Newman Modularity is a spectral clustering algorithm that automatically finds the number of clusters, but for many biological networks the cluster sizes are suboptimal. In this work, we generalize Newman Modularity to incorporate information from indirect paths in RNA-Seq co-expression networks. We implement a merge-and-split algorithm that allows the user to constrain the range of cluster sizes: large enough to capture genes in relevant pathways, yet small enough to resolve distinct functions. We investigate the properties of our recursive indirect-pathways modularity (RIP-M) and compare it with other clustering methods using simulated co-expression networks and RNA-seq data from an influenza vaccine response study. RIP-M had higher cluster assignment accuracy than Newman Modularity for finding clusters in simulated co-expression networks for all scenarios, and RIP-M had comparable accuracy to Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA). RIP-M was more accurate than WGCNA for modest hard thresholds and comparable for high, while WGCNA was slightly more accurate for soft thresholds. In the vaccine study data, RIP-M and WGCNA enriched for a comparable number of immunologically relevant pathways. PMID:27242890

  9. Recursive Indirect-Paths Modularity (RIP-M) for Detecting Community Structure in RNA-Seq Co-expression Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Bahareh; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Grill, Diane E.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Oberg, Ann L.; White, Bill C.; Poland, Gregory A.; McKinney, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of genes in co-expression networks are commonly used as functional units for gene set enrichment detection and increasingly as features (attribute construction) for statistical inference and sample classification. One of the practical challenges of clustering for these purposes is to identify an optimal partition of the network where the individual clusters are neither too large, prohibiting interpretation, nor too small, precluding general inference. Newman Modularity is a spectral clustering algorithm that automatically finds the number of clusters, but for many biological networks the cluster sizes are suboptimal. In this work, we generalize Newman Modularity to incorporate information from indirect paths in RNA-Seq co-expression networks. We implement a merge-and-split algorithm that allows the user to constrain the range of cluster sizes: large enough to capture genes in relevant pathways, yet small enough to resolve distinct functions. We investigate the properties of our recursive indirect-pathways modularity (RIP-M) and compare it with other clustering methods using simulated co-expression networks and RNA-seq data from an influenza vaccine response study. RIP-M had higher cluster assignment accuracy than Newman Modularity for finding clusters in simulated co-expression networks for all scenarios, and RIP-M had comparable accuracy to Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA). RIP-M was more accurate than WGCNA for modest hard thresholds and comparable for high, while WGCNA was slightly more accurate for soft thresholds. In the vaccine study data, RIP-M and WGCNA enriched for a comparable number of immunologically relevant pathways. PMID:27242890

  10. Determination of L-carnitine in food supplement formulations using ion-pair chromatography with indirect conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Kakou, Aikaterini; Megoulas, Nikolaos C; Koupparis, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    A novel method for the determination of L-carnitine in food supplement formulations was developed and validated, using ion-pair chromatography with indirect conductimetric detection. The chromatographic method was based on a non-polar (C18) column and an aqueous octanesulfonate (0.64 mM) eluent, acidified with trifluoroacetic acid (5.2 mM). The retention time was 5.4 min and the asymmetry factor 0.65. A linear calibration curve from 10 to 1000 microg/ml (r= 0.99998), with a detection limit of 2.7 microg/ml (25 microl injection volume), a repeatability %RSD of 0.8 (40 microg/ml, n = 5) and reproducibility %RSD of 2.6 were achieved. The proposed method was applied for the determination of carnitine in oral solutions and capsules. No interference from excipients was found and the only pretreatment step required was the appropriate dilution with the mobile phase. Recovery from spiked samples was ranged from 97.7 to 99.7% with a precision (%RSD, n = 3) of 0.01-2.1%. PMID:15830947

  11. Development of indirect competitive ELISA using egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) for the detection of Gentamicin residues.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxin; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Ruediger; Du, Enqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin (Gent) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic being used in livestock sector. Gent residues could cause some genetic disorders by nonsense mutations. This study aimed to develop IgY-based ELISA for the detection of Gent in animal products. Gent was conjugated with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) by carbodiimide method for further immunization in the laying chickens. PEG-6000 extraction method was employed to extract IgY from the egg yolk. The titer of anti-Gent-IgY attained the peak of 1:256,000 after the 5(th) booster immunization. Checkerboard titration confirmed that, anti-Gent IgY in 1:2,000 dilution could give an Optical Density (OD) 1.0 at 2 µg mL(-1) of Gent-OVA coating concentration. IgY-based indirect competitive ELISA (Ic-ELISA) showed that, the IC50 value of anti-Gent IgY was 2.69 ng mL(-1) and regression curve equation was y = -16.27x + 56.97 (R(2) = 0.95, n = 3), confirming that, the detection limit (LOD, IC10 value) was 0.01 ng mL(-1). Recoveries from fresh milk, pork and chicken samples were ranged from 69.82% to 94.32%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10.88%. Our results suggested that generated anti-Gent IgY antibodies can be used in routine screening analysis of Gent residues in food samples. PMID:26513166

  12. Ion chromatography with the indirect ultraviolet detection of alkali metal ions and ammonium using imidazolium ionic liquid as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Indirect ultraviolet detection was conducted in ultraviolet-absorption-agent-added mobile phase to complete the detection of the absence of ultraviolet absorption functional group in analytes. Compared with precolumn derivatization or postcolumn derivatization, this method can be widely used, has the advantages of simple operation and good linear relationship. Chromatographic separation of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid/organic solvent as the mobile phase, in which imidazolium ionic liquids acted as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluting agent. The retention behaviors of four kinds of cations are discussed, and the mechanism of separation and detection are described. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background ultraviolet absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in the ion chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection. The successful separation and detection of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) within 13 min was achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.02, 0.11, 0.30, and 0.06 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and analysis method of alkali metal ions and ammonium by ion chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection method was developed, and the application range of ionic liquid was expanded. PMID:27377245

  13. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  14. Broadband excitation and indirect detection of nitrogen-14 in rotating solids using Delays Alternating with Nutation (DANTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitzthum, Veronika; Caporini, Marc A.; Ulzega, Simone; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2011-09-01

    A train of short rotor-synchronized pulses in the manner of Delays Alternating with Nutations for Tailored Excitation (DANTE) applied to nitrogen-14 nuclei ( I = 1) in samples spinning at the magic angle at high frequencies (typically νrot = 62.5 kHz so that τrot = 16 μs) allows one to achieve uniform excitation of a great number of spinning sidebands that arise from large first-order quadrupole interactions, as occur for aromatic nitrogen-14 nuclei in histidine. With routine rf amplitudes ω1( 14N)/(2 π) = 60 kHz and very short pulses of a typical duration 0.5 < τp < 2 μs, efficient excitation can be achieved with 13 rotor-synchronized pulses in 13 τrot = 208 μs. Alternatively, with 'overtone' DANTE sequences using 2, 4, or 8 pulses per rotor period one can achieve efficient broadband excitation in fewer rotor periods, typically 2-4 τrot. These principles can be combined with the indirect detection of 14N nuclei via spy nuclei with S = ½ such as 1H or 13C in the manner of Dipolar Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation (D-HMQC).

  15. Quantification of anions and cations in environmental water samples. Measurements with capillary electrophoresis and indirect-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Hiissa, T; Sirén, H; Kotiaho, T; Snellman, M; Hautojärvi, A

    1999-08-20

    The aim of this study was to validate two separation methods for determination of inorganic anions and cations from natural waters with capillary electrophoresis (CE) by using indirect-UV detection. The research is related to method development for screening of groundwater samples obtained in site investigations for spent fuel of the Finnish nuclear industry. In CE analysis, anions were separated in pyromellitic acid (pH 7.7) in the order bromide, chloride, sulphate, nitrite, nitrate, fluoride and dihydrogenphosphate. Cations were separated at pH 3.6 after anions using an 18-crown-6-ether solution. In these analyses, ammonium migrated first followed by potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium. The concentrations of the ions in the natural water samples were calculated by using two or three calibration curves made using reference solutions at concentration levels of 0.5-250 mg/l. The repeatabilities of the anion and cation methods were tested using laboratory-made reference sample mixtures with high and low salt concentrations. The limits of quantification in the analyses were between 0.02 and 0.1 mg/l, depending on the ion. Concentrations of ions tested in natural waters varied from a few milligrams to tens of grams per litre. PMID:10486747

  16. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus

    PubMed Central

    SU, Mingjun; LI, Chunqiu; GUO, Donghua; WEI, Shan; WANG, Xinyu; GENG, Yufei; YAO, Shuang; GAO, Jing; WANG, Enyu; ZHAO, Xiwen; WANG, Zhihui; WANG, Jianfa; WU, Rui; FENG, Li; SUN, Dongbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been proven to be associated with enteric disease in piglets. Diagnostic tools for serological surveys of PDCoV remain in the developmental stage when compared with those for other porcine coronaviruses. In our study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (rPDCoV-N-ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies against PDCoV using a histidine-tagged recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. The rPDCoV-N-ELISA did not cross-react with antisera against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine group A rotavirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine circovirus-2, porcine pseudorabies virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed 100% sensitivity and 90.4% specificity of the rPDCoV-N-ELISA based on samples of known status (n=62). Analyses of field samples (n=319) using the rPDCoV-N-ELISA indicated that 11.59% of samples were positive for antibodies against PDCoV. These data demonstrated that the rPDCoV-N-ELISA can be used for epidemiological investigations of PDCoV and that PDCoV had a low serum prevalence in pig population in Heilongjiang province, northeast China. PMID:26668175

  17. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Su, Mingjun; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Geng, Yufei; Yao, Shuang; Gao, Jing; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been proven to be associated with enteric disease in piglets. Diagnostic tools for serological surveys of PDCoV remain in the developmental stage when compared with those for other porcine coronaviruses. In our study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (rPDCoV-N-ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies against PDCoV using a histidine-tagged recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. The rPDCoV-N-ELISA did not cross-react with antisera against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine group A rotavirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine circovirus-2, porcine pseudorabies virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed 100% sensitivity and 90.4% specificity of the rPDCoV-N-ELISA based on samples of known status (n=62). Analyses of field samples (n=319) using the rPDCoV-N-ELISA indicated that 11.59% of samples were positive for antibodies against PDCoV. These data demonstrated that the rPDCoV-N-ELISA can be used for epidemiological investigations of PDCoV and that PDCoV had a low serum prevalence in pig population in Heilongjiang province, northeast China. PMID:26668175

  18. Characterization of an Indirect-Detection Amorphous Silicon Detector for Dosimetric Measurement of Intensity Modulated Photon Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Daniel Wayne

    Indirect-detection amorphous silicon electronic imagers show much promise for measurement of radiation dose, particularly for pre-treatment verification of patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy plans. These instruments, commonly known as Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs), have high data density, large detecting area, convenient electronic read-out, excellent positional reproducibility, and are quickly becoming standard equipment on today's medical megavoltage linear accelerators. However, because these devices were originally intended to be digital radiograph imagers and not dosimeters, the modeling, calibration, and prediction of their response to dose carries a number of challenges. For instance, EPID dose images exhibit off-axis dose errors of up to 18% with increasing distance from the central axis of the imager (as compared to dose predictions calculated by a commercially available treatment planning system). Furthermore, these off-axis errors are asymmetric, with higher errors in the in-plane direction than in the cross-plane direction. In this work, methods are proposed to account for EPID off-axis effects by precisely calculating off-axis output factors from experimental measurements to increase the accuracy of EPID absolute dose measurement. Using these methods, dose readings acquired over the entire surface of the detector agree to within 2% accuracy as compared to respective EPID dose predictions. Similarly, the percentage of measured dose points that agree with respective calculated dose points (using 3%, 3 mm criteria) improves by as much as 60% for off-axis intensity modulated photon fields. Furthermore, a number of clinical applications of EPID dosimetry are investigated, including pixel response constancy, the effect of data density on a common metric for quantitatively comparing measured vs. calculated dose, and the implementation of an electronic portal dosimetry program for radiotherapy quality assurance.

  19. Study on Indirect Measuring Technology of EAF Steelmaking Decarburization Rate by Off-gas Analysis Technique in Hot State Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kai; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhu, Rong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, measurement method of EAF Steelmaking decarburization rate is studied. Because of the fuel gas blown and air mixed, the composition of hot temperature off-gas is measurand unreally, and the flow rate is unknown too, the direct measurement of EAF decarburization rate by furnace gas analysis is unrealized. Firstly, the off-gas generation process is discussed. After that, dynamic concentration of CO2, CO, and O2 in off-gas and EAF oxygen supply rate are monitored in real time. Finally, the concentration and volume flow rate of off-gas are obtained to measure the EAF decarburization rate indirectly. The results of the hot state experiments show that the decarburization rate in oxidization step can reach up to about 0.53 mol/s, and the forecasting carbon concentration is 1.14% corresponding to the average carbon concentration (1.43%) in finial metal samples. The measurement of decarburization rate by off-gas analysis technique can be reasonable in EAF production process.

  20. The Earth's velocity for direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The Earth's velocity relative to the Sun in galactic coordinates is required in the rate calculation for direct detection experiments. We provide a rigorous derivation of this quantity to first order in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. We also discuss the effect of the precession of the equinoxes, which has hitherto received little explicit discussion. Comparing with other expressions in the literature, we confirm that the expression of Lee, Lisanti and Safdi is correct, while the expression of Lewin and Smith, the de facto standard expression, contains an error. For calculations of the absolute event rate, the leading order expression is sufficient while for modulation searches, an expression with the eccentricity is required for accurate predictions of the modulation phase.

  1. Characterization and quantitation of mixtures of alkyl ether sulfates and carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with indirect photometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Zafón, Virginia; Ortega-Gadea, Silvia; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2003-08-01

    The separation, characterization, and determination of mixtures of alkyl ether sulfates (AES) and fatty acids (C10-C16) in background electrolytes (BGEs) containing acetonitrile (ACN)-water mixtures is addressed. Due to inhibition of the ionization of the carboxylate groups, the migration time and the resolution between the fatty acids decreased when the water content of the BGE was reduced, but efficiency and resolution between the AES oligomers improved. The migration times increased and resolution improved by substituting 5% ACN by an equivalent amount of dioxane. A complete separation of the two surfactant classes, up to the AES oligomers with 8 ethylene oxide units (EOs) with respect to C10, with excellent resolution between the AES oligomers, while preserving a satisfactory resolution between the fatty acids, was achieved with a BGE containing 5 mM trimethoxybenzoic acid, 7 mM dipentylamine, 85% ACN, 5% dioxane, and 10% water. The two surfactant classes were increasingly resolved by further reducing the water content of the BGE. Thus, C2 (acetate) was resolved from the AES oligomers up to 7 EOs using 90% ACN and 5% dioxane, but the resolution between the heavier fatty acids was poor with this BGE. Identification of the AES oligomers was eased by the excellent regularity of the successive migration times; thus, within each AES subclass or series of oligomers with the same number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, the migration times decreased following a mild curve as the number of EOs increased. The way how the data obtained by indirect photometry (corrected peak areas that are proportional to the molar concentrations) should be managed to avoid systematic error when the calibration curve is constructed using an AES standard with an oligomer distribution different from that of the samples is discussed and equations are given. Decyl sulfate was successfully used as internal standard. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were of ca. 2 microM for individual AES

  2. The RAP experiment: Acoustic Detection of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; Buonomo, B.; Cavallari, G.; Coccia, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Delle Monache, G.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Fafone, V.; Ligi, C.; Marini, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Modestino, G.; Pizzella, G.; Quintieri, L.; Roccella, S.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Tripodi, P.; Valente, P.

    2007-10-01

    The RAP experiment is based on the acoustic detection of high energy particles by cylindrical bars. In fact, the interacting particles warm up the material around their track causing a local thermal expansion that, being prevented by the rest of the material, causes a local impulse of pressure. Consequently the bar starts to vibrate and the amplitude of the oscillation is proportional to the energy released. The RAP experiment has the aim to investigate the mechanical excitation of cylindrical bars caused by impinging particles depending on the conducting status of the material of which the detector is made. In particular physical phenomena related to the superconductivity state could be involved in such a way to enhance the conversion efficiency of the particle energy into mechanical vibrations. Essentially, two materials have been tested: aluminum alloy (Al5056) and niobium. In this report we report the measurements obtained for a niobium bar from room temperature down to 4K, below the transition temperature, and those obtained for an Al5056 bar above the transition (from 4 to 293 K).

  3. Indirect detection of superoxide in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using microchip electrophoresis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Richard P S; Siegel, Joseph M; Fresta, Claudia G; Caruso, Giuseppe; da Silva, José A F; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Superoxide, a naturally produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human body, is involved in many pathological and physiological signaling processes. However, if superoxide formation is left unregulated, overproduction can lead to oxidative damage to important biomolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. Superoxide can also lead to the formation of peroxynitrite, an extremely hazardous substance, through its reaction with endogenously produced nitric oxide. Despite its importance, quantitative information regarding superoxide production is difficult to obtain due to its high reactivity and low concentrations in vivo. MitoHE, a fluorescent probe that specifically reacts with superoxide, was used in conjunction with microchip electrophoresis (ME) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection to investigate changes in superoxide production by RAW 264.7 macrophage cells following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Stimulation was performed in the presence and absence of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitors, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and 2-metoxyestradiol (2-ME). The addition of these inhibitors resulted in an increase in the amount of superoxide specific product (2-OH-MitoE(+)) from 0.08 ± 0.01 fmol (0.17 ± 0.03 mM) in native cells to 1.26 ± 0.06 fmol (2.5 ± 0.1 mM) after PMA treatment. This corresponds to an approximately 15-fold increase in intracellular concentration per cell. Furthermore, the addition of 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) to the cells during incubation resulted in the production of 0.061 ± 0.006 fmol (0.12 ± 0.01 mM) of 2-OH-MitoE(+) per cell on average. These results demonstrate that indirect superoxide detection coupled with the use of SOD inhibitors and a separation method is a viable method to discriminate the 2-OH-MitoE(+) signal from possible interferences. PMID:26159570

  4. NATO TG-53: acoustic detection of weapon firing joint field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Dale N.; Pham, Tien; Scanlon, Michael V.; Srour, Nassy; Reiff, Christian G.; Sim, Leng K.; Solomon, Latasha; Thompson, Dorothea F.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons such as sniper, mortar, artillery and C4 explosives and (ii) to share signatures among NATO partners from a variety of acoustic sensing platforms on the ground and in the air distributed over a wide area.

  5. Strangeness detection in ALICE experiment at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Safarik, K.

    1995-07-15

    The authors present some parameters of the ALICE detector which concern the detection of strange particles. The results of a simulation for neutral strange particles and cascades, together with estimated rates are presented. They also briefly discuss the detection of charged K-mesons. Finally, they mention the possibility of open charm particle detection.

  6. Dark matter indirect detection signals and the nature of neutrinos in the supersymmetric U(1)B-L extension of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Campbell, Sheldon S.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Gao, Yu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the prospects for determining the nature of neutrinos in the context of a supersymmetric B-L extension of the standard model by using dark matter indirect detection signals and bounds on Neff from the cosmic microwave background data. The model contains two new dark matter candidates whose dominant annihilation channels produce more neutrinos than neutralino dark matter in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The photon and neutrino counts may then be used to discriminate between the two models. If the dark matter comes from the B-L sector, its indirect signals and impact on the cosmic microwave background can shed light on the nature of the neutrinos. When the light neutrinos are of Majorana type, the indirect neutrino signal from the Sun and the Galactic center may show a prompt neutrino box feature, as well as an earlier cutoff in both neutrino and gamma-ray energy spectra. When the light neutrinos are of Dirac type, their contribution to the effective number of neutrinos Neff is at a detectable level.

  7. Prospects for detecting dark matter with neutrino telescopes in light of recent results from direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Direct detection dark matter experiments, lead by the CDMS collaboration, have placed increasingly stronger constraints on the cross sections for elastic scattering of WIMPs on nucleons. These results impact the prospects for the indirect detection of dark matter using neutrino telescopes. With this in mind, we revisit the prospects for detecting neutrinos produced by the annihilation of WIMPs in the Sun. We find that the latest bounds do not seriously limit the models most accessible to next generation kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. This is largely due to the fact that models with significant spin-dependent couplings to protons are the least constrained and, at the same time, the most promising because of the efficient capture of WIMPs in the Sun. We identify models where dark matter particles are beyond the reach of any planned direct detection experiments while within reach of neutrino telescopes. In summary, we find that, even when contemplating recent direct detection results, neutrino telescopes still have the opportunity to play an important as well as complementary role in the search for particle dark matter.

  8. Indirect Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Mukul R.

    This book is the Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Sydney, Australia, August 30-September 2, 1983. The meeting was sponsored by the International Union of Radio Science and the International Astronomical Union.Indirect imaging is based upon the principle of determining the actual form of brightness distribution in a complex case by Fourier synthesis, using information derived from a large number of Fourier components. The main topic of the symposium was how to get the best images from data obtained from telescopes and other similar imaging instruments. Although the meeting was dominated by radio astronomers, with the consequent dominance of discussion of indirect imaging in the radio domain, there were quite a few participants from other disciplines. Thus there were some excellent discussions on optical imaging and medical imaging.

  9. Simple Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Detect Antibodies Against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Based on Prokaryotically Expressed Recombinant MBP-NS3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Pezhman; Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masoud Reza; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad Rahim; Lotfi, Mohsen; Pourmahdi Boroujeni, Mahdi; Daghari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease of cattle distributed worldwide. Diagnosis of BVD relies on laboratory-based detection of its viral causing agent or virus specific antibodies and the most common laboratory method for this purpose is Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Objectives: The current study was aimed to develop a simple indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in the sera of infected cattle. Materials and Methods: A new simple indirect ELISA method was developed to detect BVDV infection by prokaryotically (Escherichia coli, BL21 strain) expressed recombinant whole nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of BVDV (NADL strain). Four hundred bovine serum samples were evaluated by the newly developed NS3-ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) as the gold standard method to diagnose BVD. Among these samples, 289 sera had been previously tested by a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Statistical analyses showed a very high correlation between the results of the developed NS3-ELISA and VNT (kappa coefficient = 0.935, P < 0.001), with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 98.8%, respectively. There was also a high correlation between the results of NS3-ELISA and the commercial ELISA kit (kappa coefficient = 0.802, P < 0.001) with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 90.72% and 91.15%, respectively. Conclusions: The newly developed simple indirect ELISA showed high sensitivity and specificity with respect to VNT. Developing such a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA which is much less expensive than the available commercial ELISA kits can improve the detection of BVDV infections, help to eliminate the disease from herds, and decrease economic losses caused by this disease. PMID:25964844

  10. Comparison between intraoral indirect and conventional film-based imaging for the detection of dental root fractures: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Werner H; Venturin, Jaqueline S; Noujeim, Marcel; Dove, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    Digital intraoral radiographic systems have been rapidly replacing conventional dental X-ray films for diagnosis of dental diseases. Current scientific literature supports the use of these digital systems for the detection of dental caries, periodontal bone loss, and periapical pathologies. However, relatively few studies have been published addressing the detection of dental root fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoral F-speed film (Insight) with two photostimulable phosphor (PSP) indirect digital systems (ScanX and Digora Optime) for the detection of simulated dental root fractures. Ten raters evaluated images acquired from 10 dry human cadaver mandibles under optimal viewing conditions. These data were analyzed by a 5-point receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for statistical differences. Sensitivity and specificity of these systems were also assessed. Since statistically significant difference between the systems was not observed, the results of this study agreeably support indirect digital PSP plates as an alternative to the evaluated conventional film for the detection of dental root fractures. PMID:23566073

  11. Analysis of γ-hydroxy butyrate by combining capillary electrophoresis-indirect detection and wall dynamic coating: application to dried matrices.

    PubMed

    Saracino, Maria A; Catapano, Maria C; Iezzi, Rosa; Somaini, Lorenzo; Gerra, Gilberto; Mercolini, Laura

    2015-11-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a powerful central nervous system depressant, currently used in medicine for the treatment of narcolepsy and alcohol dependence. In recent years, it has gained popularity among illegal club drugs, mainly because of its euphoric effects as well as doping agent and date rape drug. The purpose of the present work was the development of a rapid analytical method for the analysis of GHB in innovative biological matrices, namely dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried urine spots (DUSs). The analytical method is based on capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV absorption detection at 210 nm and capillary wall dynamic coating. The background electrolyte is composed of a phosphate buffer containing nicotinic acid (probe for detection) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, reversal of electroosmosis in wall dynamic coating). The influence of probe and CTAB concentration, together with buffer pH, on migration time and signal response was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, analytical linearity and precision were satisfactory; absolute recovery values were also high (>90 %); the use of dried matrices (DBSs and DUSs) was advantageous as an alternative matrix to classical ones. No interferences were found either from the most common exogenous or from endogenous compounds. This analytical approach can offer a rapid, precise and accurate method for GHB determination in innovative biological samples, which could be important for screening purposes in clinical and forensic toxicology. Graphical Abstract CE method, by combined indirect UV detection and dynamic coating, for GHB determination in DBSs and DUSs. PMID:26427507

  12. First, Get Your Feet Wet: The Effects of Learning from Direct and Indirect Experience on Team Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gino, Francesca; Argote, Linda; Miron-Spektor, Ella; Todorova, Gergana

    2010-01-01

    How does prior experience influence team creativity? We address this question by examining the effects of task experience acquired directly and task experience acquired vicariously from others on team creativity in a product-development task. Across three laboratory studies, we find that direct task experience leads to higher levels of team…

  13. The PVLAS experiment: detecting vacuum magnetic birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavattini, G.; Della Valle, F.; Gastaldi, U.; Messineo, G.; Milotti, E.; Pengo, R.; Piemontese, L.; Ruoso, G.

    2013-06-01

    The PVLAS collaboration is presently assembling a new apparatus to detect vacuum magnetic birefringence. This property is related to the structure of the QED vacuum and is predicted by the Euler-Heisenberg-Weisskopf effective Lagrangian. It can be detected by measuring the ellipticity acquired by a linearly polarised light beam propagating through a strong magnetic field. Here we report results of a scaled-down test setup and briefly describe the new PVLAS apparatus. This latter one is in construction and is based on a high-sensitivity ellipsometer with a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (> 4×105) and two 0.8 m long 2.5 T rotating permanent dipole magnets. Measurements with the test setup have improved by a factor 2 the previous upper bound on the parameter Ae, which determines the strength of the nonlinear terms in the QED Lagrangian: Ae(PVLAS) < 3.3 × 10-21 T-2 95% c.l.

  14. Evidence for a Bubble-Competition Regime in Indirectly Driven Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Experiments on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, D. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kane, J. O.; Casner, A.; Liberatore, S.; Masse, L. P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130 μ m thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  15. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  16. Census cities experiment in urban change detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work continues on mapping of 1970 urban land use from 1970 census contemporaneous aircraft photography. In addition, change detection analysis from 1972 aircraft photography is underway for several urban test sites. Land use maps, mosaics, and census overlays for the two largest urban test sites are nearing publication readiness. Preliminary examinations of ERTS-1 imagery of San Francisco Bay have been conducted which show that tracts of land of more than 10 acres in size which are undergoing development in an urban setting can be identified. In addition, each spectral band is being evaluated as to its utility for urban analyses. It has been found that MSS infrared band 7 helps to differentiate intra-urban land use details not found in other MSS bands or in the RBV coverage of the same scene. Good quality false CIR composites have been generated from 9 x 9 inch positive MSS bands using the Diazo process.

  17. Probing the deep nonlinear stage of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in indirect drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casner, A. Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Jacquet, L.; Martinez, D.; Moore, A. S.; Seugling, R.; Felker, S.; Haan, S. W.; Remington, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-05-15

    Academic tests in physical regimes not encountered in Inertial Confinement Fusion will help to build a better understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities and constitute the scientifically grounded validation complementary to fully integrated experiments. Under the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program, recent indirect drive experiments have been carried out to study the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regime [A. Casner et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082708 (2012)]. In these experiments, a modulated package is accelerated by a 175 eV radiative temperature plateau created by a room temperature gas-filled platform irradiated by 60 NIF laser beams. The unique capabilities of the NIF are harnessed to accelerate this planar sample over much larger distances (≃1.4 mm) and longer time periods (≃12 ns) than previously achieved. This extended acceleration could eventually allow entering into a turbulent-like regime not precluded by the theory for the RTI at the ablation front. Simultaneous measurements of the foil trajectory and the subsequent RTI growth are performed and compared with radiative hydrodynamics simulations. We present RTI growth measurements for two-dimensional single-mode and broadband multimode modulations. The dependence of RTI growth on initial conditions and ablative stabilization is emphasized, and we demonstrate for the first time in indirect-drive a bubble-competition, bubble-merger regime for the RTI at ablation front.

  18. Probing the deep nonlinear stage of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in indirect drive experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Jacquet, L.; Martinez, D.; Moore, A. S.; Seugling, R.; Felker, S.; Haan, S. W.; Remington, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-05-01

    Academic tests in physical regimes not encountered in Inertial Confinement Fusion will help to build a better understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities and constitute the scientifically grounded validation complementary to fully integrated experiments. Under the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program, recent indirect drive experiments have been carried out to study the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regime [A. Casner et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082708 (2012)]. In these experiments, a modulated package is accelerated by a 175 eV radiative temperature plateau created by a room temperature gas-filled platform irradiated by 60 NIF laser beams. The unique capabilities of the NIF are harnessed to accelerate this planar sample over much larger distances ( ≃1.4 mm) and longer time periods ( ≃12 ns) than previously achieved. This extended acceleration could eventually allow entering into a turbulent-like regime not precluded by the theory for the RTI at the ablation front. Simultaneous measurements of the foil trajectory and the subsequent RTI growth are performed and compared with radiative hydrodynamics simulations. We present RTI growth measurements for two-dimensional single-mode and broadband multimode modulations. The dependence of RTI growth on initial conditions and ablative stabilization is emphasized, and we demonstrate for the first time in indirect-drive a bubble-competition, bubble-merger regime for the RTI at ablation front.

