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Sample records for indium white blood

  1. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott C 4; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of /sup 111/In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% (11 of 25) if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% (14 of 14)); there were no false negative results.

  2. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma.

  3. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-12-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan.

  4. Indium 111-labeled white blood cell scans after vascular prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sedwitz, M.M.; Davies, R.J.; Pretorius, H.T.; Vasquez, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The clinical value of indium 111-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scanning done after vascular graft procedures was investigated to differentiate noninfectious postoperative inflammation associated with graft incorporation from early prosthetic graft infection. Indium 111-labeled WBC scans were initially obtained in 30 patients before discharge from the hospital and during the subsequent follow-up period (334 days). Fourteen of 30 patients (47%) had normal predischarge scans that included all 10 patients who had grafts confined to the abdomen and 4 of 20 patients (20%) who had grafts arising or terminating at the femoral arteries (p less than 0.05). Sixteen of 30 patients (53%) discharged with abnormal initial indium 111 WBC scans underwent serial scanning until the scan normalized or a graft complication developed. All of the 16 patients had grafts involving the groin region. Abnormal indium 111 uptake in the femoral region continued for a mean 114 days without the development of prosthetic graft infections. The sensitivity of indium 111-labeled WBC scans for detecting wound complications was 100%, whereas the specificity was 50%. Thus, the accuracy of the test was only 53%. We conclude that (1) abnormal indium 111 WBC scans are common after graft operations involving the groin region but are unusual after vascular procedures confined to the abdomen, and (2) in the absence of clinical suspicion, the indium 111-labeled WBC scan does not reliably predict prosthetic graft infection because of the low specificity of the test in the early postoperative period.

  5. Indium-111 white blood cell scans: Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and normal patterns of distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Webber, M.M.; Hawkins, R.A.; Sinha, K.

    1990-01-01

    The UCLA Hospital experience with indium-111 labeled white blood cells was reviewed. There were a total of 345 consecutive cases covering a broad range of clinical indications. The overall sensitivity of the method was 79%, specificity was 62%, and accuracy was 73%. The sensitivity for suspected osteomyelitis cases was 84%, with a specificity of 65% and an accuracy of 75%. For other cases sensitivity was 77%, specificity was 60%, and accuracy was 72%. Furthermore, patterns of normal distribution were reviewed.

  6. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-08-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement.

  7. Ultrasonography and indium 111 white blood cell scanning for the detection of intraabdominal abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.; Silverman, P.M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1981-07-01

    Ultrasound and indium 111 white blood cell scanning were performed on 163 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscesses. In all but one case, intraabdominal abscesses were correctly identified by one or both tests; conversely, no patient was falsely diagnosed by both tests to have an abscess. Sonography was useful in those patients with focal symptoms, and frequently identified nonabscess causes for fever. White cell scanning was valuable when focal signs were absent, and frequently identified extraabdominal sources of sepsis. The two imaging modalities are complementary and provide a highly accurate and sensitive means of intraabdominal abscess detection.

  8. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality

    PubMed Central

    Litton, Kayleigh M.; Rogers, Bret A.

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- (111In-) labeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp.) for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of 111In-labeled WBC scintigraphy. PMID:26885418

  9. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality.

    PubMed

    Litton, Kayleigh M; Rogers, Bret A

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- ((111)In-) labeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp.) for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of (111)In-labeled WBC scintigraphy. PMID:26885418

  10. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  11. Clinical Utility of Indium 111–Labeled White Blood Cell Scintigraphy for Evaluation of Suspected Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah S.; Cox, Gary M.; Stout, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    Background  We sought to characterize the clinical utility of indium 111 (111In)–labeled white blood cell (WBC) scans by indication, to identify patient populations who might benefit most from this imaging modality. Methods  Medical records for all patients who underwent 111In-labeled WBC scans at our tertiary referral center from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed. Scan indication, results, and final diagnosis were assessed independently by 2 infectious disease physicians. Reviewers also categorized the clinical utility of each scan as helpful vs not helpful with diagnosis and/or management according to prespecified criteria. Cases for which clinical utility could not be determined were excluded from the utility assessment. Results  One hundred thirty-seven scans were included in this analysis; clinical utility could be determined in 132 (96%) cases. The annual number of scans decreased throughout the study period, from 26 in 2005 to 13 in 2011. Forty-one (30%) scans were positive, and 85 (62%) patients were ultimately determined to have an infection. Of the evaluable scans, 63 (48%) scans were deemed clinically useful. Clinical utility varied by scan indication: 111In-labeled WBC scans were more helpful for indications of osteomyelitis (35/50, 70% useful) or vascular access infection (10/15, 67% useful), and less helpful for evaluation of fever of unknown origin (12/35, 34% useful). Conclusions  111In-labeled WBC scans were useful for patient care less than half of the time at our center. Targeted ordering of these scans for indications in which they have greater utility, such as suspected osteomyelitis and vascular access infections, may optimize test utilization. PMID:25734155

  12. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  13. Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Vasavada, P.J.; Black, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously.

  14. Use of indium 111-labeled white blood cell scan in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Chinsky, K.; Goodenberger, D.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Opportunistic infections are common in patients after renal transplantation. This report describes a case of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram and normal arterial oxygenation. An abnormal 111In-white blood cell scan led to the discovery of a pulmonary source of his recurrent fevers.

  15. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and {sup 111}In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  16. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  18. Altered filtrability of white blood cells after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bogár, L; Mikita, J; Nash, G B; Smith, M J; Dormandy, J A; Tekeres, M

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal white blood cell rheological behaviour has been implicated as a cause of blood flow disturbances under conditions of ischaemia and reduced perfusion pressure. Accordingly, we have tested the mechanical properties of white cells following myocardial infarction by measuring the rate at which suspension of these cells cause plugging of Nuclepore filters. The number of clogging particles in a standard white cell suspension increased by the third day after infarction but subsequently decreased to the control levels. Since white cells can cause blockage of narrow blood vessels, it is assumed that such changes in cellular properties may influence the eventual extent of infarction. PMID:2812961

  19. Results of Blood Pressure Screening in White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This report presents blood pressure norms for 18- to 24-year-old White college students, as well as data on the prevalence of high blood pressure for this group. Results were obtained from voluntary blood pressure screening of 1,660 men and 953 women. (IAH)

  20. A new method for measuring the blood volume of the rat using 113mIndium as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Argent, N B; Liles, J; Rodham, D; Clayton, C B; Wilkinson, R; Baylis, P H

    1994-04-01

    A new method is described for the estimation of blood volume in the rat using 113mIndium chloride. No in vitro labelling step is necessary as the isotope binds specifically to transferrin in vivo. Under anaesthesia, an external jugular vein was cannulated for blood sampling and indium chloride injected directly into a lateral tail vein. Three blood samples of 0.2 ml were taken at short intervals and radioactivity measured under standard conditions. Blood volume was found to be 7.46 +/- 0.14 (mean +/- SEM) ml/100 g body weight. Repeating the study of 5 animals gave similar values for blood volume on the 2 occasions (7.23 +/- 0.26 and 6.95 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g, P > 0.05). The new technique was compared with established methods using 51Cr labelled red blood cells and 125Iodinated albumin. In each animal, the 113mIndium technique produced values approximately 10% higher than those obtained using the sum of plasma and red cell mass, in keeping with the known difference between whole body and large vein haematocrit (Indium, 7.20 +/- 0.19 and Iodine with Chromium, 6.40 +/- 0.34 ml/100 g). Data on blood volume determined using 125Iodine as the tracer on these same animals were identical (Indium, 7.20 +/- 0.19 and iodine, 7.16 +/- 0.34 ml/100 g). The method is simple to perform and appears to be at least as accurate and reproducible as established methods for measuring blood volume. PMID:8035569

  1. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood pressure cuff is ... through the vein. This causes veins below the tourniquet to distend (fill with blood). A needle is ...

  2. Uteroplacental blood flow in diabetic pregnancy: measurements with indium 113m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Nylund, L.; Lunell, N.O.; Lewander, R.; Persson, B.; Sarby, B.

    1982-10-01

    The uteroplacental blood flow index in the last trimester of pregnancy in 26 women with diabetes mellitus was compared to that in 41 healthy control subjects. After an intravenous injection of 1 mCi of indium 113m, the radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked gamma camera. From time-activity analysis of the isotope accumulation curve, a uteroplacental blood flow index could be calculated. In the diabetic pregnant women, the maternal-placental blood flow index was reduced 35% to 45% compared to that in healthy women. The blood flow index tended to be further impaired in those diabetic women who had higher blood glucose values.

  3. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte localization in hematomas: a pitfall in abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; vanSonnenberg, E.; Kipper, S.; Bieberstein, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled white-blood-cell scanning is a useful modality in abscess detection and has replaced gallium scanning in many institutions. Sensitivities of 72% to 90% and specificities of 90% to 100% have been reported. In searching for abscesses seven cases of indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake were encountered in collections subsequently proved to be noninfected hematomas. Abundant red blood cells with few or no white blood cells, no bacteria, and a benign clinical course identified these noninfected hematomas. Five of the patients were being treated with hemodialysis and three were recent allograft recipients. The results indicate some limitation and nonspecificity in indium-111 scanning, despite its many benefits.

  4. Human white blood cells contain cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photolyase

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.V.

    1995-10-10

    Although enzymatic photoreactivation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA is present in almost all organisms, its presence in placental mammals is controversial. We tested human white blood cells for photolyase by using three defined DNAs (suprecoiled pET-2, nonsupercoiled bacteriphage {lambda}, and a defined-sequence 287-bp oligonucleotide), two dimer-specific endonucleases (T4 endonuclease V and UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus), and three assay methods. We show that human white blood cells contain photolyase that can photorepair pyrimidine dimers in defined supercoiled and linear DNAs and in a 287-bp oligonucleotide and that human photolyase is active on genomic DNA in intact human cells. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  6. Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C.C.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. PMID:25510999

  7. In-111-labeled white blood cell uptake in noninfected closed fracture in humans: prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Atkins, F.B.; Stoops, H.C.; Savory, C.G.

    1988-05-01

    Since indium-111 white blood cell (In-111 WBC) scintigraphy is often used to evaluate for osteomyelitis in bone fractures, it is important to know if noninfected fractures have In-111 WBC uptake. Twenty-seven noninfected closed fracture sites in 19 patients were prospectively evaluated with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and In-111 WBC scintigraphy. In-111 WBC uptake was present in 41% of the 27 sites. In the 11 positive sites, the In-111 WBC uptake was 1+ (definite but minimal) in 55%, 2+ (moderate) in 36%, and 3+ (marked) in 9%. The visual intensity of the radioactive uptake on In-111 WBC scintigrams relative to that on bone scintigrams was less in 82%, equal in 9%, and greater in 9%. The visual size of the area of uptake on In-111 WBC scintigrams and bone scintigrams was smaller in 36%, equal in 55%, and greater in 9%. Factors that may help distinction of In-111 WBC uptake due to fracture alone from infection associated with fracture are discussed.

  8. Blood changes in mallards exposed to white phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Vann, S.; Grove, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    White phosphorus (P4) has been extensively used by the military for various purposes including marking artillery impacts and as an obscurant. Target practice in an Alaskan tidal marsh during the last four decades has deposited large amounts of P4 particles in sediments and water which have resulted in die-offs of several waterfowl species. Because the toxicity of P4 in birds has not been well documented and because it is quickly excreted or metabolized in living animals, we sought to determine the effects of experimental dosing on blood characteristics in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In two experiments, one employing single doses of 5.4 mg P4/kg body weight in corn oil and the other using daily repeated doses of pelletized P4 at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, there were significant changes in AST, ALT, LDH, inorganic P, hematocrit and hemoglobin. Other indications of exposure included changes in uric acid, creatinine, and total protein which were consistent with reported liver and kidney damage due to this contaminant. Changes in white blood cells included a greater frequency of thrombocytes and fewer lymphocytes in dosed birds compared to controls. A biomarker of exposure based on LDH activity and hemoglobin is proposed.

  9. Detection of abdominal aortic graft infection: comparison of CT and In-labeled white blood cell scans

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, A.S.; McCarthy, S.M.; Moss, A.A.; Price, D.

    1985-02-01

    Aortic graft infections are a rare but potentially lethal complication of aortic graft surgery. The diagnosis and assessment of the extent of a graft infection is difficult on clinical grounds. A prospective study compared CT and indium-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scans in the diagnosis of aortic graft infection. Five patients with aortic graft infection and three patients without aortic graft infection were studied by both methods. CT correctly detected the retroperitoneal extension of the infection in three patients with groin infection; In-WBC scans diagnosed the extension only in one patient. Both CT and In-WBC were positive in two patients with aortic graft infection but no groin infection. Both studies were negative in the three patients without evidence of aortic graft infection. The study suggests that CT is more sensitive than In-WBC in evaluating the extent of aortic graft infection and should be the imaging method of choice.

  10. Perturbation of red blood cell flow in small tubes by white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, T N; La Celle, P L; Cokelet, G R

    1989-02-01

    The flow of blood in the microcirculation is facilitated by the dynamic reduction in viscosity (Fahraeus-Lindquist effect) resulting from the axial flow of deforming erythrocytes (RBCs) and from the decrease in the ratio of cell to vessel diameter. RBC velocity exceeds that of average fluid velocity; however the slower moving white blood cells (WBC) perturb flow velocity and the ratio of cell to vessel diameter by obstructing red cell flow through formation of "trains" of red cells collecting behind the white cell. This effect of white cells was studied quantitatively in a model in vitro tubes less than 10 microns in diameter with the demonstration that flow resistance increases linearly with white cell numbers up to 1,000 WBC/mm3 at tube hematocrit of 17.7%. The increase in resistance exceeds the flow resistance of WBC and appears to relate directly to train formation. A mechanical model of train formation developed to predict WBC influence in flow resistance over the range of WBC studied reasonably fits observed WBC effects. PMID:2928089

  11. Stress, Heredity and Black-White Blood Pressure Differences. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harburg, Ernest; And Others

    The facts that black Americans at all ages have higher blood pressure levels and higher mortality rates from hypertension than whites provided the impetus for this study. In their efforts to discover whether the level of blood pressure within and between black and white groups is related more to stress or to genetic factors, the researchers…

  12. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  13. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries. PMID:26464211

  14. Limitations of indium leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of spine infections

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.L.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr. )

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy in the detection of spine sepsis was studied in 22 patients who had open or percutaneous biopsies for microbiologic diagnosis. The indium images in 18 patients with vertebral infection were falsely negative in 15 (83%) and truly positive in 3 (17%). All four patients with negative cultures and histology had true-negative scans. The indium-111 WBC imaging results yielded a sensitivity of 17%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy rate of 31%. Prior antibiotic therapy was correlated with a high incidence of false-negative scans and photon-deficient indium-111 WBC uptake. The usefulness of indium-111 WBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of vertebral infection may be limited to those patients who have not been treated with antibiotics previously.

  15. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  16. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  17. Mineral of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  18. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  19. In vivo red blood cell compatibility testing using indium-113m tropolone-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, G.J.; Gravelle, D.; Dietz, G.; Driedger, A.A.; King, M.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1988-05-01

    In vivo radionuclide crossmatch is a method for identifying compatible blood for transfusion when allo- or autoantibodies preclude the use of conventional crossmatching techniques. A technique for labeling small volumes of donor red blood cells with (/sup 113m/In)tropolone is reported. The use of /sup 113m/In minimizes the accumulation of background radioactivity and the radiation dose especially so when multiple crossmatches are performed. Labeling red cells with (/sup 113m/In)tropolone is faster and easier to perform than with other radionuclides. Consistently high labeling efficiencies are obtained and minimal /sup 113m/In activity elutes from the labeled red blood cells. A case study involving 22 crossmatches is presented to demonstrate the technique. The radiation dose equivalent from /sup 113m/In is significantly less than with other radionuclides that may be used to label red cells.

  20. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  1. Higher Blood Pressure Variability in White Coat Hypertension; from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Sungha; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. Results Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed.

  2. Effect of metabolism on retention of indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody in liver and blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kinuyfa, S.; Jeong, J.M.; Garmestani, K.

    1994-11-01

    The effect of a chelator structure on the metabolic fate of the {sup 111}In-labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab) T101 was investigated in normal Balb/c mice to assess the importance of this chemical parameter in the reduction of the background radioactivity in blood and liver. Mab T101 was conjugated with either 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyl-diethylaminetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) (1B4M), 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl) cyclohexyl-DTPA (CHX-B) or cyclic DTPA dianhydride (cDTPA) and then radiolabeled with {sup 111}In-labeled T101 conjugates and sacrificed in groups of five up to 5 days postinjection for comparative biodistribution studies and analyses of liver, blood and urine samples for radioindium products. The biodistribution of {sup 111}In-1B4M-T101 and {sup 111}In-CHX-B-T101 were similar to each other but significantly different from that of {sup 111}In-cDTPA-T101, particularly in the blood and liver. Size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that the concentration of the intact {sup 111}In-immunoglobulin (Ig)G in liver decreased with similar rates for the three conjugates. Meanwhile, the concentration of a small DTPA-like metabolite in liver increased to a different peak value (4.6% 1D/g for the cDTPA conjugate and 1.6% lD/g for the 1B4M and CHX-B conjugates) approximately at 24 hr and maintained a steady-state concentration up to 5 days. The thiourea linkage between T101 and the {sup 111}In-labeled chelates and a higher complex stability and higher lipophilicity of {sup 111}In-1B4M and {sup 111}In-CHX-B appear to be responsible for lower liver and higher blood radioactivity for the 1B4M and CHX conjugates. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Respirable Indium Exposures, Plasma Indium, and Respiratory Health Among Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stanton, Marcia L.; Edwards, Nicole T.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Workers manufacturing indium-tin oxide (ITO) are at risk of elevated indium concentration in blood and indium lung disease, but relationships between respirable indium exposures and biomarkers of exposure and disease are unknown. Methods For 87 (93%) current ITO workers, we determined correlations between respirable and plasma indium and evaluated associations between exposures and health outcomes. Results Current respirable indium exposure ranged from 0.4 to 108 μg/m3 and cumulative respirable indium exposure from 0.4 to 923 μg-yr/m3. Plasma indium better correlated with cumulative (rs = 0.77) than current exposure (rs = 0.54) overall and with tenure ≥1.9 years. Higher cumulative respirable indium exposures were associated with more dyspnea, lower spirometric parameters, and higher serum biomarkers of lung disease (KL-6 and SP-D), with significant effects starting at 22 μg-yr/m3, reached by 46% of participants. Conclusions Plasma indium concentration reflected cumulative respirable indium exposure, which was associated with clinical, functional, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. PMID:27219296

  4. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  5. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  6. Association of selenium status and blood glutathione concentrations in blacks and whites

    PubMed Central

    Richie, John P.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Ellison, Irina; Calcagnotto, Ana; Kleinman, Wayne; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2011-01-01

    Selenium deficiency has been linked with increased cancer risk and, in some studies, selenium supplementation was protective against certain cancers. Previous studies suggest that selenium chemoprevention may involve reduced oxidative stress through enhanced glutathione (GSH). Our objectives were to examine the relationships between selenium and GSH in blood and modifying effects of race and sex in free living adults and individuals supplemented with selenium. Plasma selenium concentrations and free and bound GSH concentrations and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity in blood were measured in 336 healthy adults, (161 blacks, 175 whites). Plasma selenium and blood GSH were also measured in 36 healthy men from our previously conducted placebo-controlled trial of selenium-enriched yeast (247 μg/day for 9 months). In free-living adults, selenium concentrations were associated with increased blood GSH concentration and GCL activity (P<0.05). Further, selenium was significantly higher in whites than in blacks (P<0.01). After 9 months of supplementation, plasma selenium was increased 114% in whites and 50% in blacks (P<0.05) and blood GSH was increased 35% in whites (P<0.05) but was unchanged in blacks. These results indicate a direct association between selenium and GSH in blood of both free-living and selenium-supplemented individuals, with race being an important modifying factor. PMID:21462082

  7. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by /sup 111/In oxine white blood cell scans

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-08-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, /sup 111/In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. /sup 111/In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates.

  8. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chun; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com; Wang, Yu; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W. E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com

    2014-06-30

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10 mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30 mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  9. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Emilie L.; McKenna, Shawn L. B.; Sanchez, Javier; Bach, Horacio; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg P.

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12) as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants. PMID:26447691

  10. ["As white as snow, as red as blood..."].

    PubMed

    Petrilli, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the tale of Biancaneve and the seven dwarfs, by Grimm, used by the Author as a background to discuss the metaphorical function performed by blood images into the psychological relationship between parents and children. This allows a description of a feminine character which, already present in Greek mythology, at the origins of the Western civilization, has been apparently lost in the forthcoming Western cultural history, nonetheless strongly surviving in the construction of the consciousness and soul of women. PMID:17152589

  11. White Thrombus Formation in Blood Tubing Lines in a Chronic Hemodialysis Unit

    PubMed Central

    Watnick, Suzanne; Stooksbury, Michael; Winter, Rolf; Riscoe, Michael; Cohen, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous reports have described white particulate matter in banked blood components, but no prior public reports describe such matter in blood tubing during the course of routine in-center hemodialysis. This report describes the events, investigations, and preliminary conclusions associated with the spontaneous formation of adherent white thrombus in the venous and arterial blood lines during routine in-center hemodialysis treatments. Design setting, participants, & measurements: This investigation occurred at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center (PVAMC) Hemodialysis Unit from October 2006 through April 2007. Sixty-eight variables regarding demographics, medical history and dialysis treatments were collected on our 34 chronic hemodialysis outpatients. Results: Over a 5-wk interval, 62% (21 of 34) of the chronic hemodialysis patients unexpectedly developed a white precipitate adhering to the lumenal surface of their dialysis blood tubing, with 73 of 580 chronic dialysis treatments exhibiting the phenomenon. Microscopic and biochemical analyses were consistent with white thrombus, formed by an aggregation of platelets and fibrin. An alert was issued and other in-center hemodialysis units noted similar findings. This was remedied by the removal of specific tubing. Conclusions: Both patient-specific and tubing-specific factors may have been operative. Although patient safety was not adversely affected, assessment of clinical and manufacturing variables potentially affecting platelet activation is warranted. PMID:18184880

  12. Altered red and white blood cell rheology in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Matrai, A

    1986-12-01

    Twenty-three patients suffering from type II, non-insulin-dependent diabetes were compared with matched controls. Suspensions with standardized white and red cell counts were filtered in a novel device capable of discriminating filter occlusion and cell transit time. Results confirm previous studies indicating that red cell deformability is impaired in diabetes. According to our findings, this may be caused by a slight overall loss of red cell fluidity together with the existence of a subpopulation of more markedly rigid erythrocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that white cell filterability is reduced in type II diabetes. This could be due to decreased white cell deformability, increased white cell adhesion, or both. Analysis of diabetic subgroups indicates that the white cell rheology is impaired to a greater extent in patients taking oral antidiabetic drugs than in patients controlled by diet alone. Altered white cell rheology could help to explain the pathological blood cell filterability frequently reported in diabetes. More important, impaired white cell rheology might significantly contribute to microcirculatory flow abnormalities jeopardizing O2 exchange in the terminal vascular bed. PMID:3770316

  13. Orthostatic and Supine Blood Pressures Are Associated with White Matter Hyperintensities in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Joong-Seok; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Several reports on the elderly population have suggested that orthostatic hypotension is associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH); however, little information is available on patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: We analyzed the association blood pressure profiles during tilt table testing with WMH scores in 117 patients with PD. WMH were rated using the semiquantitative visual rating system proposed by Scheltens et al. Results: The presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with increasing tendency of WMH score and the blood pressure changes during tilting and supine blood pressure were positively correlated with increasing WMH score. Conclusions: This finding indicates that hemodynamic changes associated with orthostatic hypotension may be associated with white matter changes in patients with PD. PMID:24868422

  14. Changes in blood parameters in New Zealand White rabbits during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Yasumoto; Matsuoka, Tetsuya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Endoh, Takako; Kamata, Ryo; Fukuda, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Asano, Yuzo

    2010-01-01

    Changes in clinical pathology parameters, particularly those related to blood coagulation, were examined throughout the gestation period in New Zealand White rabbits. As compared with the non-pregnant group, the following major changes were observed in the pregnant group. For blood coagulation-related parameters, platelets increased progressively and fibrinogen increased slightly from organogenesis, prothrombin time was significantly prolonged during organogenesis and shortened in the late fetal growth stage, activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged during the fetal growth stage, and antithrombin III increased during and after late organogenesis. Such changes in blood coagulation-related parameters during the later stages of gestation seem to be physiological responses in preparation for protecting against excessive haemorrhage or haemostasis at parturition. For the other haematological and blood chemical parameters as well as progesterone, red blood cell counts, haemoglobin and haematocrit began to decrease during organogenesis and continued to decrease thereafter. Reticulocyte counts significantly increased during organogenesis and decreased thereafter. White blood cell parameters, except for neutrophils, showed significant decreases during the fetal growth stage. Serum progesterone concentration reached its highest level early in organogenesis and decreased thereafter. Total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, calcium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine decreased significantly during the middle and/or late periods of gestation. In conclusion, the data obtained from the present study can be used as background data for effective evaluation of reproductive toxicology in rabbits, and pregnant rabbits may serve as models of pregnant women in research pertaining to clinical pathology and gestation. PMID:19854754

  15. Microstructure and Cerebral Blood Flow within White Matter of the Human Brain: A TBSS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Fisler, Melanie Sarah; Soravia, Leila Maria; Andreotti, Jennifer; Walther, Sebastian; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background White matter (WM) fibers connect different brain regions and are critical for proper brain function. However, little is known about the cerebral blood flow in WM and its relation to WM microstructure. Recent improvements in measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) by means of arterial spin labeling (ASL) suggest that the signal in white matter may be detected. Its implications for physiology needs to be extensively explored. For this purpose, CBF and its relation to anisotropic diffusion was analyzed across subjects on a voxel-wise basis with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and also across white matter tracts within subjects. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging and ASL were acquired in 43 healthy subjects (mean age = 26.3 years). Results CBF in WM was observed to correlate positively with fractional anisotropy across subjects in parts of the splenium of corpus callosum, the right posterior thalamic radiation (including the optic radiation), the forceps major, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, radial diffusivity correlated negatively with CBF across subjects in similar regions. Moreover, CBF and FA correlated positively across white matter tracts within subjects. Conclusion The currently observed findings on a macroscopic level might reflect the metabolic demand of white matter on a microscopic level involving myelination processes or axonal function. However, the exact underlying physiological mechanism of this relationship needs further evaluation. PMID:26942763

  16. The effect of prolonged perfusion with a membrane oxygenator (PPMO) on white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Bergman, P; Belboul, A; Friberg, L G; al-Khaja, N; Mellgren, G; Roberts, D

    1994-01-01

    Preserving the rheological properties of whole blood cells is vital for their smooth passage in the capillaries without causing blockage and disturbances in the microcirculation. To evaluate the effect of mechanical trauma on the rheology of white blood cells during prolonged perfusion with membrane oxygenation (PPMO), 16 in vitro experiments were conducted for 72 hours. The St George Carrimed Filtrometer was used to estimate the plasma white cell filtration rates (P-WFR). Also an in vitro estimation of the ability of individual cells to pass through capillaries, the white blood cell clogging rate (WBC-CR), the number of clogging particles (WBC-CP), the total white blood cell count (T-WBC) and two in vitro estimations to assess the effect of aggregates and stiff cells in blocking the microcirculation were performed. The traumatized white cells reduced their mean P-WFR by 37% +/- 9, 72% +/- 2 and 76% +/- 2 at 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively (p < 0.001). The mean WBC-CR was increased to 15.2 +/- 1.5, 32.6 +/- 2.2 and 40.3 +/- 8.3 x 10(2)%/ml at 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively (p < 0.001). The mean WBC-CP was increased to 6.6 +/- 1.5, 9.7 +/- 1.2 and 13.9 +/- 2.1 x 10(6)/ml at 24 hours (p < 0.05), 48 and 72 hours respectively (p < 0.001). The T-WBC was decreased to 55% +/- 0.3, 23% +/- 0.2 and 14% +/- 0.1 and 14% +/- 0.1 at 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8161866

  17. Relation between vegetarian/nonvegetarian diets and blood pressure in black and white adults.

    PubMed Central

    Melby, C L; Goldflies, D G; Hyner, G C; Lyle, R M

    1989-01-01

    We examined the possible interaction of race and diet on blood pressure (BP) in volunteer Black Seventh Day Adventists compared to volunteer White church members. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and resting seated BP were recorded in Black vegetarians (n = 55; age: 54.7 +/- 16.9 yrs), Black nonvegetarians (n = 59; 56.1 +/- 14.1 yrs), White vegetarians (n = 164; 52.2 +/- 16.7 yrs), and White nonvegetarians (n = 100; 52.6 +/- 15.6 yrs) attending a regional conference. Forty-four percent of the Black nonvegetarians were medicated hypertensives, compared to only 18 percent of the Black vegetarians, 7 percent of the White vegetarians, and 22 percent of the White nonvegetarians. Black vegetarians exhibited lower age and sex-adjusted systolic BP (means = 122.9/74.4 mm Hg) than Black nonvegetarians (means = 132.2/75.9 mm Hg). After further adjusting BP for body mass index and waist/hip ratio, the systolic BP among Black vegetarians remained lower (122.8) than Black nonvegetarians (129.7) but higher than that of the Whites who showed no diet-related BP differences. PMID:2764208

  18. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF) that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II) distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5) in infected pigs than in control group (0.3), marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated. PMID:22373449

  19. Low response in white blood cell DNA adducts among workers in a highly polluted cokery environment.

    PubMed

    Kuljukka, T; Savela, K; Vaaranrinta, R; Mutanen, P; Veidebaum, T; Sorsa, M; Peltonen, K

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven workers are often heavily exposed to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); this exposure has been associated with higher cancer rates among these workers. We assessed the exposure of cokery workers in an oil shale processing plant. Personal hygienic monitoring, measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBCs) were performed. The 32P-postlabeling method was used for adduct measurement. The mean adduct value, 1.6 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, did not differ significantly from the control value (P = 0.098). Smokers had significantly higher adduct levels than non-smoking workers (P = 0.002). 1-OHP levels measured in post-shift samples correlated with DNA adducts found in white blood cells (WBCs). We conclude that hygienic monitoring and measurement of urinary metabolites are essential background exposure data when the biologically effective dose of chemical carcinogens is assessed. PMID:9636933

  20. Changes in immunological characteristics of white blood cells after administration of standardized mistletoe extract.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Schmidt, W; Niemer, W; Werner, M; Beuth, J

    2001-01-01

    After administering standardized mistletoe extract, Viscum album L, (Iscador injections of 0.1 mg twice and 1.0 mg in defined intervals) the functional characteristics of microcirculation and immunological behavior of the white blood cells in different target tissues (derma, intestine) were investigated in healthy volunteers by vital microscopic investigation over 13 days of observation. The investigations showed a temporarily improved function of the microcirculation and an increased adhesion and transmigration of white blood cells in the target tissue areas. This observation was evaluated as a biologically relevant immunomodulation. Further investigations under pathophysiological conditions with regard to complementary administration of the test substance (e.g. to cancer patients) appear promising. PMID:11887328

  1. Changes in the flow properties of white blood cells after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nash, G B; Christopher, B; Morris, A J; Dormandy, J A

    1989-11-01

    Because they can obstruct blood vessels and release noxious substances, white blood cells may contribute to the development of tissue ischaemia. The flow properties of white cells were tested after myocardial infarction, by measuring the filtration rates of cell suspensions through 8 microns pore filters. Compared with mononuclear cells from age matched controls, mononuclear cells from patients with infarction showed impaired filterability within the first day after the onset of pain; this condition persisted for at least two days and by day 10 it was improved. On day 1, granulocyte filterability and the proportion showing morphological evidence of activation were nearly normal. By day 3 the flow resistance and activation had increased, but the changes seen depended on the age of the patient. The filterability and activation of granulocytes from patients aged less than 60 were significantly increased from day 1, whereas there were no changes in granulocytes from patients aged greater than 60 years. Suspensions of unfractionated white cells showed changes intermediate between the mononuclear cells and granulocytes. A group of five patients who presented with chest pain but who were subsequently found not to have had an infarction showed no evidence of abnormal filterability or activation. The changes in filterability probably reflect white cell activation, which may have an adverse effect on the perfusion of the ischaemic myocardium. PMID:2590586

  2. Blood pressure in black, white and Asian factory workers in Birmingham.

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, J. K.; Jackson, S. H.; Bannan, L. T.; Beevers, D. G.; Beevers, M.; Osbourne, V. L.

    1983-01-01

    A screening survey was conducted among factory workers, aged 15-64 years, in Birmingham, England to investigate ethnic differences in blood pressure. One-thousand and forty-nine subjects (784 men, 265 women) were screened, representing 79% of the eligible population. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures generally did not differ between men of black West Indian (n = 173), local white (n = 439) or Asian (n = 172) origin, when matched by 10-year age groups. Analysis of covariance using age as the covariate revealed that, overall, Asian men had significantly lower systolic but higher diastolic pressures than the other ethnic groups. The proportion of men arbitrarily defined as hypertensive (greater than or equal to 160 mmHg systolic or greater than or equal to 95 diastolic or blood pressures below this figure whilst receiving antihypertensive therapy) was 26% of West Indians, 22% of whites and 17% of Asians, but these were not significantly different when age was accounted for. Black West Indian women (n = 101) did have higher diastolic pressure than white women (n = 164), but this difference was dependent on body mass index. Overall, systolic pressures in women were not significantly different. These findings differ from those consistently reported from the United States. PMID:6647171

  3. The role of the experience and expression of anger and anxiety in elevated blood pressure among black and white adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between black and white adolescents in the experience and expression of anger and anxiety, traditional risk factors for hypertension, and blood pressure were examined among adolescents enrolled in a health science course in Tampa, Florida. Relationships between blood pressure and anger/anxiety and traditional risk factors were also examined. Black adolescents of both genders experienced feelings of anxiety more frequently and with greater intensity than did their white counterparts. Although black and white adolescents did not differ in their ability to experience anger, blacks experienced more intense reactions in situations involving unfair criticism and time pressure. More importantly, black males and females suppressed the expression of their anger more often than did their white counterparts. The blood pressure of black adolescent males and females was found to be significantly higher than their white counterparts. Blacks were also more likely to have a family history of hypertension, but were less likely to smoke cigarettes. Racial differences on other risk factors were found only among black females who were heavier and consumed more salty junk foods than white females. Although a number of the personality and risk factor measures were significantly correlated with blood pressure, measures of suppressed anger were more strongly correlated with blood pressure for both black and white adolescents. Findings from the multiple regression analyses showed that suppressed anger was the best independent predictor of blood pressure for all groups except white females. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate that adolescents with elevated blood pressure can be identified by emotional/psychological factors, which are predictive of high blood pressure for both blacks and whites. PMID:2746680

  4. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  5. White blood cell segmentation by circle detection using electromagnetism-like optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  6. Everyday Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Black and White Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Cooper, Denise C.; Mills, Paul J.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is closely linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination have also been associated with negative cardiovascular health outcomes. This study investigated whether an association exists between experiences of everyday discrimination and BP dipping in a biracial sample of Black and White adults. Methods Seventy-eight hypertensive and normotensive women and men (30 Black and 48 White) reported on their experiences of everyday discrimination (the Everyday Discrimination Scale) and underwent two separate 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) sessions approximately one week apart. Results Correlation analysis revealed that higher endorsement of everyday discrimination was significantly associated with less diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) dipping (p <0.05). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that everyday discrimination explained 8-11% of the variance in SBP and DBP dipping above and beyond other demographic and lifestyle-related factors including race, age, 24-hour BP, body mass index (BMI), and current socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between discrimination and dipping was significantly stronger on the second night of monitoring. Finally, analyses revealed that everyday discrimination mediated the relationship between race and BP dipping. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with less nocturnal SBP and DBP dipping above and beyond the effect of known covariates. The use of multiple ABPM sessions may facilitate the detection of relationships between psychological variables and BP dipping. PMID:20124424

  7. Characterization of the novel antibacterial peptide Leucrocin from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Pata, Supawadee; Yaraksa, Nualyai; Daduang, Sakda; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Svasti, Jisnuson; Araki, Tomohiro; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2011-05-01

    Four novel antibacterial peptides, Leucrocin I-IV from Siamese crocodile white blood cell extracts were purified by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Leucrocins exhibit strong antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. The peptides were 7-10 residues in length with different primary structure. The amino acid sequence of Leucrocin I is NGVQPKY with molecular mass around 806.99 Da and Leucrocin II is NAGSLLSGWG with molecular mass around 956.3 Da. Further, the interaction between peptides and bacterial membranes as part of their killing mechanism was studied by fluorescence and electron microscopy. The outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane was the target of action of Leucrocins as assayed in model membrane by release of β-galactosidase due to the membrane permeabilization. Finally, the hemolytic effect was tested against human red blood cell. Leucrocin I, III and IV showed less toxicity against human red blood cells than Leucrocin II. PMID:21184776

  8. Detection of deep venous thrombosis by indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1986-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte ((/sup 111/In)WBC) scintigraphy has been used successfully for detection of inflammation. Occasionally, noninflammatory collections of white blood cells such as hematomas or hemorrhage have been localized. We report a case in which unsuspected femoral deep venous thrombosis was diagnosed on an (/sup 111/In)WBC leukocyte scan performed for detection of osteomyelitis. Readers are advised to avoid interpreting all vascular (/sup 111/In)WBC localization as necessarily infectious. This may be of particular significance in patients with vascular grafts.

  9. Comparison of employees' white blood cell counts in a petrochemical plant by worksite and race.

    PubMed Central

    Christian, C. L.; Werley, B.; Smith, A.; Chin, N.; Garde, D.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if employment within a petrochemical plant's quality control (QC) laboratory had any significant effect on the hematopoietic system, and in specific, the white blood cell (WBC) counts, all employees of the QC laboratory were evaluated retrospectively. Trend analysis, linear regression, and Students t tests were performed on all employees of the QC laboratory and on a simple random sample of the rest of this Caribbean petrochemical plant's male employees. Trend analyses revealed a downward trend in 82.6% of the QC laboratory workers and 76.7% in other plant workers. Linear regression and t tests revealed no statistically significant difference by worksite but a significant difference between blacks and whites. The result of the findings of the QC laboratory workers was consistent with that expected in both plant employees and the US general population. A recommendation is made that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reconsider its WBC cutoff level in the benzene standard. PMID:7932841

  10. Allometric scaling of mammalian blood pressure: A comment on White and Seymour (2014).

    PubMed

    Packard, Gary C

    2015-12-01

    White and Seymour examined the scaling of central arterial blood pressure against body mass in mammals ranging in size from a 30 g mouse to a 4080 kg elephant. Exponents in power functions fitted to each of three datasets (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure) were reported to be significantly greater than zero and indistinguishable from 0.33. The first of these outcomes would indicate that blood pressure increases with body size, whereas the second is consistent with the heart working against gravity to move blood to the head. Taken together, these results seemingly refute the notion that the cephalic circulation functions as an energy-neutral siphon. However, the main findings by White and Seymour were presented in the form of graphs that distorted the relationships between the variables of interest. I use simple graphics to show that the data were unsuited from the outset for use in allometric analyses and that conclusions of the investigation are not well supported. PMID:26462730

  11. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  12. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  13. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal infection. Roentgenography; Gallium, indium-labeled white blood cell, gammaglobulin, bone scintigraphy; and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, W.A.; Alavi, A. )

    1991-07-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to evaluate and define the role of various diagnostic imaging techniques in various clinical settings that complicate the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Except possibly in neonates, bone scintigraphy remains generally recommended when there has been no previous osseous involvement. In other cases of chronic disease, previous fracture or trauma, prosthesis, and diabetic foot, In-WBC scintigraphy is generally accepted as an appropriate imaging technique. MRI will play an increasingly important role in diagnosing osteomyelitis and may prove to be an important adjunct in these cases. Research continues to improve our current diagnostic armamentarium. In-IgG appears to avoid practical deficiencies encountered with 67Ga and In-WBC; it remains to be seen what role this agent will play in routine clinical practice. All agents to date image inflammation, not infection, and most require delayed imaging sessions, usually at 24 hours. These shortcomings necessitate further research to develop new radiotracers that can provide useful images within several hours and that are specific for infection, perhaps ultimately delineating the particular microorganism involved.84 references.

  15. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Esterhai, J.L.; Goll, S.

    1988-06-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with (/sup 111/In)oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative (/sup 111/In)WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that (In)WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of (/sup 111/In)WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation.

  16. An improved white cell diluent for use with the Eel electronic blood cell counter.

    PubMed

    TAYLOR, F; RICKARDS, A G

    1960-05-01

    An improved white cell diluent for use with the Eel electronic counter is described. It possesses advantages over previously described diluents in the rapidity of its action as a red cell stromalysin and in its ability to conserve surviving leucocytes for long periods of time. These properties enable counts to be made either immediately after preparation of the suspension or several hours later. The diluent is equally suitable for use with capillary or venous blood samples. When used for counting leucocytes it has been found necessary to effect a minor modification to the machine whereby the light intensity is reduced by approximately one-half. PMID:13837137

  17. Segmentation of White Blood Cells through Nucleus Mark Watershed Operations and Mean Shift Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Hui; Li, Xiaomei; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) in peripheral blood and bone marrow images under different lights through mean shift clustering, color space conversion and nucleus mark watershed operation (NMWO). The proposed method focuses on obtaining seed points. First, color space transformation and image enhancement techniques are used to obtain nucleus groups as inside seeds. Second, mean shift clustering, selection of the C channel component in the CMYK model, and illumination intensity adjustment are employed to acquire WBCs as outside seeds. Third, the seeds and NMWO are employed to precisely determine WBCs and solve the cell adhesion problem. Morphological operations are further used to improve segmentation accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm exhibits higher segmentation accuracy and robustness compared with traditional methods. PMID:26370995

  18. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  19. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

  20. Preterm white matter brain injury is prevented by early administration of umbilical cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingang; Yawno, Tamara; Sutherland, Amy; Loose, Jan; Nitsos, Ilias; Bischof, Robert; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; McDonald, Courtney A; Wong, Flora Y; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2016-09-01

    Infants born very preterm are at high risk for neurological deficits including cerebral palsy. In this study we assessed the neuroprotective effects of umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) and optimal administration timing in a fetal sheep model of preterm brain injury. 50 million allogeneic UCBCs were intravenously administered to fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) at 12h or 5d after acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced by umbilical cord occlusion. The fetal brains were collected at 10d after HI. HI (n=7) was associated with reduced number of oligodendrocytes (Olig2+) and myelin density (CNPase+), and increased density of activated microglia (Iba-1+) in cerebral white matter compared to control fetuses (P<0.05). UCBCs administered at 12h, but not 5d after HI, significantly protected white matter structures and suppressed cerebral inflammation. Activated microglial density showed a correlation with decreasing oligodendrocyte number (P<0.001). HI caused cell death (TUNEL+) in the internal capsule and cell proliferation (Ki-67+) in the subventricular zone compared to control (P<0.05), while UCBCs at 12h or 5d ameliorated these effects. Additionally, UCBCs at 12h induced a significant systemic increase in interleukin-10 at 10d, and reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) following HI (P<0.05). UCBC administration at 12h after HI reduces preterm white matter injury, via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. PMID:27317990

  1. Reduced blood flow in normal white matter predicts development of leukoaraiosis.

    PubMed

    Bernbaum, Manya; Menon, Bijoy K; Fick, Gordon; Smith, Eric E; Goyal, Mayank; Frayne, Richard; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low cerebral blood flow (CBF) is associated with subsequent development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Patients were included from a longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study of minor stroke/transient ischemic attack patients. Images were co-registered and new WMH at 18 months were identified by comparing follow-up imaging with baseline fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Regions-of-interest (ROIs) were placed on FLAIR images in one of three categories: (1) WMH seen at both baseline and follow-up imaging, (2) new WMH seen only on follow-up imaging, and (3) regions of normal-appearing white matter at both time points. Registered CBF maps at baseline were used to measure CBF in the ROIs. A multivariable model was developed using mixed-effects logistic regression to determine the effect of baseline CBF on the development on new WMH. Forty patients were included. Mean age was 61±11 years, 30% were female. Low baseline CBF, female sex, and presence of diabetes were independently associated with the presence of new WMH on follow-up imaging. The odds of having new WMH on follow-up imaging reduces by 0.61 (95% confidence interval=0.57 to 0.65) for each 1 mL/100 g per minute increase in baseline CBF. We conclude that regions of white matter with low CBF develop new WMH on follow-up imaging. PMID:25966951

  2. The Cryoprotectant Effect of Polysaccharides from Plants and Microalgae on Human White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Khudyakov, Andrey Nikolayevich; Polezhaeva, Tatyana Vitalyevna; Zaitseva, Oksana Olegovna; Gűnter, Elena Aleksandrovna; Solomina, Olga Nurzadinovna; Popeyko, Oksana Viktorovna; Shubakov, Anatolyi Aleksandrovich; Vetoshkin, Konstantin Aleksandrovich

    2015-08-01

    The use of carbohydrates as cryoprotectants is increasing. In this study the effects of incorporating polysaccharides extracted from plants and microalgae originating in northern Russia, into cryoprotectant solutions used to preserve human white blood cells were investigated. Cells in the presence of the polysaccharides were cooled to either -40°C or -80°C, using a two-step cooling process. The morphological and functional indicators of the cryopreserved leukocytes were assessed by light microscopy. When combined with glycerol, the pectin-polysaccharides Lemnan from common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and Comaruman from marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L), were capable of lowering the freezing point of the cryoprotectant solution and helped to preserve the integrity of the human white blood cell membranes at temperatures below zero. In addition, the increase in phagocytic activity of neutrophils was confirmed. In the context of the contemporary search for effective cell cryoprotectants, the results of this research demonstrate that the cryopreservation of biospecimens in a polysaccharide environment is a promising trend in applied medicine, which can be considered an alternative to traditional cryogenic nitrogen techniques. PMID:26186407

  3. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Nelson, Randy J; Rink, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8-9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC(+) area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  4. White blood cell and platelet indices as prognostic markers in patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Kostakis, Ioannis D.; Machairas, Nikolaos; Markopoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that oncogenesis is associated with systemic inflammation. The present study investigated white blood cell and platelet indices, whose values change during the inflammatory response, in women with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Preoperatively obtained white blood cell and platelet counts from 53 patients with early breast cancer, who developed systemic metastases over a mean follow-up period of 65 months, were analyzed and compared with those of a matching control group formed of 37 patients with the same characteristics, who remained recurrence-free during the same time period. Patients who developed distant metastasis had a significantly higher mean platelet volume and lower neutrophil count than patients who did not present with distant metastasis. Furthermore, time to distant metastasis development was longer in patients with a lower mean platelet volume, whilst patients with a lower neutrophil count had a shorter systemic disease-free time interval. However, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that these parameters provided moderate accuracy in predicting which patients may develop distant metastasis. No differences were detected between patient groups regarding additional parameters. Patients who developed systemic disease during a mean follow-up period of 65 months were observed to have an increased mean platelet volume and decreased neutrophil count preoperatively. These results indicate that such parameters may be of prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to further investigate this hypothesis. PMID:27446480

  5. Monitoring effects of microgravity on adhesion of white blood cells to vascular endothelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.; Rouleau, R.; Smith, L.; Wu, X.; Kucik, D. F.

    Immune defects associated with space travel have been studied for decades but the mechanisms are not yet well understood Of particular interest is the effect of microgravity on white blood cells which has been shown to be independent of effects of cosmic radiation and physical stress One important aspect of white-cell function that has been difficult to address experimentally is regulation of leukocyte adhesion to the blood vessel wall This is a vital early step in the initiation of an immune response without which effective immunity is not possible Rotating wall vessels RWV are often used to simulate microgravity on the ground but current systems typically require stopping rotation removing a sample and fluorescently labeling the cells before an adhesion assay can be performed The entire process from cell sampling to completion of an adhesion assay can take hours giving the cells time to recover at 1g and complicating interpretation of results We have designed a new integrated flow-chamber adhesion assay for measuring leukocyte adhesion properties in simulated and actual microgravity Our integrated RWV flow chamber bioimaging adhesion system can assay adhesion of cells exposed to simulated microgravity within seconds of returning to 1g without stopping rotation of the chamber Data collected with this system show that the new integrated assay can detect defects in both rolling and firm adhesion with sensitivity equal to that of large microscope-based flow chamber adhesion assays This system has now been adapted to measure acute

  6. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Teplitsky, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8–9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC+ area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  7. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  8. A pillar-based microfilter for isolation of white blood cells on elastomeric substrate

    PubMed Central

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Bahadorimehr, Alireza; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to design, fabricate, and characterize a pillar-based microfluidic device for size-based separation of human blood cells on an elastomeric substrate with application in the low-cost rapid prototyping of lab-chip devices. The single inlet single outlet device is using parallel U-shape arrays of pillars with cutoff size of 5.5 μm for trapping white blood cells (WBCs) in a pillar chamber with internal dead-volume of less than 1.0 μl. The microstructures are designed to limit the elastomeric deformation against fluid pressures. Numerical analysis showed that at maximum pressure loss of 15 kPa which is lower than the device conformal bonding strength, the pillar elastomeric deformation is less than 5% for flow rates of up to 1.0 ml min−1. Molding technique was employed for device prototyping using polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) resin and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. Characterization of the dual-layer device with beads and blood samples is performed. Tests with blood injection showed that ∼18%–25% of WBCs are trapped and ∼84%–89% of red blood cells (RBCs) are passed at flow rates of 15–50 μl min−1 with a slight decrease of WBCs trap and improve of the RBCs pass at higher flow rates. Similar results were obtained by separation of mixed microspheres of different size injected at flow rates of up to 400 μl min−1. Tests with blood samples stained by fluorescent gel demonstrated that the WBCs are accumulated in the arrays of pillars that later end up to blockage of the device. Filtration results of using elastomeric substrate present a good consistency with the trend of separation efficiencies of the similar silicon-based filters. PMID:24403994

  9. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

  10. Characterizing the white matter hyperintensity penumbra with cerebral blood flow measures

    PubMed Central

    Promjunyakul, N.; Lahna, D.; Kaye, J.A.; Dodge, H.H.; Erten-Lyons, D.; Rooney, W.D.; Silbert, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are common with age, grow over time, and are associated with cognitive and motor impairments. Mechanisms underlying WMH growth are unclear. We aimed to determine the presence and extent of decreased normal appearing white matter (NAWM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) surrounding WMHs to identify ‘WM at risk’, or the WMH CBF penumbra. We aimed to further validate cross-sectional finding by determining whether the baseline WMH penumbra CBF predicts the development of new WMHs at follow-up. Methods Sixty-one cognitively intact elderly subjects received 3 T MPRAGE, FLAIR, and pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL). Twenty-four subjects returned for follow-up MRI. The inter-scan interval was 18 months. A NAWM layer mask, comprised of fifteen layers, 1 mm thick each surrounding WMHs, was generated for periventricular (PVWMH) and deep (DWMH) WMHs. Mean CBF for each layer was computed. New WMH and persistent NAWM voxels for each penumbra layer were defined from follow-up MRI. Results CBF in the area surrounding WMHs was significantly lower than the total brain NAWM, extending approximately 12 mm from both the established PVWMH and DWMH. Voxels with new WMH at follow-up had significantly lower baseline CBF than voxels that maintained NAWM, suggesting that baseline CBF can predict the development of new WMHs over time. Conclusions A CBF penumbra exists surrounding WMHs, which is associated with future WMH expansion. ASL MRI can be used to monitor interventions to increase white matter blood flow for the prevention of further WM damage and its cognitive and motor consequences. PMID:26106546

  11. EVALUATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY, BLOOD GAS, AND LACTATE VALUES DURING EXTENDED IMMOBILIZATION OF WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    PubMed

    Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Meyer, Leith; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Brüns, Angela; Martin, Laura; Miller, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Ten white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were immobilized for a total of 13 procedures in holding facilities in Kruger National Park using etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase to assess the effect of extended immobilization on serial cardiorespiratory, blood gas, and lactate values. Butorphanol was administered intravenously following initial blood collection and physiologic assessment (t=0). Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters, body temperature, and arterial blood gases were monitored at 10-min intervals for a total of 100 min. Initial parameters at the time of recumbency revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, an increased alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient, and mildly elevated lactate levels. At 10 min and 20 min, there were significant (P<0.05) changes in the following physiologic parameters: heart rate decreased [96 and 80 beats/min, respectively, vs. 120 beats/min], arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) increased [48 and 45 mm Hg, respectively vs. 30 mm Hg], arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation increased [79% and 74%, respectively, vs. 47%], A-a gradient decreased [29.13 and 30.00 mm Hg, respectively, vs. 49.19 mm Hg], and respiratory rate decreased [5 and 5 breaths/min vs. 7 breaths/min]. Blood lactate levels also decreased from 2.54 mM/L to 1.50 and 0.89 mM/L, respectively. Despite initial improvements in blood oxygen levels at t=10 and 20 min, the rhinoceros remained severely hypoxemic for the remainder of the procedure (median PaO2=50.5 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval, 43.8-58.1). Median values for respiratory rate (5 breaths/min) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2; 68.5 mm Hg) did not change significantly for the remaining 80 min. Median lactate, base excess, bicarbonate, and pH values improved between 20 and 100 min despite the persistent hypercapnia, indicating that the animals adequately compensated for respiratory and lactic acidosis. White rhinoceros were immobilized for 100 min with no negative effects

  12. A combined spatial-spectral method for automated white blood cells segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Jianbiao; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-12-01

    To overcome the shortcomings in the traditional white blood cells (WBCs) identification methods based on the color or gray images captured by light microscopy, a microscopy hyperspectral imaging system was used to analyze the blood smears. The system was developed by coupling an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) adapter to a microscopy and driven by a SPF Model AOTF controller, which can capture hyperspectral images from 550 nm to 1000 nm with the spectral resolution 2-5 nm. Moreover, a combined spatial-spectral algorithm is proposed to segment the nuclei and cytoplasm of WBCs from the microscopy hyperspectral images. The proposed algorithm is based on the pixel-wise improved spectral angle mapper (ISAM) segmentation, followed by the majority voting within the active contour model regions. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 91.06% (nuclei) and 85.59% (cytoplasm), respectively, which is higher than that of the spectral information divergence (SID) algorithm because the new method can jointly use both the spectral and spatial information of blood cells.

  13. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  14. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection. PMID:25836768

  15. Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Mehta, Dalip; Srivastava, Vishal

    2012-11-01

    We report quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells (RBCs) using phase-shifting interference microscopy. Five phase-shifted white light interferograms are recorded using colour charge coupled device camera. White light interferograms were decomposed into red, green, and blue colour components. The phase-shifted interferograms of each colour were then processed by phase-shifting analysis and phase maps for red, green, and blue colours were reconstructed. Wavelength dependent refractive index profiles of RBCs were computed from the single set of white light interferogram. The present technique has great potential for non-invasive determination of refractive index variation and morphological features of cells and tissues.