  19. Complementary test of the dark matter self-interaction in dark U(1) model by direct and indirect dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The halo dark matter (DM) can be captured by the Sun if its final velocity after the collision with a nucleus in the Sun is less than the escape velocity. We consider a selfinteracting dark matter (SIDM) model where U(1) gauge symmetry is introduced to account for the DM self-interaction. Such a model naturally leads to isospin violating DM-nucleon interaction, although isospin symmetric interaction is still allowed as a special case. We present the IceCube-PINGU 2σ sensitivity to the parameter range of the above model with 5 years of search for neutrino signature from DM annihilation in the Sun. This indirect detection complements the direct detection by probing those SIDM parameter ranges which are either the region for very small mχ or the region opened up due to isospin violations.

  20. Development and application of an indirect ELISA test for the detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli infection in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Dawo, Fufa; Mohan, Krishna

    2007-01-31

    Non-availability of a standardized rapid serodiagnostic test for quick and accurate diagnosis of Mycoplasma crocodyli (M. crocodyli) infection in crocodiles was the underlining reason for conducting the present study. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for the detection of antibodies (Ab) to M. crocodyli infection in crocodile sera was developed using sonicated antigen (Ag) and anti-crocodile conjugate. The iELISA test was optimised with different reagents and at different steps. A cut-off value of percent positive greater than or equal to 53.47% resulted in an estimated sensitivity and specificity of 85.67 and 100%, respectively. The developed iELISA could be used for detection of Abs to M. crocodyli infection in crocodiles and may enable to understand the transmission of the disease. PMID:17014973

  1. EXTRAGALACTIC DARK MATTER AND DIRECT DETECTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Baushev, A. N.

    2013-07-10

    Recent astronomical data strongly suggest that a significant part of the dark matter content of the Local Group and Virgo Supercluster is not incorporated into the galaxy halos and forms diffuse components of these galaxy clusters. A portion of the particles from these components may penetrate the Milky Way and make an extragalactic contribution to the total dark matter containment of our Galaxy. We find that the particles of the diffuse component of the Local Group are apt to contribute {approx}12% to the total dark matter density near Earth. The particles of the extragalactic dark matter stand out because of their high speed ({approx}600 km s{sup -1}), i.e., they are much faster than the galactic dark matter. In addition, their speed distribution is very narrow ({approx}20 km s{sup -1}). The particles have an isotropic velocity distribution (perhaps, in contrast to the galactic dark matter). The extragalactic dark matter should provide a significant contribution to the direct detection signal. If the detector is sensitive only to the fast particles (v > 450 km s{sup -1}), then the signal may even dominate. The density of other possible types of the extragalactic dark matter (for instance, of the diffuse component of the Virgo Supercluster) should be relatively small and comparable with the average dark matter density of the universe. However, these particles can generate anomaly high-energy collisions in direct dark matter detectors.

  2. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  3. Early time implosion symmetry from two-axis shock-timing measurements on indirect drive NIF experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J. D. Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Munro, D. H.; Barker, D. A.; Baker, K. L.; Döppner, T.; Hash, N. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; LaFortune, K.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacGowan, B. J.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Widmayer, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.; Boehly, T.

    2014-09-15

    An innovative technique has been developed and used to measure the shock propagation speed along two orthogonal axes in an inertial confinement fusion indirect drive implosion target. This development builds on an existing target and diagnostic platform for measuring the shock propagation along a single axis. A 0.4 mm square aluminum mirror is installed in the ablator capsule which adds a second orthogonal view of the x-ray-driven shock speeds. The new technique adds capability for symmetry control along two directions of the shocks launched in the ablator by the laser-generated hohlraum x-ray flux. Laser power adjustments in four different azimuthal cones based on the results of this measurement can reduce time-dependent symmetry swings during the implosion. Analysis of a large data set provides experimental sensitivities of the shock parameters to the overall laser delivery and in some cases shows the effects of laser asymmetries on the pole and equator shock measurements.

  4. A Simple Ultrasonic Experiment Using a Phase Shift Detection Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Ahmad, Maulana

    1996-01-01

    Describes a simple ultrasonic experiment that can be used to measure the purity of liquid samples by detecting variations in the velocity of sound. Uses a phase shift detection technique that incorporates the use of logic gates and a piezoelectric transducer. (JRH)

  5. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  6. A review of traditional and contemporary assays for direct and indirect detection of Equid herpesvirus 1 in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Crossley, Beate M; Timoney, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is one of the most economically important equine viral pathogens. Its clinical manifestations in horses vary from acute upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, or neonatal death, to neurological disease termed equine herpesviral myeloencephalopathy, which may lead to paralysis and a fatal outcome. Successful identification of EHV-1 infection in horses depends on a variety of factors such as suitable case selection with emphasis on timing of sample collection, selection of appropriate sample(s) based on the clinical manifestations, application of relevant diagnostic technique(s) and/or test(s), and careful evaluation and interpretation of laboratory results. Several traditional serologic and virus isolation assays have been described; however, these assays have inherent limitations that prevent rapid and reliable detection of EHV-1. The advent of molecular biologic techniques has revolutionized the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animal species. Specifically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have allowed detection of nucleic acid in clinical specimens precisely and rapidly as compared to the traditional methods that detect the agent or antigen, or agent-specific antibodies in serum. The new molecular methods, especially real-time PCR, can be a very useful means of EHV-1 detection and identification. Veterinarians involved in equine practice must be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of various real-time PCR assays, interpretation of viral genetic marker(s), and latency in order to provide the best standard of care for their equine patients. PMID:26472746

  7. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  8. Modified Indirect Porcine Circovirus (PCV) Type 2-Based and Recombinant Capsid Protein (ORF2)-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Antibodies to PCV

    PubMed Central

    Nawagitgul, Porntippa; Harms, Perry A.; Morozov, Igor; Thacker, Brad J.; Sorden, Steven D.; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Paul, Prem S.

    2002-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome of swine associated with porcine circovirus (PCV) is a recently reported and economically important disease. Simple and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for detecting antibodies to PCV type 2 (PCV2) for monitoring of PCV infection. Here, we report the development of two modified indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs): a PCV2 ELISA based on cell-culture-propagated PCV2 and an ORF2 ELISA based on recombinant major capsid protein. PCV2 and ORF2 ELISA detected antibodies to PCV2 and the capsid protein, respectively, in sera from pigs experimentally infected with PCV2 as early as 14 and 21 days postinoculation (dpi). The kinetics of the antibody response to PCV2 and the major capsid protein were similar. Repeatability tests revealed that the coefficients of variation of positive sera within and between runs for both assays were less than 30%. To validate the assays, PCV2 and ORF2 ELISAs were performed with 783 serum samples of young and adult pigs collected from different herds in the Midwestern United States and compared with an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IIF). Six out of 60 samples collected from nursery and growing pigs in 1987 were positive by both ELISA and IIF. Compared with IIF, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PCV2 and ORF2 ELISAs were similar (>90%). The tests showed no cross-reactivity with antibodies to porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. There was good agreement between the two ELISAs and between the ELISAs and IIF. The availability of the two ELISAs should accelerate our understanding of the host immune response to PCV2 and facilitate the development of prevention and control strategies by elucidating the ecology of PCV2 within swine populations. PMID:11777826

  9. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection and confirmation with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, Andrea; Theurillat, Regula; Caslavska, Jitka; Pardubská, Helena; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2003-03-21

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a minor metabolite or precursor of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator via binding to GABA receptors and to specific presynaptic GHB receptors. Based upon the stimulatory effects, GHB is widely abused. Thus, there is great interest in monitoring GHB in body fluids and tissues. We have developed an assay for urinary GHB that is based upon liquid-liquid extraction and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect UV absorption detection. The background electrolyte is composed of 4 mM nicotinic acid (compound for indirect detection), 3 mM spermine (reversal of electroosmosis) and histidine (added to reach a pH of 6.2). Having a 50 microm I.D. capillary of 40 cm effective length, 1-octanesulfonic acid as internal standard, solute detection at 214 nm and a diluted urine with a conductivity of 2.4 mS/cm, GHB concentrations > or = 2 microg/ml can be detected. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were determined to be dependent on urine concentration and varied between 2-24 and 5-60 microg/ml, respectively. Data obtained suggest that LOD and LOQ (both in microg/ml) can be estimated with the relationships 0.83 kappa and 2.1 kappa, respectively, where kappa is the conductivity of the urine in mS/cm. The assay was successfully applied to urines collected after administration of 25 mg sodium GHB/kg body mass. Negative electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of GHB in the urinary extract via selected reaction monitoring of the m/z 103.1-->m/z 85.1 precursor-product ion transition. Independent of urine concentration, this approach meets the urinary cut-off level of 10 microg/ml that is required for recognition of the presence of exogenous GHB. Furthermore, data obtained with injection of plain or diluted urine indicate that CZE could be used to rapidly recognize GHB amounts (in microg/ml) that are > or = 4 kappa. PMID:12685588

  10. An indirect ELISA for detection of Theileria spp. antibodies using a recombinant protein (rTlSP) from Theileria luwenshuni.

    PubMed

    He, Haining; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Liu, Aihong; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Theileria is a tick-borne, intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide economic and veterinary importance in small ruminants. Here, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed based on Theileria luwenshuni recombinant surface protein (rTlSP) and was used in the standardization and validation of an ELISA for the detection of circulating antibodies against ovine and caprine theileriosis. A total of 233 sera samples were used for the calculation of the cut-off value which served as a threshold between the positive and the negative sera. When the positive threshold was chosen as 19% of the specific mean antibody rate, the specificity was 97.9%, and the sensitivity was 97.1%. There was a cross-reaction with sera against Theileria uilenbergi and Theileria ovis, and no cross-reaction with sera against Babesia spp. in the ELISA and Western blotting. Two hundred forty samples collected from sheep in Gansu province were detected with blood smears and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that the positive rate of Theileria infection in Gansu province were 63.75% with rTlSP-ELISA, and 46.67% with blood smears, respectively. Our test proved that the rTlSP ELISA is suitable to diagnose Theileria infection and could be used in serological surveys to map out the prevalence of ovine and caprine theileriosis. PMID:27048941

  11. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Ribotta, M J; Higgins, R; Gottschalk, M; Lallier, R

    2000-01-01

    Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Few laboratories have the resources, expertise, or facilities to perform the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Thus, there is a need for a rapid and simple serological test that could be used in any diagnostic laboratory. In this study, a genus-specific, heat-stable antigenic preparation from Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dog sera. This antigenic preparation reacted with rabbit antisera against L. interrogans serovars bratislava, autumnalis, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona and with rabbit antiserum against L. kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. The ELISA showed a relative specificity of 95.6% with 158 dog sera which were negative at a dilution of 1:100 in the MAT for serovars pomona, bratislava, icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, and grippotyphosa. The relative sensitivity of this assay with 21 dog sera that revealed serovars MAT titres of > or =100 to different serovars was 100%. This assay is easily standardized, technically more advantageous than MAT, and uses an antigenic preparation that can be routinely prepared in large amounts. It was concluded that this ELISA is sufficiently sensitive test to be used as an initial screening test for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in canine sera, with subsequent confirmation of positive test results with the MAT. PMID:10680654

  12. [Multicenter evaluation of the indirect nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Çoban, Ahmet Yılmaz; Taştekin, Berika; Uzun, Meltem; Kalaycı, Fatma; Ceyhan, İsmail; Biçmen, Can; Albay, Ali; Sığ, Ali Korhan; Özkütük, Nuri; Sürücüoğlu, Süheyla; Özkütük, Aydan; Esen, Nuran; Albayrak, Nurhan; Aslantürk, Ahmet; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Alp, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as resistance to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), and it complicates the implementation of tuberculosis control programmes. The rapid detection of MDR-TB is crucial to reduce the transmission of disease. The nitrate reductase assay (NRA) is one of the colorimetric susceptibility test methods for rapid detection of MDR-TB and based on the ability of reduction of nitrate to nitrite by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the NRA for the rapid detection of MDR-TB. A total of 237 M.tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates that were identified by the same method (BD MGIT(TM) TBc Identification Test, USA) from nine different medical centers in Turkey were included in the study. The susceptibility results of the isolates against INH and RIF obtained by reference test (Bactec MGIT(TM) 960, BD, USA) were then compared with NRA. In order to ensure consistency between centers, Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium with antibiotics and without antibiotics (growth control) and Griess reagent solution were prepared in a single center (Ondokuz Mayıs University School of Medicine, Medical Microbiology Department) and sent to all participant centers with the standardized test procedure. After the inoculation of bacteria into the test tubes, the tubes were incubated at 37°C, and after seven days of incubation, 500 μl Griess reagent was added to the LJ medium without antibiotics. If a color change was observed, an equal volume of Griess reagent was added to test LJ media with antibiotics. When a color change was observed in LJ media with antibiotics, it was considered that the isolate was resistant to tested antibiotics. Among 237 MTC isolates, 16 were resistant only to INH and nine were resistant only to RIF; 93 isolates (39.2%) were resistant (MDR) and 119 isolates (50.2%) were susceptible to both of the drugs determined with the reference susceptibility test. In the study

  13. Comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test with Western blot for the detection of serum antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cats.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Peschke, Roman; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Current clinical research indicates that Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi infections in cats may be underdiagnosed, especially in animals with typical ocular signs (cataract/anterior uveitis). Although molecular detection of the pathogen in tissue appears promising, serology remains the major diagnostic tool in the living animal. While serological tests are established for the main host of E. cuniculi, the rabbit, the routine serological diagnosis for cats still needs validation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consistency of indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and Western blot (WB) for the detection of IgG antibodies against E. cuniculi in the serum of 84 cats. In addition, PCR of liquefied lens material or intraocular fluid was performed in those of the cats with a suspected ocular E. cuniculi infection. Twenty-one cats with positive PCR results were considered as a positive reference group. Results obtained by IFAT and WB corresponded in 83/84 serum samples, indicating a very good correlation between both serological methods. Using WB as the standard reference, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of antibodies against E. cuniculi by the IFAT were 97.6 and 100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for the IFAT were 100 and 97.7%, respectively. The accuracy (correct classified proportion) for the detection of IgG antibodies against E. cuniculi in cats was 98.8%. The comparison of both serological methods with the PCR results also revealed a good agreement as 20 out of 21 PCR-positive samples were seropositive both in IFAT and WB. Both tests can be considered as equally reliable assays to detect IgG antibodies against E. cuniculi in cats. As the IFAT is quicker and easier to perform, it is recommended for routine use in the diagnosis of feline encephalitozoonosis. PMID:25199557

  14. Experiments on Adaptive Techniques for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    DRAELOS, TIMOTHY J.; COLLINS, MICHAEL J.; DUGGAN, DAVID P.; THOMAS, EDWARD V.; WUNSCH, DONALD

    2001-09-01

    This research explores four experiments of adaptive host-based intrusion detection (ID) techniques in an attempt to develop systems that can detect novel exploits. The technique considered to have the most potential is adaptive critic designs (ACDs) because of their utilization of reinforcement learning, which allows learning exploits that are difficult to pinpoint in sensor data. Preliminary results of ID using an ACD, an Elman recurrent neural network, and a statistical anomaly detection technique demonstrate an ability to learn to distinguish between clean and exploit data. We used the Solaris Basic Security Module (BSM) as a data source and performed considerable preprocessing on the raw data. A detection approach called generalized signature-based ID is recommended as a middle ground between signature-based ID, which has an inability to detect novel exploits, and anomaly detection, which detects too many events including events that are not exploits. The primary results of the ID experiments demonstrate the use of custom data for generalized signature-based intrusion detection and the ability of neural network-based systems to learn in this application environment.

  15. Influence of Aerosols on the Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing from North Pacific Oceanic Clouds: Results from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Roberts, Greg; Ramanathan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols over the Northeastern Pacific Ocean enhance the cloud drop number concentration and reduce the drop size for marine stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. These microphysical effects result in brighter clouds, as evidenced by a combination of aircraft and satellite observations. In-situ measurements from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX) indicate that the mean cloud drop number concentration in low clouds over the polluted marine boundary layer is greater by 53 cm(sup -3) compared to clean clouds, and the mean cloud drop effective radius is smaller by 4 micrometers. We link these in-situ measurements of cloud modification by aerosols, for the first time, with collocated satellite broadband radiative flux observations from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System to show that these microphysical effects of aerosols enhance the top-of-atmosphere cooling by -.9.9 plus or minus 4.3 W m(sup -2) for overcast conditions.

  16. The Influence of Aerosols on the Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing from North Pacific Oceanic Clouds: Results from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Roberts, Greg; Ramanathan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols over the Northeastern Pacific Ocean enhance the cloud drop number concentration and reduce the drop size for marine stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. These microphysical effects result in brighter clouds, as evidenced by a combination of aircraft and satellite observations. In-situ measurements from the Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment (CIFEX) indicate that the mean cloud drop number concentration in low clouds over the polluted marine boundary layer is greater by 53/cu cm compared to clean clouds, and the mean cloud drop effective radius is smaller by 4 microns. We link these in-situ measurements of cloud modification by aerosols, for the first time, with collocated satellite broadband radiative flux observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to show that these microphysical effects of aerosols enhance the top-of-atmosphere cooling by -9.9+/-4.3 W/sq m for overcast conditions.

  17. Evaluation of the molecular recognition of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by indirect competitive surface plasmon resonance immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Kim, Sook Jin; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Miura, Norio

    2006-11-01

    Detection of TNT is an important environmental and security concern all over the world. We herein report the performance and comparison of four immunoassays for rapid and label-free detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The immunosensor surface was constructed by immobilization of a home-made 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNPh-KLH) conjugate onto an SPR gold surface by simple physical adsorption within 10 min. The immunoreaction of the TNPh-KLH conjugate with four different antibodies, namely, monoclonal anti-TNT antibody (M-TNT Ab), monoclonal anti-trinitrophenol antibody (M-TNP Ab), polyclonal anti-trinitrophenyl antibody (P-TNPh Ab), and polyclonal anti-TNP antibody (P-TNP Ab), was studied by SPR. The principle of indirect competitive immunoreaction was employed for quantification of TNT. Among the four antibodies, the P-TNPh Ab prepared by our group showed highest sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.002 ng/mL (2 ppt) TNT. The lowest detection limits observed with other commercial antibodies were 0.008 ng/mL (8 ppt), 0.25 ng/mL (250 ppt), and 40 ng/mL (ppb) for M-TNT Ab, P-TNP Ab, and M-TNP Ab, respectively, in the similar assay format. The concentration of the conjugate and the antibodies were optimized for use in the immunoassay. The response time for an immunoreaction was 36 s and a single immunocycle could be done within 2 min, including the sensor surface regeneration using pepsin solution. In addition to the quantification of TNT, all immunoassays were evaluated for robustness and cross-reactivity towards several TNT analogs. PMID:16900380

  18. Development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the multiepitope peptide for the synchronous detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and G proteins in milk.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mingyan; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Xuelan; Fan, Yanan; Xia, Shenglin; Xiang, Yiqing; Liu, Ziqi; Jinnian, Li

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most common foodborne diseases, results from ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. In our previous studies, we found that SEA and SEG were two predominant SE proteins produced by milkacquired S. aureus isolates. Here, a tandemly arranged multiepitope peptide (named SEAGepis) was designed with six linear B-cell epitopes derived from SEA or SEG and was heterologously expressed. The SEAGepis-specific antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbit with rSEAGepis. Then, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) based on rSEAGepis and the corresponding antibody was developed to simultaneously detect SEA and SEG. Under the optimized conditions, the ic-ELISA standard curve for rSEAGepis was constructed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 512 ng/ml, and the average coefficients of variation of intra- and interassay were 4.28 and 5.61% during six standard concentrations. The average half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 5.07 ng/ml, and the limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.52 ng/ml. The anti-rSEAGepis antibody displayed over 90% cross-reactivity with SEA and SEG but less than 0.5% cross-reactivity with other enterotoxins. Artificially contaminated milk with different concentrations of rSEAGepis, SEA, and SEG was detected by the established ic-ELISA; the recoveries of rSEAGepis, SEA, and SEG were 91.1 to 157.5%, 90.3 to 134.5%, and 89.1 to 117.5%, respectively, with a coefficient of variation below 12%. These results demonstrated that the newly established ic-ELISA possessed high sensitivity, specificity, stability, and accuracy and could potentially be a useful analytical method for synchronous detection of SEA and SEG in milk. PMID:25710152

  19. Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Antibodies in Serum and Oral Fluid Specimens Using a Recombinant Protein 30 (p30) Dual Matrix Indirect ELISA.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Mur, Lina; Rivera, Belen; Mogler, Mark; Sun, Yaxuan; Lizano, Sergio; Goodell, Christa; Harris, D L Hank; Rowland, Raymond R R; Gallardo, Carmina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Zimmerman, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of effective vaccine(s), control of African swine fever caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) must be based on early, efficient, cost-effective detection and strict control and elimination strategies. For this purpose, we developed an indirect ELISA capable of detecting ASFV antibodies in either serum or oral fluid specimens. The recombinant protein used in the ELISA was selected by comparing the early serum antibody response of ASFV-infected pigs (NHV-p68 isolate) to three major recombinant polypeptides (p30, p54, p72) using a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA). Non-hazardous (non-infectious) antibody-positive serum for use as plate positive controls and for the calculation of sample-to-positive (S:P) ratios was produced by inoculating pigs with a replicon particle (RP) vaccine expressing the ASFV p30 gene. The optimized ELISA detected anti-p30 antibodies in serum and/or oral fluid samples from pigs inoculated with ASFV under experimental conditions beginning 8 to 12 days post inoculation. Tests on serum (n = 200) and oral fluid (n = 200) field samples from an ASFV-free population demonstrated that the assay was highly diagnostically specific. The convenience and diagnostic utility of oral fluid sampling combined with the flexibility to test either serum or oral fluid on the same platform suggests that this assay will be highly useful under the conditions for which OIE recommends ASFV antibody surveillance, i.e., in ASFV-endemic areas and for the detection of infections with ASFV isolates of low virulence. PMID:27611939

  20. Colloidal gold-based indirect competitive immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of bioactive isoflavone glycosides daidzin and genistin in soy products.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Yusakul, Gorawit; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Daidzin (DZ) and genistin (GEN) are two major soy isoflavone glycosides isolated from soybeans. Soy products containing isoflavones have recently been widely accepted for commercial use. However, the Japanese Government has suggested that soy isoflavone intake should be limited because of their estrogenic effects due to their interactions with estrogen receptors. In this study, we established a one-step indirect competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for rapid and sensitive detection of total isoflavone glycosides (DZ and GEN) using gold nanoparticles conjugated with a monoclonal antibody against DZ. This assay was able to be completed in 15min following the immersion of a test strip in an analyte solution. Furthermore, the limit of detection for the total amount of isoflavone glycosides was ∼125ngmL(-1). Considering that the major soy isoflavone glycosides found in soy products are DZ and GEN, this study demonstrates the potential use of ICA for the assessments of over consumption of isoflavones in soy supplements and foods, which would increase the safe dietary intake of soy products. PMID:26471543

  1. Serological detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus using an indirect ELISA based on antigenic site G1 expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fu-Ying; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Qiu, Chang-Qing; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Cao, Xiao-An; Gong, Xiao-Wei

    2010-08-01

    An indirect ELISA for the serological detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) infection in cattle is described in which a glycosylated protein of approximately 25 kDa (including the G1 antigenic site of the virus glycoprotein) expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as the coating antigen. The optimal concentration of coated antigen was 0.3 microg/well at a serum dilution of 1:40. The optimal positive threshold value of the assay was 1.88, as derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The test had 100% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity when compared with a micro-neutralisation test using 336 positive and 180 negative sera to BEFV, respectively. The inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients of variation for 15 sera were both <5.8% and there was no evidence of cross-reactivity between the tested coating antigen and antibodies to related rabies virus. The ELISA is an inexpensive and rapid serological detection method that would be suitable for screening for BEFV infection on a large scale. PMID:19586786

  2. Performance of a simple UV LED light source in the capillary electrophoresis of inorganic anions with indirect detection using a chromate background electrolyte.

    PubMed

    King, Marion; Paull, Brett; Haddad, Paul R; Macka, Miroslav

    2002-12-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are known to be excellent light sources for detectors in liquid chromatography and capillary electromigration separation techniques, but to date only LEDs emitting in the visible range have been used. In this work, a UV LED was investigated as a simple alternative light source to standard mercury or deuterium lamps for use in indirect photometric detection of inorganic anions using capillary electrophoresis with a chromate background electrolyte (BGE). The UV LED used had an emission maximum at 379.5 nm, a wavelength at which chromate absorbs strongly and exhibits a 47% higher molar absorptivity than at 254 nm when using a standard mercury light source. The noise, sensitivity and linearity of the LED detector were evaluated and all exhibited superior performance to the mercury light source (up to 70% decrease in noise, up to 26.2% increase in sensitivity, and over 100% increase in linear range). Using the LED detector with a simple chromate-diethanolamine background electrolyte, limits of detection for the common inorganic anions, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), F- and PO4(3-) ranged from 3 to 14 microg L(-1), using electrostatic injection at -5 kV for 5 s. PMID:12537359

  3. Determination of diethanolamine or N-methyldiethanolamine in high ammonium concentration matrices by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection: application to the analysis of refinery process waters.

    PubMed

    Bord, N; Crétier, G; Rocca, J-L; Bailly, C; Souchez, J-P

    2004-09-01

    Alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are used in desulfurization processes in crude oil refineries. These compounds may be found in process waters following an accidental contamination. The analysis of alkanolamines in refinery process waters is very difficult due to the high ammonium concentration of the samples. This paper describes a method for the determination of DEA in high ammonium concentration refinery process waters by using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect UV detection. The same method can be used for the determination of MDEA. Best results were achieved with a background electrolyte (BGE) comprising 10 mM histidine adjusted to pH 5.0 with acetic acid. The development of this electrolyte and the analytical performances are discussed. The quantification was performed by using internal standardization, by which triethanolamine (TEA) was used as internal standard. A matrix effect due to the high ammonium content has been highlighted and standard addition was therefore used. The developed method was characterized in terms of repeatability of migration times and corrected peak areas, linearity, and accuracy. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) obtained were 0.2 and 0.7 ppm, respectively. The CE method was applied to the determination of DEA or MDEA in refinery process waters spiked with known amounts of analytes and it gave excellent results, since uncertainties obtained were 8 and 5%, respectively. PMID:15338092

  4. Direct and indirect signal detection of 122 keV photons with a novel detector combining a pnCCD and a CsI(Tl) scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, D. M.; Huth, M.; Hartmann, R.; Abboud, A.; Send, S.; Conka-Nurdan, T.; Shokr, M.; Pietsch, U.; Strüder, L.

    2016-01-01

    By combining a low noise fully depleted pnCCD detector with a CsI(Tl) scintillator, an energy-dispersive area detector can be realized with a high quantum efficiency (QE) in the range from below 1 keV to above 100 keV. In direct detection mode the pnCCD exhibits a relative energy resolution of 1% at 122 keV and spatial resolution of less than 75 μm, the pixel size of the pnCCD. In the indirect detection mode, i.e. conversion of the incoming X-rays in the scintillator, the measured energy resolution was about 9-13% at 122 keV, depending on the depth of interaction in the scintillator, while the position resolution, extracted with the help of simulations, was 30 μm only. We show simulated data for incident photons of 122 keV and compare the various interaction processes and relevant physical parameters to experimental results obtained with a radioactive 57Co source.

  5. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  6. The design of an experiment to detect low energy antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd-Evans, J.; Acharya, B. S.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Stephens, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques to be used in a balloon borne experiment APEX to detect 220 MeV antiprotons are described, paying particular attention to potential sources of background. Event time history is shown to be very effective in eliminating this background. Results of laboratory tests on the timing resolution which may be achieved are presented.

  7. A protein A/G indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Arctic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Godfroid, Jacques; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Larsen, Anett K; das Neves, Carlos G; Rødven, Rolf; Tryland, Morten

    2013-05-01

    A species-independent indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on chimeric protein A/G was established for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Arctic wildlife species and compared to previously established brucellosis serological tests for hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), as well as bacteriology results for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus sp.). The protein A/G iELISA results were consistent with the other serological tests with Cohen kappa values between 0.47 and 0.92, and the protein A/G iELISA can thus offer a technically simple method for these species yielding results consistent with established brucellosis serological tests. Receiver operator characteristics analysis proved that the reindeer and caribou protein A/G iELISA results were consistent with the bacteriological gold standard with an area under the curve of 0.99, and the protein A/G iELISA was thus validated as a sensitive and specific serological method for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in reindeer and caribou. The binding of the antibodies from the respective species to protein A and G were also evaluated in the iELISA. The antibodies from hooded seals and polar bears reacted stronger to protein A than to G. The sei whale, fin whale, reindeer, and caribou antibodies reacted stronger to protein G than to A. The minke whale antibodies reacted to both protein A and G. There was a strong correlation (r s = 0.88-0.98) between the optical density results obtained with the iELISA with protein A/G and protein A or G, showing that protein A/G is as well suited as protein A or G for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in these species with the iELISA. PMID:23572454

  8. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  9. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; et al

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discussmore » the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  10. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  11. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  12. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  13. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  14. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, M.; Pohl, M.; Sigl, G.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an emphasis on the complementarity between direct detection in dedicated laboratory experiments, indirect detection in the cosmic radiation, and searches at particle accelerators.

  15. WIMP physics with ensembles of direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Annika H. G.; Gluscevic, Vera; Green, Anne M.; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Lee, Samuel K.