  16. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  17. Penguin egg-white and polar fish blood-serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Feeney, R E

    1982-03-01

    The development of, and findings in, a long-term research program on penguin proteins and polar fish blood proteins are described. Two of the egg-white proteins from the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) have unique properties: a glycoprotein named penalbumin that is a major constituent with some characteristics similar to ovalbumin, and an ovomucoid with strong inhibitory capacity for subtilisin as well as for bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. The antifreeze glycoproteins from Antarctic fish (Trematomus borchgrevinki and Dissostichus mawsoni) and an Arctic fish (Boreogadus saida) appear to function noncolligatively by lowering the freezing temperature without affecting the melting point. Current evidence indicates that the antifreeze glycoprotein functions at the ice-solution interface, either on the ice surface or in a transition layer between the solution and the ice. PMID:6749729

  18. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  19. The white blood cell line: changes induced in mice by hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Orna; Ishay, Jacob S.

    The effect of hypergravity on the white blood cell (WBC) line of mice was investigated by use of horizontal centrifuge. Several sets of experiments were performed, in which the parameters measured were the WBC and differential cell count in the peripheral blood. In another experiment, lymphocyte counts from the spleen, lymph nodes, and the thymus were measured. The needed samples were taken from the mice during a stay of 7-40 days under a hypergravity of 1.6G. The test groups that were placed on the arms of the centrifuge (1.6G) were compared with stationary control groups (1G) and a rotating control group located at the center of the centrifuge (1G). Such a comparison revealed the test animals to be deficient on all counts, to wit, showing a decrease in total number of WBC's, a decrease in lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and a decrease in the number of lymphocyte in the spleen and thymus. The decrease of lymphocytes in peripheral blood was characterized by two different slopes - an early and temporary decrease at the first days of the experiment evident in both test and rotating control groups followed by a temporary increase, and a later persistent decrease, evident only in the test group, while in the rotating control lymphocyte counts reverted to normal. There were no significant differences in monocyte or neutrophil counts, except for a temporary increase in the number of neutrophils which peaked on the seventh day. In order to evaluate the effect of hypergravity on restoration of hematopoiesis following hematopoietic suppression, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) was administered i.v. to both the experimental and control mice. Suppression of bone marrow was observed in all groups injected with 5-FU, but while there was later an increase in cell counts in the control groups, there was no such increase in the test group subjected to hypergravity.

  20. Chlorinated pollutants in blood of White stork nestlings (Ciconia ciconia) in different colonies in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Hernández-Moreno, David; Castellano, Antonio; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of persistent chlorinated pollutants (POPs) in wild birds. The concentrations of multiple POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in plasma of White stork nestlings. Blood samples were collected from three breeding colonies located in the West of Spain that were exposed to different environmental conditions and human activities. The concentrations of PCBs were below the limit of detection in all samples. The OCPs Heptaclor, 4,4′-DDE, endosulfan and aldrin were detected most frequently in plasma from White stork nestlings. From these four compounds, 4,4′-DDE and Heptaclor were found in high abundance. OCPs could not be detected in the colony breading nearby a landfill and an intensive agricultural area, indicating that these banned compounds are not taken up by crops growing in this area. However, birds from the colony breading next to a landfill exhibited the highest OCPs levels. These high levels might be due to exposure of the mothers to OCPs during their migration to Africa and subsequent transfer to their eggs. PMID:25465955

  1. The effect of hypodynamia on the structure of the intraorganic blood vessels and the capacity of the blood stream in the diaphragm of white rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerus, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypodynamia on the vascular system of white rats with diaphragm deprivation was investigated. Morphological changes in the intraorganic blood stream of the diaphragm were determined. The capacity of the intraorganic vascular flow within the diaphragm muscles was established.

  2. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care

    PubMed Central

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2015-01-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange. PMID:26601006

  3. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-11-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange. PMID:26601006

  4. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Sellebjerg, Finn; Garde, Ellen; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Paulson, Olaf B.; Hesse, Dan; Hanson, Lars G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before and after the intravenous injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent to assess BBB permeability in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS). Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty-nine patients (38 females) with RR-MS undergoing immunomodulatory treatment and nine healthy controls (4 females) underwent quantitative T1 measurements at 3 tesla before and after injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent (0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA). Mean T1 values were calculated for NAWM in patients and total cerebral white matter in healthy subjects for the T1 measurements before and after injection of Gd-DTPA. The pre-injection baseline T1 of NAWM (945±55 [SD] ms) was prolonged in RR-MS relative to healthy controls (903±23 ms, p = 0.028). Gd-DTPA injection shortened T1 to a similar extent in both groups. Mean T1 of NAWM was 866±47 ms in the NAWM of RR-MS patients and 824±13 ms in the white matter of healthy controls. The regional variability of T1 values expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) was comparable between the two groups at baseline, but not after injection of the contrast agent. After intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, T1 values in NAWM were more variable in RR-MS patients (CV = 0.198±0.046) compared to cerebral white matter of healthy controls (CV = 0.166±0.018, p = 0.046). Conclusions/Significance We found no evidence of a global BBB disruption within the NAWM of RR-MS patients undergoing immunomodulatory treatment. However, the increased variation of T1 values in NAWM after intravenous Gd-DTPA injection points to an increased regional inhomogeneity of BBB function in NAWM in relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:23441184

  5. Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kim, Hak Hee

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a matrix of fibrin and platelets that releases cytokines that are important in wound healing. PRP is produced from the patient's blood and therefore has less risk of allergic reaction and infection. We have obtained PRP with an enhanced white blood cell component (W-PRP) by optimizing the centrifugal separation of PRP from plasma. Here we show that injection of W-PRP into the auricle of nude mice gave greater tissue augmentation compared to PRP. Further augmentation occurred when bFGF was added to W-PRP, and there was a significant increase in the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in mice treated with W-PRP+bFGF. Our results suggest that W-PRP may have value in cosmetic surgery aimed at rejuvenation of wrinkled and sagging skin. W-PRP injection constitutes a new concept in cell transplantation, in which cells required for tissue regeneration are induced by cytokines released from the transplanted cells. PMID:22793069

  6. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  7. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  8. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  9. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  10. Flow-Through Electroporation of HL-60 White Blood Cell Suspensions using Nanoporous Membrane Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Akenhead, Michael A; Sun, Xinghua; Sapper, Harrison; Shin, Hainsworth Y; Hinds, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    A flow-through electroporation system, based on a novel nanoporous membrane/electrode design, for the delivery of cell wall-impermeant molecules into model leukocytes, HL-60 promyelocytes, was demonstrated. The ability to apply low voltages to cell populations, with nm-scale concentrated electric field in a periodic array, contributes to high cell viability. With applied biases of 1-4V, delivery of target molecules was achieved with 90% viability and up to 65% transfection efficiency. More importantly, the system allowed electrophoretic pumping of molecules from a microscale reservoir across the membrane/electrode system into a microfluidic flow channel for transfection of cells, a design that can reduce reagent amount by eightfold compared to current strategies. The flow-through system, which forces intimate membrane/electrode contact by using a 10μm channel height, can be easily scaled-up by adjusting the microfluidic channel geometry and/or the applied voltage pulse frequency to control cell residence times at the cell membrane/electrode interface. The demonstrated system shows promise in clinical applications where low-cost, high cell viability and high volume transfection methods are needed without the risk of viral vectors. In particular genetic modification of freely mobile white blood cells to either target disease cells or to express desired protein/enzyme biomolecules is an important target platform enabled by this device system. PMID:27377174

  11. Segmentation of White Blood Cell from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Images Using Dual-Threshold Method.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Rui; Mi, Lei; Cao, Yihui; Yao, Di

    2016-01-01

    We propose a dual-threshold method based on a strategic combination of RGB and HSV color space for white blood cell (WBC) segmentation. The proposed method consists of three main parts: preprocessing, threshold segmentation, and postprocessing. In the preprocessing part, we get two images for further processing: one contrast-stretched gray image and one H component image from transformed HSV color space. In the threshold segmentation part, a dual-threshold method is proposed for improving the conventional single-threshold approaches and a golden section search method is used for determining the optimal thresholds. For the postprocessing part, mathematical morphology and median filtering are utilized to denoise and remove incomplete WBCs. The proposed method was tested in segmenting the lymphoblasts on a public Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) image dataset. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than single-threshold approach independently performed in RGB and HSV color space and the overall single WBC segmentation accuracy reaches 97.85%, showing a good prospect in subsequent lymphoblast classification and ALL diagnosis. PMID:27313659

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with myeloproliferative syndrome with myelodysplasia: bronchoalveolar lavage reduces white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Seth M; Gutierrez, Guillermo; Ascensao, Joao

    2006-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by surfactant component accumulation in the alveolar space. Primary PAP is likely an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). When an underlying disease causes PAP, this is called secondary PAP. Hematologic malignancies are an important cause of secondary PAP. As the pathogenesis of primary PAP has become more fully understood, improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have followed. However, when PAP is secondary to an underlying hematologic malignancy, much remains unclear. Here we describe for the first time a patient with hybrid myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative syndrome and PAP who had a marked decrease in her white blood cell count following a transbronchial biopsy accompanied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Similar significant decreases in WBC count accompanied clinical improvement following two unilateral BALs. Given that patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis frequently have elevated GM-CSF in bronchoalveolar fluid, this observation provides a unique vantage point to understand the pathophysiology of secondary PAP. PMID:16906593

  13. Abnormal White Matter Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent Signals in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Astafiev, Serguei V; Shulman, Gordon L; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Rengachary, Jennifer; MacDonald, Christine L; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Shimony, Joshua S; Ghajar, Jamshid; Diwakar, Mithun; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), can cause persistent behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this condition is associated with detectable structural or functional brain changes. At two sites, chronic mTBI human subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms (three months to five years after injury) and age- and education-matched healthy human control subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological and visual tracking eye movement tests. At one site, patients and controls also performed the visual tracking tasks while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although neither neuropsychological nor visual tracking measures distinguished patients from controls at the level of individual subjects, abnormal BOLD signals were reliably detected in patients. The most consistent changes were localized in white matter regions: anterior internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, BOLD signals were normal in cortical regions, such as the frontal eye field and intraparietal sulcus, that mediate oculomotor and attention functions necessary for visual tracking. The abnormal BOLD signals accurately differentiated chronic mTBI patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, although they did not correlate with symptoms or neuropsychological performance. We conclude that subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms can be identified years after their TBI using fMRI and an eye movement task despite showing normal structural MRI and DTI. PMID:25758167

  14. Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell count as markers of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takayuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Go; Arai, Shinpei; Sugano, Mitsutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell (WBC) count are routine laboratory tests used to assess neutrophil state, which depends on supply from the bone marrow and consumption in the tissues. If WBC count is constant, the presence of left shift indicates an increase of neutrophil consumption that is equal to an increase of production. A decrease in WBC count indicates that neutrophil consumption surpasses supply. During a bacterial infection, large numbers of neutrophils are consumed. Thus, from onset of infection to recovery, dynamic changes occur in WBC count and left shift data, reflecting the mild to serious condition of the bacterial infection. Although various stimuli in healthy and pathological conditions also cause left shift, a change as sudden and significant is only seen in bacterial infection. Left shift does not occur in the extremely early or late phases of infection; therefore, assessing data from a single time point is unsuitable for diagnosing a bacterial infection. We argue that time-series data of left shift and WBC count reflect real-time neutrophil consumption during the course of a bacterial infection, allowing more accurate evaluation of patient condition. PMID:27034055

  15. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. PMID:25691005

  16. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  17. Evaluation of white blood cell count as a possible prognostic marker for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There seems to be increasing evidence that inflammation leads to cancer. For several cancers, an association with white blood cell (WBC) count has been reported. So far, no studies have been performed for cancer of the oral cavity and WBC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to look at whether WBC count can be used as a prognostic marker for recurrence or metastases for oral cancer. Material and methods For 278 patients with oral cancer, the preoperative WBC count was compared with the clinicopathological information: age, gender, T-status, N-status, recurrence, metastases, follow-up time, and time till recurrence or metastases appeared. Results Out of 278 patients, 48 developed recurrence, 24 second tumors, 46 cervical metastases, and 14 distant metastases. The mean follow-up time was 35.97 months (range: 12-107 months). Significant Pearson correlation at the 0.05 level could be found for the T-status (0.046), but not for the N status (0.121). No significant correlation could be found between WBC count and the development of recurrence or metastases. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that elevated WBC count does not seem to be a predictor for recurrence or for further metastases. Further research is recommended to investigate the WBC count in precancerous lesions and in HPV positive patients with oral SCC. PMID:21352591

  18. A Biochip with a 3D microfluidic architecture for trapping white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anurag; Riddell, James; Chronis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We present a microfluidic biochip for trapping single white blood cells (WBCs). The novel biochip, microfabricated using standard surface micromachining processes, consists of an array of precisely engineered microholes that confine single cells in a tight, three dimensional space and mechanically immobilize them. A high (> 87%) trapping efficiency was achieved when WBC-containing samples were delivered to the biochip at the optimal pressure of 3 psi. The biochip can efficiently trap up to 7,500 cells, maintaining a high trapping efficiency even when the number of cells is extremely low (~200 cells). We believe that the developed biochip can be used as a standalone unit in a biology/clinical lab for trapping WBCs as well as other cell types and imaging them using a standard fluorescent microscope at the single cell level. Furthermore, it can be integrated with other miniaturized optical modules to construct a portable platform for counting a wide variety of cells and therefore it can be an excellent tool for monitoring human diseases at the point-of-care. PMID:23935241

  19. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase to White Blood Cell Count Ratio Predicting Postoperative Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yongqin; Liao, Yan; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-04-01

    Effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatectomy is urgently needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of the preoperative peripheral aspartate aminotransferase to white blood cell count ratio (AWR) for the prognostication of patients with HCC.Clinical data of 396 HCC patients who underwent radical hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the low-AWR group (AWR ≤5.2) and the high-AWR group (AWR >5.2); univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression were conducted, respectively.The results showed that AWR was associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor size, Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HCC. AWR > 5.2, AFP > 100 ng/mL, size of tumor >6 cm, number of multiple tumors, B-C of BCLC stage, PVTT, and distant metastasis were predictors of poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Except for recurrence, which was an independent predictor for OS only, AWR >5.2, size of tumor >6 cm, and PVTT were independent predictors of both DFS and OS.We concluded that preoperative AWR > 5.2 was an adverse predictor of DFS and OS in HCC after hepatectomy, AWR might be a novel prognostic biomarker in HCC after curative resection. PMID:27057915

  20. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Živković, Lada; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena; Milovanović, Ivan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells. PMID:26258163

  1. Segmentation of White Blood Cell from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Images Using Dual-Threshold Method

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yihui; Yao, Di

    2016-01-01

    We propose a dual-threshold method based on a strategic combination of RGB and HSV color space for white blood cell (WBC) segmentation. The proposed method consists of three main parts: preprocessing, threshold segmentation, and postprocessing. In the preprocessing part, we get two images for further processing: one contrast-stretched gray image and one H component image from transformed HSV color space. In the threshold segmentation part, a dual-threshold method is proposed for improving the conventional single-threshold approaches and a golden section search method is used for determining the optimal thresholds. For the postprocessing part, mathematical morphology and median filtering are utilized to denoise and remove incomplete WBCs. The proposed method was tested in segmenting the lymphoblasts on a public Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) image dataset. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than single-threshold approach independently performed in RGB and HSV color space and the overall single WBC segmentation accuracy reaches 97.85%, showing a good prospect in subsequent lymphoblast classification and ALL diagnosis. PMID:27313659

  2. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  3. Identification of squalamine in the plasma membrane of white blood cells in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2007-12-01

    It is well established that innate mechanisms play an important role in the immunity of fish. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from several species of teleosts. Here, we report the isolation of an antimicrobial compound from the blood of bacterially challenged sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. An acetic acid extract from the blood cells of challenged fish was subjected to solid-phase extraction, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the purified fractions assayed for antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, antimicrobial activity in these fractions originated from squalamine, an aminosterol previously identified in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the identity of squalamine, an antimicrobial and antiangiogenic agent, in the active fraction from the sea lamprey blood cells. Immunocytochemical analysis localized squalamine to the plasma membrane of white blood cells. Therefore, we postulate that squalamine has an important role in the innate immunity that defends the lamprey against microbial invasion. The full biochemical and immunological roles of squalamine in the white blood cell membrane remain to be investigated. PMID:17726196

  4. Issues on the Use of White Blood Cell Growth Factors in Oncology Practice.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Gary H

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate use of myeloid growth factors may reduce the risk of neutropenic complications including febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. The recently updated American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Guidelines on the Use of the White Blood Cell Growth Factors recommends routine prophylaxis with these agents starting in the first cycle when the risk of FN is 20% or greater. However, the risks for neutropenic complications and the risk of serious adverse consequences from FN vary considerably with different chemotherapy regimens as well as other disease-, treatment-, and patient-specific risk factors. Considerably more information is now available on the major risk factors for FN. Multivariable risk models combining factors look promising but require further validation. Most clinical studies of myeloid growth factor prophylaxis assessed relative risk (RR) of FN but were not powered to evaluate the effect of prophylaxis on disease-free or overall survival. Accumulating evidence suggests, however, that the appropriate use of these agents in selected patients may improve both short-term and long-term survival by reducing the immediate risk of mortality accompanying patients with high-risk disease developing FN as well as improving disease-free and overall survival by enabling the delivery of full dose intensity chemotherapy and reducing the risk of disease recurrence in patients treated with curative intent. Further studies to evaluate risk factors and models for FN are needed to guide clinical and shared decision making for the optimal personalized use of these agents and offer patients at increased risk the best chance of long-term disease control. PMID:27249763

  5. Comparison of quantitative autoradiographic and xenon-133 clearance methods: correlation of gray and white matter cerebral blood flow with compartmental blood flow indices

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, U.I.; Fitch, W.; Graham, D.I.; Mendelow, A.D.

    1986-08-01

    The relationships between CBF in gray and white matter to those of the fast and slow components of xenon-133 clearance curves remain uncertain. CBF was measured in 13 anaesthetized baboons under a variety of conditions, using both the xenon-133 clearance technique and (14C)iodoantipyrine quantitative autoradiography. There was a linear relationship between CBF, as determined by the stochastic (height/area) analysis of the clearance curve, and mean CBF determined from the autoradiograms (r = 0.94, p less than 0.001, slope = 0.86 +/- 0.09). There was also a linear correlation between the fast-flow component (measured with xenon-133) and blood flow in the cerebral gray matter (measured with (14C)iodoantipyrine) (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, slope = 0.69 +/- 0.15) and between the slow-flow component (with xenon-133) and blood flow in white matter (with (14C)iodoantipyrine) (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01, slope = 0.81 +/- 0.10). In the primate brain, the fast- and slow-flow indices therefore appear to be representative of CBF in gray matter and white matter, respectively, whereas the stochastic analysis provides a stable measure of mean CBF within the tissue monitored.

  6. [Blood vessels of the periodontium of incisors and molars of the lower jaw of the white rat].

    PubMed

    Varshavskiĭ, A I

    1985-12-01

    By means of injective and noninjective methods, the structural organization of the incisor and molar blood bed has been studied in the white rat mandible. For the periodontal blood bed, distinguishing by a pronounced organo-specificity, distribution of arterial and venous vessels between collagenous fiber bundles and a reticular arrangement of the capillaries is peculiar. A definite connection is clearly seen between angioarchitectonics of different segments of the periodontium, its structure and function. Unequal density of the capillary networks in the area of the epithelial dental organ and difference of the periodontal angioarchitectonics with the lingual and labial surfaces of the incisors are noted. The area of the epithelial dental organ, having a peculiar functional importance, is characterized by multiple pathways of blood inflow and outflow, by concentration of structural-functional adaptations which increase expansiveness, capacity and diffusive surface of metabolic microvessels, by a small critical thickness of the tissue layer between neighbouring capillaries. PMID:4091685

  7. Changes in winter depression phenotype correlate with white blood cell gene expression profiles: a combined metagene and gene ontology approach.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Fokko J; Terpstra, Peter; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; te Meerman, Gerard; Nolen, Willem A; Schoevers, Robert A; Meesters, Ybe

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we evaluate the feasibility of gene expression in white blood cells as a peripheral marker for winter depression. Sixteen patients with winter type seasonal affective disorder were included in the study. Blood was taken by venous puncture at three time points; in winter prior and following bright light therapy and in summer. RNA was isolated, converted into cRNA, amplified and hybridized on Illumina® gene expression arrays. The raw optical array data were quantile normalized and thereafter analyzed using a metagene approach, based on previously published Affymetrix gene array data. The raw data were also subjected to a secondary analysis focusing on circadian genes and genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission. Differences between the conditions were analyzed, using analysis of variance on the principal components of the metagene score matrix. After correction for multiple testing no statistically significant differences were found. Another approach uses the correlation between metagene factor weights and the actual expression values, averaged over conditions. When comparing the correlations of winter vs. summer and bright light therapy vs. summer significant changes for several metagenes were found. Subsequent gene ontology analyses (DAVID and GeneTrail) of 5 major metagenes suggest an interaction between brain and white blood cells. The hypothesis driven analysis with a smaller group of genes failed to demonstrate any significant effects. The results from the combined metagene and gene ontology analyses support the idea of communication between brain and white blood cells. Future studies will need a much larger sample size to obtain information at the level of single genes. PMID:25455571

  8. White blood cell DNA adducts and fruit and vegetable consumption in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Peluso, M; Airoldi, L; Magagnotti, C; Fiorini, L; Munnia, A; Hautefeuille, A; Malaveille, C; Vineis, P

    2000-02-01

    The 'Mediterranean diet', a diet rich in cereals, fruit and vegetables, has been associated with lowering the risk of a variety of cancers of the digestive tract and the bladder. In a previous study, we showed that the high phenolic content these dietary components produce in the urine could be associated with higher antimutagenic properties of the urine and lower arylamine-DNA adducts in exfoliated bladder cells. We have conducted a case-control study on 162 bladder cancer patients and 104 hospital controls. Total aromatic DNA adducts were measured in white blood cells (WBC) of all subjects by (32)P-post-labelling. Genetically based metabolic polymorphisms were analysed by PCR-RFLP (NAT2, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, COMT and NQO1). All subjects were interviewed about their tobacco use, dietary habits and other risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of bladder cancer according to the presence/absence of WBC DNA adducts (detection limit 0.1 RALx10(8)) was 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-6.3] and a dose-response relationship with levels of adducts was apparent. The association between case/control status and the presence of WBC DNA adducts was significantly stronger in the subjects who consumed fewer portions of fruit or vegetables per day (OR 7.80, 95% CI 3.0-20.30 for 0-1 portions of vegetables) than in the heavy consumers (OR 4.98 for consumers of 2 portions daily, OR 1.97 for consumers of > or =3 portions; similar but lower estimates were found for the intake of fruit). No association was noticed between tobacco smoking and WBC DNA adducts. Only NAT-2, among the several genotypes considered, was associated in a statistically significant way with the risk of bladder cancer (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03-2.87) and with the levels of WBC DNA adducts. Our report suggests that fruit and vegetables could protect against bladder cancer by inhibiting the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:10657956

  9. Metals fact sheet - indium

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    Indium is generally found in concentrations averaging 10 to 20 ppm in sphalerite and chalcopyrite ores associated with zinc, copper, lead and tin deposits. Indium is recovered as a by-product of base metal mining by open pit, underground and other methods. After the recovery of zinc by the electrolytic process (copper concentrate by flotation, and lead and tin by electrolysis), indium antimonide slimes left on the anode and the indium-containing spent electrolyte become the input material for the processing of indium. Sulfuric acid is combined with the residues and heated to form sulfates which are then leached with water to filter off the remaining tin, lead and antimony. The indium in solution is recovered by cementation on aluminum, washed, melted, and refined into a metal.

  10. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  12. Depletion Rates of Injected and Ingested Ivermectin from Blood Serum of Penned White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus Virginianus (Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion rates of ivermectin from blood serum of penned doe and buck white-tailed deer that were administered ivermectin both by direct subcutaneous injection and by ingestion of ivermectin-medicated whole kernel corn were determined by bi-weekly and weekly assays of sampled blood. No statistical ...

  13. Electrodeposition of Indium Bumps for Ultrafine Pitch Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingtao; Liu, Changqing; Hutt, David; Stevens, Bob

    2014-02-01

    Electroplating is a promising method to produce ultrafine pitch indium bumps for assembly of pixel detectors in imaging applications. In this work, the process of indium bumping through electrodeposition was demonstrated and the influences of various current waveforms on the bump morphology, microstructure and height uniformity were investigated. Electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of electroplated indium bumps and a Zygo white light interferometer was utilised to evaluate the height uniformity. The results indicated that the bump uniformities on wafer, pattern and feature scales were improved by using unipolar pulse and bipolar pulse reverse current waveforms.

  14. Work Status, Work Satisfaction, and Blood Pressure Among Married Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)

  15. Prognostic impact of white blood cell count in intermediate risk acute myeloid leukemia: relevance of mutated NPM1 and FLT3-ITD

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Hendrik J.M.; Valk, Peter J.M.; de Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Vellenga, Edo; Huls, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Background High white blood cell count at presentation is an unfavorable prognostic factor for treatment outcome in intermediate cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia. Since the impact of white blood cell count on outcome of subgroups defined by the molecular markers NPMc+ and FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) is unknown, we addressed this issue. Design and Methods We studied the effect of white blood cell count on outcome in a clinically and molecularly well-defined cohort of 525 patients with acute myeloid leukemia using these molecular markers. In addition, since an increased white blood cell count has been associated with an increased FLT3-ITD/FLT3 (wild-type) ratio, we investigated whether the effect of white blood cell count on outcome could be explained by the FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio. Results This analysis revealed that white blood cell count had no impact on outcome in patients with the genotypic combinations ‘NPMc+ without FLT3-ITD’ and ‘NPM1 wild-type with or without FLT3-ITD’. In contrast, white blood cell count had a significant impact on complete remission rate (P=0.034), event-free survival (P=0.009) and overall survival (P<0.001) in patients with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD’. A FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio greater than 1 was also associated with a reduced complete remission rate (P=0.066) and significantly reduced event-free survival (P= 0.001) and overall survival (P=0.001) in patients with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD’. Multivariable analysis revealed that white blood cell count and FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio were independent prognostic indicators for outcome in the subgroup with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD’. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that both high white blood cell count and FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio are prognostic factors in patients with acute myeloid leukemia with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD'. PMID:21606167

  16. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (p<0.05). CSP performed slightly better than FSP at inhibiting salmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. PMID:25624255

  17. Plasma cortisol and white blood cell responses in different breeds of bulls: a comparison of two methods of castration.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Larsen, R E; Randel, R D; Hammond, A C; Adams, E L

    1995-04-01

    To determine plasma cortisol and white blood cell response to castration, Angus (n = 12, 21.4 mo of age), Hereford (n = 6, 21.2 mo of age), and Brahman (n = 24, 20.3 mo of age) bulls nearing maturity were either left intact as uncastrated controls (CON), surgically castrated (SUR) after lidocaine, or castrated by latex rubber banding (BAN). Before and through 35 d after castration (castration = d 0), animals were weighed and blood samples were collected for analysis of cortisol and total white blood cell (WBC) count at 2-, 3-, or 7-d intervals. There was a treatment x breed interaction for ADG from d 0 to 7 (P < .05). From d 0 to 14, 0 to 21, 0 to 28, and 0 to 35, ADG tended to be lower for SUR and BAN animals than for CON animals (castrated vs CON, P < or = .13). No significant differences in ADG were observed between SUR and BAN animals during these times. On d 0, from just before treatment to just after treatment, plasma cortisol concentration increased 3.2 ng/mL for SUR and .1 ng/mL for BAN (SEM = +/- .5 ng/mL; SUR vs BAN, P < .03). From d 0 pretreatment to d 2 after treatment, plasma cortisol concentration increased 1.5 ng/mL for castrated (SUR = 2.0 and BAN = 1.1 ng/mL) and decreased 1.6 ng/mL for CON (SEM = +/- .7 ng/mL; P < .04). Plasma cortisol concentration was negatively correlated (P < .001) with BW (r = -.17) and BW change (r = -.19).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628975

  18. Method for labelling leucocytes with indium In-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, D.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an improved method for radio-labelling leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine. It comprises separating the leucocytes from whole blood for obtaining separated leucocytes mixed with residual red blood cells; and then labelling the separated leucocytes with Indium In-111 oxine; wherein the improvement comprises the following further step: depleting residual red blood cells from the separated leucocytes by resuspending the leucocytes in an isotonic saline solution, then rocking the resuspended leucocytes for causing the leucocytes to preferentially settle out, and then removing residual red blood cells which remain suspended within the supernatant isotonic saline solution.

  19. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  20. Estimating malaria parasite density: assumed white blood cell count of 10,000/μl of blood is appropriate measure in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background White blood cells count (WBCc) is a bedrock in the estimation of malaria parasite density in malaria field trials, interventions and patient management. White blood cells are indirectly and relatively used in microscopy to estimate the density of malaria parasite infections. Due to frequent lack of facilities in some malaria-endemic countries, in order to quantify WBCc of patients, an assumed WBCc of 8.0 X 10(9)/L has been set by the World Health Organization to help in estimating malaria parasite densities. Methods This comparative analysis study, in Central Ghana, compiled laboratory data of 5,902 Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite positive samples. Samples were obtained from consented participants of age groups less than five years. Full blood counts (FBC) of participants’ samples were analysed using the ABX Micros 60 Haematology Analyzer. Blood slides were read by two competent microscopists to produce concordant results. All internal and external quality control measures were carried out appropriately. Parasite densities were calculated using participants’ absolute WBCc and assumed WBCc of 5,000 to 10,000 per microlitre of blood. Results From the 5,902 Pf malaria positive samples, the mean (SD) WBCc and geometric mean parasite density were 10.4 (4.6) × 10(9)/L and 7,557/μL (95 % CI 7,144/μL to 7,994/μL) respectively. The difference in the geometric mean parasite densities calculated using absolute WBCs and compared to densities with assumed WBCs counts were significantly lower for 5.0 × 10(9)/L; 3,937/μL, 6.0 × 10(9)/L; 4,725/μL and 8.0 × 10(9)/L; 6,300/μL. However, the difference in geometric mean parasite density, 7,874/μL (95 % CI, 7,445/μL to 8,328/μL), with assumed WBCc of 10.0 × 10(9)/L was not significant. Conclusion Using the assumed WBCc of 8.0 X 10(9)/L or lower to estimate malaria parasite densities in Pf infected children less than five years old could result in significant underestimation of

  1. The effect of prenatal indium chloride exposure on chondrogenic ossification.

    PubMed

    Ungváry, G; Tátrai, E; Szakmáry, E; Náray, M

    2001-03-01

    Daily indium chloride doses of control (0) or 400 mg/kg were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by gavage, on d 20 of gestation. Indium concentration was determined in the maternal and fetal blood, livers, kidneys, skulls, and femurs by atomic absorption spectrometry. Further groups of pregnant rats were treated with control (0) or 400 mg/kg indium chloride orally, during the whole gestation period. The fetuses were examined on d 21 of gestation, using histological and histochemical methods. Four hours after the administration indium concentration was found to be significant in the blood, liver, and kidneys of the dams. Twenty-four hours later it increased in the blood but not in the liver and kidney. Fetal indium concentrations were 40-50% of the maternal levels due to a barrier of the placenta. In the skull and the femur, indium was already detectable at 4 h after the administration, and by the end of 24 h, metal concentration was several times higher than that at 4 h, indicating accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that the birefringency of collagen detectable by picrosirius red staining in polarized light around the chondrocytes disappeared and became irregular. In the matrix of the epiphyseal cartilage, the regular, birefringent network demonstrable by Rivanol reaction became irregular and hardly recognizable. In the cytoplasm of the chondrocytes, the diffuse, evenly distributed positive Ricinus communis agglutinin reaction became irregular or disappeared. Similar but much weaker changes were observed with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin stainings. It was concluded that the missing femur and micromelia diagnosed by alizarin staining is the consequence of a specific toxic effect of indium that inhibits chondrogenic ossification. No similar histochemical changes were observed in the bones of the skull developing by desmogenic ossification, despite the presence of indium. Data indicate that the mechanisms of the effects of indium

  2. A study of linkage relationships of blood group P with naked neck, silkie feathering, and recessive white in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bitgood, J J; Dochnahl, J; Schlafly, P; Briles, R W; Briles, W E

    1984-03-01

    Linkage relationships of blood group P (Ea-P), naked neck (Na), silkie feathering (h), and recessive white plumage (c) were studied to attempt to clarify the h-Na-Ea-P region of linkage group III of the chicken. The Na-Ea-P linkage values obtained in this test agreed with previous reports, and pooled data were used to recalculate a map distance of 27.9 +/- 2.3 map units between these two loci. A significant chi square for linkage was calculated between Na and c; however, because of the relatively low numbers of progeny tested, the high linkage value calculated, and the absence of detectable linkage between c and the other marker genes, this was probably a chance deviation. All other linkage relationships appeared negative, supporting the current suggested linear order of these loci as h-Na-Ea-P with c not being in this chromosomal region. PMID:6718311

  3. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  4. Cilostazol reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction, white matter lesion formation and motor deficits following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Edrissi, Hamidreza; Schock, Sarah C; Cadonic, Robert; Hakim, Antoine M; Thompson, Charlie S

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a pathological process leading to lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis and cerebral microbleeds. Dysfunction of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression cerebral small vessel disease. A rodent model commonly used to study some aspects of CSVD is bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in the rat. In the present study it was determined that gait impairment, as determined by a tapered beam test, and BBB permeability increased following BCCAO. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to have anti-apoptotic effects and prevent white matter vacuolation and rarefaction induced by BCCAO in rats. In this study the protective effect of cilostazol administration on the increase BBB permeability following BCCAO was determined as well as the effect on plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs), cerebral white matter rarefaction, glial activation and gait disturbance. The effect of cilostazol on in vitro endothelial barriers was also evaluated. Cilostazol treatment improved BBB permeability and reduced gait disturbance, visual impairment and microglial activation in optic tract following BCCAO in vivo. It also reduced the degree of cell death and the reduction in trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in artificial endothelial barriers in vitro induced by MP treatment of in vitro barriers. PMID:27350079

  5. Blood volume increase in salt-induced pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and ascites in broiler and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Mirsalimi, S M; O'Brien, P J; Julian, R J

    1993-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that excess dietary salt produces an expansion of extracellular fluid volume which may be associated with pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure in chickens with rapid growth rates. One-week-old broiler and White Leghorn chickens were given 0.5% salt in their drinking water for three weeks. Saline water had a minimal effect on White Leghorns. The hypothesis appears to be correct since salt-treatment in broilers resulted in up to 30% expansion in blood volume and there was 50% mortality from pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure and ascites. There was marked (up to 88% in some broilers) right ventricular hypertrophy, an indicator of pulmonary hypertension. There was less left ventricular hypertrophy as shown by an increase in the ratio of the right to total ventricle weight. There was up to 32% decrease in growth rate. There was renal hypertrophy in the salt-treated birds as shown by a higher kidney to body weight ratio. PMID:8490804

  6. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. Results White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (p<0.0001 for all). Conclusions Both white blood cell counts and NLR can be used as a simple test in the diagnosis of testicular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). PMID:27136467

  7. Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56+ APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 109/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56+ APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. PMID:24206578

  8. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  9. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Madden, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  10. The infectious risks in blood transfusion as of today - A no black and white situation.

    PubMed

    Garraud, Olivier; Filho, Luiz Amorim; Laperche, Syria; Tayou-Tagny, Claude; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion has been tainted with the risk of contracting an infection - often severe - and fears about this risk are still prevailing, in sharp contrast with the actual risk in Western countries. Those actual risks are rather immunological, technical (overload) or metabolic. Meanwhile, in developing countries and particularly in Africa, transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) are still frequent, because of both the scarcity of volunteer blood donors and resources and the high incidence and prevalence of infections. Global safety of blood components has been declared as a goal to be attained everywhere by the World Heath Organization (WHO). However, this challenge is difficult to meet because of several intricate factors, of which the emergence of infectious agents, low income and breaches in sanitation and hygiene. This review aims at encompassing the situation of TTIs in different settings and means that can be deployed to improve the situation where this can possibly be. PMID:27476017

  11. DNA damage and repair in white blood cells at occupational exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, R. T.; Zaharieva, E. K.; Rupova, I. M.; Acheva, A. R.; Nikolov, V. N.

    2008-02-01

    : The present work was aimed at finding appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals and/or population in order to prove low dose effects. Blood samples were taken from NPP workers, in the 'strict regimen' area (exposed group) and from the administration staff (control group). The spontaneous and induced (exposed to a challenge dose of 2,0 Gy gamma irradiation) DNA repair synthesis in leucocytes, the level of DNA damage by single cell gel-electrophoresis in lymphocytes and the concentration of malonedialdehyde in blood serum, were analyzed. A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage in leucocytes as well as reduction of DNA double strand breaks level in lymphocytes of persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/a was found, compared to the control group. A higher repair capacity corresponding to elevated protein synthesis after a challenging dose of 2,0 Gy gamma rays and a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress in the blood plasma were established in persons from the same group. The present investigation showed that annual doses not higher than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase cellular resistance and decrease oxidative stress.

  12. Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions in Large White pigs selected for higher peripheral blood immune capacity.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takafumi; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-05-01

    Immunogenic properties and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesions were compared between the immunity-selected Large White line and the non-selected Large White line. The selected Large White line showed a higher level of pulmonary MPS lesions compared with the non-selected Large White line. Subsequent to vaccination, the percentage of natural killer cells and T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) T cells) were significantly increased in the non-selected line but remained unchanged in the immunity-selected Large White line. Secretion of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine-specific immunoblogulin G and phagocyte activity in peripheral blood were significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 messenger RNA in hilar lymph nodes was significantly lower in the immunity-selected Large White line than in the non-selected line. However, expression of IL-10 in all immune tissues was significantly higher in the immunity-selected Large White line. These results suggest that the selection for high immunity was not effective in increasing resistance to MPS lung lesions. PMID:26388420

  13. White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project

    PubMed Central

    Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein

  14. Image segmentation and classification of white blood cells with the extreme learning machine and the fast relevance vector machine.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, S

    2016-05-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes are an important part of the body's defense against infectious organisms and foreign substances. WBC segmentation is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. The standard ELM classification techniques are used for WBC segmentation. The generalization performance of the ELM classifier has not achieved the maximum nearest accuracy of image segmentation. This paper gives a novel technique for WBC detection based on the fast relevance vector machine (Fast-RVM). Firstly, astonishingly sparse relevance vectors (RVs) are obtained while fitting the histogram by RVM. Next, the relevant required threshold value is directly sifted from these limited RVs. Finally, the entire connective WBC regions are segmented from the original image. The proposed method successfully works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the effects brought about by illumination and staining. To achieve the maximum accuracy of the RVM classifier, we design a search for the best value of the parameters that tune its discriminant function, and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Therefore, this proposed RVM method effectively works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the computational time and preserves the images. PMID:25707440

  15. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia. PMID:26802490

  16. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts. PMID:27602221

  17. Plasma infusions into porcine cerebral white matter induce early edema, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and DNA fragmentation: implications for white matter injury with increased blood-brain-barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kenneth R; Dean, Christopher; Beiler, Shauna; Bryan, David W; Packard, Benjamin A; Smulian, A George; Linke, Michael J; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M

    2005-04-01

    Plasma infused into porcine cerebral white matter induces both acute interstitial and delayed vasogenic edema. Edematous white matter contains extracellular plasma proteins and rapidly induces oxidative stress as evidenced by increased protein carbonyl formation and heme oxygenase-1 induction. We tested the hypothesis that edematous white matter would also upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and develop DNA damage. We infused autologous plasma into the frontal hemispheric white matter of pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. We monitored and controlled physiological variables and froze brains in situ at 1, 4 or 24 hrs. We determined edema volumes by computer-assisted morphometry. We measured white matter protein carbonyl formation by immunoblotting, cytokine gene expression by standard RT-PCR methods and DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis. White matter edema developed acutely (1 hr) after plasma infusion and increased significantly in volume between 4 and 24 hrs. Protein carbonyl formation also occurred rapidly in edematous white matter with significant elevations (3 to 4-fold) already present at 1 hr. This increase remained through 24 hrs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression was also rapidly increased at 1 hr post-infusion. Evidence for DNA fragmentation began at 2 to 4 hrs, and a pattern indicative of both ongoing necrosis and apoptosis was robust by 24 hrs. Plasma protein accumulation in white matter induces acute edema development and a cascade of patho-chemical events including oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and DNA damage. These results suggest that in diseases with increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability or following intracerebral hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury, interstitial plasma can rapidly damage white matter. PMID:16181107

  18. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26130946

  19. Preoperative preparation of the patient with the abnormalities of red and white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Tomin, Dragica

    2011-01-01

    The complete peripheral blood count analysis including laboratory screening tests of haemostasis and coagulation should be done in every patient before surgery, in order to detect specific abnormalities for primary or secundary haematologic disorder. These abnormalities might be very important course of perioperative and postoperative complications. Anaemia is the most frequent haematologic abnormality seen during preoperative period. Therapy approach depends on the type and anaemia degree, and also on the type and time of surgery. If surgery is not urgent specific therapy according to the anaemia type (iron therapy, vitamin B12, folic acid, corticosteroids, recombinant erythropoietin) should be given in all anaemias with deficiency of iron, megaloblastic anaemias, acquired haemolytic anaemias and anaemias in end stage renal disease. Transfusion of red cells are most frequently given in patients with normovolemic anaemias with haemoglobin level of 10.0 g/dl and hematocrit of 0.30, but lower levels in haemodynamic stable patients. Venesections should be done in patients with erythrocytosis in order to reduce total red cell volume, but taking into account the perioperative bleeding. Patients with leukocyte abnormalities suspected on primary haematologic disorder need urgent haematologic diagnostic procedures. In patients with leucocytosis the actual level of neutropenia is the bigger problem than the level of leucocytosis. In those patients treatment generally involves preventing infections, managing of febrile neutropenia with broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal drugs, treatment with recombinant granulocyte hematopoetic factor, rarely transfusions of granulocyte concentrates and intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:21879654

  20. White blood cells and cortisol after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Heiser, P; Dickhaus, B; Schreiber, W; Clement, H W; Hasse, C; Hennig, J; Remschmidt, H; Krieg, J C; Wesemann, W; Opper, C

    2000-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has enriched our treatment programme for major depression. SD has been demonstrated to modify different host defence activities. There is some evidence that there are reciprocal relationships between immune function and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in depression. We therefore investigated the number of leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, B cells, T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and salivary cortisol in 10 healthy men before and after total SD (TSD) as well as after recovery sleep. Blood samples were drawn on 3 consecutive days at 7 am, 1 pm and 7 pm, respectively. Comparison of the 7 am values by contrast analysis yielded significant differences for granulocytes (p = 0.044) and NK cells (p = 0.001) after SD and recovery sleep. NK cells decreased and granulocytes increased after SD and after recovery sleep. Significant differences between single points in time across the day were found for granulocytes (p = 0.022), monocytes (p = 0.031), T cells (p = 0.005), helper T cells (p = 0.004), cytotoxic T cells (p = 0.005) and NK cells (p = 0.017). No significant difference could be detected for leukocytes, lymphocytes and B cells counts. These results favour the thesis that SD and recovery sleep lead to changes in the distribution of peripheral leukocytes, especially in a reduction of NK cells after SD and recovery sleep. The cortisol rhythm was affected neither by SD nor recovery sleep. PMID:10738860

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  2. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 μg/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  3. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, David R; McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C; Crane, Paul K; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B; Carlson, Chris S; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-04-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e-55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy-/-). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn's disease. PMID:22037903

  4. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M; Purdue, Mark P; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H Dean; Bassig, Bryan A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex qPCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis [OR (95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24 (0.90-1.71); 1.27 (0.91-1.78); and 1.86 (1.33-2.62); P trend = 0.000022]. Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length [OR (95% CI)] in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41 (1.28-4.52), 2.16 (1.11-4.23), and 3.02(1.39-6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than 6 years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations. PMID:24853549

  5. Indium sealing techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U.; Haldemann, P.

    1972-01-01

    Gold films are used as an alloying flux to form 5-micron-thick indium film seals at temperatures below 300 C. Pyrex was sealed to quartz, ULE, CER-VIT, Irtran 2, Ge, GaAs, Invar, Kovar, Al, and Cu. The seals can also be used as current feedthroughs and graded seals.

  6. Aqueous sol-gel routes to conducting films of indium oxide and indium-tin-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Carole C.; McGiveron, J. K.; Harrison, Philip G.

    2000-05-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) are of interest because of their high transparency and low electrical resistivity. Applications include use as electrodes for liquid crystal display and as heat mirrors for solar energy devices. We have developed totally aqueous routes to indium oxide (IO) and ITO materials because, (1) the particulate sols afford a longer shelf life than for alkoxyide derived materials, (2) organics do not have to be removed from the films by baking, and (3) the starting materials are cheaper than the corresponding alkoxides. Indium and mixed indium/tin sols have been prepared form inorganic solutions and treated with alkali to produce white thixotropic sols ca. 0.64 in Mz+ ions. This films were prepared by spinning on low iron or pure silica slides previously cleaned with DECON and washed with distilled water. Films were subsequently heated at 773K in air, or 1173K in air or nitrogen. The film with the lowest resistivity contained ca. 5 percent Sn and had an average optical transmittance between 400 and 600nm of 95 percent. The film was non-porous, smooth in texture, approximately 300nm thick and had a band gap energy of 3.22eV.

  7. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  8. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with indium-111 oxine labeled white blood cells and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p < 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attentuation coefficient of the medullary cavities of the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  9. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  10. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  11. Labeling of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes with indium-111: a new method for the quantitation of in-vivo accumulation of PMNLs in rabbit skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wahba, A.V.; Barnes, B.; Lazarus, G.S.

    1984-02-01

    A precise method for quantitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation in skin in vivo, has been developed so that the proinflammatory effects of various agents can be compared. This method can also be used to evaluate the effect of therapeutic agents on PMNL accumulation in vivo. Rabbit PMNLs were purified from heparinized blood by dextran sedimentation, hypotonic lysis, and separation on Ficoll-Hypaque. The PMNLs were labeled with 3-5 microCi per 10(6) cells of /sup 111/In oxine and reinfused coincidentally with different concentrations of different chemotactic and proinflammatory materials injected intradermally into the back. In some experiments, varying concentrations of acetic acid were applied topically. Four to 18 hours later, the rabbits were sacrificed. Eight-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained from the injection sites and counted in a gamma counter. The number of PMNLs infiltrating the dermis was also quantitated in histologic sections. A significant correlation was found between the percent increase in radioactivity and the percent increase in PMNL accumulation morphologically. Dose-response curves were generated using such proinflammatory materials as formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, activated serum, trypsin, glycogen, and acetic acid. These curves were highly reproducible from animal to animal. Using this assay, we found that as little as 1 microgram of trypsin induced detectable PMNL accumulation. This is 2-3 logs more sensitive than injecting mice intraperitoneally with trypsin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactivation of trypsin inhibited PMNL accumulation. This sensitive and quantitative bioassay of PMNL accumulation permits evaluation of multiple agents in the same animal, which decreases animal to animal variation.

  12. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Yun, H. M.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05) and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05) and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05) on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  13. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  14. Simultaneous determination of CRP and D-dimer in human blood plasma samples with White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koukouvinos, Georgios; Petrou, Panagiota; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Drygiannakis, Dimitris; Raptis, Ioannis; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Martini, Spyridoula; Nikita, Dimitra; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-10-15

    A dual-analyte assay for the simultaneous determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in human blood plasma based on a white light interference spectroscopy sensing platform is presented. Measurement is accomplished in real-time by scanning the sensing surface, on which distinct antibody areas have been created, with a reflection probe used both for illumination of the surface and collection of the reflected interference spectrum. The composition of the transducer, the sensing surface chemical activation and biofunctionalization procedures were optimized with respect to signal magnitude and repeatability. The assay format involved direct detection of CRP whereas for D-dimer a two-site immunoassay employing a biotinylated reporter antibody and reaction with streptavidin was selected. The assays were sensitive with detection limits of 25ng/mL for both analytes, precise with intra- and inter-assay CV values ranging from 3.6% to 7.7%, and from 4.8% to 9.5%, respectively, for both assays, and accurate with recovery values ranging from 88.5% to 108% for both analytes. Moreover, the values determined for the two analytes in 35 human plasma samples were in excellent agreement with those received for the same samples by standard diagnostic laboratory instrumentation employing commercial kits. The excellent agreement of the results supported the validity of the proposed system for clinical application for the detection of multiple analytes since it was demonstrated that up to seven antibody areas can be created on the sensing surface and successfully interrogated with the developed optical set-up. PMID:26675113

  15. Effects of Bak Foong Pills and Menoease Pills on white blood cell distribution in old age female rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alice Lok Sze; Gou, Yu Lin; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Bak Foong Pills (BFP) and the new BFP-derived post-menopause formula, Menoease Pills (MBFP), on the distribution of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) between BFP/MBFP-treated and non-treated rats. Eighteen months old female SD rats were used to mimic post-menopausal and old age animal models. The percentage distribution of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were measured using flow cytometry with and without treatments of BFP or MBFP. Results showed that WBC distribution in old age rats were significantly different from that of adult rats, suggesting that as the animal aged, their WBC distributions were altered. Old age rats were observed to have much lower percentages of lymphocytes, but higher percentages of granulocytes when compared to the adult rats, indicating possible attenuated immunity. Following treatment with BFP or MBFP, WBC populations were found to be redistributed back into the ranges observed in adult animals. Furthermore, MBFP, was found to alter WBC distribution in a dose-dependent manner. When compared to estrogen (E(2)), a well documented regulator of immune function, results showed that MBFP was able to show significantly greater effects on WBC redistribution compared to E(2). However, in ovariectomised (ovx) old age rats, neither MBFP nor E(2) treated groups showed any changes in WBC redistribution. These results indicate that MBFP may share similarities to E(2). Indeed, the effect of MBFP and E(2) seems to require intact ovaries, which are believed to be necessary for the modulation of WBC distributions and immune functions. Overall, our findings suggest that BFP and MBFP may be able to regulate WBC population in old age female rats, and thus, indicate their potential role on improving the attenuated immunity evident in post-menopausal and elderly women. PMID:14646184

  16. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  17. Evaluation of the contribution of red and white cells to the flow of suspensions of washed blood cells through 3 micron Nuclepore membranes.

    PubMed

    Jones, J G; Holland, B M; Humphrys, J; Quew, R; Wardrop, C A

    1984-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate a method of analysis which can quantitate the contribution of white cells to the flow of washed suspensions of blood cells. Such an analysis would obviate the need to remove white cells when studying the filterability of normal and abnormal red cells. The flow of suspensions of washed blood cells through a 3 micron Nuclepore membrane declines continually due to the occlusion of pores and the degree of pore occlusion is reduced significantly by the removal of the 'buffy coat' during the preparation of the suspension. These findings are in complete agreement with many other reports. However, a detailed kinetic analysis of the results suggests strongly that the white cell population makes a small contribution to the degree of pore occlusion which is caused largely by approximately 1% of the total red cell population. Despite the phenomenon and extent of pore occlusion, a kinetic analysis of the complete non-linear flow profile allows a measure of the deformability of red cells from filtration studies of washed but unfractionated blood cells. PMID:6743566

  18. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  19. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  20. White Blood Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  1. Genome-wide identification of quantitative trait transcripts for blood traits in the liver samples of a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pan; Cui, Leilei; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng; Duan, Yanyu

    2016-08-01

    Blood cell counts are important clinical indicators for health status. The liver plays a crucial role in food digestion and metabolism and is also a blood-forming organ. Here, we conducted a whole-genome quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analysis on 497 liver samples for 16 hematological traits in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts were explored to detect their association with hematological traits. By using Spearman correlation coefficients, we identified 1,267 QTTs for these 16 hematological traits at the significance threshold of P < 0.001. We found 31 candidate genes for erythrocyte and leukocyte-related traits by a look-up of human and pig genome-wide association study results. Furthermore, we constructed coexpression networks for leukocyte-related QTTs using weighted gene coexpression analysis. These QTTs were clustered into two to eight modules. The highest connection strength in intramodules was identified in a module for white blood cell count. In the module, USP18, RSAD2, and OAS1 appeared to be important genes involved in interferon-stimulated innate immune system. The findings improve our understanding of intrinsic relationships between the liver and blood cells and provide novel insights into the potential therapeutic targets of hematologic diseases. PMID:27260842

  2. Breeding near a landfill may influence blood metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, Zn) and metalloids (Se, As) in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Hernández-Moreno, David; Castellano, Antonio; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, zinc and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from 59 free-ranging white stork nestlings from colonies located in three different environmental conditions in Western Spain. The reference colony was situated in "Llanos de Cáceres y Sierra de Fuentes", an Area of Special Interest for Bird Protection. A second colony was located close to (4.9 km) an urban landfill and a third one was close to both an intensive agricultural area and an urban landfill (1.5 km). Blood samples were diluted and elemental analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. In all cases, the essential metals zinc and iron were found at the highest mean concentrations followed by lead > selenium > mercury > arsenic > cadmium. Regarding toxic metals, the highest concentrations were found for lead (ranging from 23.27 to 146.4 µg/L) although in all cases the concentrations were lower than those considered to cause subclinical effects. The metals levels detected in the chick's blood were not related to the previously reported levels in the soil next to the colonies, which may indicate that landfills are the main source of metals in white stork nestlings. The present data showed that metal levels in white stork chicks may be influenced by the use of landfills as feeding areas by the parents. However, more studies on the metal content in the feed of white stork and the influence of the distance to the landfill are necessary to establish the causality of these findings. PMID:25011922

  3. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. PMID:27343753

  4. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48) and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94). Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010) and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p < 0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (55 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 1 mg/dl, p = 0.031) as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600) and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index < 600). Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 2166 ± 86 vs. 827 ± 62 pg/ml, p = 0.005) than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437). In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p < 0.001) or light (6829 ± 352/μl, p = 0.001) smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl). There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158). Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male

  5. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  6. Correlation of serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and neutrophil percentage with histopathology findings in acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC) and Neutrophil percentage (NP) in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings. Materials and methods This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP. Results The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5%) patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5%) patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%). The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%), whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%). Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2%) had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of inflammation (p

  7. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  8. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Caloric Restriction or Exercise on DNA and RNA Oxidation Levels in White Blood Cells and Urine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Tim; Fontana, Luigi; Weiss, Edward P.; Villareal, Dennis; Malayappan, Bhaskar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Excessive adiposity is associated with increased oxidative stress and accelerated aging. Weight loss induced by negative energy balance reduces markers of oxidation in experimental animals and humans. The long-term effects of weight loss induced by calorie restriction or increased energy expenditure induced by exercise on measures of oxidative stress and damage have not been studied in humans. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of 20% caloric restriction or 20% exercise alone over 1 year on oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, as assessed through white blood cell and urine analyses. Eighteen men and women aged 50 to 60 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 23.5 to 29.9 kg/m2 were assigned to one of two conditions — 20% CR (n = 9) or 20% EX (n = 9) — which was designed to produce an identical energy deficit through increased energy expenditure. Compared to baseline, both interventions significantly reduced oxidative damage to both DNA (48.5% and 49.6% reduction for the CR and EX groups, respectively) and RNA (35.7% and 52.1% reduction for the CR and EX groups, respectively) measured in white blood cells. However, urinary levels of DNA and RNA oxidation products did not differ from baseline values following either 12-month intervention program. Data from the present study provide evidence that negative energy balances induced through either CR or EX result in substantial and similar improvements in markers of DNA and RNA damage to white blood cells, potentially by reducing systemic oxidative stress. PMID:18729811

  10. Rapid Buildup of Brain White Matter Hyperintensities Over 4 Years Linked to Ambulatory Blood Pressure, Mobility, Cognition, and Depression in Old Persons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with functional decline in older people. We performed a 4-year cohort study examining progression of WMH, its effects on mobility, cognition, and depression with the role of clinic and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure as a predisposing factor. Methods. Ninety-nine subjects, 75–89 years were stratified by age and mobility, with the 67 completing 4-years comprising the cohort. Mobility, cognition, depressive symptoms, and ambulatory blood pressure were assessed, and WMH volumes were determined by quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images. Results. WMH increased from 0.99±0.98% of intracranial cavity volume at baseline to 1.47±1.2% at 2 years and 1.74±1.30% after 4 years. Baseline WMH was associated with 4-year WMH (p < .0001), explaining 83% of variability. Small, but consistent mobility decrements and some evidence of cognitive decline were noted over 4 years. Regression analyses using baseline and 4-year WMHs were associated with three of five mobility measures, two of four cognitive measures and the depression scale, all performed at 4 years. Increases in ambulatory systolic blood pressure but not clinic systolic blood pressure during the initial 2 years were associated with greater WMH accrual during those years, while ambulatory systolic blood pressure was related to WMH at 4 years. Conclusion. Declines in mobility, cognition, and depressive symptoms were related to WMH accrual over 4 years, and WMH was related to out-of-office blood pressure. This suggests that prevention of microvascular disease, even in asymptomatic older persons, is fundamental for preserving function. There may be value in tighter 24-hour blood pressure control in older persons although this requires further investigation. PMID:23766429

  11. Studies of indium amides and nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, A.P.; Berry, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    A reaction between InI{sub 3} and 3 eq. of KNH{sub 2} in liquid NH{sub 3} forms indium(III) amide (In(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}) a white, nearly insoluble compound. Indium(III) amide readily combines with KNH{sub 2} in liquid NH{sub 3} to form the mixed metal amide K{sub 2}In(NH{sub 2}){sub 5}. Other potassium and sodium derivatives MxIn(NH{sub 2}){sub 3+x} derivatives were prepared in a similar manner, but not all were obtained pure in the solid state. An impure tri-lithium derivative (Li{sub 3}In(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}) was obtained by adding a KNH{sub 2} solution (6 eq) to a solution of InI{sub 3} and 3 eq of LiI. Pyrolysis (in vacuo 25-300{degrees}C, under N{sub 2} 300-400{degrees}C) of In(NH{sub 2}){sub 3} or MxIn(NH{sub 2}){sub x+3} (M = Na, K) to 400{degrees}C results in the formation of InN, but indium metal is also formed from some of the mixed metal amides. The product from thermal decomposition of Li{sub 3}In(NH{sub 2}){sub 6} under vacuum was tentatively identified as the ternary nitride Li{sub 3}InN{sub 2}. Products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and powder x-ray diffraction experiments.