    2014-12-01

    The search for weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter is multi-pronged. Ultimately, the WIMP-dark-matter picture will only be confirmed if different classes of experiments see consistent signals and infer the same WIMP properties. In this work, we review the ideas, methods, and status of direct-detection searches. We focus in particular on extracting WIMP physics (WIMP interactions and phase-space distribution) from direct-detection data in the early discovery days when multiple experiments see of order dozens to hundreds of events. To demonstrate the essential complementarity of different direct-detection experiments in this context, we create mock data intended to represent the data from the near-future Generation 2 experiments. We consider both conventional supersymmetry-inspired benchmark points (with spin-independent and -dependent elastic cross sections just below current limits), as well as benchmark points for other classes of models (inelastic and effective-operator paradigms). We also investigate the effect on parameter estimation of loosening or dropping the assumptions about the local WIMP phase-space distribution. We arrive at two main conclusions. Firstly, teasing out WIMP physics with experiments depends critically on having a wide set of detector target materials, spanning a large range of target nuclear masses and spin-dependent sensitivity. It is also highly desirable to obtain data from low-threshold experiments. Secondly, a general reconstruction of the local WIMP velocity distribution, which will only be achieved if there are multiple experiments using different target materials, is critical to obtaining a robust and unbiased estimate of the WIMP mass.

  16. Detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in sylvatic lagomorphs from an epidemic area of Madrid using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Álvarez, Julio; García, Nerea; de la Fuente, Santiago; Martínez, Irene; Marino, Eloy; Toraño, Alfredo; Goyache, Joaquin; Vilas, Felipe; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-31

    An outbreak of human leishmaniasis was confirmed in the southwest of the province of Madrid, Spain, between July 2009 and December 2012. Incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs was unchanged in this period, prompting a search for alternative sylvatic infection reservoirs. We evaluated exposure to Leishmania in serum samples from animals in the area with an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Using promastigotes from six culture passages and a 1/25 threshold titer, we found anti-Leishmania infantum seroreactivity in 9.3% of cats (4 of 43), 45.7% of rabbits (16/35) and 74.1% of hares (63/85). Use of promastigotes from >10 in vitro passages resulted in a notably IFAT lower titer, suggesting antigenic changes during extended culture. Postmortem inspection of seropositive animals showed no clinical signs of infection. The results clearly suggest that asymptomatic hares were the main reservoir in the outbreak, and corroborate IFAT as a sensitive serological surveillance method to detect such cryptic Leishmania infections. PMID:24211046

  17. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  18. Experiments in ultrasonic flaw detection using a MEMS transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2003-08-01

    In earlier work we developed a MEMS phased array transducer, fabricated in the MUMPs process, and we reported on initial experimental studies in which the device was affixed into contact with solids. We demonstrated the successful detection of signals from a conventional ultrasonic source, and the successful localization of the source in an off-axis geometry using phased array signal processing. We now describe the predicted transmission and coupling characteristics for such devices in contact with solids, demonstrating reasonable agreement with experimental behavior. We then describe the results of flaw detection experiments, as well as results for fluid-coupled detectors.

  19. Empirical and theoretical investigation of the noise performance of indirect detection, active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) for diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Siewerdsen, J H; Antonuk, L E; el-Mohri, Y; Yorkston, J; Huang, W; Boudry, J M; Cunningham, I A

    1997-01-01

    Noise properties of active matrix, flat-panel imagers under conditions relevant to diagnostic radiology are investigated. These studies focus on imagers based upon arrays with pixels incorporating a discrete photodiode coupled to a thin-film transistor, both fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon. These optically sensitive arrays are operated with an overlying x-ray converter to allow indirect detection of incident x rays. External electronics, including gate driver circuits and preamplification circuits, are also required to operate the arrays. A theoretical model describing the signal and noise transfer properties of the imagers under conditions relevant to diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and mammography is developed. This frequency-dependent model is based upon a cascaded systems analysis wherein the imager is conceptually divided into a series of stages having intrinsic gain and spreading properties. Predictions from the model are compared with x-ray sensitivity and noise measurements obtained from individual pixels from an imager with a pixel format of 1536 x 1920 pixels at a pixel pitch of 127 microns. The model is shown to be in excellent agreement with measurements obtained with diagnostic x rays using various phosphor screens. The model is used to explore the potential performance of existing and hypothetical imagers for application in radiography, fluoroscopy, and mammography as a function of exposure, additive noise, and fill factor. These theoretical predictions suggest that imagers of this general design incorporating a CsI: Tl intensifying screen can be optimized to provide detective quantum efficiency (DQE) superior to existing screen-film and storage phosphor systems for general radiography and mammography. For fluoroscopy, the model predicts that with further optimization of a-Si:H imagers, DQE performance approaching that of the best x-ray image intensifier systems may be possible. The results of this analysis suggest strategies for

  20. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices by analysis of postblast residues using portable capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and indirect photometric detection with a light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Johns, Cameron; Kazarian, Artaches A; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Hilder, Emily F; Guijt, Rosanne M; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2007-09-15

    A commercial portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument has been used to separate inorganic anions and cations found in postblast residues from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) of the type used frequently in terrorism attacks. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the type of explosive used. The CE instrument was modified for use with an in-house miniaturized light-emitting diode (LED) detector to enable sensitive indirect photometric detection to be employed for the detection of 15 anions (acetate, benzoate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, cyanate, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, monomethylammonium, ethylammonium, potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, zinc, lead) as the target analytes. These ions are known to be present in postblast residues from inorganic IEDs constructed from ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixtures, black powder, and chlorate/perchlorate/sugar mixtures. For the analysis of cations, a blue LED (470 nm) was used in conjunction with the highly absorbing cationic dye, chrysoidine (absorption maximum at 453 nm). A nonaqueous background electrolyte comprising 10 mM chrysoidine in methanol was found to give greatly improved baseline stability in comparison to aqueous electrolytes due to the increased solubility of chrysoidine and its decreased adsorption onto the capillary wall. Glacial acetic acid (0.7% v/v) was added to ensure chrysoidine was protonated and to enhance separation selectivity by means of complexation with transition metal ions. The 12 target cations were separated in less than 9.5 min with detection limits of 0.11-2.30 mg/L (calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The anions separation system utilized a UV LED (370 nm) in conjunction with an aqueous chromate electrolyte (absorption maximum at 371 nm) consisting of 10 mM chromium(VI) oxide and 10 mM sodium chromate, buffered with 40 mM tris

  1. Recent results in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, Christopher Michael

    Three dark matter direct detection experiments (DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II) have each reported signals which resemble that predicted for a dark matter particle with a mass of roughly 10 GeV. We review the theoretical background for direct detection experiments as well as these particular detectors and their reported signals over the last few years. We also compare the signals of these experiments and discuss whether they can be explained by a single species of dark matter particle, without conflicting with the constraints of other experiments. We show that the spectrum of events reported by CoGeNT and CRESST-II are consistent with each other and with the constraints from CDMS-II, although some tension with xenon- based experiments remains. Similarly, the modulation signals reported by DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT appear to be compatible, although the corresponding amplitude of the observed modulations are a factor of at least a few higher than would be naively expected, based on the event spectra reported by CoGeNT and CRESST-II. We also discuss some ways that this apparent discrepancy could potentially be resolved.

  2. Optimization of detection sensitivity for a Fiber Optic Intrusion Detection System (FOIDS) using design of experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Larry D.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Mitchiner, Kim W.; Varoz, Carmella A.

    2010-06-01

    The Fiber Optic Intrusion Detection System (FOIDS)1 is a physical security sensor deployed on fence lines to detect climb or cut intrusions by adversaries. Calibration of detection sensitivity can be time consuming because, for example, the FiberSenSys FD-332 has 32 settings that can be adjusted independently to provide a balance between a high probability of detection and a low nuisance alarm rate. Therefore, an efficient method of calibrating the FOIDS in the field, other than by trial and error, was needed. This study was conducted to: x Identify the most significant settings for controlling detection x Develop a way of predicting detection sensitivity for given settings x Develop a set of optimal settings for validation The Design of Experiments (DoE) 2-4 methodology was used to generate small, planned test matrixes, which could be statistically analyzed to yield more information from the test data. Design of Experiments is a statistical methodology for quickly optimizing performance of systems with measurable input and output variables. DoE was used to design custom screening experiments based on 11 FOIDS settings believed to have the most affect on WKH types of fence perimeter intrusions were evaluated: simulated cut intrusions and actual climb intrusions. Two slightly different two-level randomized fractional factorial designed experiment matrixes consisting of 16 unique experiments were performed in the field for each type of intrusion. Three repetitions were conducted for every cut test; two repetitions were conducted for every climb test. Total number of cut tests analyzed was 51; the total number of climb tests was 38. This paper discusses the results and benefits of using Design of Experiments (DoE) to calibrate and optimize the settings for a FOIDS sensor

  3. Full-scale Experiments for Roadbed Cavity Detection with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Kang, W.; Son, J.

    2015-12-01

    Past few decades, deterioration of the underground facilities such as sewage facilities has increased significantly with growing urban development in Korea. The old damaged sewage pipes or conduits have washed away the surrounding soils beneath the roadbed, causing underground cavities and eventual ground depressions or sinkholes in the urban areas. Therefore, the detection of the roadbed cavities is increasingly required to prevent property damage and loss of human lives for precautionary measures. 3-D GPR technique was applied to conduct the full-scale experiment for roadbed cavity detection. The physical experiment has employed the soil characteristics of silty sand soils. The experimental site is composed of physically simulated cavities (Styrofoam, ɛr = 1.03) with dome-shaped structure and concrete sewage conduit. The simulated cavities were installed at regular intervals in spatial distribution. The land surface of the site was not paved with asphalt concrete at the current stage of the experiments. The results of the GPR measurements over the experimental site show that the reflection patterns from the simulated cavities are hyperbolic returns typical to the point source in 2-D perspective. A closer inspection of 3-D GPR volume data has yielded more clear interpretation than 2-D GPR data regarding where the cavities are situated in space. However, in case sewage conduits adjacent to the cavities are present, they could mask the GPR signals from cavities, leading misinterpretations. Therefore, data processing procedures should be more appropriately applied compared to the data for linear target detections. It is strongly believed that 3-D high density GPR data could be usefully applied to the roadbed cavity detections in the experiments. This study is an ongoing project of KIGAM and more realistic environments of the underground conditions would be prepared for the future study.

  4. Closing supersymmetric resonance regions with direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris

    2014-01-01

    One of the few remaining ways that neutralinos could potentially evade constraints from direct detection experiments is if they annihilate through a resonance, as can occur if 2m{sub χ⁰} falls within about ~10% of either m{sub A/H}, m{sub h}, or m{sub Z}. Assuming a future rate of progress among direct detection experiments that is similar to that obtained over the past decade, we project that within 7 years the light Higgs and Z pole regions will be entirely closed, while the remaining parameter space near the A/H resonance will require that 2m{sub χ₀} be matched to the central value (near m{sub A}) to within less than 4%. At this rate of progress, it will be a little over a decade before multi-ton direct detection experiments will be able to close the remaining, highly-tuned, regions of the A/H resonance parameter space.

  5. Small Arrays for Seismic Intruder Detections: A Simulation Based Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic sensors such as geophones and fiber optic have been increasingly recognized as promising technologies for intelligence surveillance, including intruder detection and perimeter defense systems. Geophone arrays have the capability to provide cost effective intruder detection in protecting assets with large perimeters. A seismic intruder detection system uses one or multiple arrays of geophones design to record seismic signals from footsteps and ground vehicles. Using a series of real-time signal processing algorithms the system detects, classify and monitors the intruder's movement. We have carried out numerical experiments to demonstrate the capability of a seismic array to detect moving targets that generate seismic signals. The seismic source is modeled as a vertical force acting on the ground that generates continuous impulsive seismic signals with different predominant frequencies. Frequency-wave number analysis of the synthetic array data was used to demonstrate the array's capability at accurately determining intruder's movement direction. The performance of the array was also analyzed in detecting two or more objects moving at the same time. One of the drawbacks of using a single array system is its inefficiency at detecting seismic signals deflected by large underground objects. We will show simulation results of the effect of an underground concrete block at shielding the seismic signal coming from an intruder. Based on simulations we found that multiple small arrays can greatly improve the system's detection capability in the presence of underground structures. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344

  6. H(C)Ag: a triple resonance NMR experiment for (109) Ag detection in labile silver-carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Weske, Sebastian; Li, Yingjia; Wiegmann, Sara; John, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In silver complexes, indirect detection of (109) Ag resonances via (1) H,(109) Ag-HMQC frequently suffers from small or absent JHAg couplings or rapid ligand dissociation. In these cases, it would be favourable to employ H(X)Ag triple resonance spectroscopy that uses the large one-bond JXAg coupling (where the donor atom of the ligand X is the relay nucleus). We have applied an HMQC-based version of the H(C)Ag experiment to a labile silver-NHC complex (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) at natural (13) C isotopic abundance and variable temperature. In agreement with simulations, H(C)Ag detection became superior to (1) H,(109) Ag-HMQC detection above -20 °C. PMID:25641122

  7. Construction of an AMR magnetometer for car detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fúra, V.; Petrucha, V.; Platil, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new construction of magnetometer with commercially available AMR (anisotropic magnetoresistive) sensors intended for vehicle detection experiments is presented. Initial experiments with simple AMR gradiometer indicated viability of the approach in a real- world setup. For further experiments and acquisition of representative data, a new design of precise multi-channel magnetometer was developed. The design supports two models of commercial AMR sensors: the proven and reliable, but obsolete Honeywell HMC1021-series sensors and newly available Sensitec AFF755B sensors. In the comparison the two types are similar in most achieved parameters, except offset stability in flipped operation regime. Unfortunately, the new AFF755B sensors seem to have perhaps inferior coupling of the flipping (set/reset) coil to the ferromagnetic core that causes insufficient saturation of the AMR material. The issue is being solved by Sensitec, current deliverables of the AFF755B have “product sample” status (September 2015).

  8. Light dark matter detection prospects at neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jason; Learned, John G.; Smith, Stefanie

    2009-12-01

    We consider the prospects for the detection of relatively light dark matter through direct annihilation to neutrinos. We specifically focus on the detection possibilities of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator neutrino detection devices. We find, in particular, that liquid scintillator detectors may potentially provide excellent detection prospects for dark matter in the 4-10 GeV mass range. These experiments can provide excellent corroborative checks of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal, but may yield results for low mass dark matter in any case. We identify important tests of the ratio of electron to muon neutrino events (and neutrino versus antineutrino events), which discriminate against background atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the fraction of events which arise from muon neutrinos or antineutrinos (Rμ and Rμ¯) can potentially yield information about the branching fractions of hypothetical dark matter annihilations into different neutrino flavors. These results apply to neutrinos from secondary and tertiary decays as well, but will suffer from decreased detectability.

  9. Simulation of Seismic Tunnel Detection Experiments in Heterogeneous Geological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, C. S.; Glaser, S. D.; Rector, J.

    2013-12-01

    Detecting covert tunnels and other underground openings is an important yet challenging problem for geophysicists, especially where geological heterogeneity is pronounced. A number of geophysical methods have been employed to solve this problem, each with varying degrees of success. We focus on the near-surface seismic techniques of surface wave backscattering, surface wave attenuation tomography, body wave diffraction imaging, and resonant imaging. We use the elastodynamic wave propagation code E3D to simulate tunnel detection experiments completed at this site for a range of synthetic fractal velocity models. The Black Diamond mine, located near Pittsburg California, is used for the field test of our analysis. Our results show that for the relatively low-frequency surface wave attenuation and backscattering methods, the maximum detectable tunnel depth in a homogenous medium is approximately equal to the wavelength of the probing Rayleigh wave. The higher-frequency body wave diffraction and resonant imaging techniques are able to locate tunnels at greater depths, but require more sophisticated analysis and are prone to greater attenuation losses. As is expected, for large values of heterogeneity amplitude, ɛ, the percent standard deviation from the mean velocity model, the average observed surface wave attenuation signal decreases and the maximum detectable tunnel depth decreases. However, for moderate values of heterogeneity amplitude (ɛ < 3%), the average surface wave attenuation signal increases and the maximum detectable tunnel depth increases. For the body wave diffraction and resonant imaging experiments, as ɛ increases the complexity of the observed signal increases, resulting in more difficult processing and interpretation. The additional scattering attenuation tends to degrade the signals significantly due to their reliance on lower amplitude and higher frequency waves.

  10. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or

  11. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  12. Experiment to Detect Accelerating Modes in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Colby, E. R.; McGuinness, C. M.; Noble, R.; Plettner, T.; Siemann, R. H.; Spencer, J. E.; Walz, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Sears, C. M. S.

    2009-01-22

    An experimental effort is currently underway at the E-163 test beamline at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to use a hollow-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber as a high-gradient laser-based accelerating structure for electron bunches. For the initial stage of this experiment, a 50 pC, 60 MeV electron beam will be coupled into the fiber core and the excited modes will be detected using a spectrograph to resolve their frequency signatures in the wakefield radiation generated by the beam. We will describe the experimental plan and recent simulation studies of candidate fibers.

  13. Fabrication experiments on supersmooth optics for extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ftaclas, C.; Krim, M. H.; Terrile, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The direct detection of extrasolar planets by imaging will require reductions in scattered and diffracted light by factors in excess of 1000 within one arcsecond of a bright source. While diffraction can be reduced by a number of approaches, small angle scatter can only be reduced by controlling midspatial frequency figure errors. The surface requirements are reviewed and their meaning when compared to the data base of existing mirrors is considered. Experiments are discribed that were successful in reducing midspatial frequency figure so that the scatter level was 500 times less than diffraction for a 25-cm spherical mirror.

  14. Experiment to Detect Accelerating Modes in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.J.; Colby, E.R.; Ischebeck, R.; McGuinness, C.M.; Noble, R.; Plettner, T.; Sears, C.M.S.; Siemann, R.H.; Spencer, J.E.; Walz, D.; /SLAC

    2011-11-21

    An experimental effort is currently underway at the E-163 test beamline at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to use a hollow-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber as a high-gradient laser-based accelerating structure for electron bunches. For the initial stage of this experiment, a 50pC, 60 MeV electron beam will be coupled into the fiber core and the excited modes will be detected using a spectrograph to resolve their frequency signatures in the wakefield radiation generated by the beam. They will describe the experimental plan and recent simulation studies of candidate fibers.

  15. MSSM A-funnel and the galactic center excess: prospects for the LHC and direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; López, Alejandro; Shah, Nausheen R.; Shakya, Bibhushan

    2016-04-01

    The pseudoscalar resonance or " A-funnel" in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is a widely studied framework for explaining dark matter that can yield interesting indirect detection and collider signals. The well-known Galactic Center excess (GCE) at GeV energies in the gamma ray spectrum, consistent with annihilation of a ≲ 40 GeV dark matter particle, has more recently been shown to be compatible with significantly heavier masses following reanalysis of the background. In this paper, we explore the LHC and direct detection implications of interpreting the GCE in this extended mass window within the MSSM A-funnel framework. We find that compatibility with relic density, signal strength, collider constraints, and Higgs data can be simultaneously achieved with appropriate parameter choices. The compatible regions give very sharp predictions of 200-600 GeV CP-odd/even Higgs bosons at low tan β at the LHC and spin-independent cross sections ≈ 10-11 pb at direct detection experiments. Regardless of consistency with the GCE, this study serves as a useful template of the strong correlations between indirect, direct, and LHC signatures of the MSSM A-funnel region.

  16. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  17. Chemical interpretation of Viking Lander 1 life detection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Mack, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An earth-based evaluation of the Viking Lander 1 life-detection experiments was conducted using a radiofrequency glow discharge in a simulated Martian atmosphere. The Gas Exchange Experiment conducted in the humid mode released substantial amounts of CO2, O2, N2, Ar, and CO into the atmosphere, indicating that these substances were adsorbed onto the Martian soil. An adsorption potential plot is given, graphing quantity of gas against time (d). For a model surface area of 17 squares meters per gram of measured substance, oxygen adsorption was found to be relatively high, a result which tends to confirm the hypothesis that Martian oxygen exists largely in chemisorbed states or in active oxygen compounds, e.g., peroxide, superoxide, hydroperoxide

  18. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  19. Detectability of strange matter in heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, J.,; Diener, A.; Stocker, H.,; Greiner, C.,

    1997-06-01

    We discuss the properties of two distinct forms of hypothetical strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of hyperon matter [metastable exotic multihypernuclear objects (MEMO{close_quote}s)], with special emphasis on their relevance for present and future heavy ion experiments. The masses of small strangelets up to A{sub B}=40 are calculated using the MIT bag model with shell mode filling for various bag parameters. The strangelets are checked for possible strong and weak hadronic decays, also taking into account multiple hadron decays. It is found that strangelets which are stable against strong decay are most likely highly negatively charged, contrary to previous findings. Strangelets can be stable against weak hadronic decay but their masses and charges are still rather high. This has serious impact on the present high sensitivity searches in heavy ion experiments at the AGS and CERN facilities. On the other hand, highly charged MEMO{close_quote}s are predicted on the basis of an extended relativistic mean-field model. Those objects could be detected in future experiments searching for short-lived, rare composites. It is demonstrated that future experiments can be sensitive to a much wider variety of strangelets. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Detection of high frequency oscillations from space experiments and eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dipankar; Singh, Jagdev; Hasan, Siraj; Gupta, Girjesh R.; Nagaraju, K.

    We performed high resolution spectroscopy of the solar corona during the total solar eclipse of July 22, 2009 in two emission lines, namely the red line at 530.3 nm due to [Fe xiv] and the green line at 637.4 nm due to [Fex] simultaneously from Anji, China. Two mirror coelostat with 100 cm focal length lens made 9.2 mm image of the sun. The spectrograph using 140 cm focal length lens in Littrow mode and a grating with 600 lines per mm blazed at 2 micron provided a dispersion of 30 mA and 42 mA per pixel in the 4th order around green line and 3rd order red emission line, respectively. Two Peltier cooled 1K x 1K CCD cameras with pixel size of 13 micron square and 14-bit read out at 10 MHz operated in frame transfer mode, were used to obtain the time sequence spectra in each emission lines simultaneously. We detected presence of high frequency oscillations in intensity, velocity and line widths. We also studied the variation of line widths with height. The results will be discussed in terms of different MHD waves. Possibility of detecting these oscillations from space based experiments will be addressed. India is going to launch a emission line coronagraph on a small satellite platform called Aditya. The scientific goals of Aditya in pursuit to wave detection will be presented.

  1. Direct and Indirect Educational Relationships: Developing a Typology for the Contribution of Different Categories of School Staff in Relation to Students' Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frelin, Anneli; Grannäs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results from a research project exploring the relational interplay between school staff and students, its functions and complexity in the secondary school context. School relationships (between students and different kinds of staff) are more or less indirectly related to educational content: subject matter as well as norms…

  2. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribble, R. E.; Bertulani, C. A.; La Cognata, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  3. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  4. Chemical Detection and Identification Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Khromov, Nikolai A.

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical Instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. Advances in technology may be achieved by increasing the amount of information acquired by a given technique with greater analytical capabilities and miniaturization of proven terrestrial technology. We describe here methods to develop analytical instruments for the detection and identification of a wide range of chemical species using Gas Chromatography. These efforts to expand the analytical capabilities of GC technology are focused on the development of detectors for the GC which provide sample identification independent of the GC retention time data. A novel new approach employs Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES).

  5. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schöttker, Ben; Lühmann, Dagmar; Boulkhemair, Dalila; Raspe, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    any comparator, all randomised controlled trials (RCT) that provide a study arm with the intervention of interest. Adjusted indirect comparisons and metaregression analyses include only those studies that provide one study arm with the intervention of interest and another study arm with a common comparator. While the aforementioned methods use conventional metaanalytical techniques, Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) use Bayesian statistics. They are able to analyse a complex network of RCT with multiple comparators simultaneously. During the period from 1999 to 2008 adjusted indirect comparisons are the most commonly used method for indirect comparisons. Since 2006 an increase in the application of the more methodologically challenging MTC is being observed. For the validity check 248 data sets, which include results of a direct and an indirect comparison, are available. The share of statistically significant discrepant results is greatest in the unadjusted indirect comparisons (25,5% [95% CI: 13,1%; 38%]), followed by metaregression analyses (16,7% [95% CI: -13,2%; 46,5%]), adjusted indirect comparisons (12,1% [95% CI: 6,1%; 18%]) and MTC (1,8% [95% CI: -1,7%; 5,2%]). Discrepant results are mainly detected if the basic assumption for an indirect comparison – between-study homogeneity – does not hold. However a systematic over- or underestimation of the results of direct comparisons by any of the indirectly comparing methods was not observed in this sample. Discussion The selection of an appropriate method for an indirect comparison has to account for its validity, the number of interventions to be compared and the quality as well as the quantity of available studies. Unadjusted indirect comparisons provide, contrasted with the results of direct comparisons, a low validity. Adjusted indirect comparisons and MTC may, under certain circumstances, give results which are consistent with the results of direct comparisons. The limited number of available reviews

  6. Labeled Release - An experiment in radiorespirometry. [for Viking Mars Program life detection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Labeled Release extraterrestrial life detection experiment onboard the Viking spacecraft is described as it will be implemented on the surface of Mars in 1976. This experiment is designed to detect heterotrophic life by supplying a dilute solution of radioactive organic substrates to a sample of Martian soil and monitoring for evolution of radioactive gas. A significantly attenuated response by a heat-sterilized control sample of the same soil would confirm a positive metabolic response. Experimental assumptions as well as criteria for the selection of organic substrates are presented. The Labeled Release nutrient has been widely tested, is versatile in eliciting terrestrial metabolic responses, and is stable to heat sterilization and to the long-term storage required before its use on Mars. A testing program has been conducted with flight-like instruments to acquire science data relevant to the interpretation of the Mars experiment. Factors involved in the delineation of a positive result are presented and the significance of the possible results discussed.

  7. Validation and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to West Nile virus in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Johnson, April J; Hernandez, Jorge A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dupuis, Alan P; Stevens, Robert; Carbonneau, Dwayne; Stark, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    In October 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) was identified in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida showing clinical signs and having microscopic lesions indicative of central nervous system disease. To perform seroepidemiologic studies, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine exposure of captive and wild alligators to WNV. To validate the test, a group of WNV-seropositive and -seronegative alligators were identified at the affected farm using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The indirect ELISA utilized a rabbit anti-alligator immunoglobulins polyclonal antibody as the secondary antibody, and inactivated WNV-infected Vero cells were used as the coating antigen. For all samples (n=58), the results of the ELISA were consistent with the HAI and PRNT findings. Plasma was collected from 669 free-ranging alligators from 21 sites across Florida in April and October 2003. Four samples collected in April and six in October were positive for WNV antibodies using HAI, PRNT, and the indirect ELISA. This indicated that wild alligators in Florida have been exposed to WNV. These findings can be used as a baseline for future surveys. PMID:15827216

  8. Zirconia coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis-indirect ultraviolet detection for the determination of chemical warfare agent degradation products in water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingjing; Hu, Bin; Li, Xiaoyong

    2012-07-20

    In this study, a sensitive, selective and reliable analytical method by combining zirconia (ZrO₂) coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis-indirect ultraviolet (LVSS-CE/indirect UV) was developed for the direct analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) (including ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA)) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) in environmental waters. ZrO₂ coated stir bar was prepared by adhering nanometer-sized ZrO₂ particles onto the surface of stir bar with commercial PDMS sol as adhesion agent. Due to the high affinity of ZrO₂ to the electronegative phosphonate group, ZrO₂ coated stir bars could selectively extract the strongly polar AAPAs and MPA. After systematically optimizing the extraction conditions of ZrO₂-SBSE, the analytical performance of ZrO₂-SBSE-CE/indirect UV and ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV was assessed. The limits of detection (LODs, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) obtained by ZrO₂-SBSE-CE/indirect UV were 13.4-15.9 μg/L for PMPA, EMPA and MPA. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7, c=200 μg/L) of the corrected peak area for the target analytes were in the range of 6.4-8.8%. Enhancement factors (EFs) in terms of LODs were found to be from 112- to 145-fold. By combining ZrO₂ coating SBSE with LVSS as a dual preconcentration strategy, the EFs were magnified up to 1583-fold, and the LODs of ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV were 1.4, 1.2 and 3.1 μg/L for PMPA, EMPA, and MPA, respectively. The RSDs (n=7, c=20 μg/L) were found to be in the range of 9.0-11.8%. The developed ZrO₂-SBSE-LVSS-CE/indirect UV method has been successfully applied to the analysis of PMPA, EMPA, and MPA in different environmental water samples, and the recoveries for the spiked water samples were found to be in the range of 93.8-105.3%. PMID:22673812

  9. SPEED: the segmented pupil experiment for exoplanet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, P.; Preis, Olivier; Gouvret, C.; Dejonghe, J.; Daban, J.-B.; Spang, A.; Martinache, F.; Beaulieu, M.; Janin-Potiron, P.; Abe, L.; Fantei-Caujolle, Y.; Mattei, D.; Ottogalli, S.

    2014-07-01

    Searching for nearby exoplanets with direct imaging is one of the major scientific drivers for both space and groundbased programs. While the second generation of dedicated high-contrast instruments on 8-m class telescopes is about to greatly expand the sample of directly imaged planets, exploring the planetary parameter space to hitherto-unseen regions ideally down to Terrestrial planets is a major technological challenge for the forthcoming decades. This requires increasing spatial resolution and significantly improving high contrast imaging capabilities at close angular separations. Segmented telescopes offer a practical path toward dramatically enlarging telescope diameter from the ground (ELTs), or achieving optimal diameter in space. However, translating current technological advances in the domain of highcontrast imaging for monolithic apertures to the case of segmented apertures is far from trivial. SPEED - the segmented pupil experiment for exoplanet detection - is a new instrumental facility in development at the Lagrange laboratory for enabling strategies and technologies for high-contrast instrumentation with segmented telescopes. SPEED combines wavefront control including precision segment phasing architectures, wavefront shaping using two sequential high order deformable mirrors for both phase and amplitude control, and advanced coronagraphy struggled to very close angular separations (PIAACMC). SPEED represents significant investments and technology developments towards the ELT area and future spatial missions, and will offer an ideal cocoon to pave the road of technological progress in both phasing and high-contrast domains with complex/irregular apertures. In this paper, we describe the overall design and philosophy of the SPEED bench.