  12. L-Carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) affect red and white blood cells in aged Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Alois; Dedoyard, Anne; Lohninger, Alfred; Niedermüller, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation with either L-carnitine or DHEAS was separately suggested to counteract age-related declines. However, little is known about any interactive effects of these substances, independently promoting mitochondrial energy metabolism, in older individuals. We thus studied the effects of 3 months of daily oral combined supplementation with LCLT and DHEAS on red (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) in male Sprague-Dawley rats by determining RBC and WBC counts, lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis in spleen lymphocytes after Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation. Supplementation with LCLT in addition to DHEAS decreased RBCs and increased platelets in the blood of 25-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas supplementation with DHEAS alone shifted the balance from segmented neutrophile granulocytes to large lymphocytes in differential WBC counts. Based on these results, interactive effects of supplementation with L-carnitine and DHEAS on RBCs and platelets are suggested. PMID:16930745

  13. Effects of sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) lipids on white adipose tissue weight and blood glucose in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Nana; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Halocynthia roretzi contain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of H. roretzi lipids on white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and high blood glucose levels in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. H. roretzi lipids were fed to the diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice for 5 weeks. In the mice treated with the H. roretzi lipids compared to control mice, WAT weight was reduced, blood glucose levels and leptin mRNA expression in the epididymal WAT were significantly decreased, serum leptin levels also tended to decrease, and serum adiponectin levels tended to increase. These results demonstrate that H. roretzi lipids have beneficial health effects on diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. PMID:21472260

  14. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  15. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  16. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  17. Large-Scale Exome-wide Association Analysis Identifies Loci for White Blood Cell Traits and Pleiotropy with Immune-Mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Hill, W David; Kacprowski, Tim; Li, Jin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Manichaikul, Ani; Mihailov, Evelin; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Pankratz, Nathan; Pazoki, Raha; Polfus, Linda M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Schurmann, Claudia; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Waterworth, Dawn M; Evangelou, Evangelos; Yanek, Lisa R; Burt, Amber; Chen, Ming-Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Floyd, James S; Greinacher, Andreas; Harris, Tamara B; Highland, Heather M; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Yongmei; Mägi, Reedik; Nalls, Mike A; Mathias, Rasika A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Nikus, Kjell; Starr, John M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wallentin, Lars; Bartz, Traci M; Becker, Lewis C; Denny, Joshua C; Raffield, Laura M; Rioux, John D; Friedrich, Nele; Fornage, Myriam; Gao, He; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Liewald, David C M; Rich, Stephen S; Uitterlinden, Andre; Bastarache, Lisa; Becker, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Denus, Simon; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Lange, Ethan; Launer, Lenore J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yingchang; Metspalu, Andres; O'Donnell, Chris J; Quarells, Rakale C; Richard, Melissa; Torstenson, Eric S; Taylor, Kent D; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Zonderman, Alan B; Crosslin, David R; Deary, Ian J; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Evans, Michele K; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kähönen, Mika; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Slater, Andrew J; Dehghan, Abbas; White, Harvey D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Loos, Ruth J F; Esko, Tõnu; Faraday, Nauder; Wilson, James G; Cushman, Mary; Johnson, Andrew D; Edwards, Todd L; Zakai, Neil A; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alex P; Auer, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    White blood cells play diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic association analyses of phenotypic variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts from large samples of otherwise healthy individuals can provide insights into genes and biologic pathways involved in production, differentiation, or clearance of particular WBC lineages (myeloid, lymphoid) and also potentially inform the genetic basis of autoimmune, allergic, and blood diseases. We performed an exome array-based meta-analysis of total WBC and subtype counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) in a multi-ancestry discovery and replication sample of ∼157,622 individuals from 25 studies. We identified 16 common variants (8 of which were coding variants) associated with one or more WBC traits, the majority of which are pleiotropically associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on functional annotation, these loci included genes encoding surface markers of myeloid, lymphoid, or hematopoietic stem cell differentiation (CD69, CD33, CD87), transcription factors regulating lineage specification during hematopoiesis (ASXL1, IRF8, IKZF1, JMJD1C, ETS2-PSMG1), and molecules involved in neutrophil clearance/apoptosis (C10orf54, LTA), adhesion (TNXB), or centrosome and microtubule structure/function (KIF9, TUBD1). Together with recent reports of somatic ASXL1 mutations among individuals with idiopathic cytopenias or clonal hematopoiesis of undetermined significance, the identification of a common regulatory 3' UTR variant of ASXL1 suggests that both germline and somatic ASXL1 mutations contribute to lower blood counts in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. These association results shed light on genetic mechanisms that regulate circulating WBC counts and suggest a prominent shared genetic architecture with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27346689

  18. Evaluation of Blood Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium Bovis in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. However, foci of higher TB prevalence on private land, and limited agency ability to eliminate them ...

  19. Long-term effects of bleached kraft mill effluents on red and white blood cell status, ion balance, and vertebral structure in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Haerdig, J.A.; Andersson, T.; Bengtsson, B.E.; Foerlin, L.L.; Larsson, A.

    1988-02-01

    In a laboratory investigation fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) were exposed for 5-9 months to wastewater from pine and birch lines from a bleached kraft pulp plant. This long-term exposure to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) affected the hematology, the ion balance, and the vertebral structure. Decreased values for hematocrit and hemoglobin and a reduced red blood cell count, as well as increased levels of methemoglobin, indicated disturbances in the red blood cell status. The white blood cell picture was not significantly affected by the BKME exposure. Decreased levels of potassium and chloride ions in the blood plasma in some of the exposed fish suggest an impaired ability to maintain ion homeostasis. Elevated frequencies of vertebral deformations in fish exposed to BKME confirm previous observations of vertebral damage in feral fourhorn sculpin caught in the receiving body of water of the same bleached kraft pulp industry. Many of the parameters analyzed in this investigation may be used as health indicators in future laboratory and field studies on fish exposed to BKME.

  20. Establishment of the model of white blood cell membrane chromatography and screening of antagonizing TLR4 receptor component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiqin; He, Langchong

    2006-04-01

    A model of white blood cell membrane chromatography (WB-CMC) was established to screen active component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. The component can antagonize Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibit inflammatory reaction. In the model of WB-CMC, cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing the rabbit white blood cell membrane (WBCM) onto the surface of silica carrier and taxinol was used as a model molecule. The active component which can act on WBCM and its receptor (such as TLR4) as an effective target in A. macrocephala was determined by using a replacement experiment. The anti-inflammatory effects of the active component were tested by using pharmacological methods in vivo. The results indicated that the retention characteristics of atractylenolide I as active component was similar to that of taxinol in the model of WB-CMC. And so, atractylenolide I acted on the WBCM and TLR4 and its anti-inflammatory activity was related with antagonizing TLR4. Therefore, the interaction between the active component and WBCM and its receptor can be simulated by the model of WB-CMC in vitro. This model can be used to screen active components and to study effective characteristics for acting on definite targets. PMID:16704122

  1. Indium Second-Surface Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Hasegawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    Second-surface mirrors are formed by vapor deposition of indium onto glass. Mirrors have reflectances comparable to those of ordinary silver or aluminized mirrors and are expected to show superior corrosion resistance. Mirrors may be used in solar concentrators.

  2. Optimizing galvanic pulse plating parameters to improve indium bump to bump bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan J.; Rowen, Adam; Mani, Seethambal S.; Yelton, W. Graham; Arrington, Christian; Gillen, Rusty; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Okerlund, Daniel; Ionescu, Adrian

    2010-02-01

    The plating characteristics of a commercially available indium plating solution are examined and optimized to help meet the increasing performance demands of integrated circuits requiring substantial numbers of electrical interconnections over large areas. Current fabrication techniques rely on evaporation of soft metals, such as indium, into lift-off resist profiles. This becomes increasingly difficult to accomplish as pitches decrease and aspect ratios increase. To minimize pixel dimensions and maximize the number of pixels per unit area, lithography and electrochemical deposition (ECD) of indium has been investigated. Pulse ECD offers the capability of improving large area uniformity ideal for large area device hybridization. Electrochemical experimentation into lithographically patterned molds allow for large areas of bumps to be fabricated for low temperature indium to indium bonds. The galvanic pulse profile, in conjunction with the bath configuration, determines the uniformity of the plated array. This pulse is manipulated to produce optimal properties for hybridizing arrays of aligned and bonded indium bumps. The physical properties of the indium bump arrays are examined using a white light interferometer, a SEM and tensile pull testing. This paper provides details from the electroplating processes as well as conclusions leading to optimized plating conditions.

  3. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... of other blood components, such as platelets and plasma , may take less time. After the transfusion, you ...

  4. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  5. Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts in Late-Life Predict Eight-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Young; Ross, G. Webster; Chen, Randi; Abbott, Robert D.; Bell, Christina; Willcox, Bradley; Launer, Lenore; Petrovitch, Helen; Kaya, Brock; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Previous studies have found that higher white blood cell count is associated with incident stroke. However, there are inconsistent results in the elderly and only a few studies have included differential white blood cell counts or Asian populations. We studied the association between total and differential white blood cell counts and incident stroke in an older Asian population. Design Prospective population-based study with 8 years of follow-up. Setting The Honolulu Heart Program, Oahu, Hawaii. Participants Three thousand, three hundred and forty-two Japanese-American men (ages 71–93 years) who were free of stroke and had baseline WBC counts in 1991–93. Measurements Participants were divided into quartiles of total and differential WBC counts for analysis, and were followed for incident stroke (all strokes [ALL-CVA], thromboembolic [TE-CVA] and hemorrhagic [HEM-CVA]) for eight years using data from a comprehensive hospital surveillance system. Results Age-adjusted incident ALL-CVA rates increased significantly with total WBC quartiles (7.68, 9.04, 9.26, 14.10, per 1,000 person years follow-up, respectively, p=0.001).Hazard ratios for ALL-CVA for each quartile of total and differential WBC counts were obtained using Cox regression, with the lowest quartile as the reference group. After full adjustment including age, cardiovascular risk factors, fibrinogen, prevalent CHD, cancer or COPD, and aspirin/NSAID use, hazard ratios in the highest quartiles of total WBC and neutrophil counts were 1.62 (95%CI=1.04–2.52, p=0.033) and 2.19 (95%CI=1.41–3.39, p<0.001)respectively. These significant associations were also seen for TE-CVA, but not for HEM-CVA. No significant associations were found between lymphocyte or monocyte counts and incident stroke or subtypes. Conclusion In elderly Japanese-American men, higher total WBC and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of overall stroke, as well as thromboembolic stroke. PMID:25739422

  6. Are polymorphisms in metabolism protective or a risk for reduced white blood cell counts in a Chinese population with low occupational benzene exposures?

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling-li; Zhang, Guang-hui; Huang, Jing-wen; Li, Yong; Zheng, Guo-qiao; Zhang, De-ting; Zhou, Li-fang; Tao, Xi-dan; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Yun-jie; Sun, Pin; Frank, Arthur; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetic variations in metabolic enzyme genes may enhance hematotoxicity in benzene-exposed populations. Objective: To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolism genes and white blood cells (WBCs). Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five benzene-exposed workers and 220 unexposed indoor workers were recruited in China. We explored the relationship between metabolic enzymes polymorphisms [glutathione S-transferase T1/M1 (GSTT1/M1) null, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1)rs1695, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) rs3813867, rs2031920, rs6413432, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) rs1051740, rs2234922] by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and WBC. Results: The exposed group had lower WBC counts (P<0.001) than the unexposed group. Increased susceptibility to hematotoxicity, as evidenced by lower WBC counts, was found in workers with null-GSTT1 (P = 0.045), null-GSTM1 (P = 0.030), rs2031920 (P = 0.020), and rs3813867 (P = 0.014) genotypes. White blood cell counts were also lower in workers with null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM1 genotypes and Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1: rs2031920, rs3813867) may support the hematotoxicity of benzene-exposed workers in China, and we can make use of it to select susceptible population. PMID:26179485

  7. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in utero is associated with DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Castelino, Jovita; Silver, Matt J; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Durand, Geoffroy; Calvez-Kelm, Florence Le; Prentice, Andrew M; Wild, Christopher P; Moore, Sophie E; Hennig, Branwen J; Herceg, Zdenko; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to environmental toxins during embryonic development may lead to epigenetic changes that influence disease risk in later life. Aflatoxin is a contaminant of staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa, is a known human liver carcinogen and has been associated with stunting in infants. Methods: We have measured aflatoxin exposure in 115 pregnant women in The Gambia and examined the DNA methylation status of white blood cells from their infants at 2–8 months old (mean 3.6 ± 0.9). Aflatoxin exposure in women was assessed using an ELISA method to measure aflatoxin albumin (AF-alb) adducts in plasma taken at 1–16 weeks of pregnancy. Genome-wide DNA methylation of infant white blood cells was measured using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450beadchip. Results: AF-alb levels ranged from 3.9 to 458.4 pg/mg albumin. We found that aflatoxin exposure in the mothers was associated to DNA methylation in their infants for 71 CpG sites (false discovery rate < 0.05), with an average effect size of 1.7% change in methylation. Aflatoxin-associated differential methylation was observed in growth factor genes such as FGF12 and IGF1, and immune-related genes such as CCL28, TLR2 and TGFBI. Moreover, one aflatoxin-associated methylation region (corresponding to the miR-4520b locus) was identified. Conclusions: This study shows that maternal exposure to aflatoxin during the early stages of pregnancy is associated with differential DNA methylation patterns of infants, including in genes related to growth and immune function. This reinforces the need for interventions to reduce aflatoxin exposure, especially during critical periods of fetal and infant development. PMID:25855716

  8. Indium oxide based fiber optic SPR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Sarika; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2016-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensor using indium oxide layer is presented and theoretically studied. It has been found that with increase in thickness of indium oxide layer beyond 170 nm, the sensitivity of SPR sensor decreases. 170 nm thick indium oxide layer based SPR sensor holds maximum sensitivity.

  9. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  10. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-04-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  11. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-01-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  12. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOEpatents

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S.; Nekuda, Jennifer A.

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  13. Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and EROD and GST Biotransformation Activity in the Liver of Red- and White-Blooded Antarctic Fish.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Schmid, Peter; Segner, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic pollution are of increasing concern in remote areas such as Antarctica. The evolutionary adaptation of Antarctic notothenioid fish to the cold and stable Southern Ocean led to a low plasticity of their physiological functions, what may limit their capacity to deal with altered temperature regimes and pollution in the Antarctic environment. Using a biochemical approach, we aimed to assess the hepatic biotransformation capacities of Antarctic fish species by determining (i) the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and (ii) the metabolic clearance of benzo(a)pyrene by hepatic S9 supernatants. In addition, we determined the thermal sensitivity of the xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. We investigated the xenobiotic metabolism of the red-blooded Gobionotothen gibberifrons and Notothenia rossii, the hemoglobin-less Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari, and the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a reference. Our results revealed similar metabolic enzyme activities and metabolic clearance rates between red- and white-blooded Antarctic fish, but significantly lower rates in comparison to rainbow trout. Therefore, bioaccumulation factors for metabolizable lipophilic contaminants may be higher in Antarctic than in temperate fish. Likewise, the thermal adaptive capacities and flexibilities of the EROD and GST activities in Antarctic fish were significantly lower than in rainbow trout. As a consequence, increasing water temperatures in the Southern Ocean will additionally compromise the already low detoxification capacities of Antarctic fish. PMID:25965896

  14. Association between white blood cell count and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in urban Han Chinese: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shukang; Zhang, Chengqi; Zhang, Guang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Yanxun; Ding, Lijie; Sun, Xiubin; Jia, Hongying; Xue, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The white blood cell (WBC) count is a simple and convenient marker of inflammation for use in medical practice; however, its association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been determined. We examined the relationship between WBC and NAFLD to provide a convenient and useful marker for the prediction of NAFLD. Setting A longitudinal cohort participating in a large health check-up programme for the Chinese population was selected and followed up from 2005 to 2011. Participants A total of 21 307 male and female participants without NAFLD who underwent health check-ups at least twice between 2005 and 2011 were included in this study. 15 201 participants (7286 men and 7915 women) were eligible for inclusion. Results The baseline distribution of age, WBC, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globin (GLO) and the prevalence of males, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, smoking and regular exercise were significantly different between the incident NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (p<0.05). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of WBC, which predicted the occurrence of NAFLD. Compared with the lowest WBC quartile (Q1), the HRs and 95% CIs of the other WBC quartiles (Q2, Q3 and Q4) for incident NAFLD were 1.090 (0.978 to 1.215), 1.174 (1.055 to 1.305) and 1.152 (1.035 to 1.281), respectively, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, regular exercise, BMI, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALB and GLO. Conclusions Our study clearly showed that WBC count was a significant factor associated with incident NAFLD in Han Chinese. PMID:27251683

  15. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) worn by the workers, and to investigate the effect of this application on exposure and preclinical effects in terms of workplace measuring and biomarker monitoring in ITO sputter target manufacturing plants and workers, respectively. Fifty-four workers were recruited and investigated from 2010-2012, during which PAPRs were provided to on-site workers in September 2011. Each worker completed questionnaires and provided blood and urine samples for analysis of biomarkers of indium exposure and preclinical effects. Area and personal indium air samples were randomly collected from selected worksites and from participants. The penetration percentage of the respirator (concentration inside respirator divided by concentration outside respirator) was 6.6%. Some biomarkers, such as S-In, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA, and TMOM, reflected the decrease in exposure and showed lower levels, after implementation of PAPRs. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy of PAPRs for reducing indium exposure. The measurement results clearly showed that the implementation of PAPRs reduces levels of indium-related biomarkers. These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium. PMID:26771526

  16. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  17. Gray matter blood flow and volume are reduced in association with white matter hyperintensity lesion burden: a cross-sectional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Crane, David E.; Black, Sandra E.; Ganda, Anoop; Mikulis, David J.; Nestor, Sean M.; Donahue, Manus J.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with vascular risk factors and age-related cognitive decline. WMH have primarily been associated with global white matter and gray matter (GM) changes and less is known about regional effects in GM. The purpose of this study was to test for an association between WMH and two GM imaging measures: cerebral blood flow (CBF) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-six elderly adults with mild to severe WMH participated in this cross-sectional 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. MRI measures of GM CBF and VBM were derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) and T1-weighted images, respectively. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were used to quantify the WMH lesion burden (mL). GM CBF and VBM data were used as dependent variables. WMH lesion burden, age and sex were used in a regression model. Visual rating of WMH with the Fazekas method was used to compare the WMH lesion volume regression approach. WMH volume was normally distributed for this group (mean volume of 22.7 mL, range: 2.2–70.6 mL). CBF analysis revealed negative associations between WMH volume and CBF in the left anterior putamen, subcallosal, accumbens, anterior caudate, orbital frontal, anterior insula, and frontal pole (corrected p < 0.05). VBM analysis revealed negative associations between WMH and GM volume in lingual gyrus, intracalcarine, and bilateral hippocampus (corrected p < 0.05). The visual rating scale corroborated the regression findings (corrected p < 0.05). WMH lesion volume was associated with intra-group GM CBF and structural differences in this cohort of WMH adults with mild to severe lesion burden. PMID:26217223

  18. Gray matter blood flow and volume are reduced in association with white matter hyperintensity lesion burden: a cross-sectional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Crane, David E; Black, Sandra E; Ganda, Anoop; Mikulis, David J; Nestor, Sean M; Donahue, Manus J; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with vascular risk factors and age-related cognitive decline. WMH have primarily been associated with global white matter and gray matter (GM) changes and less is known about regional effects in GM. The purpose of this study was to test for an association between WMH and two GM imaging measures: cerebral blood flow (CBF) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-six elderly adults with mild to severe WMH participated in this cross-sectional 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. MRI measures of GM CBF and VBM were derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) and T1-weighted images, respectively. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were used to quantify the WMH lesion burden (mL). GM CBF and VBM data were used as dependent variables. WMH lesion burden, age and sex were used in a regression model. Visual rating of WMH with the Fazekas method was used to compare the WMH lesion volume regression approach. WMH volume was normally distributed for this group (mean volume of 22.7 mL, range: 2.2-70.6 mL). CBF analysis revealed negative associations between WMH volume and CBF in the left anterior putamen, subcallosal, accumbens, anterior caudate, orbital frontal, anterior insula, and frontal pole (corrected p < 0.05). VBM analysis revealed negative associations between WMH and GM volume in lingual gyrus, intracalcarine, and bilateral hippocampus (corrected p < 0.05). The visual rating scale corroborated the regression findings (corrected p < 0.05). WMH lesion volume was associated with intra-group GM CBF and structural differences in this cohort of WMH adults with mild to severe lesion burden. PMID:26217223

  19. Effect of pravastatin, a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, on blood lipids and aortic lipidosis in cholesterol-fed White Carneau pigeons.

    PubMed

    Hadjiisky, P; Hermier, D; Truffert, J; De Gennes, J L; Grosgogeat, Y

    1993-06-19

    The effect of pravastatin, an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, on blood lipids and aortic lipidosis was studied in young cholesterol-fed White Carneau pigeons. The birds were fed with normal ('N group', n = 20) or atherogenic diet (grains + 0.4% cholesterol + 4% lard) alone ('C group', n = 20) and in association with pravastatin ('P group', n = 20). Plasma lipids and aortic intima lipidosis were studied after 3-5 and 8-12 months of the diet. Compared to the N group, pigeons from C group exhibited hypercholesterolemia (TC = 1000 mg/dl) and hyperlipoproteinemia of which level was independent of the duration of the diet. Total VLDL (VLDL+LDL)-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B levels rose significantly 15, 8 and 4 times, respectively, whereas HDL were increased two times (P < 0.01) in females only. Macroscopically visible intima lipidosis areas covered 40% and 80% of aortic surface after 3-5 and 8-12 months of the diet. In P group, the increase in plasma lipid values was significantly lower than in WC from C group: -40% for total cholesterol (600 mg/dl) (P < 0.01), -71% for VLDL (P < 0.001), -53% for (VLDL+LDL)-cholesterol (P < 0.01) and -54% for apo-B (P < 0.05). HDL remained as high as in C group. Consequently TC/HDL-C ratio was improved and atherogenic risk of cholesterol was reduced by 41% (P < 0.05). Intima lipidosis areas were lowered by 35% (P < 0.01). We conclude that pravastatin treatment involves (1) a decrease in hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipoproteinemia and (2) a lowering in extensiveness and severity of macroscopically visible aortic lipidosis in cholesterol-fed White Carneau pigeon. PMID:8318553

  20. Transcriptome modification of white blood cells after dietary administration of curcumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in osteoarthritic affected dogs.

    PubMed

    Colitti, M; Gaspardo, B; Della Pria, A; Scaini, C; Stefanon, Bruno

    2012-06-30

    The dietary effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or curcumin on the gene expression of peripheral white blood cells in osteoarthritis (OA) affected dogs was investigated using a 44K oligo microarray. Two groups of OA dogs and one group of healthy dogs (6 dogs each) were clinically evaluated and blood was sampled before (T0) and after 20days (T20) of dietary administration of NSAID (NSAID group) or curcumin (CURCUMIN group). Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) in comparison to the control group were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). After 20days of treatment, the differentially expressed transcripts significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 475 to 173 in NSAID group and from 498 to 141 in CURCUMIN group. Genes involved in "inflammatory response" and in "connective tissue development and function" dramatically decreased at T20. Other genes, included in "cellular movement", "cellular compromise" and "immune cell trafficking", were differentially expressed at T0 but not at T20 in both groups. Specific molecular targets of CURCUMIN, not observed for NSAID, were the IkB up regulation in the "TNRF1 signaling pathway" and IL18 down regulation in the "role of cytokines in mediating communication between immune cells". The activity of CURCUMIN was also evidenced from the inhibition of macrophages proliferation (HBEGF), related to a strong down regulation of TNFα and to activation of fibrinolysis (SERPINE1). The results would suggest that curcumin offers a complementary antinflammatory support for OA treatment in dogs. PMID:22591841

  1. White blood cell counts in persons aged 65 years or more from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Correlations with baseline clinical and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bovill, E G; Bild, D E; Heiss, G; Kuller, L H; Lee, M H; Rock, R; Wahl, P W

    1996-06-01

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons aged 65 years or older. Baseline data were collected over a 12-month period in 1989-1990. WBC counts were statistically significantly higher in people with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than in those who were free of disease. WBC counts correlated (p < 0.01) positively with coagulation factors, measures of glucose metabolism, creatinine, smoking, and triglycerides. In contrast, WBC counts correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and height. The correlations between WBC counts and risk factors were similar in both the entire cohort and the subgroup of persons who had never smoked. The authors conclude that WBC counts in the elderly are associated with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as its risk factors. PMID:8633599

  2. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in white blood cells of humans exposed to residential wood combustion particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Heussen, G.A.H.; Bouman, H.G.M.; Alink, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in open fireplaces poses a possible health risk because of the emission into the indoor air of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In the present report it was investigated whether this emission leads to enhanced levels of DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBC) of exposed subjects. Under conditions that most likely reflect the Dutch pattern of use of open fireplaces, RWC increased both indoor air mutagenicity and levels of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and pyrene. The indirect mutagenicity showed a stronger increase than the direct mutagenicity. The increase in indirect mutagenicity was not directly correlated with the increase in the levels of B(a)P and pyrene. {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts following nuclease P1 enrichment or butanol extraction revealed low adduct levels. No combustion-related increase in the amount of adducts was observed. Possible explanations for the lack of correlation between air monitoring data and WBC DNA adduct levels are discussed. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement. PMID:26208029

  4. Design and synthesis of cationic antibacterial peptide based on Leucrocin I sequence, antibacterial peptide from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Yaraksa, Nualyai; Anunthawan, Thitiporn; Theansungnoen, Tinnakorn; Daduang, Sakda; Araki, Tomohiro; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-03-01

    Leucrocin I is an antibacterial peptide isolated from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts. Based on Leucrocin I sequence, cationic peptide, NY15, was designed, synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus sphaericus TISTR 678, Bacillus megaterium (clinical isolate), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), Salmonella typhi ATCC 5784 and Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The efficacy of the peptide made from all L-amino acids was also compared with all D-amino acids. The peptide made from all D-amino acids was more active than the corresponding L-enantiomer. In our detailed study, the interaction between peptides and the cell membrane of Vibrio cholerae as part of their killing mechanism was studied by fluorescence and electron microscopy. The results show that the membrane was the target of action of the peptides. Finally, the cytotoxicity assays revealed that both L-NY15 and D-NY15 peptides are non-toxic to mammalian cells at bacteriolytic concentrations. PMID:24192554

  5. Comparison of cerebral blood flow and structural penumbras in relation to white matter hyperintensities: A multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Lahna, David L; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Dodge, Hiroko H; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Rooney, William D; Silbert, Lisa C

    2016-01-01

    Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) surrounding WMHs is associated with decreased structural integrity and perfusion, increased risk of WMH growth, and is referred to as the WMH penumbra. Studies comparing structural and cerebral blood flow (CBF) penumbras within the same individuals are lacking, however, and would facilitate our understanding of mechanisms resulting in WM damage. This study aimed to compare both CBF and structural WMH penumbras in non-demented aging. Eighty-two elderly volunteers underwent 3T-MRI including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), pulsed arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A NAWM layer mask was generated for periventricular and deep WMHs. Mean CBF, DTI-fractional anisotropy (DTI-FA), DTI-mean diffusivity (DTI-MD) and FLAIR intensity for WMHs and its corresponding NAWM layer masks were computed and compared against its mean within total brain NAWM using mixed effects models. For both periventricular and deep WMHs, DTI-FA, DTI-MD and FLAIR intensity changes extended 2-9 mm surrounding WMHs (p ≤ 0.05), while CBF changes extended 13-14 mm (p ≤ 0.05). The CBF penumbra is more extensive than structural penumbras in relation to WMHs and includes WM tissue both with and without microstructural changes. Findings implicate CBF as a potential target for the prevention of both micro and macro structural WM damage. PMID:27270266

  6. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement. PMID:26208029

  7. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  8. Response of the goat mammary gland to infection with Staphylococcus aureus revealed by gene expression profiling in milk somatic and white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens responsible for the intra-mammary infection in dairy ruminants. Although much work has been carried out to understand the complex physiological and cellular events that occur in the mammary gland in response to S. aureus, the protective mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to investigate gene expression during the early response of the goat mammary gland to an experimental challenge with S. aureus, in order to better understand the local and systemic response and to compare them in two divergent lines of goat selected for high and low milk somatic cell scores. Results No differences in gene expression were found between high and low SCS (Somatic Cells Score) selection lines. Analysing the two groups together, an expression of 300 genes were found to change from T0 before infection, and T4 at 24 hours and T5 at 30 hours following challenge. In blood derived white blood cells 8 genes showed increased expression between T0 and T5 and 1 gene has reduced expression. The genes showing the greatest increase in expression following challenge (5.65 to 3.16 fold change) play an important role in (i) immune and inflammatory response (NFKB1, TNFAIP6, BASP1, IRF1, PLEK, BATF3); (ii) the regulation of innate resistance to pathogens (PTX3); and (iii) the regulation of cell metabolism (CYTH4, SLC2A6, ARG2). The genes with reduced expression (−1.5 to −2.5 fold) included genes involved in (i) lipid metabolism (ABCG2, FASN), (ii) chemokine, cytokine and intracellular signalling (SPPI), and (iii) cell cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (KRT19). Conclusions Analysis of genes with differential expression following infection showed an inverse relationship between immune response and lipid metabolism in the early response of the mammary gland to the S. aureus challenge. PTX3 showed a large change in expression in both milk and blood, and is therefore a candidate for further studies on

  9. Nanomechanical Characterization of Indium Nano/Microwires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of indium nanowires like structures fabricated on quartz substrate by trench template technique, measured using nanoindentation. The hardness and elastic modulus of wires were measured and compared with the values of indium thin film. Displacement burst observed while indenting the nanowire. ‘Wire-only hardness’ obtained using Korsunsky model from composite hardness. Nanowires have exhibited almost same modulus as indium thin film but considerable changes were observed in hardness value. PMID:20596474

  10. White Blood Cell Count to Mean Platelet Volume Ratio Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Fakour, Sanam; Arjmand, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Leukocyte and platelet have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to determine the usefulness of a novel marker named white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) for predicting outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with or without MetS. Subjects and Methods A total of 331 NSTE-ACS individuals (60±12.5 years, 57.4% male) were enrolled and followed for a median of 24 months. MetS was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results Patients were divided into two groups: high WMR (WMR≥720) and low WMR (WMR<720). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MetS rates were significantly greater in the higher WMR group compared to those in the low WMR group (MACE: 14.3% vs. 25%, p=0.014; MetS: 50.9% vs. 75%, p<0.001). MetS was diagnosed in 62.2% of patients. MACE incidence in patients with or without MetS was comparable (p=0.737). Among MetS individuals, patients in the high WMR group had more MACE than the low WMR group (11.2% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). However, MACE was comparable among non-MetS individuals (p=0.681). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) of MACE incidence for high-WMR in MetS individuals was 2.616 (95% confidence interval: 1.282–5.339, p=0.008). However, HR of MACE incidence for high WMR in non-MetS individuals was not significant. Conclusion Among NSTE-ACS patients without revascularization therapy, elevated admission WMR was associated with an increased risk of developing composite MACE in MetS individuals but not in non-MetS patients. PMID:27014354

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement in the main cities of Cameroon: prevalence of masked and white coat hypertension, and influence of body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Takah, Noah; Dzudie, Anastase; Ndjebet, Jules; Wawo, Guela; Kamdem, Félicité; Monkam, Yves; Luma, Henry; Ngu, Kathleen Blackett; Kengne, André Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Identifying White Coat Hypertension (WCH) may avoid inappropriate commitment of individuals to lifelong and costly blood pressure (BP) lowering medications’. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of WCH in urban clinical settings in Cameroon. Methods Participants were a consecutive sample of adults, who underwent ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) for the diagnosis of hypertension and evaluation of treatmentin three referral cardiac clinics in the cities of Yaounde and Douala, between January 2006 and July 2011. WCH was defined as an office-based systolic (or diastolic) BP ≥ 140(90) mmHg together with an average day time ambulatory systolic (and diastolic) BP < 135(85) mmHg. Results Of the 500 participants included, 188 (37.6%) were women, 230 (46%) were nonsmokers and 53 (10.6%) had diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 51.6±10.2years. The ABPM readings were higher in men than in women (p<0.05).The prevalence of WCH was 26.4% overall, 39.3% in women and22.4% in men (p=0.01).In multivariable analysis, body mass index was the only significant determinant of WCH (Odds ratio= 1.15(95% confidence intervals: 1.00-1.43), p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of WCH was high in our study population and was correlated only with BMI. Accurate measurement of BP and appropriate diagnosis of hypertension using ABPM in this setting may help limiting the consequences of over estimating hypertension severity on individuals, families and health systems. PMID:25848455

  12. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ≤57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores. PMID:25107450

  13. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23353616

  14. A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial with Delayed-Release Cysteamine Bitartrate in Nephropathic Cystinosis: Effectiveness on White Blood Cell Cystine Levels and Comparison of Safety

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Larry A.; Sarwal, Minnie; Grimm, Paul; Niaudet, Patrick; Deschênes, Georges; Cornelissen, Elisabeth; Morin, Denis; Cochat, Pierre; Matossian, Debora; Gaillard, Segolene; Bagger, Mary Jo; Rioux, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Canonsburg, PA) may prevent or delay kidney transplantation and other serious outcomes in patients with cystinosis, but has never been subjected to a prospective clinical trial. Cystagon efficacy requires strict lifelong dosing every 6 hours. Such a dosing schedule and Cystagon-associated side effects are often cited by patients as reasons for nonadherence. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial was powered to show that a new delayed-release formulation of cysteamine bitartrate, RP103, taken every 12 hours, was noninferior to Cystagon for maintenance of white blood cell (WBC) cystine at levels associated with optimal outcomes in the disease. Results Forty-three patients were randomized. Using a mixed-effects statistical analysis model, the least-squares mean peak value of WBC cystine level was 0.62±0.05 nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein after 12 hours under RP103 and 0.54±0.05 nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein after 6 hours under Cystagon, a difference of 0.08±0.04 nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein (95.8% confidence interval, 0–0.16). The average steady-state total daily dose of RP103 was 82% of the incoming steady-state total daily dose of Cystagon. There were three-fold more gastrointestinal side effects compared with using Cystagon. Conclusions A new delayed-release Q12H formulation of cysteamine bitartrate is not inferior to the Q6H formulation (Cystagon) in maintaining low WBC cystine levels in patients with cystinosis but at a lower total daily dose. PMID:22554716

  15. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  16. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  17. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  18. A Kinetic Study of Indium Leaching from Indium-Bearing Zinc Ferrite Under Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linye; Mo, Jiamei; Li, Xuanhai; Pan, Liuping; Liang, Xinyuan; Wei, Guangtao

    2013-12-01

    To obtain information about leaching reaction and kinetics of indium from indium-bearing materials under microwave heating (MH), leaching of indium from indium-bearing zinc ferrite (IBZF) has been investigated. IBZF samples under MH and under conventional heating (CH) were studied by X-ray diffraction and specific surface area. Compared with that of CH, the effect of MH and the effects of various control parameters on indium leaching were studied. The results showed that compared with CH, MH enhanced the indium leaching from IBZF and increased the leaching rate. The leaching behavior of indium from IBZF was analyzed by unreacted shrinking core model, and the regression of kinetic equations showed that leaching of indium from IBZF obeyed the model very well. The activation energies under MH and under CH were 77.374 kJ/mol and 53.555 kJ/mol, respectively; the ratio of frequency factor K 0(MH)/ K 0(CH) was 10,818.36. The activation mechanism involved in leaching of indium under MH was mainly the increase of reactant energy and effective collision, which caused by the thermal and nonthermal microwave effect. Compared with the activation energy, the effective collision played a more important role in the acceleration of leaching of indium.

  19. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  20. Differential White Blood Cell Count and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Ye, Zheng; Cooper, Andrew J.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Biggs, Mary L.; Chen, Liang-Kung; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Hanefeld, Markolf; Ingelsson, Erik; Lai, Wen-An; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lind, Lars; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Mohan, Viswanathan; Muscari, Antonio; Nilsson, Goran; Ohrvik, John; Chao Qiang, Jiang; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tamakoshi, Koji; Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora; Wang, Ya-Yu; Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Zoli, Marco; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p = 1.5*10−18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2 = 83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p = 1.5*10−4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p = 0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p = 0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p = 7.7*10−13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p = 7.7*10−5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate. PMID:20976133

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute

  2. Effect of strain on indium incorporation in heteroepitaxial (indium, gallium) nitride nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewoldt, David A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the challenges facing LED lighting today is the achievement of low-cost true white lighting. Ideally, multiple LEDs of different colors, blue, red and green, would be utilized in order to achieve white light. Currently, the quality of green LEDs is low when compared to the red and blue counterparts. Green emission from LEDs is difficult to achieve due to phase segregation that occurs during growth of the (In,Ga)N LED structure, which separates into compositions of high and low InN concentration and prevents the moderate composition required for green emission. On the nanoscale, strain effects in the (In,Ga)N material system give rise to shifts in optical properties. Relieving strain allows for the incorporation of additional indium nitride, which shifts the wavelength of light emitted by the structure. In order to control strain effects, growth templates were fabricated by several methods (PAA, FIB, EBL). A robust process for fabrication of pores down to 25 nm in diameter has been developed in order to investigate this effect. From this process, a template using e-beam lithography has been created and then growth of (In,Ga)N on this template in a metallorganic chemical vapor deposition system was performed. As (In,Ga)N grows from the GaN substrate, it is naturally strained due to the lattice mismatch. Lateral growth out of the templates relieves strain by allowing the rods to expand as they grow out of the prepared pores. The effect of the diameter of pores on the emission characteristics has been analyzed and a strong logarithmic trend was discovered correlating emission wavelength to pore diameter. In addition to allowing control over the wavelength of emission based on pore diameter, the process that has been developed and demonstrated will allow a distribution of pore sizes that could facilitate color mixing.

  3. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    SciTech Connect

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  5. Indium Single-Ion Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagourney, Warren

    2001-01-01

    A single laser-cooled indium ion is a promising candidate for an ultimate resolution optical time or frequency standard. It can be shown that single ions from group IIIA of the periodic table (indium, thallium, etc.) can have extremely small systematic errors. In addition to being free from Doppler, transit-time and collisional shifts, these ions are also quite insensitive to perturbations from ambient magnetic and electric fields (mainly due to the use of a J=0-0 transition for spectroscopy). Of all group IIIA ions, indium seems to be the most practical, since it is heavy enough to have a tolerable intercombination cooling transition rate and (unlike thallium) has transitions which are easily accessible with frequency multiplied continuous-wave lasers. A single indium ion standard has a potential inaccuracy of one part in 10(exp 18) for integration times of 10(exp 6) seconds. We have made substantial progress during the grant period in constructing a frequency standard based upon a single indium ion. At the beginning of the grant period, single indium ions were being successfully trapped, but the lasers and optical systems were inadequate to achieve the desired goal. We have considerably improved the stability of the dye laser used to cool the ions and locked it to a molecular resonance line, making it possible to observe stable cooling-line fluorescence from a single indium ion for reasonable periods of time, as required by the demands of precision spectroscopy. We have substantially improved the single-ion fluorescence signal with significant benefits for the detection efficiency of forbidden transitions using the 'shelving' technique. Finally, we have constructed a compact, efficient UV 'clock' laser and observed 'clock' transitions in single indium ions using this laser system. We will elaborate on these accomplishments.

  6. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel for endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important.

  7. Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle, Ed.; Weis, Lois, Ed.; Powell, Linda C., Ed.; Wong, L. Mun, Ed.

    The contributions in this volume analyze the white racialization process in the context of multiculturalism and examine how racism is established in institutional structures. The chapters are: (1) "The Achievement (K)not: Whiteness and 'Black Underachievement'" (Linda C. Powell); (2) "White Experimenters, White Blood, and Other White Conditions:…

  8. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells, white blood cells, platelets (PLATE-lets), and plasma. Blood is transfused either as whole blood (with all its parts) or, more often, as individual parts. Blood Types Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, ...

  9. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal...

  10. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal...

  11. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal...

  12. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal...

  13. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal...

  14. New methodology for quantification of human white blood cell (WBC) apoptosis following exposure of whole blood samples to cyclohexamide (CHX) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) as assessed by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of WBC to undergo apoptosis is an essential feature in the maintenance and regulation of the immune response. We have developed a method for the assessment of WBC potential for apoptosis (high expression of 3´-hydroxyl ends in DNA) in a whole blood in vitro system. Whole blood collected ...

  15. Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

    1986-01-21

    The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

  16. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  17. Indium: bringing liquid-crystal displays into focus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to more abundant industrial metals such as lead and zinc, information about the behavior and toxicity of indium in the environment is limited. However, many indium compounds have been proven to be toxic to animals.

  18. Indium plasma in single- and two-color mid-infrared fields: Enhancement of tunable harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Wang, Zhe; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2016-04-01

    The tuning of odd and even high-order harmonics of ultrashort pulses along the strong resonance of laser-produced indium plasma using an optical parametric amplifier of white-light continuum radiation (1250-1400 nm) allowed observation of different harmonics enhanced in the vicinity of the 4 d105 s21S0→4 d95 s25 p 1P1 transition of In ii ions. We demonstrate various peculiarities and discuss the theoretical model of the phenomenon of tunable harmonics enhancement in the region of 62 nm using indium plasma. With the theoretical analysis we can reproduce the experimental observations and characterize the dynamics of the resonant harmonic emissions.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  2. Transport in indium-decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandni, U.; Henriksen, Erik A.; Eisenstein, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    The electronic-transport properties of single-layer graphene that has a dilute coating of indium adatoms have been investigated. Our studies establish that isolated indium atoms donate electrons to graphene and become a source of charged impurity scattering, affecting the conductivity as well as magnetotransport properties of the pristine graphene. Notably, a positive magnetoresistance is observed over a wide density range after In doping. The low-field magnetoresistance carries signatures of quantum interference effects which are significantly altered by the adatoms.

  3. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color. ... Normally, the white blood cells turn blue when NBT is added. This means that the cells should be able to kill bacteria and protect the person ...

  4. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color. ... If the sample does not change color when NBT is added, the white blood cells are missing the substance needed to kill bacteria. This may be due to chronic granulomatous disease.

  5. Establishment of selected baseline blood chemistry and hematologic parameters in captive and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Diekmann, M; Wolters, K; Swan, G E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the devastating collapse of three vulture populations on the Asian subcontinent as a result of their exposure to diclofenac, there is little available information on the normal physiology of many vulture species, including the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Such information is needed to fully understand mechanisms for toxicity and to identify and prevent future health problems. The aim of this study was to establish baseline parameters for hematologic and selected serum chemistry parameters for this model species for further studies into the toxicity of diclofenac. Captive nonreleasable and wild African White-backed Vultures were used to determine reference values. For hematology, erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured. Chemical analytes measured included sodium, potassium, calcium, albumin, and globulin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Uric acid and urea concentrations and the urea:uric acid ratio also were evaluated. Values are presented as means, standard deviations, and reference intervals. The serum chemistry parameters selected may provide a starting point for the evaluation of changes in renal and hepatic function; these organ systems are most severely affected by diclofenac. Results were also compared with values reported for G. africanus nestlings, and from these results it is evident that the clinical pathologic parameters are age related. This indicates that the use of nestling values for the evaluation of clinical pathologic findings in adults may be unreliable and could lead to incorrect assumptions. PMID:18689650

  6. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  7. Study of the doping of thermally evaporated zinc oxide thin films with indium and indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palimar, Sowmya; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reports observations made on investigations carried out to study structural, optical and electrical properties of thermally evaporated ZnO thin films and their modulations on doping with metallic indium and indium oxide separately. ZnO thin film in the undoped state is found to have a very good conductivity of 90 Ω-1 cm-1 with an excellent transmittance of up to 90 % in the visible region. After doping with metallic indium, the conductivity of the film is found to be 580 Ω-1 cm-1, whereas the conductivity of indium oxide-doped films is increased up to 3.5 × 103 Ω-1 cm-1. Further, the optical band gap of the ZnO thin film is widened from 3.26 to 3.3 eV when doped with indium oxide and with metallic indium it decreases to 3.2 eV. There is no considerable change in the transmittance of the films after doping. All undoped and doped films were amorphous in nature with smooth and flat surface without significant modifications due to doping.

  8. The oxidation and surface speciation of indium and indium oxides exposed to atmospheric oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, Zachary M.; Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Frith, Matthew G.; Bocarsly, Andrew B.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-06-01

    Metallic indium and its oxides are useful in electronics applications, in transparent conducting electrodes, as well as in electrocatalytic applications. In order to understand more fully the speciation of the indium and oxygen composition of the indium surface exposed to atmospheric oxidants, XPS, HREELS, and TPD were used to study the indium surface exposed to water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Clean In and authentic samples of In2O3 and In(OH)3 were examined with XPS to provide standard spectra. Indium was exposed to O2 and H2O, and the ratio of O2 - to OH- in the O1s XPS region was used to monitor oxidation and speciation of the surface. HREELS and TPD indicate that water dissociates on the indium surface even at low temperature, and that In2O3 forms at higher temperatures. Initially, OH- is the major species at the surface. Pure In2O3 is also OH- terminated following water exposure. Ambient pressure XPS studies of water exposure to these surfaces suggest that high water pressures tend to passivate the surface, inhibiting extensive oxide formation.

  9. White House

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check out the most popular infographics and videos Photos View the photo of the day and other galleries Video Gallery ... your questions or your story with President Obama. Photo of the Day Explore the White House Photo ...

  10. Indium-111-leukocyte imaging in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Clarke, K.; Tsai, D.; Nuechterlein, P.; Gora, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Eleven patients with suspected acute cholecystitis underwent sequential {sup 99}mTc-iminodiacetic derivative (IDA) and {sup 111}In-white blood cell (WBC) imaging to determine if {sup 111}In-WBCs accumulate within an acutely inflamed hemorrhagic gallbladder wall and, thus, could be employed as a reasonable alternative to {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy in detecting acute cholecystitis. Seven patients had surgically confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of these cases, five had a true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA and {sup 111}In-WBC, one an indeterminate {sup 111}In-WBC and true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA, and one a true-positive {sup 111}In-WBC and false-negative {sup 99}mTc-IDA scan. The remaining four patients did not have acute cholecystitis. All visualized their gallbladder within 1 hr after {sup 99}mTc-IDA administration and none had {sup 111}In-WBC gallbladder wall uptake. Both {sup 111}In-WBC and {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy accurately detected acute cholecystitis: hepatobiliary scintigraphy demonstrated a cystic duct obstruction and {sup 111}In-WBC imaging detected the inflammatory infiltrate within the gallbladder wall. The sensitivity and specificity of each was 86% and 100%, respectively.

  11. Macro- and microbeam analysis of lithium by the Li(p,α)α7i(p,α)α reaction, and STIM imaging of white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöland, K. A.; Kristiansson, P.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K. G.; Pallon, J.; Utui, R. J.; Yang, C.

    1997-05-01

    Two different experimental arrangements for lithium analysis through the 7Li(p,α)α reaction are described. The minimum detection limit (MDL) was 300 pg/cm 2 for an integrated charge of 60 μC for a macrobeam set-up optimized for high-current applications. For a Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) arrangement the MDL was 6 ng/cm 2 for an integrated charge of 1 μC in a set-up with large solid angles. One type of blood cells, lymphocytes, was analyzed at the NMP in the context of the treatment of patients with affective disorders ("manic-depressive illness") with lithium. The amount of lithium in the lymphocytes was found to be below the detection limit, i.e. less than 150 fg/cell. Separated lymphocytes were found to be well suited for both STIM and off-axis STIM imaging.

  12. Indium-111 autologous leukocyte imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Spence, R.A.; Laird, J.D.; Ferguson, W.R.; Kennedy, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Thirty-nine patients with acute pancreatitis have been assessed using a prognostic factor grading system, abdominal ultrasound, and autologous leukocyte imaging. Both prognostic factor grading and leukocyte imaging can accurately assess the severity of the disease early in its course. All patients with a negative indium-labeled leukocyte image recovered without sequelae, whereas five of the 12 patients with a positive image developed complications, including two deaths. Abdominal ultrasound is of no value in assessing severity, but is a useful method of detecting those patients with gallstone-associated disease. In patients with suspected abscess formation following acute pancreatitis, indium leukocyte imaging does not differentiate between fat necrosis and abscess formation. In this situation, computerized tomography should be carried out before laparotomy is undertaken.

  13. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. PMID:27085001

  14. The inverse hazard law: blood pressure, sexual harassment, racial discrimination, workplace abuse and occupational exposures in US low-income black, white and Latino workers.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2008-12-01

    Research on societal determinants of health suggests the existence of an "inverse hazard law," which we define as: "The accumulation of health hazards tends to vary inversely with the power and resources of the populations affected." Yet, little empirical research has systematically investigated this topic, including in relation to workplace exposures. We accordingly designed the United for Health study (Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, 2003-2004) to investigate the joint distribution and health implications of workplace occupational hazards (dust, fumes, chemical, noise, ergonomic strain) and social hazards (racial discrimination, sexual harassment, workplace abuse). Focusing on blood pressure as our health outcome, we found that among the 1202 low-income multi-racial/ethnic working class participants in our cohort - of whom 40% lived below the US poverty line - 79% reported exposure to at least one social hazard and 82% to at least one high-exposure occupational hazard. Only sexual harassment, the least common social hazard, was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) among the women workers. By contrast, no statistically significant associations were detectable between the other additional highly prevalent social and occupational hazards and SBP; we did, however, find suggestive evidence of an association between SBP and response to unfair treatment, implying that in a context of high exposure, differential susceptibility to the exposure matters. These results interestingly contrast to our prior findings for this same cohort, in which we found associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and two other health outcomes: psychological distress and cigarette smoking. Likely explanations for these contrasting findings include: (a) the differential etiologic periods and pathways involving somatic health, mental health, and health behaviors, and (b) the high prevalence of adverse exposures, limiting the ability to detect

  15. Electroplated indium bump arrays and the bonding reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiuping, Huang; Gaowei, Xu; Gang, Quan; Yuan, Yuan; Le, Luo

    2010-11-01

    A novel electroplating indium bumping process is described, as a result of which indium bump arrays with a pitch of 100 μm and a diameter of 40 μm were successfully prepared. UBM (under bump metallization) for indium bumping was investigated with an XRD technique. The experimental results indicate that Ti/Pt (300 Å / 200 Å) has an excellent barrier effect both at room temperature and at 200 °C. The bonding reliability of the indium bumps was evaluated by a shear test. Results show that the shear strength of the indium bump significantly increases after the first reflow and then changes slowly with increasing reflow times. Such a phenomenon may be caused by the change in textures of the indium after reflow. The corresponding flip-chip process is also discussed in this paper.

  16. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  17. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  18. Method to Improve Indium Bump Bonding via Indium Oxide Removal Using a Multi-Step Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. Frank (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Dickie, Matthew R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for removing indium oxide from indium bumps in a flip-chip structure to reduce contact resistance, by a multi-step plasma treatment. A first plasma treatment of the indium bumps with an argon, methane and hydrogen plasma reduces indium oxide, and a second plasma treatment with an argon and hydrogen plasma removes residual organics. The multi-step plasma process for removing indium oxide from the indium bumps is more effective in reducing the oxide, and yet does not require the use of halogens, does not change the bump morphology, does not attack the bond pad material or under-bump metallization layers, and creates no new mechanisms for open circuits.