  10. Development of a sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a baculovirus recombinant antigen for detection of specific antibodies against Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    López, Lissett; Venteo, Angel; Aguirre, Enara; García, Marga; Rodríguez, Majosé; Amusátegui, Inmaculada; Tesouro, Miguel A; Vela, Carmen; Sainz, Angel; Rueda, Paloma

    2007-11-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on baculovirus recombinant P30 protein of Ehrlichia canis and the 1BH4 anticanine IgG monoclonal antibody was developed and evaluated by examining a panel of 98 positive and 157 negative sera using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test as the reference technique. The P30-based ELISA appeared to be sensitive and specific (77.55% and 95.54%, respectively) when qualitative results (positive/negative) were compared with those of the IFA test; the coefficient of correlation (R) between the 2 tests was 0.833. Furthermore, it was possible to establish a mathematical formula for use in comparing the results of both techniques. These results indicate that recombinant P30 antigen-based ELISA is a suitable alternative of the IFA test for simple, consistent, and rapid serodiagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. Moreover, the use of this recombinant protein as antigen offers a great advantage for antigen preparation in comparison with other techniques in which the whole E. canis organism is used as antigen. PMID:17998551

  11. A Probability Model of Accuracy in Deception Detection Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    2001-01-01

    Extends the recent work on the veracity effect in deception detection. Explains the probabilistic nature of a receiver's accuracy in detecting deception and analyzes a receiver's detection of deception in terms of set theory and conditional probability. Finds that accuracy is shown to be a function of the relevant conditional probability and the…

  12. Resource Construction and Evaluation for Indirect Opinion Mining of Drug Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Noferesti, Samira; Shamsfard, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Opinion mining is a well-known problem in natural language processing that has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Existing approaches are mainly limited to the identification of direct opinions and are mostly dedicated to explicit opinions. However, in some domains such as medical, the opinions about an entity are not usually expressed by opinion words directly, but they are expressed indirectly by describing the effect of that entity on other ones. Therefore, ignoring indirect opinions can lead to the loss of valuable information and noticeable decline in overall accuracy of opinion mining systems. In this paper, we first introduce the task of indirect opinion mining. Then, we present a novel approach to construct a knowledge base of indirect opinions, called OpinionKB, which aims to be a resource for automatically classifying people’s opinions about drugs. Using our approach, we have extracted 896 quadruples of indirect opinions at a precision of 88.08 percent. Furthermore, experiments on drug reviews demonstrate that our approach can achieve 85.25 percent precision in polarity detection task, and outperforms the state-of-the-art opinion mining methods. We also build a corpus of indirect opinions about drugs, which can be used as a basis for supervised indirect opinion mining. The proposed approach for corpus construction achieves the precision of 88.42 percent. PMID:25962135

  13. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Paolo; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L. C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-03-01

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  14. New results of the Borexino experiment: pp solar neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino experiment is an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector, running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). Borexino has completed the real time spectroscopy of the solar neutrinos generated in the proton-proton chain in the core of the Sun. This article reviews the Borexino experiment and the first direct measurment of pp solar neutrinos.

  15. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  16. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    PubMed

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. PMID:25313189

  17. Development and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of iridovirus exposure in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) and eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    PubMed

    Johnson, April J; Wendland, Lori; Norton, Terry M; Belzer, Bill; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2010-05-19

    Iridoviruses, pathogens typically associated with fish and amphibians, have recently been shown to cause acute respiratory disease in chelonians including box turtles, red-eared sliders, gopher tortoises, and Burmese star tortoises. Case reports of natural infections in several chelonian species in the United States have been reported, however the prevalence remains unknown in susceptible populations of free-ranging chelonians. To determine the prevalence of iridovirus exposure in free-ranging gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in the southeast United States, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate plasma samples from wild gopher tortoises (G. polyphemus) from: Alabama (n=9); Florida (n=658); Georgia (n=225); Louisiana (n=12); Mississippi (n=28); and unknown locations (68) collected between 2001 and 2006. Eight (1.2%) seropositive tortoises were identified from Florida and seven (3.1%) from Georgia for an overall prevalence of 1.5%. Additionally, a population of eastern box turtles was sampled from a private nature sanctuary in Pennsylvania that experienced an outbreak of iridovirus the previous year, which killed 16 turtles. Only 1 turtle out of 55 survivors tested positive (1.8%). Results suggest a low exposure rate in chelonians to this pathogen; however, it is suspected that this is an underestimate of the true prevalence. Since experimental transmission studies and past outbreaks have shown a high rate of mortality in infected turtles, turtles may die before they develop an antibody response. Further, the duration of the antibody response is unknown and may also cause an underestimate of the true prevalence. PMID:19931321

  18. Parallel detection experiment of fluorescence confocal microscopy using DMD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gui, Kun; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-05-01

    Parallel detection of fluorescence confocal microscopy (PDFCM) system based on Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is reported in this paper in order to realize simultaneous multi-channel imaging and improve detection speed. DMD is added into PDFCM system, working to take replace of the single traditional pinhole in the confocal system, which divides the laser source into multiple excitation beams. The PDFCM imaging system based on DMD is experimentally set up. The multi-channel image of fluorescence signal of potato cells sample is detected by parallel lateral scanning in order to verify the feasibility of introducing the DMD into fluorescence confocal microscope. In addition, for the purpose of characterizing the microscope, the depth response curve is also acquired. The experimental result shows that in contrast to conventional microscopy, the DMD-based PDFCM system has higher axial resolution and faster detection speed, which may bring some potential benefits in the biology and medicine analysis. SCANNING 38:234-239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26331288

  19. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  20. The MIDAS experiment: MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facal, Pedro; Bohacova, Martina; Monasor, Maria; Privitera, Paolo; Reyes, Luis C.; Williams, Cristopher

    2010-02-01

    Recent measurements suggest that extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic rays (above 1 EeV) emit signals in the microwave band of the EM spectrum caused by the collisions of the free-electrons with the atmospheric neutral molecules in the plasma produced by the passage of the shower. Such emission is isotropic and could allow the detection of air showers with 100% duty cycle and a calorimetric-like energy measurement - a significant improvement over current detection techniques. We have built a MIDAS prototype, which consists of a 4.5 m diameter antenna with a cluster of 55 feed-horns in the 4 GHz range, covering a 10^o x10^o field of view, with self-triggering capability. The details of the prototype and first results will be presented. )

  1. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  2. Serotype- and serogroup-specific detection of African horsesickness virus using phage displayed chicken scFvs for indirect double antibody sandwich ELISAs.

    PubMed

    van Wyngaardt, Wouter; Mashau, Cordelia; Wright, Isabel; Fehrsen, Jeanni

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for standardized, easily renewable immunoreagents for detecting African horsesickness virus (AHSV). Two phage displayed single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies, selected from a semi-synthetic chicken antibody library, were used to develop double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISAs) to detect AHSV. In the DAS-ELISAs, the scFv previously selected with directly immobilized AHSV-3 functioned as a serotype-specific reagent that recognized only AHSV-3. In contrast, the one selected with AHSV-8 captured by IgG against AHSV-3 recognized all nine AHSV serotypes but not the Bryanston strain of equine encephalosis virus. Serving as evidence for its serogroup-specificity. These two scFvs can help to rapidly confirm the presence of AHSV while additional serotype-specific scFvs may simplify AHSV serotyping. PMID:23388433

  3. Bipolar Transistors Can Detect Charge in Electrostatic Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, L.

    2012-01-01

    A simple charge indicator with bipolar transistors is described that can be used in various electrostatic experiments. Its behaviour enables us to elucidate links between 'static electricity' and electric currents. In addition it allows us to relate the sign of static charges to the sign of the terminals of an ordinary battery. (Contains 7 figures…

  4. Photothermal lens detection of gold nanoparticles: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Brusnichkin, Anton V; Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Proskurnin, Mikhail A; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2007-11-01

    An approach for mode-mismatched two-beam (pump-probe) photothermal lens detection of multipoint light-absorbing targets in solution (e.g., gold nanoparticles) is developed for continuous-wave intensity-modulated laser-excitation mode. A description of the blooming of the thermooptical element (thermal lens) upon absorption of the excitation laser radiation is based on the summation of individual thermal waves from multiple heat sources. This description makes it possible to estimate the irregularities of the temperature (and, thus, the refractive index) profile for a discrete number of nanoparticles in the irradiated area and a change in the concentration and particle size parameters. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical dependences of the photothermal signal on nanoparticle size and concentration and excitation laser power. Calibration plots for particles from 2 to 250 nm show long linear ranges, limits of detection of gold nanoparticles at the level of hundreds of nanoparticles with the current setup, and the photothermal-lens sensitivity coefficient increases as a cubic function of particle size. Further improvements are discussed, including increasing the sensitivity thresholds up to one nanoparticle in the detected volume. PMID:18028698

  5. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar′s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  6. Unexploded ordnance detection experiments using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Clyde C.; Marinelli, Vincent R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Ton, Tuan T.

    1998-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has several technology development programs that are evaluating the use of ultra- wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) to detect and locate targets that are subsurface or concealed by foliage. Under these programs, a 1-GHz-bandwidth, low-frequency, fully polarimetric UWB SAR instrumentation system was developed to collect the data needed to support foliage and ground- penetrating radar studies. The radar was integrated onto a 150-ft-high mobile boomlift platform in 1995 and was thus named the BoomSAR. In 1997, under the sponsorship of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), ARL began a project focused on enhancing the detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO). The program's technical approach is to collect high-quality, precision data to support phenomenological investigations of electromagnetic wave propagation through varying dielectric media, which in turn supports the development of algorithms for automatic target detection. For this project, a UXO test site was set up at the Steel Crater Test Area -- an existing test site that already contained subsurface mines, tactical vehicles, 55-gallon drums, storage containers, wires, pipes, and arms caches located at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. More than 600 additional pieces of inert UXO were added to the Steel Crater Test Area, including bombs (250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 lb), mortars (60 and 81 mm), artillery shells (105 and 155 mm), 2.75-in. rockets, submunitions (M42, BLU-63, M68, BLU-97, and M118), and mines (Gator, VS1.6, M12, PMN, and POM- Z). In the selection of UXO to be included at YPG, an emphasis was placed on the types of munitions that may be present at CONUS test and training ranges.

  7. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  8. Detection of Upward Air Showers with the EUSO Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hillman, L.; Zuccaro, Al; Adams, J.; Cline, D.

    2003-01-01

    Upward-going showers in the atmosphere can be detected by an orbiting satellite with appropriate instrumentation. If the method only uses directional Cherenkov radiation, it is difficult to discriminate the red shower events from the background noises of very short pulse. A spectroscopic polychromatic optical design can intentionally blur the focusing of photons at shorter wavelengths (300 - 330 nm), spreading the image size to 2 x 2 or 3 x 3 pixels. False triggers due to random chance coincidence of noises can be drastically reduced with a spectroscopic polychromatic, refractive telescope.

  9. Detection of Upward Air Showers with the EUSO Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hillman, L.; Zuccaro, A.; Adams, J.; Cline, D.; EUSO Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    Upward-going showers in the atmosphere can be detected by an orbiting satellite having an appropriate instrumentation. If the method only uses directional Cherenkov radiation, it is difficult to discriminate the real shower events from the background noises of very short pulse. A spectroscopic polychromatic optical design can intentionally blur the fo cusing of photons at shorter wavelengths (300 330 nm), spreading the image size to 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 pixels. False triggers due to random chance coincidence of noises can be drastically reduced with a spectroscopic polychromatic, refractive telescope.

  10. Searching for Dark Matter in Unification Models: A Hint from Indirect Sensitivities towards Future Signals in Direct Detection and B-decays

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2006-11-28

    A comparison is made between accelerator and direct detection constraints in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Models considered are based on mSUGRA, where scalar and gaugino masses are unified at the GUT scale. In addition, the mSUGRA relation between the (unified) A and B parameters is assumed, as is the relation between m0 and gravitino mass. Also considered are models where the latter two conditions are dropped (the CMSSM), and a less constrained version where the Higgs soft masses are not unified at the GUT scale (the NUHM)

  11. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2013-07-31

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, {lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy E{sub L} = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-{mu}m thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35{+-}1.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 36 km s{sup -1}. In the experiment with four laser beams (for E{sub L} = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30{+-}3.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 30 km s{sup -1}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  12. Generation of anti-trenbolone monoclonal antibody and establishment of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of trenbolone in animal tissues, feed and urine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyang; He, Fangyang; Wan, Yuping; Meng, Meng; Xu, Jing; Yi, Jian; Wang, Yabin; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Xi, Rimo

    2011-01-15

    Trenbolone (TRE) is a steroid used by veterinarians on livestock to increase appetite and body weight. The use of TRE has been restricted because of its harmful side effect for consumers. To effectively control TRE residue in food and food product, a rapid and convenient immunoassay was developed by preparing an anti-TRE monoclonal antibody. The immunogen and coating antigen were prepared by coupling TRE hapten with carrier proteins via 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) method. The optimized method gave an average IC(50) value of 0.323 ng mL(-1) towards TRE and an average detection limit (LOD) of 0.06 ng mL(-1), which is much lower than the maximum residue levels (2.0 ng g(-1)) accepted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The specificity of the antibody was evaluated by measuring cross-reactivity of six structurally related compounds, including 19-nortestosterone (9.7%), testosterone (0.13%), methyltestosterone (<0.01%), methandrostenolone (<0.01%), (+)-dehydroisoandrosterone (<0.001%) and β-estradiol (<0.001%). The recovery rates of the test in detection of TRE-fortified animal tissue, urine and animal feed samples were in the range of 81.3-89.4%, while the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 12.0%. PMID:21147313

  13. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  14. Indirect visual cryptography scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiubo; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    Visual cryptography (VC), a new cryptographic scheme for image. Here in encryption, image with message is encoded to be N sub-images and any K sub-images can decode the message in a special rules (N>=2, 2<=K<=N). Then any K of the N sub-images are printed on transparency and stacked exactly, the message of original image will be decrypted by human visual system, but any K-1 of them get no information about it. This cryptographic scheme can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, and it has high security. But this scheme lacks of hidden because of obvious feature of sub-images. In this paper, we introduce indirect visual cryptography scheme (IVCS), which encodes sub-images to be pure phase images without visible strength based on encoding of visual cryptography. The pure phase image is final ciphertexts. Indirect visual cryptography scheme not only inherits the merits of visual cryptography, but also raises indirection, hidden and security. Meanwhile, the accuracy alignment is not required any more, which leads to the strong anti-interference capacity and robust in this scheme. System of decryption can be integrated highly and operated conveniently, and its process of decryption is dynamic and fast, which all lead to the good potentials in practices.

  15. Indirect mechanisms of genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Vanhauwaert, Annelies; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Decordier, Ilse

    2003-04-11

    Indirect mechanisms of genotoxicity correspond to interactions of mutagens with non-DNA targets, and are expected to show threshold concentration-effect response curves. If these thresholds can be proven experimentally they may provide a third alternative for risk assessment, besides the No Effect Level/Safety Factor approach and the low dose linear extrapolation method. We contributed significantly to the in vitro assessment of thresholds in human lymphocytes exposed to the spindle inhibitors nocodazole and carbendazim showing dose dependency and existence of lower thresholds for induction of non-disjunction as compared to chromosome loss. Micronuclei correlated with p53-independent or p53-dependent apoptosis and elimination of aneuploid cells. Extrapolation from in vitro threshold values to the in vivo situation remains unsolved. Comparing the in vitro threshold values for griseofulvin in human and rat lymphocytes with in vivo NOAEL/LOAEL in bone marrow/gut/erythrocytes suggests that the in vitro human system is the most sensitive. The threshold for induction of non-disjunction in in vitro maturing, nocodazole-exposed mouse oocytes was in the same low range. Regulators (UK Committee on Mutagenicity, http://www.doh.gov.uk/com/com.htm) considered the importance of thresholds for indirect mechanisms of genotoxicity. Acceptance of a non-linear extrapolation for mutagens requires mechanistic studies identifying the mutagen/target interactions. Moreover appropriate risk evaluation will require additional studies on individual susceptibility for indirect mutagenic effects and on interactions of aneugens in complex mixtures. PMID:12676452

  16. Direct and indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, Jean; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    A bridge is highlighted between the direct inversion and the indirect inversion. They are based on fundamental different approaches: one is looking after a projection from the data space to the model space while the other one is reducing a misfit between observed data and synthetic data obtained from a given model. However, it is possible to obtain similar structures for model perturbation, and we shall focus on P-wave velocity reconstruction. This bridge is built up through the Born approximation linearizing the forward problem with respect to model perturbation and through asymptotic approximations of the Green functions of the wave propagation equation. We first describe the direct inversion and its ingredients and then we focus on a specific misfit function design leading to a indirect inversion. Finally, we shall compare this indirect inversion with more standard least-squares inversion as the FWI, enabling the focus on small weak velocity perturbations on one side and the speed-up of the velocity perturbation reconstruction on the other side. This bridge has been proposed by the group led by Raul Madariaga in the early nineties, emphasizing his leading role in efficient imaging workflows for seismic velocity reconstruction, a drastic requirement at that time.

  17. Introduction to Dark Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, Richard W.

    2011-03-01

    I provide an introduction to experiments designed to detect WIMP dark matter directly, focussing on building intuitive understanding of the characteristics of potential WIMP signals and the experimental techniques. After deriving the characteristics of potential signals in direct-detection experiments for standard WIMP models, I summarize the general experimental methods shared by most direct-detection experiments and review the advantages, challenges, and status of such searches. Experiments are already probing SUSY models, with best limits on the spin-independent coupling below 10-7 pb. Combined information from direct and indirect detection, along with detection at colliders, promises to teach us much about fundamental particle physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.

  18. Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection (LC-EC): An Experiment Using 4-Aminophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situmorang, Manihar; Lee, Maria Theresa B.; Witzeman, Kathey; Heineman, William R.

    1998-08-01

    The combination of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-EC) is a powerful analytical tool for determining electroactive compounds in complex matrices. It has found numerous applications especially in the pharmaceutical and clinical areas. This experiment is intended to give students a practical experience with the LC-EC technique. The first part is designed to explore the electrochemistry of p-aminophenol (PAP), the analyte, while the second part deals with separation and identification of PAP in the presence of ascorbic acid and catechol. The improvement in detection limit with electrochemical detection compared to ultraviolet detection is also illustrated.

  19. A Theory and Experiments for Detecting Shock Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Johnson, D. K.; Adamovsky, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a simplified one-dimensional theory for predicting locations of normal shocks in a converging diverging nozzle. The theory assumes that the flow is quasi one-dimensional and the flow is accelerated in the throat area. Optical aspects of the model consider propagation of electromagnetic fields transverse to the shock front. The theory consists of an inverse problem in which from the measured intensity it reconstructs an index of refraction profile for the shock. From this profile and the Dale-Gladstone relation, the density in the flow field is determined, thus determining the shock location. Experiments show agreement with the theory. In particular the location is determined within 10 percent of accuracy. Both the theoretical as well as the experimental results are presented to validate the procedures in this work.

  20. Detection of Drugs in Nails: Three Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Nails (fingernails and toenails) are made of keratin. As the nail grows, substances incorporate into the keratin fibers where they can be detected 3-6 months after use. Samples are collected by clipping of 2-3 mm of nail from all fingers (100 mg). We present drug testing results from 10,349 nail samples collected from high-risk cases during a 3-year period of time. Samples were analyzed by validated analytical methods. The initial testing was performed mostly using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) as well. Presumptive positive samples were subjected to confirmatory testing with sample preparation procedures including washing, pulverizing, digestion and extraction optimized for each drug class. The total of 7,799 samples was analyzed for amphetamines. The concentrations ranged from 40 to 572,865 pg/mg (median, 100-3,687) for all amphetamine analytes. Amphetamine and methamphetamine were present in 14% of the samples, 22 samples were positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (0.3%), 7 for methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.09%) and 4 for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (0.05%). Cocaine and related analytes were found in 5% samples (7,787 total), and the concentration range was 20-265,063 pg/mg (median 84-1,768). Opioids overall ranged from 40 to 118,229 pg/mg (median 123-830). The most prevalent opioid was oxycodone (15.1%) and hydrocodone (11.4%) compared with 1.0-3.6% for the others, including morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and oxymorphone. Carboxy-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol positivity rate was 18.1% (0.04-262 pg/mg, median 6.41). Out of 3,039 samples, 756 were positive (24.9%) for ethyl glucuronide (20-3,754 pg/mg, median 88). Other drugs found in nails included barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ketamine, meperidine, tramadol, zolpidem, propoxyphene, naltrexone and buprenorphine. Nail analyses have become a reliable way of determining

  1. Indirect field technology for detecting areas object of illegal spills harmful to human health: application of drones, photogrammetry and hydrological models.

    PubMed

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is a serious environmental problem. The Campania region in southern Italy has higher levels of cancer risk, presumably due to the accumulation of geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollutants, some of which have been incorporated into organic matter. The aim of this study was to introduce and test an innovative, field-applicable methodology to detect heavy metal accumulation using drone-based photogrammetry and microrill network modelling, specifically to generate wetlands wetlands prediction indices normally applied at large catchment scales, such as a large geographic basin. The processing of aerial photos taken using a hexacopter equipped with fifth-generation software for photogrammetry allowed the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution as high as 30 mm. Not only this provided a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes, but it was also useful for testing and comparing the capability of the topographic index (TI) and the clima-topographic index (CTI) to predict heavy metal sedimentation points at scales from 0.1 to 10 ha. Our results indicate that the TI and CTI indices can be used to predict points of heavy metal accumulation for small field catchments. PMID:25599640

  2. Dietary effects on resting metabolic rate in C57BL/6 mice are differentially detected by indirect (O2/CO2 respirometry) and direct calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Colin M.L.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) studies frequently involve genetically-manipulated mice and high fat diets (HFD). We hypothesize that the use of inadequate methods impedes the identification of novel regulators of RMR. This idea was tested by simultaneously measuring RMR by direct calorimetry and respirometry in C57BL/6J mice fed chow, 45% HFD, and then returned to chow. Comparing results during chow feeding uncovered an underestimation of RMR by respirometry (0.010 ± 0.001 kcal/h, P < 0.05), which is equivalent in magnitude to ∼2% of total daily caloric turnover. RMR during 45% HFD feeding was increased by respirometry (+0.013 ± 0.003 kcal/h, P < 0.05), but not direct calorimetry (+0.001 ± 0.002 kcal/h). Both methods indicated that return to chow reduced RMR compared to HFD, though direct calorimetry indicated a reduction below the initial chow fed state (−0.019 ± 0.004 kcal/h versus baseline, P < 0.05) that was not detected by respirometry (−0.003 ± 0.002 kcal/h versus baseline). These results highlight method-specific interpretations of the effects of dietary interventions upon RMR in mice, and prompt the reevaluation of preclinical screening methods used to identify novel RMR modulators. PMID:24944905

  3. Indirect detection of pulmonary nodule on low-pass filtered and original x-ray images during limited and unlimited display times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; McEntee, Mark; Evanoff, Michael G.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the assumption that global impression is created based on low spatial frequency components of posterior-anterior chest radiographs. Background: Expert radiologists precisely and rapidly allocate visual attention on pulmonary nodules chest radiographs. Moreover, the most frequent accurate decisions are produced in the shortest viewing time, thus, the first hundred milliseconds of image perception seems be crucial for correct interpretation. Medical image perception model assumes that during holistic analysis experts extract information based on low spatial frequency (SF) components and creates a mental map of suspicious location for further inspection. The global impression results in flagged regions for detailed inspection with foveal vision. Method: Nine chest experts and nine non-chest radiologists viewed two sets of randomly ordered chest radiographs under 2 timing conditions: (1) 300ms; (2) free search in unlimited time. The same radiographic cases of 25 normal and 25 abnormal digitalized chest films constituted two image sets: low-pass filtered and unfiltered. Subjects were asked to detect nodules and rank confidence level. MRMC ROC DBM analyses were conducted. Results: Experts had improved ROC AUC while high SF components are displayed (p=0.03) or while low SF components were viewed under unlimited time (p=0.02) compared with low SF 300mSec viewings. In contrast, non-chest radiologists showed no significant changes when high SF are displayed under flash conditions compared with free search or while low SF components were viewed under unlimited time compared with flash. Conclusion: The current medical image perception model accurately predicted performance for non-chest radiologists, however chest experts appear to benefit from high SF features during the global impression.

  4. Detection of Ocean Reflected GPS Signals: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, James L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Howell, Charles T., III

    1997-01-01

    A number of advanced applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been proposed which use the signal reflected from a smooth ocean surface. The viability of these concepts hinges upon the ability to acquire and code track the reflected signal for an extended period of time over a variety of sea states. The analytical theory of specularly and diffusely reflected radio frequency radiation from a rough surface is reviewed. Experiments to demonstrate tracking of a reflected signal were performed on three aircraft flights over the Chesapeake Bay and the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The experimental hardware consisted of two of-the-shelf receivers configured so that one received the GPS signal in the conventional manner using a right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) antenna on top of the fuselage and the other could receive the reflected signal using a left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) antenna on the bottom of the fuselage. Three tests were performed on the data to verify that the signals received in the bottom antenna were viewed as sea surface reflections; Pseudorange double differences were compared against predicted geometric range double differences; Characteristics of a signal reflected from a random surface were observed in the carrier to noise ratio; Predicted specular points were plotted which demonstrate reflection only from wet areas. These tests indicated tracking of reflected signals for extended periods of time at altitudes of up to 5500 m and sporadic signal acquisition at higher altitudes. The duration of the continuous signal tracking was limited by the receiver's need to maintain carrier tracking.

  5. Bayesian Validation of the Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay and Its Superiority to the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Complement Fixation Test for Detecting Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in Goat Serum.

    PubMed

    Muleme, Michael; Stenos, John; Vincent, Gemma; Campbell, Angus; Graves, Stephen; Warner, Simone; Devlin, Joanne M; Nguyen, Chelsea; Stevenson, Mark A; Wilks, Colin R; Firestone, Simon M

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have reported the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to be more sensitive in detection of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii than the complement fixation test (CFT), the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the assay have not been previously established for use in ruminants. This study aimed to validate the IFA by describing the optimization, selection of cutoff titers, repeatability, and reliability as well as the DSe and DSp of the assay. Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate diagnostic specifications in comparison with the CFT and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The optimal cutoff dilution for screening for IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum using the IFA was estimated to be 1:160. The IFA had good repeatability (>96.9% for IgG, >78.0% for IgM), and there was almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa > 0.80 for IgG) between the readings reported by two technicians for samples tested for IgG antibodies. The IFA had a higher DSe (94.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.3, 99.6) for the detection of IgG antibodies against C. burnetii than the ELISA (70.1%; 95% CI, 52.7, 91.0) and the CFT (29.8%; 95% CI, 17.0, 44.8). All three tests were highly specific for goat IgG antibodies. The IFA also had a higher DSe (88.8%; 95% CI, 58.2, 99.5) for detection of IgM antibodies than the ELISA (71.7%; 95% CI, 46.3, 92.8). These results underscore the better suitability of the IFA than of the CFT and ELISA for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in goat serum and possibly in serum from other ruminants. PMID:27122484

  6. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  7. A Two-Week Guided Inquiry Protein Separation and Detection Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, James P.; Nolta, Kathleen V.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for teaching protein separation and detection in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course is described. This experiment, performed in two, 4 h laboratory periods, incorporates guided inquiry principles to introduce students to the concepts behind and difficulties of protein purification. After using size-exclusion…

  8. HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budzien, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (HREP-RAIDS) experiment will provide atmospheric scientists with a complete description of the major constituents of the thermosphere (layer of the Earth's atmosphere) and ionosphere (uppermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere), global electron density profiles at altitudes between 100 - 350 kilometers.

  9. [Value of functional lymphoscintigraphy and indirect lymphangiography in lipedema syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weissleder, H; Brauer, J W; Schuchhardt, C; Herpertz, U

    1995-12-01

    Early terms of lymphostasis in lipedema can be detected with lymphoscintigraphy. A normal examination almost certainly excludes a lymphatic component. Indirect lymphography is only used to rule out morphological abnormalities of lymph vessels. If a lymphoscintigraphic study is normal indirect lymphography is not indicated. PMID:8659203

  10. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    Background In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. Objective To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. Methods We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Results Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women’s abilities to make trade-offs. Conclusion Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting. PMID:26508842

  11. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd²⁺-complexes.

    PubMed

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas

    2015-07-16

    A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg(-1) level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good. PMID:26073818

  12. Model Intercomparison of Indirect Aerosol Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, J. E.; Quaas, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Takemura, T.; Boucher, O.; Guo, H.; Kirkevag, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Seland, O.