  19. Distribution of In-111 in granulocyte and other cellular elements of blood (CEB) in human In-111-labeled mixed white cell (MWC) and platelet preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A large number of platelets (PLT), red blood cells (RBC) are present along with granulocyte (GC) in In-111 in CEB was determined by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient (FHG) centrifugation of In-111-MWC and PLT preparation as a quality control procedure. MWC were separated by sedimentation with hydroxyethyl starch; PLT by differential centrifugation. MWC and PLT were labeled with In-111-oxine in saline, ACD-saline or with In-111-tropolone in 0.5 ml of ACD-plasma. 0.3-0.5 ml of labeled cell suspended in plasma was layered on 3 ml FHG of two densities (1.119 and 1.077 gm/ml) and spun in a clear polystyrene tube at 1800 G for 30 min. Four layers (plasma, PLT, GC, and RBC) were separated, and In-111 radioactivity in each fraction was determined with a gamma counter. Simultaneously cell types in MWC and PLT preparations were determined by Coulter counter and differential counting. Most of In-111 in In-MWC is associated with the PLT and RBC, GC/lymphocyte ratio is 6/4. GC has higher extraction efficiency than RBC and PLT. PLT preparation is pure and (96 +- 3)% of In-111 is bound to PLT, (4 +- 3)% to RBC and (0.2 +- 0.1)% to GC; PLT preparation contains PLT (97 +- 3)%, RBC (4 +- 3)% and GC (0.2 +- 0.1)%.

  20. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/−) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/− mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

  2. The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S.

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

  3. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Abnormal bone marrow distribution following unsuccessful hip replacement: a potential confusion on white cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, D A

    1991-01-01

    A case is presented in which a grossly abnormal distribution of bone marrow following failed hip replacement would have led to the false diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The value of combining bone marrow scanning with indium white cell scanning in possible osteomyelitis is emphasised. PMID:2019282

  5. Decreased Antibiotic Prescription in an Italian Pediatric Population With Nonspecific and Persistent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections by Use of a Point-of-Care White Blood Cell Count, in Addition to Antibiotic Delayed Prescription Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Sassi, Roberto; Boccazzi, Antonio; del Gaizo, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test, in delayed antibiotic strategy, if the usages of a point-of-care leukocyte count would significantly decrease the prescription rate of antibiotics for children with nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections. A prospective clinical trial was performed in 23 primary care pediatric doctors’ offices on children with nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection with fever for at least 48 hours. The children were randomized into 2 groups: one using a point-of-care white blood cell (WBC) count as guidance and the other prescribing antibiotics to all children, according to delayed antibiotics prescription strategy. A total of 792 patients participated. In the WBC group (n = 437), 56 patients had WBC >15 000/mm3 and received antibiotics. At follow-up, an additional 44 children received antibiotics. In the control group (n = 355), antibiotics were prescribed to all children. The reduction of antibiotic usage was 77% between the groups. The decrease in antibiotic usage gave no influence on recovery, complications, or other medical outcome. PMID:27335990

  6. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  7. J/{psi} production in indium-indium collisions at SPS energies

    SciTech Connect

    Pillot, P.; Ducroux, L.; Guichard, A.; Tieulent, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Keil, M.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.

    2006-01-12

    The NA60 experiment collected data on dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c per incident nucleon, in year 2003, to contribute to the clarification of several questions raised by previous experiments studying high-energy heavy-ion physics at the CERN SPS in search of the quark gluon plasma. Among these previous results stands the observation, by NA50, that the production yield of J/{psi} mesons is suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions beyond the normal nuclear absorption defined by proton-nucleus data. By comparing the centrality dependence of the suppression pattern between different colliding systems, S-U, Pb-Pb and In-In, we should be able to identify the corresponding scaling variable, and the physics mechanism driving the suppression. In this paper, we will present the ratio of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan production cross-sections in indium-indium collisions, in three centrality bins, and how these values compare to previous measurements. We will also present a study of the transverse momentum distributions of the J/{psi} mesons, in seven centrality bins.

  8. Influence of indium concentration on the structural and optoelectronic properties of indium selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Li, Shasha; Yu, Zhou; Liu, Lian; Yan, Chuanpeng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2014-12-01

    We have grown indium selenide thin films using magnetron sputtering method. The influence of indium concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties was studied. The concentration of indium in indium selenide thin films was varied by adjusting the sputtering power from 40 to 80 W while keeping the substrate temperature and argon pressure constant. The β-phase, which only exists at elevated temperatures in bulk single crystals, can persist at room temperature in the In-rich films. The β-phase thin film with smaller band gap has an electrical resistivity about four orders of magnitude lower than that of the γ-In2Se3 thin film, which is also stable at room temperature. Furthermore, the single-phase γ-In2Se3 thin film was then assembled in visible-light photodetector which shows a fast, reversible, and stable response. These results indicate the possibility of using γ-In2Se3 thin film in various next-generation photoelectric and optical-memory applications.

  9. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. 3d.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-04-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous /sup 111/In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures.

  10. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  11. Rapid solidification of indium: Modeling subcooling

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bot, C. Delaunay, D.

    2008-05-15

    This paper deals with the study of crystallization kinetics. A pure metal - indium - is subjected to different cooling rates by analyzing phenomena with a differential scanning calorimeter. Thanks to the thermal flux obtained by this device and to the temperature determined with a thermocouple inside the metal sample, and according to the modified Avrami theory, the aim was to determine a temperature dependent function K which links thermodynamic properties to a macroscopic model of crystallization kinetics. Experiments highlight the recalescence phenomenon and show that this function has a shape similar to that of the nucleation rate.

  12. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  13. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  14. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  15. Fluxless indium and silver-indium bonding processes for photonics and high-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, William Wilson

    A fluxless oxidation-free bonding technology using multilayer composite solders based on indium, or low melting temperature indium. alloys such as Ag-In, In-Sn and Au-In has been developed and studied. This technology eliminates the need of flux and scrubbing motion that are used in conventional soldering processes, and still produces good quality joints. By depositing multilayer composite materials in high vacuum, we eliminate the formation of an oxide layer thus removing the origin of the problem---solder oxidation. To understand the oxidation kinetics in the bonding process, I have modeled the oxidation rate of tin, which follows a parabolic growth law. For completeness of the oxidation model, I incorporated the temperature dependency of Henry's coefficient in the oxidation model. To prevent the solder material from oxidation when exposing to atmosphere, I have developed a technique, which utilizes the in-situ formation of stable intermetallic compound on the outer surface, or a gold layer to protect the bonding materials. The bonding is achieved by means of solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) and in-situ compound formation. The first alloy system that I studied is indium-silver. GaAs and silicon dice have been successfully bonded on silicon or glass substrates. The bonding quality is examined by a Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM). The results confirm that void-free joints are achieved. Cross-sections of the joint are examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results reveal that the joint is composed of AuIn2, AgIn2-intermetallic compound and pure indium. From the Ag-In phase diagram, as indium composition is reduced to 25 wt. %, the solidus temperature jumps from 144 to above 695°C. By modifying the design of the multilayer composite, we developed a 210°C process to produce 700°C joints. All the well-bonded devices, before or after annealing, exceed the shear test force requirement of 2

  16. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.

    2010-02-15

    Organic light emitting devices have been achieved with an indium-free transparent anode, Ga doped ZnO (GZO). A large area coating technique was used (RF magnetron sputtering) to deposit the GZO films onto glass. The respective organic light emitting devices exhibited an operational voltage of 3.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 17%, and a power efficiency of 39 lm/W at a current density of 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. These parameters are well within acceptable standards for blue OLEDs to generate a white light with high enough brightness for general lighting applications. It is expected that high-efficiency, long-lifetime, large area, and cost-effective white OLEDs can be made with these indium-free anode materials.

  17. Indium antimonide large-format detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mike; Greiner, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Large format infrared imaging sensors are required to achieve simultaneously high resolution and wide field of view image data. Infrared sensors are generally required to be cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures in less than 10 min thousands of times during their lifetime. The challenge is to remove mechanical stress, which is due to different materials with different coefficients of expansion, over a very wide temperature range and at the same time, provide a high sensitivity and high resolution image data. These challenges are met by developing a hybrid where the indium antimonide detector elements (pixels) are unconnected islands that essentially float on a silicon substrate and form a near perfect match to the silicon read-out circuit. Since the pixels are unconnected and isolated from each other, the array is reticulated. This paper shows that the front side illuminated and reticulated element indium antimonide focal plane developed at L-3 Cincinnati Electronics are robust, approach background limited sensitivity limit, and provide the resolution expected of the reticulated pixel array.

  18. Tumour scanning with indium-111 dihaematoporphyrin ether.

    PubMed Central

    Quastel, M. R.; Richter, A. M.; Levy, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Photofrin II (dihaematoporphyrin ether/ester, DHE) was labelled with indium-111 and its biodistribution in tumour bearing mice compared with that of 111In chloride. The uptake and clearance of 111In labelled DHE differed markedly from that of indium-111 chloride in that the former was not taken up by the tissues as much as the latter. Scintillation scanning with a gamma-camera showed marked uptake of both 111In agents at the site of the tumour, but a much lower tissue background (excluding the abdominal organs) for the mice given 111In DHE. Tumour:muscle ratios of dissected tissues were 2-3 times higher in 111In DHE treated animals as compared to the uptake of 111In chloride. There was a distinct difference in the pattern of distribution of the two 111In preparations in the tissues. The major accumulation of 111In chloride was in the kidneys, whereas the highest uptake of 111In DHE was in the liver, the organ in which unlabelled porphyrins accumulate. Extraction and testing of materials from tumours of 111In DHE treated animals indicated that most of the tumour extractable 111In had remained associated with the porphyrin in vivo up to 4 days after injection. Images Figure 1 PMID:2147858

  19. Discovery of Cadmium, Indium, and Tin Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Stephanie; Thoennessen, Michael

    2009-10-01

    As of today, no comprehensive study has been made covering the initial observations and identifications of isotopes. A project has been undertaken at MSU to document the discovery of all the known isotopes. The criteria defining discovery of a given isotope is the publication of clear mass and element assignment in a refereed journal. Prior to the current work the documentation of the discovery of eleven elements had been completed^1. These elements are cerium^2, arsenic, gold, tungsten, krypton, silver, vanadium, einsteinium, iron, barium, and cobalt. We will present the new documentation for the cadmium, indium, and tin isotopes. Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes, thirty-eight indium isotopes, and thirty-eight tin isotopes have been discovered so far. The description for each discovered isotope includes the year of discovery, the article published on the discovery, the article's author, the method of production, the method of identification, and any previous information concerning the isotope discovery. A summary and overview of all ˜500 isotopes documented so far as a function of discovery year, method and place will also be presented. ^1http://www.nscl.msu.edu/˜thoennes/2009/discovery.htm ^2J.Q. Ginepro, J. Snyder, and M. Thoennessen, At. Data Nucl. Data. Tables, in press (2009), doi:10.1016/j.adt.2009.06.002

  20. Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A relatively rapid, economical process has been devised for patterning a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) that has been deposited on a polyester film. ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive substance made from a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide that is commonly used in touch panels, liquid-crystal and plasma display devices, gas sensors, and solar photovoltaic panels. In a typical application, the ITO film must be patterned to form electrodes, current collectors, and the like. Heretofore it has been common practice to pattern an ITO film by means of either a laser ablation process or a photolithography/etching process. The laser ablation process includes the use of expensive equipment to precisely position and focus a laser. The photolithography/etching process is time-consuming. The present process is a variant of the direct toner process an inexpensive but often highly effective process for patterning conductors for printed circuits. Relative to a conventional photolithography/ etching process, this process is simpler, takes less time, and is less expensive. This process involves equipment that costs less than $500 (at 2005 prices) and enables patterning of an ITO film in a process time of less than about a half hour.

  1. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  2. The impact of glutathione s-transferase M1 and cytochrome P450 1A1 genotypes on white-blood-cell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Shields, P G; Poirier, M C; Harrington, A M; Ford, D P; Strickland, P T

    1995-09-01

    Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form DNA adducts via a complex metabolic activation pathway that includes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, whereas intermediate metabolites can be detoxified by conjugation through pathways including glutathione s-transferase M1 (GSTM1). PAH-DNA adducts can be measured in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) and should reflect the net effect of competing activation and detoxification pathways and DNA repair as well as exposure. We have previously shown that WBC PAH-DNA adducts measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were associated with recent, frequent consumption of charbroiled food among 47 nonsmoking wildland fire-fighters who provided two blood samples 8 wk apart. In the investigation reported here, which was performed in the same population, we measured the association between the GSTM1 null genotype, which results in loss of enzyme activity, and PAH-DNA adduct levels, hypothesizing that subjects with this genotype would have higher levels of DNA adducts because of their decreased ability to detoxify PAH metabolites. However, PAH-DNA adduct levels were nonsignificantly lower in subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype (n = 28) compared with other subjects (n = 19) (median 0.04 fmol/microgram DNA vs 0.07 fmol/microgram DNA, respectively, P = 0.45, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Adduct levels were also lower in the nine subjects heterozygous or homozygous for the CYP1A1 exon 7 polymorphism (which codes for a valine rather than isoleucine and is thought to be associated with greater CYP1A1 activity) compared with the 38 wild-type subjects (P = 0.12). In the entire group, there was a positive association between consuming charbroiled food and PAH-DNA adduct formation (r = 0.24, P = 0.02, Spearman rank-order correlation). This association was weaker in the subgroup of subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype (r = 0.03, P = 0.84) and stronger among the remaining subjects (r = 0.57, P = 0.0002). These results

  3. Diagnosing osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot: a pilot study to examine the sensitivity and specificity of Tc(99m) white blood cell-labelled single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Mallory M; Holloway, Samantha; Vyce, Steven D; Obando, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a significant threat of osteomyelitis (OM) and subsequent amputation. The diagnosis of OM via imaging studies is difficult as radiographic findings do not present immediately and advanced imaging studies may be contraindicated or unavailable. A novel diagnostic tool has been developed which synthesises technetium-99 white blood cell-labelled single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (Tc(99m) WBC labelled-SPECT/CT) imaging, effectively enhancing anatomic detail. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the validity and reliability of this novel imaging technique in patients with diabetic foot ulcers in a Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. A retrospective review was performed on consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria (n = 14) and underwent Tc(99m) WBC-labelled SPECT/CT for suspected OM. Histopathologic analysis of bone specimen (when available) and International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot consensus criteria were used as a reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of Tc(99m) WBC-labelled SPECT/CT were 87·50% [confidence interval (CI): 64·58-110·42%] and 71·43% (CI: 37·96-104·90%), respectively. Negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were 83·33% (CI: 53·51-113·15%) and 77·78% (CI: 50·62-104·94%), respectively, with a likelihood ratio (LR) of 3·063 and an accuracy of 80%. These findings suggest Tc(99m) WBC-labelled SPECT/CT can be useful in imaging OM in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:24976368

  4. Convection sensitivity and thermal analyses for indium and indium-lead mixing experiment (74-18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, S. V.; Doty, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Sounding rocket Experiment 74-18 was designed to demonstrate the effects of the Black Brandt rocket acceleration levels (during the low-g coast phase of its flight) on the motion of a liquid metal system to assist in preflight design. Some post flight analyses were also conducted. Preflight studies consisted of heat transfer analysis and convection sensitivity and convection modeling analyses which aided in the: (1) final selection of fluid materials (indium-lead melts rather than paraffins); (2) design and timing of heater and quench system; and (3) preflight predictions of the degree of lead penetration into the pure indium segment of the fluid. Postflight studies involved: (1) updating the convection sensitivity calculations by utilizing actual flight gravity levels; and (2) modeling the mixing in the flight samples.

  5. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  6. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results of a differential are usually reported as absolute values of the five types of WBCs and/or ... a percent of the total number of WBCs. Absolute values are calculated by multiplying the total number of ...

  7. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  8. Reflectance of metallic indium for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Hasegawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in order to compile quantitative data on the reflective properties of metallic indium. The fabricated samples were of sufficiently high quality that differences from similar second-surface silvered mirrors were not apparent to the human eye. Three second-surface mirror samples were prepared by means of vacuum deposition techniques, yielding indium thicknesses of approximately 1000 A. Both hemispherical and specular measurements were made. It is concluded that metallic indium possesses a sufficiently high specular reflectance to be potentially useful in many solar energy applications.

  9. Determination of indium in rocks by substoichiometric radioisotope dilution analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L. Paul; Campbell, E.Y.

    1973-01-01

    Rocks containing 10-140 ng of indium per g are decomposed with hydrofluoric and nitric acids in the presence of 114In. Indium is separated from other constituents by sequential extractions of the bromide, cupferronate, and acetylacetonate, and is then reacted with a substoichiometric amont of EDTA. Excess of indium is removed by acetylacetone extraction and the specific activity of the complexed fraction is determined by counting 114In. Analyses of the U.S.G.S. standard rocks are reported. These show good agreement with previous neutron activation analyses. Repetitive rock analyses indicated an analytical precision of ??4-7%. ?? 1973.

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  14. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2013-06-15

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  15. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2013-06-01

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  16. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  17. Indium antimonide based HEMT for RF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subash, T. D.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2014-11-01

    We report on an indium antimonide high electron mobility transistor with record cut-off frequency characteristics. For high frequency response it is important to minimize parasitic resistance and capacitance to improve short-channel effects. For analog applications adequate pinch-off behavior is demonstrated. For proper device scaling we need high electron mobility and high electron density. Toward this end, the device design features and simulation are carried out by the Synopsys TCAD tool. A 30 nm InSb HEMT exhibits an excellent cut-off frequency of 586 GHz. To the knowledge of the authors, the obtained cut-off frequency is the highest ever reported in any FET on any material system.

  18. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  19. Indium foil with beryllia washer improves transistor heat dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, J.; John, J. E. A.

    1964-01-01

    Indium foil, used as an interface material in transistor mountings, greatly reduces the thermal resistance of beryllia washers. This method improves the heat dissipation of power transistors in a vacuum environment.

  20. Clinical imaging with indium-111 leukocytes: uptake in bowel infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.W.; Cuthbert, I.; Richards, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Leukocytes labeled with indium-111 accumulated in an area of small-bowel infarction, mimicking a paracolic abscess. Evidence of subacute bowel obstruction should alert the nuclear medicine physician to the former possibility.

  1. Doping of indium phosphide with group IV elements

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharenkov, L.F.; Samorukov, B.E.; Zykov, A.M.

    1985-06-01

    This paper studies the doping of single crystals of indium phosphide (InP) with group IV elements using data obtained by measuring the total charge concentration of additives and carriers. Single crystals of indium phosphide were grown by the Czochralski method from liquid melts with a liquid hermetic seal in quartz cubicles. The total impurity concentration was determined by atomic-absorption analysis with + or - 10% error. In order to explain the behavior of germanium and tin in indium phosphide, the authors consider the bond energies of additives in indium phosphide and their tetrahedral radii. The authors conclude that the established higher amphoteric character of germanium with respect to tin is probably explained by the moduli of elasticity of the doped crystal.

  2. Indium-111 chloride imaging in patients with suspected abscesses: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Rogers, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with clinically suspected inflammatory processes were studied. Seventy-two images were categorized as true positive; 211 as true negative. There were nine false-positive studies, four of which were due to activity in beds of excised organs. There were six false-negative studies, four of which were due to walled-off abscesses found either at surgery or biopsy. The sensitivity was 92%, the specificity 95%, and the accuracy 94%. This study shows that indium-111 chloride imaging provides a reliable way to locate inflammatory processes and overcomes the disadvantages of other imaging agents, for example gastrointestinal activity or the demonstration of healing surgical wounds with gallium-67, and the false-positive images due to cystic fibrosis and other respiratory diseases, or accessory spleens as seen with In-111-labeled white cells.

  3. Status of indium phosphide solar cell development at Spire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Vernon, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    On-going development of indium phosphide solar cells for space applications is presented. The development is being carried out with a view towards both high conversion efficiency and simplicity of manufacture. The cell designs comprise the ion-implanted cell, the indium tin oxide top contact cell, and the epitaxial cell grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Modelling data on the limit to the efficiency are presented and comparison is made to measured performance data.

  4. Determination of indium in standard rocks by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, O; Steinnes, E

    1966-08-01

    A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of indium in rocks, based on 54 min (116m)In, is described. The method has been applied to a series of geochemical standards including granite G-1 and diabase W-1. The precision is better than +/- 5% for samples containing more than 5 x 10(-10)g indium. Good agreement with previously published values for G-1 and W-1 has been obtained. PMID:18959988

  5. Development of indium bumping technology through AZ9260 resist electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuping; Xu, Gaowei; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Le

    2010-05-01

    Indium bumping is very critical technology in the application of high-density interconnection between a FPA (focal plane array) and a Si ROIC (read-out integrated circuit) by flip-chip bonding. In this paper, the indium BGA (ball grid array) chips are prepared with an electroplating method on the Si substrate. With such a method, the first difficulty arises in removing the seed layer. Two ways, including IBE (ion beam etching) and lift-off, are adopted to overcome it. The results show that the lift-off process is effective but not IBE. During the reflow process, many indium bumps fall off the substrate. Two ways are tried to solve this problem: one is to optimize the reflow profile and the other is to thicken the wetting layer. The results show that these two ways can effectively improve such status. The barrier effects of the UBM (under bump metallization) for indium, which are Ti/Pt (300 Å/200 Å) and Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), are also investigated. Experimental results indicate that both of them can be used in application of integration of the FPA and ROIC. Reliability of indium bumps with these two kinds of UBM is evaluated by the shear test. The results show that their shear strength has a significant increase after reflow. For the indium bump with UBM of Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), IMC (intermetallic compounds) at the interface of Au-In can strengthen the indium bump but may change the plasticity of indium.

  6. Analysis of the production of ATLAS indium bonded pixel modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, G.; Andreazza, A.; Bulgheroni, A.; Corda, G.; Di Gioia, S.; Fiorello, A.; Gemme, C.; Koziel, M.; Manca, F.; Meroni, C.; Nechaeva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Rossi, L.; Rovani, A.; Ruscino, E.

    2006-09-01

    The ATLAS collaboration is currently building 1500 pixel modules using the indium bump bonding technique developed by SELEX Sistemi Integrati (former AMS). The indium deposition and flip-chip process are described together with an overview of the chip stripping machine that allows defective modules to be reworked. The production is half-way through at the time of this writing. This paper also discusses the problems encountered during production and the adopted solutions.

  7. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. PMID:25922168

  8. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. PMID:25044390

  9. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  11. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  14. Clinical comparison of indium-111 acetylacetone and indium-111 tropolone granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Burt, R.W.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.H.; Witt, R.M.; Tobolski, M.M.; Wellman, H.N.

    1986-11-01

    This clinical study compares the efficacy of two /sup 111/In white blood cells preparations. Seventy-six patients were imaged after an injection of granulocytes (GRAN) isolated on a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient and labeled with (/sup 111/In)acetylacetone (ACAC) in saline; 105 patients were imaged after an injection of GRAN isolated on a metrizamide-plasma gradient and labeled with (/sup 111/In)tropolone (TROP) in plasma. Early (2-4 hr), intermediate (4-6 hr), and delayed (24 hr) images were obtained. The specificity was quite high (94-100%) in both preparations and no statistical differences could be found. The sensitivity for ACAC-GRAN for the early, intermediate, and delayed images were 39%, 63%, and 64%, respectively; for TROP-GRAN it was 80%, 89%, and 92%, respectively. In all cases the TROP-GRAN images were significantly more sensitive than the ACAC-GRAN images obtained at the same time after injection (p less than 0.001 for early and delayed images, 0.01 less than p less than 0.025 for intermediate images). For ACAC-GRAN the intermediate and delayed images were significantly more sensitive than the early images, while no significant difference could be found for TROP-GRAN. In a blinded experiment, the ability of TROP-GRAN to demonstrate a lesion was compared to that of ACAC-GRAN. TROP-GRAN demonstrated the lesions better than ACAC-GRAN, both in the early and late images (p less than 0.001). TROP-GRAN visualization scores at 4-6 hr equaled those obtained 24 hr after injection. In conclusion, GRAN separated and labeled in plasma with TROP are superior to those separated and labeled in saline with ACAC in three ways: higher visualization scores, earlier visualization of the lesion, and greater sensitivity.

  15. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Radiation Facility, in Grenoble/France). Polymetallic chalcogenide minerals and various model compounds displaying distinct bonding situations of indium to other ligands (oxygen and halides) were studied. Encouraging results from a first experiment [5] showed the presence of a "white line" in the XANES spectra collected from InF3 and from In-hosting bornite; however, the impossibility of clearly identifying the nanoscale phase hosting indium in sulphide ore samples has hindered a full interpretation of X-ray absorption data. The crystal chemistry of indium in natural chalcogenides is now reanalysed and XANES results obtained so far for polymetallic sulphides are accordingly re-evaluated, disclosing a challenging clue for indium binding state in these host minerals within sulphide ores. [1] M.O. Figueiredo et al. (2007) Procd. 9th Biennial SGA Mtg., Dublin/Ireland, edt. C. Andrew et al., 1355-1357. [2] O.C. Gaspar (2002) Canad. Miner. 40, 611-636. [3] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) ICANS 23, 23rd Int. Conf. Amorphous & Nano-crystalline Semiconductors, Netherlands, August 23-28. Poster ID 229 (abstract). [4] T. Seifert & D. Sandmann (2002) Ore Geol. Reviews 28, 1-31. [5] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) XVIII Int. Mater. Res. Congr., Mexico, August 16-20. Symp. 20, Poster nr. 1 (abstract). * Work developed within the research project PTDC/CTE-GIN/67027/2006 financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science & Technology (FCT/MCTES). The financial support from EU to perform the experiments at the ESRF is also acknowledged.

  16. White-light quantitative phase imaging unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, YoonSeok; Lee, KyeoReh; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the white light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effective and user-friendly use of QPI. The validity and capacity of the presented method are demonstrated by measuring quantitative phase images of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, HeLa cells and mouse white blood cells. With speckle-free imaging capability due to the use of white-light illumination, the WQPIU is expected to expand the scope of QPI in biological sciences as a powerful but simple imaging tool.

  17. White-light quantitative phase imaging unit.

    PubMed

    Baek, YoonSeok; Lee, KyeoReh; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the white-light quantitative phase imaging unit (WQPIU) as a practical realization of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) on standard microscope platforms. The WQPIU is a compact stand-alone unit which measures sample induced phase delay under white-light illumination. It does not require any modification of the microscope or additional accessories for its use. The principle of the WQPIU based on lateral shearing interferometry and phase shifting interferometry provides a cost-effective and user-friendly use of QPI. The validity and capacity of the presented method are demonstrated by measuring quantitative phase images of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, HeLa cells and mouse white blood cells. With speckle-free imaging capability due to the use of white-light illumination, the WQPIU is expected to expand the scope of QPI in biological sciences as a powerful but simple imaging tool. PMID:27137546

  18. Whites Trashing Whites: Multiculturalism's Liberal Guilt Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Presents the opinions of a white, male literature professor who attended a conference of college writing teachers and was distressed because the overwhelmingly white audience listened quietly as speakers used the platform to identify whites as oppressors of minorities and linguistic imperialists. The paper questions the view that Standard English…

  19. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  20. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  1. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  2. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  3. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension. Home monitoring has good reproducibility, is well tolerated and relatively inexpensive. It is superior to blood pressure taken in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular events and mortality. Twice-daily measurements are recommended, usually in the morning and evening for a minimum of five days. The threshold for defining hypertension is an average home blood pressure of 135/85 mmHg or above. Patients are engaged with their management when they monitor their own blood pressure. This results in increased adherence to therapy and lower blood pressure. PMID:26648605

  4. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafa, Muhammad; Akbar, Sadaf; Gao, Lei; Fakhar-e-Alam, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes some of the critical features of pure indium antimonide nanowires (InSb NWs) growth and their potential applications in the industry. In the first section, historical studies on the growth of InSb NWs have been presented, while in the second part, a comprehensive overview of the various synthesis techniques is demonstrated briefly. The major emphasis of current review is vapor phase deposition of NWs by manifold techniques. In addition, author review various protocols and methodologies employed to generate NWs from diverse material systems via self-organized fabrication procedures comprising chemical vapor deposition, annealing in reactive atmosphere, evaporation of InSb, molecular/ chemical beam epitaxy, solution-based techniques, and top-down fabrication method. The benefits and ill effects of the gold and self-catalyzed materials for the growth of NWs are explained at length. Afterward, in the next part, four thermodynamic characteristics of NW growth criterion concerning the expansion of NWs, growth velocity, Gibbs-Thomson effect, and growth model were expounded and discussed concisely. Recent progress in device fabrications is explained in the third part, in which the electrical and optical properties of InSb NWs were reviewed by considering the effects of conductivity which are diameter dependent and the applications of NWs in the fabrications of field-effect transistors, quantum devices, thermoelectrics, and detectors.