    2006-01-01

    Modeled differences in predicted effects are increasingly used to help quantify the uncertainty of these effects. Here, we examine modeled differences in the aerosol indirect effect in a series of experiments that help to quantify how and why model-predicted aerosol indirect forcing varies between models. The experiments start with an experiment in which aerosol concentrations, the parameterization of droplet concentrations and the autoconversion scheme are all specified and end with an experiment that examines the predicted aerosol indirect forcing when only aerosol sources are specified. Although there are large differences in the predicted liquid water path among the models, the predicted aerosol first indirect effect for the first experiment is rather similar, about -0.6 W/sq m to -0.7 W/sq m. Changes to the autoconversion scheme can lead to large changes in the liquid water path of the models and to the response of the liquid water path to changes in aerosols. Adding an autoconversion scheme that depends on the droplet concentration caused a larger (negative) change in net outgoing shortwave radiation compared to the 1st indirect effect, and the increase varied from only 22% to more than a factor of three. The change in net shortwave forcing in the models due to varying the autoconversion scheme depends on the liquid water content of the clouds as well as their predicted droplet concentrations, and both increases and decreases in the net shortwave forcing can occur when autoconversion schemes are changed. The parameterization of cloud fraction within models is not sensitive to the aerosol concentration, and, therefore, the response of the modeled cloud fraction within the present models appears to be smaller than that which would be associated with model "noise". The prediction of aerosol concentrations, given a fixed set of sources, leads to some of the largest differences in the predicted aerosol indirect radiative forcing among the models, with values of

  13. Dark Matter Indirect Search: The PAMELA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, M.

    2010-02-01

    The instrument PAMELA, in orbit since June 15th, 2006, on board the Russian satellite Resurs DK1, is daily delivering to ground 16 Gigabytes of data. The apparatus is designed to study charged particles in the cosmic radiation, with a particular focus on antiparticles for searching antimatter and signals of dark matter annihilation. A combination of a magnetic spectrometer and different detectors allows antiparticles to be reliably identified from a large background of other charged particles. New results on the antiproton-to-proton and positron-to-all electron ratios over a wide energy range (1-100 GeV) are presented. While the antiproton-to-proton ratio does not show significant differences from standard secondary production, in the positron-to-all electron ratio an enhancement is clearly seen at energies above 10 GeV. Possible interpretations of this effect are briefly discussed.

  14. Propellant Feed System Leak Detection: Lessons Learned From the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Neal; Mizukami, Masashi; Neal, Bradford A.; St. John, Clinton; Beil, Robert J.; Griffin, Timothy P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents pertinent results and assessment of propellant feed system leak detection as applied to the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) program flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The LASRE was a flight test of an aerospike rocket engine using liquid oxygen and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen as propellants. The flight safety of the crew and the experiment demanded proven technologies and techniques that could detect leaks and assess the integrity of hazardous propellant feed systems. Point source detection and systematic detection were used. Point source detection was adequate for catching gross leakage from components of the propellant feed systems, but insufficient for clearing LASRE to levels of acceptability. Systematic detection, which used high-resolution instrumentation to evaluate the health of the system within a closed volume, provided a better means for assessing leak hazards. Oxygen sensors detected a leak rate of approximately 0.04 cubic inches per second of liquid oxygen. Pressure sensor data revealed speculated cryogenic boiloff through the fittings of the oxygen system, but location of the source(s) was indeterminable. Ultimately, LASRE was cancelled because leak detection techniques were unable to verify that oxygen levels could be maintained below flammability limits.

  15. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  16. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  17. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  18. Directed Design of Experiments (DOE) for Determining Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the issues that people who specialize in Non destructive evaluation (NDE) have with determining the statistics of the probability of detection. There is discussion of the use of the binominal distribution, and the probability of hit. The presentation then reviews the concepts of Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection of Inspection Systems (DOEPOD). Several cases are reviewed, and discussed. The concept of false calls is also reviewed.

  19. Off-line experiments on radionuclide detection based on the sequential Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingpei, Xiang; Dongfeng, Tian; Fanhua, Hao; Ge, Ding; Jun, Zeng; Fei, Luo

    2013-11-01

    The sequential Bayesian approach proposed by Candy et al. for radioactive materials detection has aroused increasing interest in radiation detection research and is potentially a useful tool for prevention of the transportation of radioactive materials by terrorists. In our previous work, the performance of the sequential Bayesian approach was studied numerically through a simulation experiment platform. In this paper, a sequential Bayesian processor incorporating a LaBr3(Ce) detector, and using the energy, decay rate and emission probability of the radionuclide, is fully developed. Off-line experiments for the performance of the sequential Bayesian approach in radionuclide detection are developed by placing 60Co, 137Cs, 133Ba and 152Eu at various distances from the front face of the LaBr3(Ce) detector. The off-line experiment results agree well with the results of previous numerical experiments. The maximum detection distance is introduced to evaluate the processor‧s ability to detect radionuclides with a specific level of activity.

  20. Direct (13)C-detected NMR experiments for mapping and characterization of hydrogen bonds in RNA.

    PubMed

    Fürtig, Boris; Schnieders, Robbin; Richter, Christian; Zetzsche, Heidi; Keyhani, Sara; Helmling, Christina; Kovacs, Helena; Schwalbe, Harald

    2016-03-01

    In RNA secondary structure determination, it is essential to determine whether a nucleotide is base-paired and not. Base-pairing of nucleotides is mediated by hydrogen bonds. The NMR characterization of hydrogen bonds relies on experiments correlating the NMR resonances of exchangeable protons and can be best performed for structured parts of the RNA, where labile hydrogen atoms are protected from solvent exchange. Functionally important regions in RNA, however, frequently reveal increased dynamic disorder which often leads to NMR signals of exchangeable protons that are broadened beyond (1)H detection. Here, we develop (13)C direct detected experiments to observe all nucleotides in RNA irrespective of whether they are involved in hydrogen bonds or not. Exploiting the self-decoupling of scalar couplings due to the exchange process, the hydrogen bonding behavior of the hydrogen bond donor of each individual nucleotide can be determined. Furthermore, the adaption of HNN-COSY experiments for (13)C direct detection allows correlations of donor-acceptor pairs and the localization of hydrogen-bond acceptor nucleotides. The proposed (13)C direct detected experiments therefore provide information about molecular sites not amenable by conventional proton-detected methods. Such information makes the RNA secondary structure determination by NMR more accurate and helps to validate secondary structure predictions based on bioinformatics. PMID:26852414

  1. Indirect hemagglutination test for chlamydial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V J; Thacker, W L; Engelman, H M

    1972-07-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test is described for chlamydial antibodies in psittacosis diagnostic sera; for this test tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with a deoxycholate extract of Chlamydia psittaci grown in Vero cell monolayers were used. Adaptation of the IHA test to the Microtiter system decreased sensitivity; nevertheless, the Microtiter-IHA test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Lymphogranuloma venereum antibodies also were detected by using antigen extracted from C. psittaci. PMID:4626906

  2. Poker face of inelastic dark matter: Prospects at upcoming direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2010-08-01

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the standard model, and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100.

  3. Analyses and experiments of background sunlight's effects on laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Yin, Rui-guang; Ma, Na; Liang, Wei-wei; Li, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Background sunlight effect the technical performance of laser detection system significantly. Analyses and experiments were done to find the degree and regularity of effects of background sunlight on laser detection system. At first, we established the theoretical model of laser detection probability curve. We emulated and analysed the effects on probability curve under different sunlight intensity by the model. Moreover, we got the variation regularity of parameter in probability curve. Secondly, we proposed a prediction method of probability curve, which deduced the detecting parameter from measured data. The method can not only get the probability curve in arbitrary background sunlight by a measured probability curve in typical background sunlight, but also calculate the sensitivity of laser detection systems by probability curve at the specified probability. Thirdly, we measured the probability curves under three types of background sunlight. The illumination conditions in experiments included fine, overcast and night. These three curves can be used as reference to deduce other curves. Using model, method, and measured data mentioned above, we finally finished the analyses and appraisal of the effects of background sunlight on typical laser detection system. The research findings can provide the theoretical reference and technical support for adaptability evaluation of typical laser detection systems in different background sunlight.

  4. An EAS experiment at mountain altitude for the detection of gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allkofer, O. C.; Samorski, M.; Stamm, W.

    1985-01-01

    The plan of an extensive air shower experiment 2.200 m above sea level for the detection of 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV gamma rays from sources in the declination band 0 deg to + 60 deg is described. The site selection, detector array and electronic layout are detailed.

  5. Increasing sensitivity of pulse EPR experiments using echo train detection schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink-Vigier, F.; Collauto, A.; Feintuch, A.; Kaminker, I.; Tarle, V.; Goldfarb, D.

    2013-11-01

    Modern pulse EPR experiments are routinely used to study the structural features of paramagnetic centers. They are usually performed at low temperatures, where relaxation times are long and polarization is high, to achieve a sufficient Signal/Noise Ratio (SNR). However, when working with samples whose amount and/or concentration are limited, sensitivity becomes an issue and therefore measurements may require a significant accumulation time, up to 12 h or more. As the detection scheme of practically all pulse EPR sequences is based on the integration of a spin echo - either primary, stimulated or refocused - a considerable increase in SNR can be obtained by replacing the single echo detection scheme by a train of echoes. All these echoes, generated by Carr-Purcell type sequences, are integrated and summed together to improve the SNR. This scheme is commonly used in NMR and here we demonstrate its applicability to a number of frequently used pulse EPR experiments: Echo-Detected EPR, Davies and Mims ENDOR (Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance), DEER (Electron-Electron Double Resonance|) and EDNMR (Electron-Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR)-Detected NMR), which were combined with a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) type detection scheme at W-band. By collecting the transient signal and integrating a number of refocused echoes, this detection scheme yielded a 1.6-5 folds SNR improvement, depending on the paramagnetic center and the pulse sequence applied. This improvement is achieved while keeping the experimental time constant and it does not introduce signal distortion.

  6. Prospects for cosmic neutrino detection in tritium experiments in the case of hierarchical neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the effects of neutrino mixing and the neutrino mass hierarchy when considering the capture of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) on radioactive nuclei. The implications of mixing and hierarchy at future generations of tritium decay experiments are considered. We find that the CNB should be detectable at these experiments provided that the resolution for the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron can be pushed to a few 0.01 eV for the scenario with inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, about an order of magnitude better than that of the upcoming KATRIN experiment. Another order of magnitude improvement is needed in the case of normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We also note that mixing effects generally make the prospects for CNB detection worse due to an increased maximum energy of the normal beta decay background.

  7. A new multi-host species indirect ELISA using protein A/G conjugate for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies with comparison to ELISA-IgG, agglutination assay and Western blot.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhami, Batol H; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2014-02-24

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which can cause significant disease and losses in livestock and wild animals. It is increasingly recognized as an important foodborne pathogen in a broad range of food animals and products. Effective control strategies require rapid, reliable and cost-effective detection methods for large scale surveys and diagnostic applications in a broad range of warm-blooded animals. To overcome one or more of these shortcomings in the currently available detection methods for T. gondii infection a non-species-specific protein A/G conjugate was used in the development of an indirect ELISA (ELISA-A/G) for the detection of IgG antibodies in serum samples obtained from experimentally infected pigs. The performance of the assay was evaluated using serum samples from pigs, cats, mice and seals with known positive or negative status for T. gondii infection. Results of the ELISA-A/G obtained with pig serum samples were compared with those generated by traditional ELISA using host specific IgG conjugate (ELISA-IgG), modified agglutination test (MAT) and Western blot analysis (WB). Using protein A/G conjugate, comparative analysis of results from 77 samples obtained from T. gondii infected pigs showed excellent agreement between the ELISA-A/G and in-house ELISA-IgG (0.917 κ). Similar agreements were also observed when these samples were tested by a commercial ELISA kit (0.816 κ), MAT (0.816 κ) and WB (0.79 κ). A total of 86 serum samples obtained from cats, mice and seals experimentally infected with T. gondii and tested by the ELISA-A/G as well as MAT for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies yielded Kappa value of 1.0 for cats and mice and 0.79 for seals. These results show that the ELISA-A/G is a suitable method for serological detection of T. gondii infection in multiple host species and has the potential for testing samples from a broad range of domestic, wild, and aquatic mammalian host species. Simultaneous testing

  8. The relationship study between image features and detection probability based on psychology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Yu-hua; Wang, Ji-yuan; Gao, Hong-sheng; Wang, Ji-jun; Su, Rong-hua; Mao, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Detection probability is an important index to represent and estimate target viability, which provides basis for target recognition and decision-making. But it will expend a mass of time and manpower to obtain detection probability in reality. At the same time, due to the different interpretation of personnel practice knowledge and experience, a great difference will often exist in the datum obtained. By means of studying the relationship between image features and perception quantity based on psychology experiments, the probability model has been established, in which the process is as following.Firstly, four image features have been extracted and quantified, which affect directly detection. Four feature similarity degrees between target and background were defined. Secondly, the relationship between single image feature similarity degree and perception quantity was set up based on psychological principle, and psychological experiments of target interpretation were designed which includes about five hundred people for interpretation and two hundred images. In order to reduce image features correlativity, a lot of artificial synthesis images have been made which include images with single brightness feature difference, images with single chromaticity feature difference, images with single texture feature difference and images with single shape feature difference. By analyzing and fitting a mass of experiments datum, the model quantitys have been determined. Finally, by applying statistical decision theory and experimental results, the relationship between perception quantity with target detection probability has been found. With the verification of a great deal of target interpretation in practice, the target detection probability can be obtained by the model quickly and objectively.

  9. Optimizing detection of RDX vapors using designed experiments for remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Robert G; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Warner, Marvin G

    2014-05-21

    This paper presents results of designed experiments performed to study the effect of four factors on the detection of RDX vapors from desorption into an atmospheric flow tube mass spectrometer (AFT-MS). The experiments initially included four independent factors: gas flow rate, desorption current, solvent evaporation time and RDX mass. The values of three detection responses, peak height, peak width, and peak area were recorded but only the peak height response was analyzed. Results from the first block of experiments indicated that solvent evaporation time was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. A second round of experiments was designed and executed using flow rate, current, and RDX mass as factors and the results were used to create a model to predict conditions resulting in maximum peak height. Those conditions were confirmed experimentally and used to obtain data for a calibration model. The calibration model represented RDX amounts ranging from 1 to 25 pg desorbed into an air flow of 7 L min(-1). Air samples from a shipping container that held 2 closed explosive storage magazines were collected on metal filaments for varying amounts for time ranging from 5 to 90 minutes. RDX was detected from all of the filaments sampled by desorption into the AFT-MS. From the calibration model, RDX vapor concentrations within the shipping container were calculated to be in the range of 1 to 50 parts-per-quadrillion (ppqv) from data collected on 2 separate days. PMID:24695634

  10. Overcoming velocity suppression in dark-matter direct-detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks; Yaylali, David

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoscalar couplings between Standard-Model quarks and dark matter are normally not considered relevant for dark-matter direct-detection experiments because they lead to velocity-suppressed scattering cross sections in the nonrelativistic limit. However, at the nucleon level, such couplings are effectively enhanced by factors of order O(mN/mq)˜103, where mN and mq are appropriate nucleon and quark masses, respectively. This enhancement can thus be sufficient to overcome the corresponding velocity suppression, implying—contrary to common lore—that direct-detection experiments can indeed be sensitive to pseudoscalar couplings. In this work, we explain how this enhancement arises, and present a model-independent analysis of pseudoscalar interactions at direct-detection experiments. We also identify those portions of the corresponding dark-matter parameter space which can be probed at current and future experiments of this type, and discuss the role of isospin violation in enhancing the corresponding experimental reach.

  11. Future detectability of gravitational-wave induced lensing from high-sensitivity CMB experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Taruya, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the future detectability of gravitational-wave induced lensing from high-sensitivity cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Gravitational waves can induce a rotational component of the weak-lensing deflection angle, usually referred to as the curl mode, which would be imprinted on the CMB maps. Using the technique of reconstructing lensing signals involved in CMB maps, this curl mode can be measured in an unbiased manner, offering an independent confirmation of the gravitational waves complementary to B-mode polarization experiments. Based on the Fisher matrix analysis, we first show that with the noise levels necessary to confirm the consistency relation for the primordial gravitational waves, the future CMB experiments will be able to detect the gravitational-wave induced lensing signals. For a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r ≲0.1 , even if the consistency relation is difficult to confirm with a high significance, the gravitational-wave induced lensing will be detected at more than 3 σ significance level. Further, we point out that high-sensitivity experiments will be also powerful to constrain the gravitational waves generated after the recombination epoch. Compared to the B-mode polarization, the curl mode is particularly sensitive to gravitational waves generated at low redshifts (z ≲10 ) with a low frequency (k ≲1 0-3 Mpc-1 ), and it could give a much tighter constraint on their energy density ΩGW by more than 3 orders of magnitude.

  12. Optimizing detection of RDX vapors using designed experiments for remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Warner, Marvin G.

    2014-03-24

    Abstract: This paper presents results of experiments performed to study the effect of four factors on the detection of RDX vapors from desorption into an atmospheric flow tube mass spectrometer (AFT-MS). The experiments initially included four independent factors: gas flow rate, desorption current, solvent evaporation time and RDX mass. The values of three detection responses, peak height, peak width, and peak area were recorded but only the peak height response was analyzed. Results from the first block of experiments indicated that solvent evaporation time was not statistically significant. A second round of experiments was performed using flow rate, current, and RDX mass as factors and the results were used to create a model to predict conditions resulting in maximum peak height. Those conditions were confirmed experimentally and used to obtain data for a calibration model. The calibration model represented RDX amounts ranging from 1 to 25 pg desorbed into an air flow of 7 L/min. Air samples from a shipping container that held 2 closed explosive storage magazines were collected on metal filaments for varying amounts for time ranging from 5 to 90 minutes. RDX was detected from all of the filaments sampled by desorption into the AFT-MS. From the calibration model, RDX vapor concentrations within the shipping container were calculated to be in the range of 1 to 50 parts-per-quadrillion from data collected on 2 separate days.

  13. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establish an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.

  14. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establishmore » an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.« less

  15. Design and experiment of a neural signal detection using a FES driving system.

    PubMed

    Zonghao, Huang; Zhigong, Wang; Xiaoying, Lu; Wenyuan, Li; Xiaoyan, Shen; Xintai, Zhao; Shushan, Xie; Haixian, Pan; Cunliang, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The channel bridging, signal regenerating, and functional rebuilding of injured nerves is one of the most important issues in life science research. In recent years, some progresses in the research area have been made in repairing injured nerves with microelectronic neural bridge. Based on the previous work, this paper presents a neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES) driving system with using high performance operational amplifiers, which has been realized. The experimental results show that the designed system meets requirements. In animal experiments, sciatic nerve signal detection, regeneration and function rebuilding between two toads have been accomplished successfully by using the designed system. PMID:21096372

  16. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement. PMID:26412738

  17. Moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the mechanisms for cooperation, and seems to be of particular interest for the evolution of human societies. A large part is based on assessing reputations and acting accordingly. This paper gives a brief overview of different assessment rules for indirect reciprocity, and studies them by using evolutionary game dynamics. Even the simplest binary assessment rules lead to complex outcomes and require considerable cognitive abilities. PMID:21473870

  18. Magnetoelastic Effect-Based Transmissive Stress Detection for Steel Strips: Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingdong; Su, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Liyuan; Bi, Jia; Luo, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    For the deficiencies of traditional stress detection methods for steel strips in industrial production, this paper proposes a non-contact stress detection scheme based on the magnetoelastic effect. The theoretical model of the transmission-type stress detection is established, in which the output voltage and the tested stress obey a linear relation. Then, a stress detection device is built for the experiment, and Q235 steel under uniaxial tension is tested as an example. The result shows that the output voltage rises linearly with the increase of the tensile stress, consistent with the theoretical prediction. To ensure the accuracy of the stress detection method in actual application, the temperature compensation, magnetic shielding and some other key technologies are investigated to reduce the interference of the external factors, such as environment temperature and surrounding magnetic field. The present research develops the theoretical and experimental foundations for the magnetic stress detection system, which can be used for online non-contact monitoring of strip flatness-related stress (tension distribution or longitudinal residual stress) in the steel strip rolling process, the quality evaluation of strip flatness after rolling, the life and safety assessment of metal construction and other industrial production links. PMID:27589742

  19. The logic of indirect speech

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  20. Forecast constraints on inflation from combined CMB and gravitational wave direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2010-04-15

    We study how direct detection of the inflationary gravitational wave background constrains inflationary parameters and complements CMB polarization measurements. The error ellipsoids calculated using the Fisher information matrix approach with Planck and the direct detection experiment, Big Bang Observer (BBO), show different directions of parameter degeneracy, and the degeneracy is broken when they are combined. For a slow-roll parametrization, we show that BBO could significantly improve the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared with Planck alone. We also look at a quadratic and a natural inflation model. In both cases, if the temperature of reheating is also treated as a free parameter, then the addition of BBO can significantly improve the error bars. In the case of natural inflation, we find that the addition of BBO could even partially improve the error bars of a cosmic variance-limited CMB experiment.

  1. Optimized detection of transcription factor-binding sites in ChIP-seq experiments

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Laura L.; Kallio, Aleksi; Laajala, Teemu D.; Hawkins, R. David; Korpelainen, Eija; Aittokallio, Tero

    2012-01-01

    We developed a computational procedure for optimizing the binding site detections in a given ChIP-seq experiment by maximizing their reproducibility under bootstrap sampling. We demonstrate how the procedure can improve the detection accuracies beyond those obtained with the default settings of popular peak calling software, or inform the user whether the peak detection results are compromised, circumventing the need for arbitrary re-iterative peak calling under varying parameter settings. The generic, open-source implementation is easily extendable to accommodate additional features and to promote its widespread application in future ChIP-seq studies. The peakROTS R-package and user guide are freely available at http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/molbio/peakROTS. PMID:22009681

  2. Detection loophole in Bell experiments: How postselection modifies the requirements to observe nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Branciard, Cyril

    2011-03-15

    A common problem in Bell-type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply postselects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all postselected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this postselected local polytope in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives interesting insights on the detection loophole problem.

  3. Crack-Detection Experiments on Simulated Turbine Engine Disks in NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The development of new health-monitoring techniques requires the use of theoretical and experimental tools to allow new concepts to be demonstrated and validated prior to use on more complicated and expensive engine hardware. In order to meet this need, significant upgrades were made to NASA Glenn Research Center s Rotordynamics Laboratory and a series of tests were conducted on simulated turbine engine disks as a means of demonstrating potential crack-detection techniques. The Rotordynamics Laboratory consists of a high-precision spin rig that can rotate subscale engine disks at speeds up to 12,000 rpm. The crack-detection experiment involved introducing a notch on a subscale engine disk and measuring its vibration response using externally mounted blade-tip-clearance sensors as the disk was operated at speeds up to 12 000 rpm. Testing was accomplished on both a clean baseline disk and a disk with an artificial crack: a 50.8-mm- (2-in.-) long introduced notch. The disk s vibration responses were compared and evaluated against theoretical models to investigate how successful the technique was in detecting cracks. This paper presents the capabilities of the Rotordynamics Laboratory, the baseline theory and experimental setup for the crack-detection experiments, and the associated results from the latest test campaign.

  4. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection). PMID:24554231

  5. Neural Processing Associated with Comprehension of an Indirect Reply during a Scenario Reading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Midori; Abe, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroaki; Shimada, Koji; Umeda, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In daily communication, we often use indirect speech to convey our intention. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms that underlie the comprehension of indirect speech. In this study, we conducted a functional MRI experiment using a scenario reading task to compare the neural activity induced by an indirect reply (a type of indirect…

  6. A search for a nonbiological explanation of the Viking Labeled Release life detection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of nonbiological reactions involving hydrogen peroxide being the source of the positive response detected by the Viking Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment on the surface of Mars is assessed. Labeled release experiments were conducted in the LR Test Standards Module which replicates the Viking flight instrument configuration on analog Martian soils prepared to match the Viking inorganic analysis of Mars surface material to which an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide had been added. Getter experiments were also conducted to compare several reactions simultaneously in the presence and absence of UV radiation prior to the addition of nutrient. Hydrogen peroxide on certain analog soils is found to be capable of reproducing the kinetics and thermal information contained in the Mars data. The peroxide concentration necessary for this response, however, is shown to require a chemical stability or production rate much greater than seems likely in the Mars environment. As previous experiments have shown hydrogen peroxide to be the most likely nonbiological source of the positive LR response, it is concluded that the presence of a biological agent on Mars must not yet be ruled out.

  7. Quantifying (dis)agreement between direct detection experiments in a halo-independent way

    SciTech Connect

    Feldstein, Brian; Kahlhoefer, Felix E-mail: felix.kahlhoefer@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    We propose an improved method to study recent and near-future dark matter direct detection experiments with small numbers of observed events. Our method determines in a quantitative and halo-independent way whether the experiments point towards a consistent dark matter signal and identifies the best-fit dark matter parameters. To achieve true halo independence, we apply a recently developed method based on finding the velocity distribution that best describes a given set of data. For a quantitative global analysis we construct a likelihood function suitable for small numbers of events, which allows us to determine the best-fit particle physics properties of dark matter considering all experiments simultaneously. Based on this likelihood function we propose a new test statistic that quantifies how well the proposed model fits the data and how large the tension between different direct detection experiments is. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in order to determine the probability distribution function of this test statistic and to calculate the p-value for both the dark matter hypothesis and the background-only hypothesis.

  8. On-Line Database of Vibration-Based Damage Detection Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Doebling, Scott W.; Kholwad, Tina D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new, on-line bibliographic database of vibration-based damage detection experiments. Publications in the database discuss experiments conducted on actual structures as well as those conducted with simulated data. The database can be searched and sorted in many ways, and it provides photographs of test structures when available. It currently contains 100 publications, which is estimated to be about 5-10% of the number of papers written to date on this subject. Additional entries are forthcoming. This database is available for public use on the Internet at the following address: http://sdbpappa-mac.larc.nasa.gov. Click on the link named "dd_experiments.fp3" and then type "guest" as the password. No user name is required.

  9. Poker Face of Inelastic Dark Matter: Prospects at Upcoming Direct Detection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the Standard Model and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100. The process of testing the DAMA anomaly highlights many of the challenges inherent to direct detection experiments. In addition to determining the properties of the unknown dark matter particle, direct detection experiments must also consider the unknown flux of the incident dark matter, as well as uncertainties in converting a signal from one target nucleus to another. The predictions for both the CRESST 2009 run and XENON100 2010 run show an order of magnitude uncertainty. The nuclear form factor for {sup 184}W, when combined with additional theoretical and experimental uncertainties, will likely prevent CRESST from refuting the iDM hypothesis with an exposure of {Omicron}(100 kg-d) in a model-independent manner. XENON100, on the other hand, will be able to make a definitive statement about a spin-independent, inelastically scattering dark matter candidate. Still, the CRESST 2009 data can potentially confirm iDM for a large range of parameter space. In case of a positive signal, the combined data from CRESST and XENON100 will start probing the properties of the Milky Way DM profile and the interaction of the SM with the dark matter.

  10. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) Manual v.1.2 The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Design of experiments for validating probability of detection capability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems (DOEPOD) is a methodology that is implemented via software to serve as a diagnostic tool providing detailed analysis of POD test data, guidance on establishing data distribution requirements, and resolving test issues. DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. The DOEPOD capability has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing. DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required. DOEPOD applications for supporting inspector qualifications is included.

  11. PROJECTED CONSTRAINTS ON THE COSMIC (SUPER)STRING TENSION WITH FUTURE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sanidas, Sotirios A.; Battye, Richard A.; Stappers, Benjamin W. E-mail: rbattye@jb.man.ac.uk

    2013-02-10

    We present projected constraints on the cosmic string tension, G{mu}/c {sup 2}, that could be achieved by future gravitational wave detection experiments and express our results as semi-analytic relations of the form G{mu}({Omega}{sub gw} h {sup 2})/c {sup 2}, to allow for direct computation of the tension constraints for future experiments. These results can be applied to new constraints on {Omega}{sub gw} h {sup 2} as they are imposed. Experiments operating in different frequency bands probe different parts of the gravitational wave spectrum of a cosmic string network and are sensitive to different uncertainties in the underlying cosmic string model parameters. We compute the gravitational wave spectra of cosmic string networks based on the one-scale model, covering all the parameter space accessed by each experiment that is strongly dependent on the birth scale of loops relative to the horizon, {alpha}. The upper limits on the string tension avoid any assumptions on the model parameters. We perform this investigation for Pulsar Timing Array experiments of different durations, as well as ground-based and space-borne interferometric detectors.

  12. What is the probability that direct detection experiments have observed dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas E-mail: schwetz@fysik.su.se

    2014-12-01

    In Dark Matter direct detection we are facing the situation of some experiments reporting positive signals which are in conflict with limits from other experiments. Such conclusions are subject to large uncertainties introduced by the poorly known local Dark Matter distribution. We present a method to calculate an upper bound on the joint probability of obtaining the outcome of two potentially conflicting experiments under the assumption that the Dark Matter hypothesis is correct, but completely independent of assumptions about the Dark Matter distribution. In this way we can quantify the compatibility of two experiments in an astrophysics independent way. We illustrate our method by testing the compatibility of the hints reported by DAMA and CDMS-Si with the limits from the LUX and SuperCDMS experiments. The method does not require Monte Carlo simulations but is mostly based on using Poisson statistics. In order to deal with signals of few events we introduce the so-called ''signal length'' to take into account energy information. The signal length method provides a simple way to calculate the probability to obtain a given experimental outcome under a specified Dark Matter and background hypothesis.

  13. Primordial Gravitational Wave Detectability with Deep Small-sky Cosmic Microwave Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Doré, O.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2013-07-01

    We use the Bayesian estimation on direct T - Q - U cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps to forecast errors on the tensor-to-scalar power ratio r, and hence on primordial gravitational waves, as a function of sky coverage f sky. This map-based likelihood filters the information in the pixel-pixel space into the optimal combinations needed for r detection for cut skies, providing enhanced information over a first-step linear separation into a combination of E, B, and mixed modes, and ignoring the latter. With current computational power and for typical resolutions appropriate for r detection, the large matrix inversions required are accurate and fast. Our simulations explore two classes of experiments, with differing bolometric detector numbers, sensitivities, and observational strategies. One is motivated by a long duration balloon experiment like Spider, with pixel noise \\propto \\sqrt{f_{sky}} for a specified observing period. This analysis also applies to ground-based array experiments. We find that, in the absence of systematic effects and foregrounds, an experiment with Spider-like noise concentrating on f sky ~ 0.02-0.2 could place a 2σ r ≈ 0.014 boundary (~95% confidence level), which rises to 0.02 with an l-dependent foreground residual left over from an assumed efficient component separation. We contrast this with a Planck-like fixed instrumental noise as f sky varies, which gives a Galaxy-masked (f sky = 0.75) 2σ r ≈ 0.015, rising to ≈0.05 with the foreground residuals. Using as the figure of merit the (marginalized) one-dimensional Shannon entropy of r, taken relative to the first 2003 WMAP CMB-only constraint, gives -2.7 bits from the 2012 WMAP9+ACT+SPT+LSS data, and forecasts of -6 bits from Spider (+ Planck); this compares with up to -11 bits for CMBPol, COrE, and PIXIE post-Planck satellites and -13 bits for a perfectly noiseless cosmic variance limited experiment. We thus confirm the wisdom of the current strategy for r

  14. PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTABILITY WITH DEEP SMALL-SKY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Netterfield, C. B.; Dore, O.

    2013-07-01

    We use the Bayesian estimation on direct T - Q - U cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps to forecast errors on the tensor-to-scalar power ratio r, and hence on primordial gravitational waves, as a function of sky coverage f{sub sky}. This map-based likelihood filters the information in the pixel-pixel space into the optimal combinations needed for r detection for cut skies, providing enhanced information over a first-step linear separation into a combination of E, B, and mixed modes, and ignoring the latter. With current computational power and for typical resolutions appropriate for r detection, the large matrix inversions required are accurate and fast. Our simulations explore two classes of experiments, with differing bolometric detector numbers, sensitivities, and observational strategies. One is motivated by a long duration balloon experiment like Spider, with pixel noise {proportional_to}{radical}(f{sub sky}) for a specified observing period. This analysis also applies to ground-based array experiments. We find that, in the absence of systematic effects and foregrounds, an experiment with Spider-like noise concentrating on f{sub sky} {approx} 0.02-0.2 could place a 2{sigma}{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 0.014 boundary ({approx}95% confidence level), which rises to 0.02 with an l-dependent foreground residual left over from an assumed efficient component separation. We contrast this with a Planck-like fixed instrumental noise as f{sub sky} varies, which gives a Galaxy-masked (f{sub sky} = 0.75) 2{sigma}{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 0.015, rising to Almost-Equal-To 0.05 with the foreground residuals. Using as the figure of merit the (marginalized) one-dimensional Shannon entropy of r, taken relative to the first 2003 WMAP CMB-only constraint, gives -2.7 bits from the 2012 WMAP9+ACT+SPT+LSS data, and forecasts of -6 bits from Spider (+ Planck); this compares with up to -11 bits for CMBPol, COrE, and PIXIE post-Planck satellites and -13 bits for a perfectly

  15. On-Board Cryosphere Change Detection With The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doggett, T.; Greeley, R.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Tran, D.; Mazzoni, D.; Baker, V.; Dohm, J.; Ip, F.

    2006-12-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) is operating on-board Earth Observing - 1 (EO-1 with the Hyperion hyper-spectral visible to short-wave infrared spectrometer. ASE science activities include autonomous monitoring of cryospheric changes, triggering the collection of additional data when change is detected and filtering of null data such as no change or cloud cover. A cryosphere classification algorithm, developed with Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine learning techniques [1], replacing a manually derived classifier used in earlier operations [2], has been used in conjunction with on-board autonomous software application to execute over three hundred on-board scenarios in 2005 and early 2006, to detect and autonomously respond to sea ice break-up and formation, lake freeze and thaw, as well as the onset and melting of snow cover on land. This demonstrates an approach which could be applied to the monitoring of cryospheres on Earth and Mars as well as the search for dynamic activity on the icy moons of the outer Solar System. [1] Castano et al. (2006) Onboard classifiers for science event detection on a remote-sensing spacecraft, KDD '06, Aug 20-23 2006, Philadelphia, PA. [2] Doggett et al. (2006), Autonomous detection of cryospheric change with Hyperion on-board Earth Observing-1, Rem. Sens. Env., 101, 447-462.

  16. Research of detecting details and features of infrared polarization imaging experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Xiao-cheng; Wang, Ji-zhong

    2013-09-01

    Along with modern infrared camouflage technique developed, it is hard to distinguish target and background by using traditional infrared intensity imaging in general because infrared feature of target and background are tending to consistent. To address this issue, a thought that utilizes infrared polarization imaging technique to detect target is proposed in this paper based on analyzing of the principle of infrared polarization imaging. The experiments are carried out for detecting of infrared low-contrast target imaging. Comparing with the infrared intensity images, the average gradient of the infrared polarization image has been improved 155% and the contrast of target and background has been improved 120% in infrared polarization images. The effective experimental data and imaging law between infrared polarization images and infrared intensity images are obtained that, the technology of infrared polarization imaging can detect details of infrared target more clearly than the infrared intensity imaging, and it can obviously increase the contrast between target and background. Therefore, it is more helpful to detecting details and features of target.

  17. Clinical experience with the use of 5-ALA for the detection of superficial bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert G.; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Knuechel, Ruth; Kriegmair, M.; Stepp, H. G.; Zaak, D.; Hofstetter, Alfons G.

    2000-06-01

    We report about the experience obtained in the fluorescence cystoscopic evaluation of 647 patients investigated since 1993. Of all histologically confirmed tumors, 32 percent would have been missed with conventional cystoscopy. Only 16 of 38 CIS were also detected under white light. In patients with entirely normal or unspecifically inflamed appearing mucosa, 44 otherwise invisible malignant lesions could be localized by fluorescence, 16 of them being present in patients with negative bladder washing cytology. The specificity of fluorescence cystoscopy is comparable to white light cystoscopy. A prospective multi-center study was conducted to show, whether a fluorescence controlled transurethral two weeks revealed residual tumor in 53 percent in the white light arm compared to 33 percent in the fluorescence arm. This difference was statistically significant. Of the 33 percent tumor in the fluorescence arm, most was gathered within the resection margins of the first resection, indicating an insufficiently deep resection rather than a failure in detecting the lesion.

  18. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Directed design of experiments for probability of detection (DOEPOD) has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit- Miss or signal amplitude testing. Specifically, DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. Directed DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required.

  19. The difference of detecting water mist and smoke by electromagnetic wave in simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Cui, Bing; Xiao, Si

    2015-10-01

    Although mist is similar to smoke in morphology, their compositions are very different. Therefore there is a significant difference between mist and smoke when detected by electromagnetic wave. This paper puts forward a kind of feasible solution based on Ansoft HFSS software about how to determine the forest fire by distinguishing mist and smoke above the forest. The experiments simulate the difference between mist and smoke model when detected by electromagnetic wave in different wavelengths. We find the mist and smoke model cannot absorb or reflect electromagnetic wave efficiently in Megahertz band. While in Gigahertz band mist model began to absorb and reflect electromagnetic wave above 650 Gigahertz band, but no change in smoke model. And the biggest difference appears in Terahertz band.

  20. Development of experiment and theory to detect and predict ligand phase separation on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Zachary; Merz, Steve; Seager, Jon; Dunn, Caroline; Egorov, Sergei; Green, David L

    2015-05-26

    MALDI mass-spectrometry measurements are combined with self-consistent mean-field (SCF) calculations to detect and predict ligand phase separation on Ag nanoparticles. The experimental and theoretical techniques complement each other by enabling quantification of the nearest-neighbor distribution of a ligand mixture in a monolayer shell. By tracking a characteristic metallic fragment family, analysis of a MALDI spectrum produces a frequency distribution corresponding to specific ligand patterning. Inherent to the SCF calculation is the enumeration of local interactions that dictate ligand assembly. Interweaving MALDI and SCF facilitates a comparison between the experimentally and theoretically derived frequency distributions as well as their deviation from a well-mixed state. Thus, we combine these techniques to detect and predict phase separation in monolayers that mix uniformly or experience varying degrees of de-mixing, including microphase separation and stripe formation. Definition of MALDI removed as this is a commonly recognized technique. PMID:25882701

  1. Failure detection and isolation experiments with the Langley Mini-Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Velde, Wallace E.; Van Schalkwyk, Christiaan M.

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented on experiments to demonstrate failure detection and isolation (FDI) using the flexible truss facility Mini-Mast at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two techniques are selected for study because they are applicable both to sensor and actuator failures and because they do not depend on hypotheses about the forms of possible failures. These two are the method of generalized parity relations and the failure detection filter. These methods utilize the concept of analytical redundancy and therefore their performance depends on the fidelity of the model of the dynamics of the system being monitored. Results are given for sensor FDI using generalized parity relations and input-output data collected during operation of the Mini-Mast. component failures are simulated in the data. The dependence of the performance of the methods on choices of the parameters in their implementation is explored.

  2. Single photon detection and timing in the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    The goals of the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment lead to the need for the measurement of a 2.5 sec time interval to an accuracy of a nanosecond or better. The systems analysis which included practical retroreflector arrays, available laser systems, and large telescopes led to the necessity of single photon detection. Operation under all background illumination conditions required auxiliary range gates and extremely narrow spectral and spatial filters in addition to the effective gate provided by the time resolution. Nanosecond timing precision at relatively high detection efficiency was obtained using the RCA C31000F photomultiplier and Ortec 270 constant fraction of pulse-height timing discriminator. The timing accuracy over the 2.5 sec interval was obtained using a digital interval with analog vernier ends. Both precision and accuracy are currently checked internally using a triggerable, nanosecond light pulser. Future measurements using sub-nanosecond laser pulses will be limited by the time resolution of single photon detectors.

  3. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672

  4. Experiences with a new soil gas technique for detecting petroleum pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Mazac, O.; Landa, I.; Rohde, J.R.; Kelly, W.E.; Blaha, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents field experiences obtained with a new technology for detecting petroleum pollution in soil and ground water based on in situ determination of hydrocarbon concentrations in soil air. Ecoprobe is a new soil gas device from RS-Dynamics in the Czech Republic. The rugged waterproof device is equipped with a built-in computer-controlled semiconductor sensor. Three case histories are presented that demonstrate the use of the equipment under typical conditions. Two case histories present the use of the device under typical field conditions; the third case history compares results from the Ecoprobe and a commercial photoionization detector (PID) device.

  5. LHC optics measurement with proton tracks detected by the Roman pots of the TOTEM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The TOTEM Collaboration; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M. V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Rodríguez, F. Lucas; Macrí, M.; Mäki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Peroutka, Z.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2014-10-01

    Precise knowledge of the beam optics at the LHC is crucial to fulfill the physics goals of the TOTEM experiment, where the kinematics of the scattered protons is reconstructed with near-beam telescopes—so-called Roman pots (RP). Before being detected, the protons’ trajectories are influenced by the magnetic fields of the accelerator lattice. Thus precise understanding of the proton transport is of key importance for the experiment. A novel method of optics evaluation is proposed which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered protons observed in the RPs. Theoretical predictions, as well as Monte Carlo studies, show that the residual uncertainty of the optics estimation method is smaller than 2.5.

  6. Development of a corrosion detection experiment to evaluate conventional and advanced NDI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) was established by the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) at Sandia National Laboratories in August of 1991. The goal of the AANC is to provide independent validation of technologies intended to enhance the structural inspection of aging commuter and transport aircraft. The deliverables from the AANC`s validation activities are assessments of the reliability of existing and emerging inspection technologies as well as analyses of the cost benefits to be derived from their implementation. This paper describes the methodology developed by the AANC to assess the performance of NDI techniques. In particular, an experiment being developed to evaluate corrosion detection devices will be presented. The experiment uses engineered test specimens, as well as complete aircraft test beds to provide metrics for NDI validation.

  7. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  8. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  9. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  10. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  11. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  12. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  13. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  14. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  15. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  16. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost... assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54...

  17. 24 CFR 576.109 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Indirect costs. 576.109 Section 576... § 576.109 Indirect costs. (a) In general. ESG grant funds may be used to pay indirect costs in.... Indirect costs may be allocated to each eligible activity under § 576.101 through § 576.108, so long...

  18. 24 CFR 576.109 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect costs. 576.109 Section 576... § 576.109 Indirect costs. (a) In general. ESG grant funds may be used to pay indirect costs in.... Indirect costs may be allocated to each eligible activity under § 576.101 through § 576.108, so long...

  19. 24 CFR 578.63 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect costs. 578.63 Section 578... Indirect costs. (a) In general. Continuum of Care funds may be used to pay indirect costs in accordance with OMB Circulars A-87 or A-122, as applicable. (b) Allocation. Indirect costs may be allocated...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture..., unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as in-kind matching contributions...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture..., unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as in-kind matching contributions...

  2. 24 CFR 578.63 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Indirect costs. 578.63 Section 578... Indirect costs. (a) In general. Continuum of Care funds may be used to pay indirect costs in accordance with OMB Circulars A-87 or A-122, as applicable. (b) Allocation. Indirect costs may be allocated...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.54 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.54 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect costs. 3430.54 Section 3430.54 Agriculture..., unless superseded by another authority. Use of indirect costs as in-kind matching contributions...

  4. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  5. 19 CFR 10.879 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.879 Section 10.879 Customs... of Origin § 10.879 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  6. Water Rockets and Indirect Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that teaches a number of scientific concepts including indirect measurement, Newton's third law of motion, manipulating and controlling variables, and the scientific method of inquiry. Uses process skills such as observation, inference, prediction, mensuration, and communication as well as problem solving and higher-order…

  7. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  8. Modeling Indirect Tunneling in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Edward

    Indirect tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the indirect tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of indirect tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the indirect tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.

  9. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis. PMID:26654371

  10. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  11. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  12. In-Situ Detections of a Satellite Breakup by the SPADUS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; McKibben, R. B.; Simpson, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Voss, H. D.; Gursky, H.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, a particle detector in Earth orbit has provided evidence to directly link sub-millimeter orbital debris to a specific satellite breakup. The University of Chicago's Space Dust instrument (SPADUS), on the U.S. Air Force's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), has been operating in a nearly polar orbit at an altitude of about 830 km since soon after its launch on 23 February 1999. The experiment was designed primarily to detect small natural and man-made particles less than 100 microns in diameter. Using a dual-plane Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-based detection system, SPADUS can measure dust particle flux, mass distribution, velocity, and trajectory. During its first year in orbit, SPADUS recorded 195 impacts, about one impact every two days. In late March 2000 the instrument detection rate soared by approximately an order of magnitude, suggesting a potential encounter with a cloud or stream of debris. A review of the impact times and ARGOS orbital characteristics indicated that most of the detections occurred at multiples of half-revolution intervals deep in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a clear majority of impacts found in the latter. Orbital analyses linked these impact events to the orbital plane intersections of ARGOS and the debris cloud of a Chinese orbital stage (International Designator 1999-057C, US Satellite Number 25942) which had undergone a severe fragmentation on 11 March 2000 at an altitude 100 km below that of ARGOS. Approximately 40 of the SPADUS detections during the period 25 March 1 April could be associated with the postulated Chinese debris cloud. Other periods of high impact flux on SPADUS may be related to debris clouds from different sources.

  13. Evaluation of geophysical methods for the detection of subsurfacetetracgloroethyene in controlled spill experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzella, Aldo; Majer, Ernest L.

    2006-04-10

    A controlled Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) spill experiment was conducted in a multi-layer formation consisting of sand and clayey-sandlayers. The purpose of the work was to determine the detection limits and capability of various geophysical methods. Measurements were made with ten different geophysical techniques before, during, and after the PCE injection. This experiment provided a clear identification of any geophysical anomalies associated with the presence of the PCE. During the injection period all the techniques indicated anomalies associated with the PCE. In order to quantify the results and provide an indication of the PCE detection limits of the various geophysical methods, the tank was subsequently excavated and samples of the various layers were analyzed for residual PCE concentration with gas chromatography (GC). This paper presents some of the results of five of the techniques: cross borehole complex resistivity (CR) also referred to as spectral induced polarization (SIP), cross borehole high resolution seismic (HRS), borehole self potential (SP), surface ground penetration radar (GPR), and borehole video (BV).

  14. Can we predict indirect interactions from quantitative food webs?--an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Tack, Ayco J M; Gripenberg, Sofia; Roslin, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    1. Shared enemies may link the dynamics of their prey. Recently, quantitative food webs have been used to infer that herbivorous insect species attacked by the same major parasitoid species will affect each other negatively through apparent competition. Nonetheless, theoretical work predicts several alternative outcomes, including positive effects. 2. In this paper, we use an experimental approach to link food web patterns to realized population dynamics. First, we construct a quantitative food web for three dominant leaf miner species on the oak Quercus robur. We then measure short- and long-term indirect effects by increasing leaf miner densities on individual trees. Finally, we test whether experimental results are consistent with natural leaf miner dynamics on unmanipulated trees. 3. The quantitative food web shows that all leaf miner species share a minimum of four parasitoid species. While only a small fraction of the parasitoid pool is shared among Tischeria ekebladella and each of two Phyllonorycter species, the parasitoid communities of the congeneric Phyllonorycter species overlap substantially. 4. Based on the structure of the food web, we predict strong short- and long-term indirect interactions between the Phyllonorycter species, and limited interactions between them and T. ekebladella. As T. ekebladella is the main source of its own parasitoids, we expect to find intraspecific density-dependent parasitism in this species. 5. Consistent with these predictions, parasitism in T. ekebladella was high on trees with high densities of conspecifics in the previous generation. Among leaf miner species sharing more parasitoids, we found positive rather than negative interactions among years. No short-term indirect interactions (i.e. indirect interactions within a single generation) were detected. 6. Overall, this study is the first to experimentally demonstrate that herbivores with overlapping parasitoid communities may exhibit independent population dynamics

  15. Improved detection of differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments through multiple scanning and image integration

    PubMed Central

    Romualdi, Chiara; Trevisan, Silvia; Celegato, Barbara; Costa, Germano; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2003-01-01

    The variability of results in microarray technology is in part due to the fact that independent scans of a single hybridised microarray give spot images that are not quite the same. To solve this problem and turn it to our advantage, we introduced the approach of multiple scanning and of image integration of microarrays. To this end, we have developed specific software that creates a virtual image that statistically summarises a series of consecutive scans of a microarray. We provide evidence that the use of multiple imaging (i) enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes; (ii) increases the image homogeneity; and (iii) reveals false-positive results such as differentially expressed genes that are detected by a single scan but not confirmed by successive scanning replicates. The increase in the final number of differentially expressed genes detected in a microarray experiment with this approach is remarkable; 50% more for microarrays hybridised with targets labelled by reverse transcriptase, and 200% more for microarrays developed with the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) technique. The results have been confirmed by semi-quantitative RT–PCR tests. PMID:14627839

  16. CT detection and location of intraorbital foreign bodies. Experiments with wood and glass.

    PubMed

    Myllylä, V; Pyhtinen, J; Päivänsalo, M; Tervonen, O; Koskela, P

    1987-06-01

    The series comprises 27 patients examined by CT to detect, locate or exclude a foreign body. 22 of them actually had an orbital foreign body. In three cases CT was the primary method and showed the foreign body correctly, while in 18 it was first detected in plain films and CT was performed to locate it. 20 metallic foreign bodies were hyperdense in appearance. Two cases had wooden foreign bodies, one with a density of +10 HU and the other hypodense with a value of about -434 to -446 HU. The latter piece of wood was first interpreted falsely as a bubble of gas. The results proved that the detection of metal is easy, but differentiation between wood and gas is problematical. Experiments conducted to determine the CT densities of different pieces of wood gave results varying from -618 HU to +23 HU. The highest densities obtained for glass varied from +522 HU to +2000 HU. The density of a plastic lens was -105 HU. PMID:3037632

  17. Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

  18. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat. PMID:25302423

  19. HI at z 20: The Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Werthimer, D.; Taylor, G.; Ellingson, S.; LEDA Collaboration

    2012-05-01

    When did the first stars form? Did supermassive black holes form at the same time, earlier, or later? One of the great challenges of cosmology today is the study of these first generation objects. The Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA) project seeks to detect, in total-power, emission from neutral Hydrogen (21 cm rest wavelength) in the intergalactic medium about 100 million years after the Big Bang (redshifts 20). Detection would deliver the first observational constraints on models of structure formation and the first pockets of star and black holes formation in the Universe. LEDA will develop and integrate by 2013 signal processing instrumentation into the new first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA). This comprises a large-N correlator serving all 512 dipole antennas of the LWA1, leveraging a packetized CASPER architecture and combining FPGAs and GPUs for the F and X stages. Iterative calibration and imaging will rely on warped snapshot imaging and be drawn from a GPU-enabled library (cuWARP) that is designed specifically to support wide-field full polarization imaging with fixed dipole arrays. Calibration techniques will include peeling, correction for ionospheric refraction, direction dependent dipole gains, deconvolution via forward modeling, and exploration of pulsar data analysis to improve performance. Accurate calibration and imaging will be crucial requirements for LEDA, necessary to subtract the bright foreground sky and detect the faint neutral Hydrogen signal. From the computational standpoint, LEDA is a O(100) TeraFlop per second challenge that enables a scalable architecture looking toward development of radio arrays requiring power efficient 10 PetaFlop per second performance. Stage two of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA2) is one example.

  20. Comparisons of target detection in clutter using data from the 1993 FOPEN experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Edwin M.; Schlangen, Michael J.; Hendrickson, Clark R.

    1994-06-01

    During 1993, a series of experiments were performed under the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) sponsorship using the SRI ultra-wide band UHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR). These experiments were performed over a variety of clutter backgrounds to assess the foliage penetration capability of the technology and to investigate target detection in clutter. Experiments were conducted observing tropical rain forest backgrounds in Panama, several different desert backgrounds in the Yuma vicinity, and the mid-latitude temperate forest of Maine. SAR images were formed from the raw data using Differential GPS to aid in the focusing. The three locations represent different levels of foliage cover, ranging from the sparsely vegetated desert sites to the triple canopied rain forest. The characteristics of each site are discussed first through a presentation of photography and SAR imagery. The clutter characteristics are studied through a comparison of the cumulative distributions, which are plotted using a variety of conventions. For each case, at least one reference target is included in the test scene. The signal of that target as processed by a common algorithm will be compared to the processed clutter distribution.

  1. Comparisons of target detection clutter using data from the 1993 FOPEN experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, E. M.; Schlangen, M. J.; Hendrickson, C. R.

    1994-10-01

    During 1993, a series of experiments were performed under the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) sponsorship using the SRI Ultra-Wide Band UHF Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). These experiments were performed over a variety of clutter backgrounds to assess the foliage penetration capability of the technology and to investigate target detection in clutter. Experiments were conducted observing tropical rain forest backgrounds in Panama, several different desert backgrounds in the Yuma vicinity, and the mid-latitude temperate forest of Maine. SAR images were formed from the raw data using Differential GPS to aid in the focusing. The three locations represent different levels of foliage cover, ranging from the sparsely vegetated desert sites to the triple canopied rain forest. The characteristics of each site are discussed first through a presentation of photography and SAR imagery. The clutter characteristics are studied through a comparison of the cumulative distributions, which are plotted using a variety of conventions (e.g., log-normal, normal, Weibull). For each case, at least one reference target is included in the test scene. The signal of that target as processed by a common algorithm will be compared to the processed clutter distribution.

  2. Flood Detection and Monitoring by Autonomous Satellite Operations: the ASE Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, F.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Doggett, T.; Davies, A. G.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D. Q.; Rabideau, G.

    2006-05-01

    We developed a satellite-based floodwater classification algorithm, ASE_FLOOD, to autonomously detect, monitor and respond to flooding events as they occur. It monitors selected river locations around the world for flood conditions in near real time through the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE). Normally, an ongoing flood might be missed because of the time required for the spacecraft to send its data to ground controllers for image processing and data analysis. The ASE approach cuts lengthy time lags inherent to taking an observation, transmitting it to the ground for study, and subsequently deciding to direct further satellite observations of an event. By introducing spaceborne data analysis and autonomous decision-making ability, ASE provides an innovative way for early detection, tracking and "rapid response" to dynamic transient flood events without any human intervention or prior knowledge. Tested and proven on NASA's EO-1 spacecraft, ASE's onboard data analysis detects flood/non-flood/cloudy conditions on the ground, and responds to the detected conditions accordingly using its ASE-facilitated autonomous decision making ability. Cloudy scenes and scenes with no significant flooding are dropped and not be transmitted, thereby saving downlink resources. When significant flooding is detected, ASE autonomously triggers the satellite to acquire additional images of the same target or adjacent flood-affected regions on the next orbital passes to track flood progress and map flood extent. This conditional change- based triggering allows the satellite to change its acquisition priorities and retarget its sensors to the emerging flood regions. The ASE approach greatly reduces the response time to floods from 2 weeks down to a possible 3 hours. It optimizes satellite downlink resources by eliminating useless scenes (e.g., cloudy) and preferentially transmitting onboard-derived data of high science value (e.g., time series of floodwater inundation maps). This

  3. From experiment to design -- Fault characterization and detection in parallel computer systems using computational accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Keun Soo

    This dissertation summarizes experimental validation and co-design studies conducted to optimize the fault detection capabilities and overheads in hybrid computer systems (e.g., using CPUs and Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs), and consequently to improve the scalability of parallel computer systems using computational accelerators. The experimental validation studies were conducted to help us understand the failure characteristics of CPU-GPU hybrid computer systems under various types of hardware faults. The main characterization targets were faults that are difficult to detect and/or recover from, e.g., faults that cause long latency failures (Ch. 3), faults in dynamically allocated resources (Ch. 4), faults in GPUs (Ch. 5), faults in MPI programs (Ch. 6), and microarchitecture-level faults with specific timing features (Ch. 7). The co-design studies were based on the characterization results. One of the co-designed systems has a set of source-to-source translators that customize and strategically place error detectors in the source code of target GPU programs (Ch. 5). Another co-designed system uses an extension card to learn the normal behavioral and semantic execution patterns of message-passing processes executing on CPUs, and to detect abnormal behaviors of those parallel processes (Ch. 6). The third co-designed system is a co-processor that has a set of new instructions in order to support software-implemented fault detection techniques (Ch. 7). The work described in this dissertation gains more importance because heterogeneous processors have become an essential component of state-of-the-art supercomputers. GPUs were used in three of the five fastest supercomputers that were operating in 2011. Our work included comprehensive fault characterization studies in CPU-GPU hybrid computers. In CPUs, we monitored the target systems for a long period of time after injecting faults (a temporally comprehensive experiment), and injected faults into various types of

  4. Tests of WIMP Dark Matter Candidates with Direct Dark Matter Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Andreea Irina

    We reexamine the current direct dark matter (DM) detection data for several types of DM candidates, both assuming the Standard Halo Model (SHM) and in a halo-independent manner. We consider the potential signals for light WIMPs that have appeared in three direct detection searches: DAMA, CDMS-II-Si, and CoGeNT, and we analyze their compatibility with the null results of other direct detection experiments. We first consider light WIMPs with exothermic scattering with nuclei (exoDM). Exothermic interactions favor light targets, thus reducing the importance of upper limits derived from Xe targets, the most restrictive of which is at present the LUX limit. In our SHM analysis the CDMS-II-Si and CoGeNT regions become allowed by these bounds, however the SuperCDMS limit rejects both regions for exoDM with isospin-conserving couplings. An isospin-violating coupling of the exoDM, in particular one with a neutron to proton coupling ratio of -0.8 (which we call "Ge-phobic"), maximally reduces the DM coupling to Ge and allows the CDMS-II-Si region to become compatible with all upper bounds. This is also clearly shown in our halo-independent analysis. Next, we extend and correct a recently proposed maximum-likelihood halo-independent method to analyze unbinned direct DM detection data. Instead of the recoil energy as an independent variable, we use the minimum speed a DM particle must have to impart a given recoil energy to a nucleus. This has the advantage of allowing us to apply the method to any type of target composition and interaction, e.g. with general momentum and velocity dependence, and with elastic or inelastic scattering. We prove the method and provide a rigorous statistical interpretation of the results. As first applications, we find that for dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent interactions and neutron to proton coupling ratio ƒn/ƒp = --0.7 ("Xe-phobic", which reduces maximally the coupling to Xe), the WIMP interpretation of the signal observed

  5. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations. PMID:24494785

  6. Trapping and transport of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuenschell, Jeffrey K.

    Spatially indirect excitons are optically generated composite bosons with a radiative lifetime sufficient to reach thermal equilibrium. This work explores the physics of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, specifically in the low-temperature, high-density regime. Particular attention is paid to a technique whereby a spatially inhomogeneous strain field is used as a trapping potential. In the process of modeling the trapping profile in wide quantum wells, dramatic effects due to intersubband coupling were observed at high strain. Experimentally, this regime coincides with the abrupt appearance of a dark population of indirect excitons at trap center, an effect originally suspected to be related to Bose-Einstein condensation. Here, the role of band mixing due to the strain-induced distortion of the crystal symmetry will be explored in detail in the context of this effect. Experimental studies presented here and in the literature suggest that Bose-Einstein condensation in indirect exciton systems may be difficult to detect with optical means (e.g., coherence measurements, momentum-space narrowing), possibly due to the strong dipole interaction between indirect excitons. Due to similarities between this system and liquid helium, it may be more fruitful to look for transport-related signatures of condensation, such as super fluidity. Here, a method for performing transport measurements on optically generated indirect excitons is also outlined and preliminary results are presented.

  7. Analogue Experiments Identify Possible Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in SAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K.; Summons, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since landing at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, aboard the Curiosity Rover, has conducted multiple analyses of scooped and drilled samples and has identified a suite of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (Glavin et al., 2013; Leshin et al., 2013). These compounds were identified after samples were pyrolysed at temperatures up to ~835°C through a combination of Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Since these chlorinated species were well above the background levels determined by empty cup blanks analyzed prior to solid sample analyses, thermal degradation of oxychlorine phases, such as perchlorate, present in the Martian soil, are the most likely source of chlorine needed to generate these chlorohydrocarbons. Laboratory analogue experiments show that terrestrial organics internal to SAM, such as N-methyl-N(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a derivatization agent, can react with perchlorates to produce all of the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM. However, in pyrolysis-trap-GCMS laboratory experiments with MTBSTFA, C4 compounds are the predominant chlorohydrocarbon observed, whereas on SAM the C1 chlorohydrocarbons dominate (Glavin et al., 2013). This, in addition to the previous identification of chloromethane and dichloromethane by the 1976 Viking missions (Biemann et al., 1977), suggest that there could be another, possibly Martian, source of organic carbon contributing to the formation of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons, or other components of the solid samples analyzed by SAM are having a catalytic effect on chlorohydrocarbon generation. Laboratory analogue experiments investigated a suite of organic compounds that have the potential to accumulate on Mars (Benner et al., 2000) and thus serve as sources of carbon for the formation of chlorohydrocarbons detected by the SAM and

  8. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  9. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  10. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  11. Indirect Interactions in the High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  12. An economical method of indirect labeling of microsatellite primers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to reduce the cost of labeling and detection of microsatellite markers for QTL research, an economical method of indirect labeling reported for catfish was modified to work with honey bees. The forward primer of each pair is modified by adding a 19-base sequence at the 5’ end. This same 1...

  13. Referencing cross-reactivity of detection antibodies for protein array experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lemass, Darragh; O'Kennedy, Richard; Kijanka, Gregor S.

    2016-01-01

    Protein arrays are frequently used to profile antibody repertoires in humans and animals. High-throughput protein array characterisation of complex antibody repertoires requires a platform-dependent, lot-to-lot validation of secondary detection antibodies. This article details the validation of an affinity-isolated anti-chicken IgY antibody produced in rabbit and a goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase using protein arrays consisting of 7,390 distinct human proteins. Probing protein arrays with secondary antibodies in absence of chicken serum revealed non-specific binding to 61 distinct human proteins. The cross-reactivity of the tested secondary detection antibodies points towards the necessity of platform-specific antibody characterisation studies for all secondary immunoreagents. Secondary antibody characterisation using protein arrays enables generation of reference lists of cross-reactive proteins, which can be then excluded from analysis in follow-up experiments. Furthermore, making such cross-reactivity lists accessible to the wider research community may help to interpret data generated by the same antibodies in applications not related to protein arrays such as immunoprecipitation, Western blots or other immunoassays. PMID:27335636

  14. Motion-based threat detection using microrods: experiments and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Ezhilan, Barath; Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Rozen, Isaac; Dong, Renfeng; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Wang, Joseph; Saintillan, David

    2015-05-01

    Motion-based chemical sensing using microscale particles has attracted considerable recent attention. In this paper, we report on new experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations that cast light on the dynamics of both passive and active microrods (gold wires and gold-platinum micromotors) in a silver ion gradient. We demonstrate that such microrods can be used for threat detection in the form of a silver ion source, allowing for the determination of both the location of the source and concentration of silver. This threat detection strategy relies on the diffusiophoretic motion of both passive and active microrods in the ionic gradient and on the speed acceleration of the Au-Pt micromotors in the presence of silver ions. A Langevin model describing the microrod dynamics and accounting for all of these effects is presented, and key model parameters are extracted from the experimental data, thereby providing a reliable estimate for the full spatiotemporal distribution of the silver ions in the vicinity of the source. PMID:25853933

  15. Development of a Photon Detection System in Liquid Argon for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Denver; Adams, Brice; Baptista, Brian; Baugh, Brian; Gebhard, Mark; Lang, Michael; Mufson, Stuart; Musser, James; Smith, Paul; Urheim, Jon

    2014-03-01

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the LBNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. The team at Indiana University is exploring a design based on acrylic waveguides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, combined with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. Large-scale tests of this design are being conducted at the ``TallBo'' liquid argon dewar facility at Fermilab, where performance studies with cosmic ray events are helping steer decisions for the final detector design. We present an overview of the design and function of this photon detection system and the latest results from the analysis of data collected during these tests. Photon Detector R&D Team at Indiana University.

  16. Contextualizing neuro-collaborations: reflections on a transdisciplinary fMRI lie detection experiment

    PubMed Central

    Littlefield, Melissa M.; Fitzgerald, Des; Knudsen, Kasper; Tonks, James; Dietz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroscience initiatives (including the E.U.’s Human Brain Project and the U.S.’s BRAIN Initiative) have reinvigorated discussions about the possibilities for transdisciplinary collaboration between the neurosciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. As STS scholars have argued for decades, however, such inter- and transdisciplinary collaborations are potentially fraught with tensions between researchers. This essay build on such claims by arguing that the tensions of transdisciplinary research also exist within researchers’ own experiences of working between disciplines - a phenomenon that we call “disciplinary double consciousness” (DDC). Building on previous work that has characterized similar spaces (and especially on the Critical Neuroscience literature), we argue that “neuro-collaborations” inevitably engage researchers in DDC - a phenomenon that allows us to explore the useful dissonance that researchers can experience when working between a “home” discipline and a secondary discipline. Our case study is a five-year research project in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) lie detection involving a transdisciplinary research team made up of social scientists, a neuroscientist, and a humanist. In addition to theorizing neuro-collaborations from the inside-out, this essay presents practical suggestions for developing transdisciplinary infrastructures that could support future neuro-collaborations. PMID:24744713

  17. An Experiment to Detect Lunar Horizon Glow with the Lunar Orbit Laser Altimeter Laser Ranging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Barker, Michael; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; McClanahan, Timothy P.; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-04-01

    Lunar horizon glow (LHG) was an observation by the Apollo astronauts of a brightening of the horizon around the time of sunrise. The effect has yet to be fully explained or confirmed by instruments on lunar orbiting spacecraft despite several attempts. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft carries the laser altimeter (LOLA) instrument which has a 2.5 cm aperture telescope for Earth-based laser ranging (LR) mounted and bore-sighted with the high gain antenna (HGA). The LR telescope is connected to LOLA by a fiber-glass cable to one of its 5 detectors. For the LGH experiments the LR telescope is pointed toward the horizon shortly before lunar sunrise with the intent of observing any forward scattering of sunlight due to the presence of dust or particles in the field of view. Initially, the LR telescope is pointed at the dark lunar surface, which provides a measure of the dark count, and moves toward the lunar limb so as to measure the brightness of the sky just above the lunar limb immediately prior to lunar sunrise. At no time does the sun shine directly into the LR telescope, although the LR telescope is pointed as close to the sun as the 1.75-degree field of view permits. Experiments show that the LHG signal seen by the astronauts can be detected with a four-second integration of the noise counts.

  18. Contextualizing neuro-collaborations: reflections on a transdisciplinary fMRI lie detection experiment.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Melissa M; Fitzgerald, Des; Knudsen, Kasper; Tonks, James; Dietz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroscience initiatives (including the E.U.'s Human Brain Project and the U.S.'s BRAIN Initiative) have reinvigorated discussions about the possibilities for transdisciplinary collaboration between the neurosciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. As STS scholars have argued for decades, however, such inter- and transdisciplinary collaborations are potentially fraught with tensions between researchers. This essay build on such claims by arguing that the tensions of transdisciplinary research also exist within researchers' own experiences of working between disciplines - a phenomenon that we call "disciplinary double consciousness" (DDC). Building on previous work that has characterized similar spaces (and especially on the Critical Neuroscience literature), we argue that "neuro-collaborations" inevitably engage researchers in DDC - a phenomenon that allows us to explore the useful dissonance that researchers can experience when working between a "home" discipline and a secondary discipline. Our case study is a five-year research project in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) lie detection involving a transdisciplinary research team made up of social scientists, a neuroscientist, and a humanist. In addition to theorizing neuro-collaborations from the inside-out, this essay presents practical suggestions for developing transdisciplinary infrastructures that could support future neuro-collaborations. PMID:24744713

  19. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  20. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  1. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  2. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  3. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.4 Indirect costs. (a) For the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with...

  4. An Investigation of Backgrounds in the DEAP-3600 Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloce, Laurelle Maria

    Astronomical and cosmological observations reveal that the majority of the matter in our universe is made of an unknown, non-luminous substance called dark matter. Many experimental attempts are underway to directly detect particle dark matter, which is very difficult to measure due to the expected low interaction rate with normal matter. DEAP-3600 is a direct dark matter search experiment located two kilometres underground at SNOLAB, in Sudbury, Ontario. DEAP-3600 will make use of liquid argon as the detector material, which scintillates as charged particles pass through. The work presented here is an investigation of expected background sources in the DEAP detector. Because DEAP-3600 is a noble liquid-based experiment, a thin film of [1,1,4,4]-tetraphenyl-[1,3]-butadiene (TPB) is coated on the detector walls to shift the scintillation peak from the UV to visible regime for detection. However, alphas passing through TPB produce scintillation signals which can mimic recoil events. Because scintillation properties can change with temperature, we have conducted an investigation of alpha-induced TPB scintillation at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 3.4 K. We were able to characterize the light yield and decay times, and demonstrated that these background events should be distinguishable from true recoil events in liquid argon, thus enabling DEAP-3600 to achieve higher dark matter sensitivity. Additionally, we investigate the performance of the liquid argon purification systems, specifically the activated charcoal used for radon filtration. Previous measurements with the DEAP prototype experiment have demonstrated the necessity of removing radon from the argon prior to filling the detector, due to the release of contaminates from the argon storage systems. Charcoal radon filters are extremely efficient, however, if the emanation rate of the charcoal is too high, there is the possibility of re-contamination. We performed a measurement of the radon emanation rate of a

  5. Detecting Complex Organic Compounds Using the SAM Wet Chemistry Experiment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, C.; Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Brault, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Kashyap, S.; Martin, M. G.; Miller, K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The search for organic molecules on Mars can provide important first clues of abiotic chemistry and/or extinct or extant biota on the planet. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is currently the most relevant space-compatible analytical tool for the detection of organic compounds. Nevertheless, GC separation is intrinsically restricted to volatile molecules, and many molecules of astrobiological interest are chromatographically refractory or polar. To analyze these organics such as amino acids, nucleobases and carboxylic acids in the Martian regolith, an additional derivatization step is required to transform them into volatile derivatives that are amenable to GC analysis. As part of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, a single-step protocol of extraction and chemical derivatization with the silylating reagent N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) has been developed to reach a wide range of astrobiology-relevant refractory organic molecules (Mahaffy et al. 2012; Stalport et al. 2012). Seven cups in the SAM instrument are devoted to MTBSTFA derivatization. However, this chemical reaction adds a protective silyl group in place of each labile hydrogen, which makes the molecule non-identifiable in common mass spectra libraries. Therefore, we have created an extended library of mass spectra of MTBSTFA derivatized compounds of interest, considering their potential occurrence in Mars soils. We then looked specifically for MTBSTFA derivatized compounds using the existing and the newly created library, in various Mars analog soils. To enable a more accurate interpretation of the in situ derivatization GC-MS results that will be obtained by SAM, the lab experiments were performed as close as possible to the SAM flight instrument experimental conditions. Our first derivatization experiments display promising results, the laboratory system permitting an extraction and detection

  6. Pupillometry reveals increased pupil size during indirect request comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Johanne; Hagoort, Peter; Meyer, Antje S

    2016-06-01

    Fluctuations in pupil size have been shown to reflect variations in processing demands during lexical and syntactic processing in language comprehension. An issue that has not received attention is whether pupil size also varies due to pragmatic manipulations. In two pupillometry experiments, we investigated whether pupil diameter was sensitive to increased processing demands as a result of comprehending an indirect request versus a direct statement. Adult participants were presented with 120 picture-sentence combinations that could be interpreted either as an indirect request (a picture of a window with the sentence "it's very hot here") or as a statement (a picture of a window with the sentence "it's very nice here"). Based on the hypothesis that understanding indirect utterances requires additional inferences to be made on the part of the listener, we predicted a larger pupil diameter for indirect requests than statements. The results of both experiments are consistent with this expectation. We suggest that the increase in pupil size reflects additional processing demands for the comprehension of indirect requests as compared to statements. This research demonstrates the usefulness of pupillometry as a tool for experimental research in pragmatics. PMID:26110545

  7. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  8. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  9. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  11. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  12. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  13. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  14. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  15. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  16. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  17. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  18. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  19. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  20. 19 CFR 10.2024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.2024 Section 10.2024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.2013(i), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  1. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  2. 19 CFR 10.3024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.3024 Section 10.3024... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.3013(h), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is...

  3. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  4. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  5. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  6. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.044 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044...

  7. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.044 Indirect costs. Indirect cost rates for grants and cooperative agreements shall be determined in accordance with the applicable assistance regulations and cost principles, unless superseded by... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044...

  8. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost of that or any other final cost objective. (c) The contractor shall accumulate indirect costs by... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  9. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  10. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  11. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost of that or any other final cost objective. (c) The contractor shall accumulate indirect costs by... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect costs....

  12. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  13. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  14. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261... Exchange of Information § 17.261 Indirect costs. The grantee shall allocate expenditures as between direct and indirect costs according to generally accepted accounting procedures. The amount allocated...

  15. Indirect Cost Reimbursement: An Industrial View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The meaning of indirect costs in an industrial environment is discussed. Other factors considered are corporate policies; nature of work being supported; the uniqueness of the work; who is doing the negotiating for industry; and indirect rates. Suggestions are offered for approaches to indirect cost reimbursement. (Author/MLW)

  16. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.924 Section 10.924 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  17. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  18. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.1024 Section 10.1024... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  19. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  1. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Raciborski, Filip; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment. PMID:27407258

  2. Confounding effects of indirect connections on causality estimation.

    PubMed

    Vakorin, Vasily A; Krakovska, Olga A; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2009-10-30

    Addressing the issue of effective connectivity, this study focuses on effects of indirect connections on inferring stable causal relations: partial transfer entropy. We introduce a Granger causality measure based on a multivariate version of transfer entropy. The statistic takes into account the influence of the rest of the network (environment) on observed coupling between two given nodes. This formalism allows us to quantify, for a specific pathway, the total amount of indirect coupling mediated by the environment. We show that partial transfer entropy is a more sensitive technique to identify robust causal relations than its bivariate equivalent. In addition, we demonstrate the confounding effects of the variation in indirect coupling on the detectability of robust causal links. Finally, we consider the problem of model misspecification and its effect on the robustness of the observed connectivity patterns, showing that misspecifying the model may be an issue even for model-free information-theoretic approach. PMID:19628006

  3. Detection of Aeromagnetic Field Changes Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: Repeated Experiments at Tarumae Volcano (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Koyama, T.; Yanagisawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions often prohibit humans from approaching active craters. Meanwhile, it is important, especially at the initial stage of an eruption, to perform visual surveillance, geophysical/chemical measurements and material sampling in the vicinity of the craters. Besides scientific purposes, information from such surveys is helpful for the local government in deciding the response to volcanic unrest. We started airborne surveys using an unmanned helicopter on a trial basis in cooperation with the Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau. As a part of the project, we repeated aeromagnetic surveys over Mt. Tarumae (1,041m), one of the active volcanoes in northern Japan in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Owing to its high accuracy of positioning control in the autonomous flight with the aid of GPS navigation and the fairly small magnetic field gradient in the air, temporal changes up to 30 nT were successfully detected through a direct comparison between separate surveys. The field changes in the air were mostly consistent with those on the ground surface, which suggested remagnetization due to cooling beneath the summit lava dome. Through our three-year experiments, the unmanned helicopter was proved to be useful for aeromagnetic monitoring. Although the system still has some limitations in terms of maximum flight altitude and operational range from the base station, we emphasize the following three advantages of this technique. (1) Operation without exposing human to volcanic hazards. (2) Straightforward data processing procedure to obtain temporal magnetic field changes, which is especially important in an emergency response such as an ongoing unrest. (3) Great reduction of the cost to maintain ground-based monitoring stations for many years. Acknowledgments: We express sincere thanks to Muroran and Sapporo Development and Construction Departments of the HRDB for the cooperation in the field experiments using their unmanned helicopter.

  4. The microbe capture experiment in space: Fluorescence microscopic detection of microbes captured by aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugino, Tomohiro; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected at the altitude up to about 70 km in the sampling experiment done by several groups[1]. We have also collected high altitude microbes, by using an airplane and balloons[2][3][4][5]. We collected new deinococcal strain (Deinococcus aetherius and Deinococ-cus aerius) and several strains of spore-forming bacilli from stratosphere[2][4][5]. However, microbe sampling in space has never been reported. On the other hand, "Panspermia" hy-pothesis, where terrestrial life is originated from outside of Earth, has been proposed[6][7][8][9]. Recent report suggesting existence of the possible microbe fossils in the meteorite of Mars origin opened the serious debate on the possibility of migration of life embedded in meteorites (and cosmic dusts)[10][11]. If we were able to find terrestrial microbes in space, it would suggest that the terrestrial life can travel between astronomical bodies. We proposed a mission "Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments" to examine possible inter-planetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS)[12]. Two of six sub themes in this mission are directly related to interplanetary migration of microbes. One is the direct capturing experi-ment of microbes (probably within the particles such as clay) in space by the exposed ultra-low density aerogel. Another is the exposure experiment to examine survivability of the microbes in harsh space environment. They will tell us the possibility of interplanetary migration of microbes (life) from Earth to outside of Earth (or vise versa). In this report, we will report whether aerogel that have been used for the collection of space debris and cosmic dusts can be used for microbe sampling in space. We will discuss how captured particles by aerogel can be detected with DNA-specific fluorescent dye, and how to distinguish microbes from other mate-rials (i.e. aerogel and

  5. Very Long Baseline Interferometry Experiment on Giant Radio Pulses of Crab Pulsar toward Fast Radio Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takefuji, K.; Terasawa, T.; Kondo, T.; Mikami, R.; Takeuchi, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kita, H.; Sekido, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on giant radio pulses (GPs) from the Crab pulsar in the radio 1.4–1.7 GHz range to demonstrate a VLBI technique for searching for fast radio bursts (FRBs). We carried out the experiment on 2014 July 26 using the Kashima 34 m and Usuda 64 m radio telescopes of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) with a baseline of about 200 km. During the approximately 1 hr observation, we could detect 35 GPs by high-time-resolution VLBI. Moreover, we determined the dispersion measure (DM) to be 56.7585 ± 0.0025 on the basis of the mean DM of the 35 GPs detected by VLBI. We confirmed that the sensitivity of a detection of GPs using our technique is superior to that of a single-dish mode detection using the same telescope.

  6. Clinical aspects of indirect immunofluorescence for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghanadan, Alireza; Saghazadeh, Amene; Jahanzad, Issa; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-05-01

    Because the most common term used in conversations considering autoimmunity is autoantibodies, it is well-expected that the indirect immunofluorescence assay, which detects antibodies directed against various antigens, is one of our most impressive techniques for investigating autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Roughly speaking, the current literature corroborates that this immunopathologic investigation means that autoantibodies detection makes a considerable contribution to both diagnostic and prognostic aspects of AIDs in the clinical setting. However, it varies between different AIDs, autoantibodies, ethnicities or detection methodologies. Directly focusing on the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we present evidence to support this multidimensional variation regarding the subject via reviewing briefly the best-investigated autoantibodies in the well-documented AIDs, including vasculitis, inflammatory bowel disease, scleroderma, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:25786676

  7. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

    2013-03-01

    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of

  8. Rural Family Perspectives and Experiences with Early Infant Hearing Detection and Intervention: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. PMID:26316007

  9. High-resolution detection of Brownian motion for quantitative optical tweezers experiments.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Matthias; Franosch, Thomas; Jeney, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    We have developed an in situ method to calibrate optical tweezers experiments and simultaneously measure the size of the trapped particle or the viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The positional fluctuations of the trapped particle are recorded with a high-bandwidth photodetector. We compute the mean-square displacement, as well as the velocity autocorrelation function of the sphere, and compare it to the theory of Brownian motion including hydrodynamic memory effects. A careful measurement and analysis of the time scales characterizing the dynamics of the harmonically bound sphere fluctuating in a viscous medium directly yields all relevant parameters. Finally, we test the method for different optical trap strengths, with different bead sizes and in different fluids, and we find excellent agreement with the values provided by the manufacturers. The proposed approach overcomes the most commonly encountered limitations in precision when analyzing the power spectrum of position fluctuations in the region around the corner frequency. These low frequencies are usually prone to errors due to drift, limitations in the detection, and trap linearity as well as short acquisition times resulting in poor statistics. Furthermore, the strategy can be generalized to Brownian motion in more complex environments, provided the adequate theories are available. PMID:23005790

  10. Using BigBite to Detect DIS Electrons for the MARATHON Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The MARATHON experiment will use the BigBite Spectrometer to extract F2n /F2p from the inelastic cross section ratio of 12 GeV electrons on the mirror nuclei 3 He and 3 H. The BigBite Spectrometer consists of a series of detectors to detect electrons and an array of electronics (the ``Front End'') to create triggers in the Data Acquisition System (DAQ). BigBite uses two multi-wire drift chambers to determine the track of particles passing through it, a scintillator array for timing, and two lead-glass detectors for particle identification and a measurement of energy deposition. The Front End uses a series of logic units to create triggers for the DAQ when certain combinations of detectors fire. In this talk an overview of the detectors of the BigBite spectrometer and its Front End electronics setup will be presented. This work is supported by Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  11. Detection of an underwater target through modulated lidar experiments at grazing incidence in a deep wave basin.

    PubMed

    Pellen, Fabrice; Jezequel, Vincent; Zion, Guy; Jeune, Bernard Le

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of a pulsed radiofrequency modulated lidar and associated processing for underwater target detection at grazing incidence was experimentally assessed in a wave basin 50 m long and 20 m deep, under different conditions of swell produced within this facility to benefit from a controlled interface. This paper reports our experiments and offline data processing results, and describes significant improvements in the probability of detection that demonstrate the interest of using such a technique in this context. PMID:23128721

  12. Indirect facilitation becomes stronger with seedling age in a degraded seasonally dry forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Romina C.; Renison, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In seasonally dry forests direct facilitation by woody species due to amelioration of harsh abiotic conditions could be important during germination and early establishment of tree seedlings, and under some species but not others. Recent research suggests that at later stages facilitation by woody species may be indirect due to protection of saplings from herbivores, implying that under absence of herbivores reforestation programs may plant saplings in unprotected open sites. We used the native tree Lithraea molleoides from central Argentina as a model species to test this hypothesis. We performed a seeding and planting experiment simulating early and late establishment respectively, which included 234 study plots situated in herbaceous, shrub and tree patches of differing species composition and under two herbivore treatments (grazed and ungrazed) and replicated at three sites. Seedling counts averaged 0.82% of the sown seeds after 6 months, were highest under shrubs and lowest in open patches, and were influenced by woody species composition only in tree patches (all P values < 0.05). At seedling stages we detected no influence of herbivory (P = 0.4) nor of indirect facilitation due to herbivory (herbivory × patch type P = 0.7). Survival of planted saplings was 53% after 3 years and over winter dieback affected 76% of the saplings. At sapling stages we found an increasing importance of indirect facilitation through protection from herbivores, as we recorded the highest sapling survival and growth at tree and shrub patches and the lowest in open patches (all P values < 0.001), and a negative effect of livestock (P < 0.001) mainly on the open patches (herbivory × patch type P = 0.07 and P = 0.001 for survival and growth, respectively). We found no significant influence of woody species composition on sapling survival and growth (all P values > 0.05). We conclude that direct facilitation is involved at all studied stages while indirect facilitation becomes

  13. First detection and energy measurement of recoil ions following beta decay in a Penning trap with the WITCH experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Kozlov, V. Yu.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Delahaye, P.; Friedag, P.; Glück, F.; Herbane, M.; Herlert, A.; Kraev, I. S.; Mader, J.; Tandecki, M.; Van Gorp, S.; Wauters, F.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wenander, F.; Severijns, N.

    2011-03-01

    The WITCH experiment (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) will search for exotic interactions by investigating the β - ν angular correlation via the measurement of the recoil energy spectrum after β -decay. As a first step the recoil ions from the β-_{} -decay of 124In stored in a Penning trap have been detected. The evidence for the detection of recoil ions is shown and the properties of the ion cloud that forms the radioactive source for the experiment in the Penning trap are presented.

  14. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  15. Psychotic Experiences and Working Memory: A Population-Based Study Using Signal-Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo; Zammit, Stanley; Button, Katherine S.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic Experiences (PEs) during adolescence index increased risk for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia in adult life. Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of these disorders. Our objective was to examine the relationship between PEs and WM in a general population sample of young people in a case control study. 4744 individuals of age 17–18 from Bristol and surrounding areas (UK) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study nested within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study. The dependent variable was PEs, assessed using the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview (PLIKSi). The independent variable was performance on a computerized numerical n-back working memory task. Signal-Detection Theory indices, including standardized hits rate, false alarms rate, discriminability index (d’) and response bias (c) from 2-Back and 3-Back tasks were calculated. 3576 and 3527 individuals had complete data for 2-Back and 3-Back respectively. Suspected/definite PEs prevalence was 7.9% (N = 374). Strongest evidence of association was seen between PEs and false alarms on the 2-Back, (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01, 1.35]) and 3-back (OR = 1.35 [1.18, 1.54]) and with c (OR = 1.59 [1.09, 2.34]), and lower d’ (OR = 0.76 [0.65, 0.89]), on the 3-Back. Adjustment for several potential confounders, including general IQ, drug exposure and different psycho-social factors, and subsequent multiple imputation of missing data did not materially alter the results. WM is impaired in young people with PEs in the general population. False alarms, rather than poor accuracy, are more closely related to PEs. Such impairment is consistent with different neuropsychological models of psychosis focusing on signal-to-noise discrimination, probabilistic reasoning and impaired reality monitoring as a basis of psychotic symptoms. PMID:27120349

  16. Nonlinear acoustic experiments for landmine detection: the significance of the top-plate normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Alberts, W. C. K., II; Sabatier, James M.

    2004-09-01

    In nonlinear acoustic detection experiments involving a buried inert VS 2.2 anti-tank landmine, airborne sound at two closely spaced primary frequencies f1 and f2 couple into the ground and interact nonlinearly with the soil-top pressure plate interface. Scattering generates soil vibration at the surface at the combination frequencies | m f1 +- n f2 | , where m and n are integers. The normal component of the particle velocity at the soil surface has been measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and with a geophone by Sabatier et. al. [SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4742, (695-700), 2002; Vol. 5089, (476-486), 2003] at the gravel lane test site. Spatial profiles of the particle velocity measured for both primary components and for various combination frequencies indicate that the modal structure of the mine is playing an important role. Here, an experimental modal analysis is performed on a VS 1.6 inert anti-tank mine that is resting on sand but is not buried. Five top-plate mode shapes are described. The mine is then buried in dry finely sifted natural loess soil and excited at f1 = 120 Hz and f2 = 130 Hz. Spatial profiles at the primary components and the nonlinearly generated f1 - (f2 - f1) component are characterized by a single peak. For the 2f1+f2 and 2f2 + f1 components, the doubly peaked profiles can be attributed to the familiar mode shape of a timpani drum (that is shifted lower in frequency due to soil mass loading). Other nonlinear profiles appear to be due to a mixture of modes. This material is based upon work supported by the U. S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate under Contract DAAB15-02-C-0024.

  17. Hook Wire Localization Procedure and Early Detection of Breast Cancer - Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrovska, Maja Jakimovska; Mitreska, Nadica; Lazareska, Menka; Jovanovska, Elizabeta Stojovska; Dodevski, Ace; Stojkoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with needle localization technique in diagnosing small breast cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included a hundred and twenty patients’ with impalpable breast lesions and they underwent wire localization. All patients had mammography, ultrasound exam and pathohystological results. We use Mammomat Inspiration Siemens digital unit for diagnosing mammography, machine - Lorad Affinity with fenestrated compressive pad for wire localization and ultrasound machine Acuson X300 with linear array probe 10 MhZ. We use two types of wire: Bard hook wire and Kopans breast lesion localization needle, Cook. Comparative radiologic and pathologic data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In 120 asymptomatic women, 68 malignancies and 52 benign findings were detected with mammography and ultrasound. The mean age for patients with malignancy was 58.6 years. According BI-RADS classification for mammography the distribution is our group was: BI-RADS 3 was presented in 6 (8.82%) patients, BI-RADS 4 was presented in 56 (82.35%) patients and BI-RADS 5 was present in 6 (8.82%) of the patients. Most wire localizations were performed under mammographic guidance in 58 from 68 patients with malignant lesions (85.29%) and with ultrasound in 10 (14.7%). According the mammographic findings patients with mass on mammograms were 29 (42.65%), mass with calcifications 9 (13.23%), calcifications 20 (29.41%) and architectural distortions or asymmetry 10 (14.71%). CONCLUSION: Wire localization is a well established technique for the management of impalpable breast lesions. PMID:27275234

  18. Nouvelles Limites sur la Detection Directe de la Matiere Sombre avec l'Experience PICASSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Marie-Cecile

    Astronomical and cosmological observations strongly suggest the presence of an exotic form of non-relativistic, non-baryonic matter that would represent 26% of the actual energy-matter content of the Universe. This so-called cold dark matter would be composed of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMP). PICASSO (Project In CAnada to Search for Supersymmetric Objects) aims to detect directly one of the dark matter candidates proposed in the framework of supersymmetric extensions of the standard model : the neutralino. The experiment is installed in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at Sudbury (Ontario) and uses superheated C4F10 droplets detectors, a variant of bubble chamber technique. Phase transitions in the superheated liquids are triggered by 19F recoils caused by the elastic collision with neutralinos and create an acoustic signal which is recorded by piezoelectric sensors. This thesis presents recent progress in PICASSO leading to a substantially increased sensitivity in the search of neutralinos. New fabrication and purification procedures allowed a background reduction of about a factor 10 of the major detectors contamination caused by alpha emitters. Detailed studies allowed to localize these emitters in the detectors. In addition, data analysis efforts were able to improve substantially the discrimination between alpha particle induced events and those created by nuclear recoils. New analysis tools were also developed in order to discriminate between particle induced and non-particle induced events, such as electronic backgrounds and acoustic noise signals. An important new background suppression mechanism at higher temperatures led to the present improved sensitivity of PICASSO at low WIMP masses.

  19. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  20. Preparation of recombinant African horse sickness virus VP7 antigen via a simple method and validation of a VP7-based indirect ELISA for the detection of group-specific IgG antibodies in horse sera.

    PubMed

    Maree, Sonja; Paweska, Janusz T

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the production and purification of a group-specific recombinant protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 3 (AHSV-3) and validation of an I-ELISA for the detection of IgG-antibodies to VP7 in horse sera. Baculovirus-expressed VP7 crystals were purified from infected insect cells. Analytical accuracy of the I-ELISA was examined using sera (n = 38) from an experimentally infected horse, from foals born to vaccinated mares, from guinea-pigs immunized with nine serotypes of AHSV, and from sera of animals infected with other orbiviruses. Compared to traditional serological assays, the I-ELISA was more sensitive in detection of the earliest immunological response in an infected horse and declining levels of maternal immunity in foals. Antibodies to all nine serotypes of AHSV could be detected. Cross-reactivity to related orbiviruses was not observed. Diagnostic accuracy of the I-ELISA was assessed by testing sera from vaccinated horses (n = 358) residing in AHS-enzootic areas and from unvaccinated horses (n = 481) residing in an AHS-free area. Sera were categorised as positive or negative for antibodies to AHSV using virus neutralisation tests. The TG-ROC analysis was used for the selection of the cut-off value. At a cut-off of 11.9 of the high positive control serum (percentage positivity), the I-ELISA specificity was 100%, sensitivity 99.4%, and the Jouden index was 0.99. PMID:15737417

  1. Indirect conductimetric assay of antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sawai, J; Doi, R; Maekawa, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Kojima, H

    2002-11-01

    The applicability of indirect conductimetric assays for evaluation of antibacterial activity was examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained by the indirect method was consistent with that by the direct conductimetric assay and the turbidity method. The indirect assay allows use of growth media, which cannot be used in the direct conductimetric assay, making it possible to evaluate the antibacterial activity of insoluble or slightly soluble materials with high turbidity, such as antibacterial ceramic powders. PMID:12407467

  2. A Target Indirect Thrust Measurement Method of Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiqiao; Xiong, Yuefei; Li, Chao; Zheng, Longxi; Li, Qing

    2015-05-01

    An indirect thrust measurement method based on impulse of a target plate was developed, and a new thrust measurement system (TMS) was successfully designed and constructed. A series of multi-cycle experiments on thrust measurement were conducted to investigate the feasibility of this method with the newly-built indirect TMS. The thrust measurement of PDE was made at different plate target axial positions and operating frequencies. All the experiments were conducted using gasoline as fuel and air as oxidant. The experimental results implied that the thrust of PDE by using the indirect impulse method was a function of the target plate axial position, and there existed an optimum measurement position for PDE with a diameter of 60 mm. The optimum target plate position located at 3.33. According to the experimental results, the thrusts obtained by using indirect TMS were less than the actual values, and so the observed value of thrust was modified in order to make the thrust more reliable. A relative accurate calibration formula depending on the operating frequency was found.

  3. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  4. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness. PMID:26164838

  5. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Vyšín, Luděk; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Štěpán, Václav; Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Bugler, Beatrix; Legube, Gaelle; Cafarelli, Pierre; Casta, Romain; Champeaux, Jean Philippe; Sence, Martine; Vlk, Martin; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, Sebastien; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Clustered DNA damage induced by 10, 20 and 30 MeV protons in pBR322 plasmid DNA was investigated. Besides determination of strand breaks, additional lesions were detected using base excision repair enzymes. The plasmid was irradiated in dry form, where indirect radiation effects were almost fully suppressed, and in water solution containing only minimal residual radical scavenger. Simultaneous irradiation of the plasmid DNA in the dry form and in the solution demonstrated the contribution of the indirect effect as prevalent. The damage composition slightly differed when comparing the results for liquid and dry samples. The obtained data were also subjected to analysis concerning different methodological approaches, particularly the influence of irradiation geometry, models used for calculation of strand break yields and interpretation of the strand breaks detected with the enzymes. It was shown that these parameters strongly affect the results. PMID:26007308

  6. Study on signal intensity of low field nuclear magnetic resonance via an indirect coupling measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Feng-Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Yi-Rong; Deng, Hui; Tian, Ye; Lang, Pei-Lin; Li, Jie; Chen, Ying-Fei; Zheng, Dong-Ning

    2013-04-01

    We carry out an ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment based on high-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The measurement field is in a micro-tesla range (~10 μT-100 μT) and the experiment is conducted in a home-made magnetically-shielded-room (MSR). The measurements are performed by the indirect coupling method in which the signal of nuclei precession is indirectly coupled to the SQUID through a tuned copper coil transformer. In such an arrangement, the interferences of applied measurement and polarization field to the SQUID sensor are avoided and the performance of the SQUID is not destroyed. In order to compare the detection sensitivity obtained by using the SQUID with that achieved using a conventional low-noise-amplifier, we perform the measurements using a commercial room temperature amplifier. The results show that in a wide frequency range (~1 kHz-10 kHz) the measurements with the SQUID sensor exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Further, we discuss the dependence of NMR peak magnitude on measurement frequency. We attribute the reduction of the peak magnitude at high frequency to the increased field inhomogeneity as the measurement field increases. This is verified by compensating the field gradient using three sets of gradient coils.

  7. Evaluation of different indirect measures of rate of drug absorption in comparative pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L F; Keene, O N; Duquesnoy, C; Bye, A

    1994-02-01

    As indirect measures of rate of drug absorption (metrics), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) is confounded by extent of drug absorption and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) is a discrete variable, dependent on blood sampling frequency. Building on the work of Endrenyi et al., we have compared different metrics, including Cmax/area under the curve of concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC infinity), partial AUC from zero to tmax (AUCp), and Cmax.tmax with simulated experiments. Importantly, the performance of these metrics was assessed with the results of actual pharmacokinetic studies involving Glaxo drugs. The results of the simulated and real experiments were consistent and produced the following unambiguous findings: (1) Cmax/AUC infinity is a more powerful metric than Cmax in establishing bioequivalence when the formulations are truly bioequivalent; (2) Cmax/AUC infinity is more sensitive than Cmax at detecting differences in rate of absorption when they exist; and (3) the treatment ratios for AUCp, AUCp/AUC infinity, and Cmax.tmax are very imprecisely estimated and are of no practical value as measures of rate of absorption. Of the metrics examined, Cmax/AUC infinity is the most sensitive and powerful indirect measure of rate of drug absorption in comparative pharmacokinetic studies involving immediate-release dosage forms and should be used instead of Cmax in bioequivalence testing. PMID:8169791

  8. Experience in the detection and suppression of torsional vibration from mud logging data

    SciTech Connect

    Fear, M.J.; Abbassian, F.

    1994-12-31

    Vibration detection from mud logging systems has revealed that torsional vibration is common in harsh drilling environments, and is a major cause of bit and drillstring failures. Suppressing this type of vibration with an automated vibration detection system, torque feedback, and rigsite vibration suppression guidelines has produced a significant improvement in drilling performance.

  9. Detection experiments with humans implicate visual predation as a driver of colour polymorphism dynamics in pygmy grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal colour patterns offer good model systems for studies of biodiversity and evolution of local adaptations. An increasingly popular approach to study the role of selection for camouflage for evolutionary trajectories of animal colour patterns is to present images of prey on paper or computer screens to human ‘predators’. Yet, few attempts have been made to confirm that rates of detection by humans can predict patterns of selection and evolutionary modifications of prey colour patterns in nature. In this study, we first analyzed encounters between human ‘predators’ and images of natural black, grey and striped colour morphs of the polymorphic Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers presented on background images of unburnt, intermediate or completely burnt natural habitats. Next, we compared detection rates with estimates of capture probabilities and survival of free-ranging grasshoppers, and with estimates of relative morph frequencies in natural populations. Results The proportion of grasshoppers that were detected and time to detection depended on both the colour pattern of the prey and on the type of visual background. Grasshoppers were detected more often and faster on unburnt backgrounds than on 50% and 100% burnt backgrounds. Striped prey were detected less often than grey or black prey on unburnt backgrounds; grey prey were detected more often than black or striped prey on 50% burnt backgrounds; and black prey were detected less often than grey prey on 100% burnt backgrounds. Rates of detection mirrored previously reported rates of capture by humans of free-ranging grasshoppers, as well as morph specific survival in the wild. Rates of detection were also correlated with frequencies of striped, black and grey morphs in samples of T. subulata from natural populations that occupied the three habitat types used for the detection experiment. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that crypsis is background-dependent, and implicate visual predation

  10. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates ⩾ 30 s-1) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5 s-1) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  11. Detecting small gravity change in field measurement: simulations and experiments of the superconducting gravimeter—iGrav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Ricky; Kabirzadeh, Hojjat; Kim, Jeong Woo; Neumeyer, Juergen; Sideris, Michael G.

    2014-08-01

    In order to detect small gravity changes in field measurements, such as with CO2 storage, we designed simulations and experiments to validate the capabilities of the iGrav superconducting gravimeter. Qualified data processing was important to obtain the residual gravity from the iGrav's raw gravity signals, without the tidal components, atmosphere, polar motion and hydrological effects. Two simulations and four designed experiments are presented in this study. The first simulation detected the gravity change during CO2 injection. The residual gravity of CO2 leakage was targeted with the second simulation from the main storage reservoir to secondary space underground. The designed experiments monitored the situation of gravity anomalies in the iGrav's records. These tests focused on short-term gravity anomalies, such as gravity changes, step functions, repeat observations and gradient measurements from the iGrav, rather than on long-term tidal effects. The four laboratory experiments detected a decrease in gravity of -0.56 ± 0.15 µGal (10-8 m s-2) with a 92.8 kg weight on the top of the iGrav. A step function occurred in the gravity signals, when the tilt control was out of balance. We also used a professional camera dolly with a track to observe repeated horizontal movements and an electric lift table for controlled vertical movements to measure the average gradient of -2.67 ± 0.01 µGal cm-1.

  12. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 Indirect... final cost objectives. No final cost objective shall have allocated to it as an indirect cost any...

  13. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  14. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  15. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  16. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  17. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  18. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  19. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  20. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  1. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26 Section 6.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  2. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  3. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  4. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32 Section 6.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in...

  5. 19 CFR 10.1024 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... considered originating. Although non-originating material B must undergo the applicable tariff shift in order... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1024 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.1002(n) of.... Korean Producer A produces good C using non-originating material B. Producer A imports...

  6. 19 CFR 10.924 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... considered originating. Although non-originating material B must undergo the applicable tariff shift in order... Rules of Origin § 10.924 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.902(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced....

  7. Indirect Costs of Federally Supported Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kenneth T.

    1981-01-01

    Addressed is the problem of increasing indirect costs in federally supported research at universities and colleges. Effects of this increase are examined, using data on National Institutes of Health grants to educational institutions for examples. Discussed is the establishment of uniform indirect cost rates to modify the present policy. (CS)

  8. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect costs. 31.203 Section 31.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.203 Indirect costs. (a) For contracts subject...

  9. Indirect Costs in Universities. ACE Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Raymond J.

    Indirect costs of sponsored research projects and educational programs are as necessary as are the direct costs. This report demonstrates that they are real costs and that sponsors such as the Federal Government receive more than equitable treatment in the computation and application of indirect costs. The areas discussed include: the computation…

  10. Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voet, Tony Vander

    This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

  11. 7 CFR 2500.044 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect costs. 2500.044 Section 2500.044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Post-Award and Closeout § 2500.044 Indirect...

  12. Indirect Cost Rate Composition and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, Stephen E.

    1984-01-01

    In response to criticism of the rise in indirect cost rates and their effect on federally funded research, the methods for calculating and applying indirect costs rates according to the new cost principles applicable to sponsored agreements are examined, and specific criticisms are addressed. (MSE)

  13. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration....

  15. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration....

  16. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.26... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate...

  17. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect interest. 6.32... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate...

  18. Initial experiences in the photoacoustic detection of melanoma metastases in resected lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootendorst, D.; Jose, J.; Van der Jagt, P.; Van der Weg, W.; Nagel, K.; Wouters, M.; Van Boven, H.; Van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Ruers, T.; Manohar, S.

    2011-03-01

    Accurate lymph node analysis is essential to determine the prognosis and treatment of patients suffering from melanoma. The initial results of a tomographic photoacoustic modality to detect melanoma metastases in resected lymph nodes are presented based on phantom models and a human lymph node. The results show melanoma metastases detection is feasible and the setup is capable of distinguishing absorbing structures down to 1 mm. In addition, the use of longer laser wavelengths could result in an image containing a higher contrast ratio. Future research shall be focused on using the melanin characteristics to improve contrast and detection possibilities.

  19. Experiment Observation on Acoustic Forward Scattering for Underwater Moving Object Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bo; Ma, Yuan-Liang; Yang, Kun-De

    2011-03-01

    The problem of detecting an object in shallow water by observing changes in the acoustic field as the object passes between an acoustic source and receiver is addressed. A signal processing scheme based on forward scattering is proposed to detect the perturbed field in the presence of the moving object. The periodic LFM wideband signal is transmitted and a sudden change of field is acquired using a normalized median filter. The experimental results on the lake show that the proposed scheme is successful for the detection of a slowly moving object in the bistatic blind zone.

  20. Indirect Signatures of Gravitino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2008-11-23

    Supersymmetric models provide very interesting scenarios to account for the dark matter of the Universe. In this talk we discuss scenarios with gravitino dark matter in R-parity breaking vacua, which not only reproduce very naturally the observed dark matter relic density, but also lead to a thermal history of the Universe consistent with the observed abundances of primordial elements and the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. In this class of scenarios the dark matter gravitinos are no longer stable, but decay with very long lifetimes into Standard Model particles, thus opening the possibility of their indirect detection. We have computed the expected contribution from gravitino decay to the primary cosmic rays and we have found that a gravitino with a mass of m{sub 2/3}{approx}150 GeV and a lifetime of {tau}{sub 3/2}{approx}10{sup 26} s could simultaneously explain the EGRET anomaly in the extragalactic gamma-ray background and the HEAT excess in the positron fraction.

  1. Experience in the use of hyperspectral data for the detection of vegetation containing narcotic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedelnikov, V. P.; Lukashevich, E. L.; Karpukhina, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides the characteristics of an experimental sample of a hyperspectral videospectrometer Sokol-SCP and presents examples of the hyperspectral data received as a result of flight tests. The results of the detection of vegetation containing narcotic substances by spectral attributes using the obtained hyperspectral information are considered. The opportunity for using the hyperspectral data for detection of cannabis and papaver sites, including those in mixed crops with masking vegetation, is confirmed.

  2. High power laser diodes for the NASA direct detection laser transceiver experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Holcomb, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    High-power semiconductor laser diodes selected for use in the NASA space laser communications experiments are discussed. The diode selection rationale is reviewed, and the laser structure is shown. The theory and design of the third mirror lasers used in the experiments are addressed.

  3. AMIDAS-II: Upgrade of the AMIDAS package and website for direct Dark Matter detection experiments and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chung-Lin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we give a detailed user's guide to the AMIDAS (A Model-Independent Data Analysis System) package and website, which is developed for online simulations and data analyses for direct Dark Matter detection experiments and phenomenology. Recently, the whole AMIDAS package and website system has been upgraded to the second phase: AMIDAS-II, for including the new developed Bayesian analysis technique. AMIDAS has the ability to do full Monte Carlo simulations as well as to analyze real/pseudo data sets either generated by another event generating programs or recorded in direct DM detection experiments. Moreover, the AMIDAS-II package can include several “user-defined” functions into the main code: the (fitting) one-dimensional WIMP velocity distribution function, the nuclear form factors for spin-independent and spin-dependent cross sections, artificial/experimental background spectrum for both of simulation and data analysis procedures, as well as different distribution functions needed in Bayesian analyses.

  4. Electric breakdown and ionization detection in normal liquid and superfluid 4He for the SNA nEDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcz, Maciej

    A new experiment to search for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is under construction at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SNS nEDM experiment is a national collaboration spanning over 20 universities and laboratories with more than 100 physicists and engineers contributing to the research and development. The search for a nEDM is a precision test of time reversal symmetry in particle physics, in the absence of a discovery, the SNS nEDM experiment seeks to improve the present limit on the nEDM value by two orders of magnitude. A non-zero value of the nEDM would help to explain the asym- metry between matter and anti-matter in the universe by providing an additional source of charge conjugation and parity symmetry violation, a necessary ingredient in the theory of baryogenesis in the early universe. The nEDM experiment will measure the Larmor precession frequency of neutrons by detecting scintillation from neutron capture by a dilute concentration of 3He inside a bath of superfluid 4He. Neutron capture by 3He is spin-dependent and the magnetic moments of the neutron and the 3He nucleus are comparable. A direct measurement of the precession frequency of polarized 3He and scintillation from neutron capture allows for the relative precession frequencies of 3He and the neutron to be determined. The experiment will then look for changes in the relative precession of 3He and neutrons under the influence of strong electric fields. 3He has negligible EDM and therefore any deviation due to an applied electric field would be from a nEDM. The nEDM experiment will need to apply strong electric fields inside superfluid (SF) 4He and it was necessary to investigate the ability of SF 4He to sustain electric fields. An experiment to study electric breakdown in superfluid 4He was constructed at the Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM). The experiment studied the electric breakdown behavior of liquid

  5. Dolphin biosonar target detection in noise: wrap up of a past experiment.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L

    2014-07-01

    The target detection capability of bottlenose dolphins in the presence of artificial masking noise was first studied by Au and Penner [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 687-693 (1981)] in which the dolphins' target detection threshold was determined as a function of the ratio of the echo energy flux density and the estimated received noise spectral density. Such a metric was commonly used in human psychoacoustics despite the fact that the echo energy flux density is not compatible with noise spectral density which is averaged intensity per Hz. Since the earlier detection in noise studies, two important parameters, the dolphin integration time applicable to broadband clicks and the dolphin's auditory filter shape, were determined. The inclusion of these two parameters allows for the estimation of the received energy flux density of the masking noise so that the dolphin target detection can now be determined as a function of the ratio of the received energy of the echo over the received noise energy. Using an integration time of 264 μs and an auditory bandwidth of 16.7 kHz, the ratio of the echo energy to noise energy at the target detection threshold is approximately 1 dB. PMID:24993190

  6. Correlation of geophysical factors with results of gravity wave detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sazeeva, N.N.

    1986-04-01

    The possible influence of variations in the daily-average sunspot number (W) and geomagnetic-wave amplitude (Ap) on the detections of gravitational-radiation events (GREs) reported by Brown et al. (1982) for a 440-d period in 1979-1981 is investigated statistically. An era-superposition technique is applied to compare 18 GRE periods and 20 non-GRE periods of 7 d each. Both Ap and W are found to be correlated with the GRE signals (the Ap peaking on the day of the GRE), and a bias toward daylight hours for GRE detection (62 percent of GREs in daylight and 43 percent of those between 10 AM and 2 PM local time) is noted. It is inferred that shielded gravitational-wave antennas may be subject to atmospheric EM noise too weak to be detected with available magnetometers. 10 references.

  7. Specific IgM, IgG and IgG1 directed against Toxoplasma gondii detected by flow cytometry and their potential as serologic tools to support clinical indirect fundoscopic presumed diagnosis of ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucinia Peixoto; Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Silva-dos-Santos, Priscila Pinto; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we evaluated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin profiles of a group of 118 individuals living in an endemic area. The aim of the study was to select biomarkers to support the ophthalmological diagnosis of retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection. Overall anti-T. gondii reactivity of the IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses was investigated by flow cytometry-based anti-fixed tachyzoite antibodies (FC-AFTA) in four groups of subjects, referred to as: i) TOXO(L)--seropositive patients with retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection; these patients were further subdivided according to morphological aspects of their ocular scar lesions as A, B or C; ii) TOXO(NL)--seropositive patients without ocular scar lesions; iii) NEG(L)--T. gondii seronegative patients presenting retinal lesions; and iv) NEG(NL)--T. gondii seronegative without retinal lesions (negative controls). Our data demonstrated that anti-T. gondii IgG profiles were able to discriminate the mean reactivity of TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. Analysis of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin profiles revealed that IgM and IgG were good biomarkers capable of discriminating between individual reactivity in patients with retinal/retinochoroidal scars presumably caused by T. gondii infection [TOXO(L)] from those caused by other clinical conditions. Furthermore, anti-T. gondii IgG1 reactivity was able to discriminate TOXO(L) from all other clinical groups. In conclusion, the pre-selected IgM, IgG and IgG1 anti-T. gondii antibody subclasses were able to segregate both TOXO(L) and the other subgroups, including the scar lesion group types (A, B, C), from other clinical conditions. These results suggest the applicability of this technique in the clinical laboratory to detect putative biomarker for diagnosis of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected patients. Studies in other areas implementing the methods described in the present study

  8. Operational Experience with the Scattering Matrix Arc Detection System on the JET ITER-Like Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, M.; Lerche, E.; Blackman, T.; Dumortier, P.; Durodié, F.; Evrard, M.; Goulding, R. H.; Graham, M.; Huygen, S.; Jacquet, P.; Kaye, A.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nightingale, M. P. S.; Ongena, J.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Weynants, R.

    2009-11-01

    The Scattering Matrix Arc Detection System (SMAD) has been fully deployed on all 4 sets of Resonant Double Loop (RDL), Vacuum Transmission Line (VTL) and Antenna Pressurised Transmission Lines (APTL) of the JET ICRF ITER-Like Antenna (ILA) and this has been indispensable for operating at low (real) T-point impedance values to investigate ELM tolerance. This paper describes the necessity of the SMAD vs VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) protection system, SMAD commissioning, problems and a number of typical events detected by the SMAD system during operation on plasma.

  9. Operational Experience with the Scattering Matrix Arc Detection System on the JET ITER-Like Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Vrancken, M.; Lerche, E.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Evrard, M.; Huygen, S.; Ongena, J.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Weynants, R.

    2009-11-26

    The Scattering Matrix Arc Detection System (SMAD) has been fully deployed on all 4 sets of Resonant Double Loop (RDL), Vacuum Transmission Line (VTL) and Antenna Pressurised Transmission Lines (APTL) of the JET ICRF ITER-Like Antenna (ILA) and this has been indispensable for operating at low (real) T-point impedance values to investigate ELM tolerance. This paper describes the necessity of the SMAD vs VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) protection system, SMAD commissioning, problems and a number of typical events detected by the SMAD system during operation on plasma.

  10. Optical detection of middle ear infection using spectroscopic techniques: phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Li, Tianqi; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina

    2015-05-01

    A noninvasive optical technique, which is based on a combination of reflectance spectroscopy and gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy, is demonstrated. It has the potential to improve diagnostics of middle ear infections. An ear phantom prepared with a tissue cavity, which was covered with scattering material, was used for spectroscopic measurements. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the phantom eardrum were measured with a reflectance probe. The presence of oxygen and water vapor as well as gas exchange in the phantom cavity were studied with a specially designed fiber-optic probe for backscattering detection geometry. The results suggest that this method can be developed for improved clinical detection of middle ear infection.

  11. Evolution of spite through indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Rufus A.; Bshary, Redouan

    2004-01-01

    How can cooperation persist in the face of a temptation to 'cheat'? Several recent papers have suggested that the answer may lie in indirect reciprocity. Altruistic individuals may benefit by eliciting altruism from observers, rather than (as in direct reciprocity) from the recipient of the aid they provide. Here, we point out that indirect reciprocity need not always favour cooperation; by contrast, it may support spiteful behaviour, which is costly for the both actor and recipient. Existing theory suggests spite is unlikely to persist, but we demonstrate that it may do so when spiteful individuals are less likely to incur aggression from observers (a negative form of indirect reciprocity). PMID:15347514

  12. 13C direct detected COCO-TOCSY: A tool for sequence specific assignment and structure determination in protonless NMR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balayssac, Stéphane; Jiménez, Beatriz; Piccioli, Mario

    2006-10-01

    A novel experiment is proposed to provide inter-residue sequential correlations among carbonyl spins in 13C detected, protonless NMR experiments. The COCO-TOCSY experiment connects, in proteins, two carbonyls separated from each other by three, four or even five bonds. The quantitative analysis provides structural information on backbone dihedral angles ϕ as well as on the side chain dihedral angles of Asx and Glx residues. This is the first dihedral angle constraint that can be obtained via a protonless approach. About 75% of backbone carbonyls in Calbindin D 9K, a 75 aminoacid dicalcium protein, could be sequentially connected via a COCO-TOCSY spectrum. 49 3J values were measured and related to backbone ϕ angles. Structural information can be extended to the side chain orientation of aminoacids containing carbonyl groups. Additionally, long range homonuclear coupling constants, 4JCC and 5JCC, could be measured. This constitutes an unprecedented case for proteins of medium and small size.

  13. An experiment to detect and locate lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A commercially-available lightning-detection system was temporarily deployed near Cook Inlet, Alaska in an attempt to remotely monitor volcanogenic lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. The system became operational on February 14, 1990; lightning was detected in 11 and located in 9 of the 13 subsequent eruptions. The lightning was generated by ash clouds rising from pyroclastic density currents produced by collapse of a lava dome emplaced near Redoubt's summit. Lightning discharge (flash) location was controlled by topography, which channeled the density currents, and by wind direction. In individual eruptions, early flashes tended to have a negative polarity (negative charge is lowered to ground) while late flashes tended to have a positive polarity (positive charge is lowered to ground), perhaps because the charge-separation process caused coarse, rapid-settling particles to be negatively charged and fine, slow-settling particles to be positively charged. Results indicate that lightning detection and location is a useful adjunct to seismic volcano monitoring, particularly when poor weather or darkness prevents visual observation. The simultaneity of seismicity and lightning near a volcano provides the virtual certainty that an ash cloud is present. This information is crucial for aircraft safety and to warn threatened communities of impending tephra falls. The Alaska Volcano Observatory has now deployed a permanent lightning-detection network around Cook Inlet. ?? 1994.

  14. Directed Design of Experiments (DOE) for Determining Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the problems that are encountered by designers of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) have in determining the probability of detection. According to the author "[the] NDE community should not blindly accept statistical results due to lack of knowledge." This is an attempt to bridge the gap between people doing NDE, and statisticians.

  15. Solar flares in soft X-rays detected in the Coronas-F experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankov, V. M.; Prokhin, V. L.; Khavenson, N. G.; Gusev, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The RPS-1 spectrometer on the board of the Coronas-F satellite detecting solar X-rays in the range of 3-31.5 keV using a CdTe detector is described and some results of the observation of weak solar flares are presented.

  16. Is pepsin detected in the saliva of patients who experience pharyngeal reflux?

    PubMed Central

    Printza, A; Speletas, M; Triaridis, S; Wilson, J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate if pepsin is detected, with an activity assay, in the saliva of patients with a clinical diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and can therefore be used as a diagnostic marker of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Study design: Pilot, prospective study. Methods: Adult participants with a clinical diagnosis of LPR collected whole saliva samples on regular intervals for a day, and upon experiencing symptoms attributed to LPR. Patients were selected on the basis of presence of severe symptoms and laryngoscopic findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux and symptoms of gastroesopharyngeal reflux. They reported voice disorders, dysphagia, throat clearing, excessive secretions, breathing difficulties, cough, globus sensation and throat pain. Control participants reported the absence of pharyngeal and laryngeal symptoms and of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Saliva samples were assayed with fibrinogen on an agarose gel plate. The detection of pepsin was based on the presence of peptic activity which was qualitatively evaluated. Results: The control participants had negative assays. No saliva samples from the LPR patients, collected at regular sampling, tested positive for pepsin. All the samples collected at the presence of symptoms and following regurgitation episodes tested negative for pepsin. Saliva samples pH ranged from 7 to 8. Conclusions: Pepsin was not detected, with an activity assay, in the saliva of patients with a clinical diagnosis of LPR. A concentration method might be more sensitive although saliva and swallowing physiology renders the detection of pepsin in the saliva difficult. PMID:19582210

  17. The Experiences and Involvement of Grandparents in Hearing Detection and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNee, Chelsea M.; Jackson, Carla W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of grandparents during hearing detection and intervention. Data were collected and analyzed from survey responses of 50 parents and 35 grandparents of children of varying ages who have hearing loss. Parents described important types of support that grandparents provided including frequent…

  18. DETECTING LAND COVER CHANGE AT THE JORNADA EXPERIMENT RANGE, NEW MEXICO, WITH ASTER EMISSIVITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral thermal infrared remote sensing of surface emissivities can detect and monitor long term land cover changes over arid regions. The technique is based on the association between broadband emissivity and density of sparsely covered terrains. The association exists regardless of plant col...

  19. EVALUATION OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUBSURFACE TETRACHLOROETHYLENE IN CONTROLLED SPILL EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the work was to determine the capability of various geophysical methods to detect PCE in the subsurface. Measurements were made with ten different geophysical techniques before, during, and after the PCE injection. This approach provided a clear identification of a...

  20. Clinical Experiments of Communication by ALS Patient Utilizing Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mentality is normal, and so, the necessity of Communication Aids(CA) for ALS patients is realized. Therefore, the authors are focused on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which is elicited primarily for the target by visual and auditory stimuli. P200, N200 and P300 are components of ERP. These are potentials that are elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. ALS patient participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, a target word out of five words on a computer display was specified. The five words were linked to an each electric appliance, allowing the ALS patient to switch on a target appliance by ERP. In the second experiment, a target word in a 5×5 matrix was specified by measure of ERP. The rows and columns of the matrix were reversed randomly. The word on a crossing point of rows and columns including the target word, was specified as the target word. The rate of correct judgment in the first and second experiments were 100% in N200 and 96% in P200. For practical use of this system, it is very important to determine suitable communication algorithms for each patient by performing these experiments evaluating the results.