  5. Fabrication challenges for indium phosphide microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-04-01

    From the inception of III-V microsystems, monolithically integrated device designs have been the motivating drive for this field, bringing together the utility of single-chip microsystems and conventional fabrication techniques. Indium phosphide (InP) has a particular advantage of having a direct bandgap within the low loss telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm) range, able to support passive waveguiding and optical amplification, detection, and generation depending on the exact alloy of In, P, As, Ga, or Al materials. Utilizing epitaxy, one can envision the growth of a substrate that contains all of the components needed to establish a single-chip optical microsystem, containing detectors, sources, waveguides, and mechanical structures. A monolithic InP MEMS system has, to our knowledge, yet to be realized due to the significant difficulties encountered when fabricating the integrated devices. In this paper we present our own research and consolidate findings from other research groups across the world to give deeper insight into the practical aspects of InP monolithic microsystem development: epitaxial growth of InP-based alloys, etching techniques, common MEMS structures realized in InP, and future applications. We pay special attention to shedding light on considerations that must be taken when designing and fabricating a monolithic InP MEMS device.

  6. Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Shafa, Muhammad; Akbar, Sadaf; Gao, Lei; Fakhar-E-Alam, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes some of the critical features of pure indium antimonide nanowires (InSb NWs) growth and their potential applications in the industry. In the first section, historical studies on the growth of InSb NWs have been presented, while in the second part, a comprehensive overview of the various synthesis techniques is demonstrated briefly. The major emphasis of current review is vapor phase deposition of NWs by manifold techniques. In addition, author review various protocols and methodologies employed to generate NWs from diverse material systems via self-organized fabrication procedures comprising chemical vapor deposition, annealing in reactive atmosphere, evaporation of InSb, molecular/ chemical beam epitaxy, solution-based techniques, and top-down fabrication method. The benefits and ill effects of the gold and self-catalyzed materials for the growth of NWs are explained at length. Afterward, in the next part, four thermodynamic characteristics of NW growth criterion concerning the expansion of NWs, growth velocity, Gibbs-Thomson effect, and growth model were expounded and discussed concisely. Recent progress in device fabrications is explained in the third part, in which the electrical and optical properties of InSb NWs were reviewed by considering the effects of conductivity which are diameter dependent and the applications of NWs in the fabrications of field-effect transistors, quantum devices, thermoelectrics, and detectors. PMID:27009531

  7. Independent Composition and Size Control for Highly Luminescent Indium-Rich Silver Indium Selenide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Olesya; Yarema, Maksym; Bozyigit, Deniz; Lin, Weyde M M; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-11-24

    Ternary I-III-VI nanocrystals, such as silver indium selenide (AISe), are candidates to replace cadmium- and lead-based chalcogenide nanocrystals as efficient emitters in the visible and near IR, but, due to challenges in controlling the reactivities of the group I and III cations during synthesis, full compositional and size-dependent behavior of I-III-VI nanocrystals is not yet explored. We report an amide-promoted synthesis of AISe nanocrystals that enables independent control over nanocrystal size and composition. By systematically varying reaction time, amide concentration, and Ag- and In-precursor concentrations, we develop a predictive model for the synthesis and show that AISe sizes can be tuned from 2.4 to 6.8 nm across a broad range of indium-rich compositions from AgIn11Se17 to AgInSe2. We perform structural and optical characterization for representative AISe compositions (Ag0.85In1.05Se2, Ag3In5Se9, AgIn3Se5, and AgIn11Se17) and relate the peaks in quantum yield to stoichiometries exhibiting defect ordering in the bulk. We optimize luminescence properties to achieve a record quantum yield of 73%. Finally, time-resolved photoluminescence measurements enable us to better understand the physics of donor-acceptor emission and the role of structure and composition in luminescence. PMID:26370776

  8. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

    1986-04-01

    The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

  9. Highly Conducting Transparent Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Budhi; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2014-09-01

    Highly conducting transparent indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films have been achieved by controlling different growth parameters using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the IZO thin films have been investigated for varied indium content and growth temperature ( T G) in order to find out the optimum level of doping to achieve the highest conducting transparent IZO thin films. The highest mobility and carrier concentration of 11.5 cm2/V-s and 3.26 × 1020 cm-3, respectively, have been achieved in IZO doped with 2% indium. It has been shown that as T G of the 2% IZO thin films increase, more and more indium atoms are substituted into Zn sites leading to shift in (002) peaks towards higher angles which correspond to releasing the stress within the IZO thin film. The minimum resistivity of 5.3 × 10-4 Ω-cm has been achieved in 2% indium-doped IZO grown at 700°C.

  10. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  11. Indium-111-Photofrin-II scintillation scan

    SciTech Connect

    Origitano, T.C.; Karesh, S.M.; Reichman, O.H.; Henkin, R.E.; Caron, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is under intense investigation as an adjuvant treatment for malignant glial tumors of the central nervous system. Photofrin-II (HpD-II) is currently the most actively investigated photosensitizing agent. A crucial issue regarding the safe and efficacious usage of HpD-II-based photodynamic therapy is the individual in vivo kinetics of tumor uptake and retention, compared with normal brain clearance. The optimal time for photoactivation of sensitized tumor must be known to ensure a high target-to-nontarget ratio, resulting in the maximal tumor destruction while preserving normal brain. Our laboratory developed a radionuclide scan based on 111indium (111In)-labeled HpD-II to evaluate HpD-II localization and clearance noninvasively within a canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma. Synthesis of the 111In-HpD-II complex in greater than 90% yield is achieved by a simple, rapid labeling method. Radiochemical purity and stability were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma, we followed the uptake of 111In-HpD-II in tumors with serial scintillation scanning. Localization of the tumor by 111In-HpD-II has been verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan followed by gross and histological examination of the enhancing brain region. Total body biodistribution of 111In-HpD-II at various times after injection has been evaluated. The ratio of uptake in tumor compared with surrounding brain peaked at 72 hours after injection. The knowledge of regional distribution and concentration of a photosensitizing agent within a tumor mass and surrounding brain allows for the most efficacious timing and localization of a photoactivating source.

  12. Failure of ticlopidine to inhibit deposition of indium-111-labeled platelets on Dacron prosthetic surfaces in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    In a randomized double-blind trial we sought to determine whether short-term therapy with ticlopidine (250 mg bid for 14 days) inhibited platelet deposition on Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts that had been in place a year or longer. A total of 10 men, 42 to 69 years old, underwent indium-111 platelet imaging during both placebo and drug phases of the trial at 24, 48, and 72 hr after the injection of labeled platelets. Platelet accumulation was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared background-corrected activity of indium-111-labeled platelets in the graft with whole-blood activity of indium-111-labeled platelets. Additionally, blinded qualitative visual analysis of the unprocessed images was used to compare graft area activity with activity in adjacent native arteries. Ticlopidine significantly prolonged the template bleeding time from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.1 min (+/- SEM) (p . .003). However, by quantitative analysis there was no significant reduction in platelet deposition in the graft during ticlopidine therapy compared with placebo at 24 hr (graft/blood ratio 2.3 +/- 0.4 vs 2.6 +/- 0.3), 48 hr (3.1 +/- 0.5 vs 3.2 +/- 0.4), or 72 hr (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs 4.0 +/- 0.6) after injection of labeled platelets. By visual analysis, nine patients had positive results for abnormal platelet deposition when on placebo that were unchanged when on ticlopidine. The tenth patient had an equivocal result for abnormal platelet deposition when on placebo and a negative result for abnormal platelet deposition when on ticlopidine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Materials flow of indium in the United States in 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Indium is a material that has many applications. It is used by anyone who watches television or views a computer screen. It is found in solar energy arrays and in soldering applications that are required to be lead free. In 2009, about 550 metric tons (t) of indium metal was produced from primary sources world-wide; it was estimated that the United States consumed about 110 t of indium metal (20 percent of world primary production). However, when imports of consumer products that contain indium are considered, the United States consumed about 200 t of indium (36 percent of world primary production). When one considers the recovery from the low-efficiency sputtering process that coats indium-tin oxide onto glass and other surfaces, the recycling rate (within the manufacturing process that uses indium-tin oxide in flat panel displays approaches 36 percent. However, indium recovery from old scrap generated from end-of-life consumer products is not sufficiently economic to add significantly to secondary production. Between 1988 and 2010, indium prices averaged $381 per kilogram (in constant 2000 dollars). However, prices have been quite volatile (deviating from the average of $381 per kilogram by ±$199 per kilogram, a 52 percent difference from the average), reflecting short-term disequilibrium of supply and demand but also responsiveness of supply to demand. The dynamics of zinc smelting govern the primary supply of indium because indium is a byproduct of zinc smelting. Secondary indium supply, which accounts for about one-half of total indium supply, is governed by indium prices and technological advances in recovery. Indium demand is expected to grow because the number and volume of cutting edge technology applications that depend on indium are expected to grow.

  14. Indium oxide inverse opal films synthesized by structure replication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Berghoff, Daniel; Nikitin, Andreas; Reichelt, Matthias; Wu, Xia; Meier, Torsten; Wagner, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We present the synthesis of indium oxide (In2O3) inverse opal films with photonic stop bands in the visible range by a structure replication method. Artificial opal films made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres are utilized as template. The opal films are deposited via sedimentation facilitated by ultrasonication, and then impregnated by indium nitrate solution, which is thermally converted to In2O3 after drying. The quality of the resulting inverse opal film depends on many parameters; in this study the water content of the indium nitrate/PMMA composite after drying is investigated. Comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded by vis-spectroscopy with simulated data shows a good agreement between the peak position and calculated stop band positions for the inverse opals. This synthesis is less complex and highly efficient compared to most other techniques and is suitable for use in many applications.

  15. Synthesis and conductivity of indium-doped tin pyrophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, Fernando H; Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    We have synthesized indium-doped tin pyrophosphates as high-temperature anhydrous proton conductors. The ratio of tin to indium was varied using two different synthetic methods. The first is a high-temperature reaction in which a paste containing the reactants in excess phosphoric acid was heated for various amounts of time at various temperatures. The second method is a solution precipitation procedure followed by calcination, which offers several advantages over traditional synthetic techniques. These advantages inc 1 ude better stoichiometric control, lower temperature requirements, and chemically uniform products. Several phosphate sources were investigated, including phosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, and potassium pyrophosphate. The resulting indium-doped tin pyrophosphates had good proton conductivity over a wide temperature range with no humidification.

  16. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  17. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.; Allen, M. W.

    2015-02-01

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ˜520 °C, with indium migrating from the ( 000 1 ¯ ) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar ( 1 1 ¯ 00 ) and ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (˜20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In2O3 precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  18. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  19. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  20. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  1. Study of in vitro and in vivo stability of liposomes loaded with calcitonin or indium in the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Arieen, A.; Goigoux, C.; Baquey, C.; Dupuy, B. )

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting liposome transport to the blood compartment after oral administration to rats were evaluated. A high entrapment of calcitonin (CT) was obtained when the vesicles were prepared by sonication and were composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and stearylamine. In vitro tests showed that the liposomes were stable in light acidic or basic buffers, but that they were partly lysed in pH 2.5, 10 mM bile salts and pancreatin. Oral administration of liposomes entrapping calcitonin in fasting rats showed that the vesicles facilitate transport of the hormone to the general circulation and that they increase the lifetime of [sup 125]I-CT in blood. Oral administration of liposomes entrapping radioactive indium in fasting rats did not induce radioactivity in blood. This could be explained by disruption of most of the vesicles in the enterocytes.

  2. Diffusion parameters of indium for silicon process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Rich, T. L.; Stevie, F. A.; Rafferty, C. S.

    1996-11-01

    The diffusion parameters of indium in silicon are investigated. Systematic diffusion experiments in dry oxidizing ambients at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1050 °C are conducted using silicon wafers implanted with indium. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to analyze the dopant distribution before and after heat treatment. The oxidation-enhanced diffusion parameter [R. B. Fair, in Semiconductor Materials and Process Technology Handbook, edited by G. E. McGuire (Noyes, Park Ridge, NJ, 1988); A. M. R. Lin, D. A. Antoniadis, and R. W. Dutton, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 128, 1131 (1981); D. A. Antoniadis and I. Moskowitz, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9214 (1982)] and the segregation coefficient at the Si/SiO2 interface [R. B. Fair and J. C. C. Tsai, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 125, 2050 (1978)] (ratio of indium concentration in silicon to that in silicon dioxide) are extracted as a function of temperature using SIMS depth profiles and the silicon process simulator PROPHET [M. Pinto, D. M. Boulin, C. S. Rafferty, R. K. Smith, W. M. Coughran, I. C. Kizilyalli, and M. J. Thoma, in IEDM Technical Digest, 1992, p. 923]. It is observed that the segregation coefficient of indium at the Si/SiO2 interface is mIn≪1, similar to boron; however, unlike boron, the segregation coefficient of indium at the Si/SiO2 interface decreases with increasing temperature. Extraction results are summarized in analytical forms suitable for incorporation into other silicon process simulators. Finally, the validity of the extracted parameters is verified by comparing the simulated and measured SIMS profiles for an indium implanted buried-channel p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor [I. C. Kizilyalli, F. A. Stevie, and J. D. Bude, IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1996)] process that involves a gate oxidation and various other thermal processes.

  3. Oxygenation of human blood using photocatalytic reaction.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Ramesh, Thangaraj P; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2007-01-01

    This report, as a proof of concept, presents the results of oxygenation of human blood using photocatalytic reaction (at lambda = 352 nm) involving the semiconductor thin film junction: tin doped indium oxide (ITO)/nano titanium oxide (TiO2 in anatase structure). These thin films were prepared at room temperature (300 K) on quartz, using reactive DC Magnetron sputtering techniques from pure metallic targets. The results indicate that when 10.0 mL of blood was exposed to ITO/nano TiO2 (14.32 cm surface area) at a wavelength of 352 nm for 120 minutes, the absolute increase in the whole blood oxygen content was 10.13 mL of oxygen per 100.0 mL of blood. This experiment, to our knowledge, is the first of its kind on human blood. PMID:17667227

  4. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the way you normally talk or behave Fainting spells Seizures (for the first time) SCREENING FOR ... drawn are slight, but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the ...

  5. Transition properties of low-lying states in atomic indium

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.

    2011-07-15

    We present here the results of our relativistic many-body calculations of various properties of the first six low-lying excited states of indium. The calculations were performed using the relativistic coupled-cluster method in the framework of the singles, doubles, and partial triples approximation. The lifetime of the [4p{sup 6}]5s{sup 2}5p{sub 3/2} state in this atom is determined. Our results could be used to shed light on the reliability of the lifetime measurements of the excited states of atomic indium that we have considered in the present work.

  6. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaming E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Sun, Yongli

    2015-09-15

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  7. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaming; Sun, Yongli; Li, Mo

    2015-09-01

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  8. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

  9. Deep Subgap Feature in Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide. Evidence Against Reduced Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Sallis, Shawn; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Williams, Deborah S.; Senger, Mikell; Woicik, Joseph C.; White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.

    2015-01-14

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. In spite of the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. We present evidence against In+ lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In+ species are observed, only In0 nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states.

  10. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436 V, short-circuit current of 24.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5 G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  11. Hybrid aluminum and indium conducting filaments for nonpolar resistive switching of Al/AlOx/indium tin oxide flexible device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang; Wang, Jer-Chyi; Zhang, Zhigang; Ye, Yu-Ren; Pan, Liyang; Xu, Jun; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-02-01

    The nonpolar resistive switching characteristics of an Al/AlOx/indium tin oxide (ITO) device on a plastic flexible substrate are investigated. By analyzing the electron diffraction spectroscopy results and thermal coefficient of resistivity, it is discovered that the formation of aluminum and indium conducting filaments in AlOx film strongly depends on the polarity of the applied voltage. The metal ions arising from the Al and ITO electrodes respectively govern the resistive switching in corresponding operation polarity. After 104 times of mechanical bending, the device can perform satisfactorily in terms of resistance distribution, read sequence of high and low resistive states, and thermal retention properties.

  12. Pulmonary emboli from blood-biomaterial interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.E.; Ramberg, K.; McEnroe, C.S.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1988-07-01

    The problem of surface thrombosis and subsequent embolization remains entrenched as a yet incompletely surmounted barrier to the development of truly satisfactory intravascular prosthetic devices. A baboon ex vivo shunt was used to determine the interaction of Indium-111 platelets and potential biomaterials. The uptake of Indium-111 platelets was monitored continuously by gamma camera scanning. Several of the materials tested demonstrated a saw-toothed pattern of platelet activity, with accumulation followed by rapid decline. Neither PTFE nor Dacron exhibited this pattern. Post shunt scans of the animals' chests showed discrete foci of platelet activity in the lungs, corresponding to each embolic event noted on the material's scan. In conclusion, the search for a smooth surface as a blood material interface may produce a material which accumulates and then sloughs significant platelet aggregates. It is crucial that these materials be subjected to vigorous testing to determine their safety prior to initiation of clinical trials.

  13. p-type conduction in sputtered indium oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Alcala, Rafael; Villuendas, Francisco

    2010-05-10

    We report p-type conductivity in intrinsic indium oxide (IO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates under oxygen-rich ambient. Highly oriented (111) films were studied by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and Hall effect measurements. We fabricated p-n homojunctions on these films.

  14. Technique for depositing silicon dioxide on indium arsenide improves adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Planar array processing of indium arsenide wafers includes dicing into a prescribed geometry, then cleaning and drying, and finally pre-oxidizing in an oxygen atmosphere at 500 degrees C. The last step forms an oxide interface between the InAs surface and a glow discharge deposited layer of silicon dioxide.

  15. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  16. Properties and composition of anodic oxide layers of indium antimonide

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, I.N.; Gat'ko, L.E.; Nikitina, N.G.

    1985-09-01

    In recent years a number of optoelectronic devices based on narrowgap semiconductors of the AIIIBV type have been developed. One of the factors preventing widespread production of such devices is the inadequate study of the effect of the technology on the properties of insulator-semiconductor systems, of which anodic oxide films (AOF)--indium antimonide--are most promising. In this work the authors studied the dielectric properties and chemical composition of indium antimonide AOF as a function of their thicknesses and conditions of formation. It is determined that anodic indium antimonide oxide layers 90-110nm thick have high dielectric properties. It is also determined that an increase of the film thickness above 80100nm is accompanied by a decrease in the relative antimony content. The ratio of indium and antimony in oxide layers depends on the electrical conditions of oxidation of the semiconductor: the relative antimony content increases as a result of a decrease in the field intensity under conditions of constant voltage.

  17. Sub-micronewton thrust measurements of indium field emission thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of three indium field emission thrusters (In-FETs) developed by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (ARCS) have been measured up to 200 muN, 2 mA, and 20 W using a submicronewton resolution thrust stand.

  18. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  19. Correlates of Blood Pressure in Elementary Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Christopher L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This cross-sectional study determined which anthropometric, dietary, and physical fitness variables were the best predictors of blood pressure in 323 white elementary school children. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  20. Indium segregation measured in InGaN quantum well layer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhen; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Wenxin; Cheng, Liwen; Li, Wei; Lu, Wei; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The indium segregation in InGaN well layer is confirmed by a nondestructive combined method of experiment and numerical simulation, which is beyond the traditional method. The pre-deposited indium atoms before InGaN well layer growth are first carried out to prevent indium atoms exchange between the subsurface layer and the surface layer, which results from the indium segregation. The uniform spatial distribution of indium content is achieved in each InGaN well layer, as long as indium pre-deposition is sufficient. According to the consistency of the experiment and numerical simulation, the indium content increases from 16% along the growth direction and saturates at 19% in the upper interface, which cannot be determined precisely by the traditional method. PMID:25339386

  1. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  2. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... typing. The liquid part of your blood without cells (serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type ... ABO typing: If your blood cells stick together when mixed with: Anti-A serum, you have type A blood Anti-B serum, you have type B blood Both anti-A and ...

  3. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. PMID:25997989

  4. Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Dickie, Matthew R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between the two parts, a solder material is used between the bond pads on each side. Solder bumps, composed of indium metal, are typically deposited by thermal evaporation onto the active regions of the device and substrate. While indium bump technology has been a part of the electronic interconnect process field for many years and has been extensively employed in the infrared imager industry, obtaining a reliable, high-yield process for high-density patterns of bumps can be quite difficult. Under the right conditions, a moderate hydrogen plasma exposure can raise the temperature of the indium bump to the point where it can flow. This flow can result in a desirable shape where indium will efficiently wet the metal contact pad to provide good electrical contact to the underlying readout or imager circuit. However, it is extremely important to carefully control this process as the intensity of the hydrogen plasma treatment dramatically affects the indium bump morphology. To ensure the fine-tuning of this reflow process, it is necessary to have realtime feedback on the status of the bumps. With an appropriately placed viewport in a plasma chamber, one can image a small field (a square of approximately 5 millimeters on each side) of the bumps (10-20 microns in size) during the hydrogen plasma reflow process. By monitoring the shape of the bumps in real time using a video camera mounted to a telescoping 12 magnifying zoom lens and associated optical elements, an engineer can precisely determine when the reflow of the bumps has occurred, and can shut off the plasma before evaporation or de-wetting takes place.

  5. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  6. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  7. Use of and Occupational Exposure to Indium in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Cynthia J.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Ronnee N.; Jackson, Matthew V.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009–2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m3 for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of indium nitride and indium gallium nitride materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybus, Elaissa

    The objective of the proposed research is to establish the technology for material growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and fabrication of indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride (InxGa1-xN/GaN) heterojunction solar cells. InxGa1-xN solar cells have the potential to span 90% of the solar spectrum, however there has been no success with high indium (In) incorporation and only limited success with low In incorporation InxGa1-xN. Therefore, this present work focuses on 15--30% In incorporation leading to a bandgap value of 2.3--2.8 eV. This work will exploit the revision of the indium nitride (InN) bandgap value of 0.68 eV, which expands the range of the optical emission of nitride-based devices from ultraviolet to near infrared regions, by developing transparent In xGa1-xN solar cells outside the visible spectrum. Photovoltaic devices with a bandgap greater than 2.0 eV are attractive because over half the available power in the solar spectrum is above the photon energy of 2.0 eV. The ability of InxGa1-xN materials to optimally span the solar spectrum offers a tantalizing solution for high-efficiency photovoltaics. This work presents results confirming the revised bandgap of InN grown on germanium (Ge) substrates and the effects of oxygen contamination on the bandgap. This research adds to the historical discussion of the bandgap value of InN. Using the metal modulated epitaxy (MME) technique in a new, ultra-clean refurbished MBE system, an innovative growth regime is established where In and Ga phase separation is diminished by increasing the growth rate for In xGa1-xN. The MME technique modulates the metal shutters with a fixed duty cycle while maintaining a constant nitrogen flux and proves effective for improving crystal quality and p-type doping. InxGa 1-xN/GaN heterojunction solar cells require p-type doping to create the p-n subcell collecting junction, which facilitates current collection through the electrostatic field created by spatially separated ionized

  9. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of indium phosphide (CAS No. 22398-90-7) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    Indium phosphide is used to make semiconductors,injection lasers, solar cells, photodiodes, and light-emittingdiodes. Indium phosphide was nominated for study because of its widespread use in the microelectronics industry, the potential for worker exposure,and the absence of chronic toxicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to indium phosphide (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 14 weeks or 2 years. The frequency of micronuclei was determined in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to indium phosphide for 14 weeks. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to particulate aerosols of indium phosphide with amass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.2 microm at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/m3 by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week (weeks 1 through 4 and weeks 10 through 14) or 7 days per week (weeks 5 through 9) to accommodate a concurrent teratology study. One male in the 100 mg/m3 group died before the end of the study. Body weight gains of all males and females exposed to 100 mg/m3 were less than those of the chamber controls. As a result of indium phosphide exposure, the lungs of all exposed rats had a gray to black discoloration and were significantly enlarged, weighing 2.7- to 4.4-fold more than those of the chamber controls. Indium phosphide particles were observed throughout the respiratory tract and in the lung-associated lymph nodes. A spectrum of inflammatory and proliferative lesions generally occurred in the lungs of all exposed groups of rats and consisted of alveolar proteinosis, chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Pulmonary inflammation was attended by increased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in the blood. The alveolar proteinosis was the principal apparent reason for the increase in lung weights. Indium phosphide caused inflammation at the base of the epiglottis of the larynx and hyperplasia of the

  10. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  11. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ... your body cannot make enough blood A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which ...

  12. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not there are certain proteins, called antigens, on your red blood cells. Blood is often ... There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If ...

  13. MOCVD growth of gallium nitride with indium surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Dong Jin

    In this thesis research, the effect of indium surfactant on Ga-polar and N-polar GaN films grown at 950 °C by MOCVD on various substrates such as Si-face SiC, bulk GaN, Si(111), and C-face SiC was studied to investigate the stress relaxation mechanism, structural, and optical properties of GaN films which were modified by the indium surfactant. The effect of indium surfactant on GaN films grown on SiC was studied first. In the 1.8 microm thick Ga-polar GaN films grown on lattice-mismatched Si-face SiC substrates utilizing indium surfactant at 950 °C, inverted hexagonal pyramid surface defects, so-called V-defects which consist of six (1011) planes, formed at threading dislocations on the GaN surface, which gave rise to the relaxation of compressive misfit stress in an elastic way. Simultaneously, enhanced surface mobility of Ga and N adatoms with indium surfactant lead to improved 2D growth, which may be contradictory to the formation of surface defects like V-defects. In order to find the driving force for V-defect formation in the presence of indium, a nucleation and growth model was developed, taking into consideration the strain, surface, and dislocation energies modified by indium surfactant. This model found that the V-defect formation can be energetically preferred since indium reduces the surface energy of the (1011) plane, which gives rise to the V-defect formation and growth that can overcome the energy barrier at the critical radius of the V-defect. These Ga-polar GaN films were found to be unintentionally doped with Si. Thus, an investigation into the effect of intentional Si doping at a constant TMIn flow rate on GaN films was also performed. Si turned out to be another important factor in the generation of V-defects because Si may be captured at the threading dislocation cores by forming Si -- N bonds, acting as a mask to locally prevent GaN growth. This behavior appeared to assist the initiation of the V-defect which enables V-defects to easily

  14. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. PMID:25837382

  15. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    SciTech Connect

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  16. Fibrotic gene expression coexists with alveolar proteinosis in early indium lung.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Kiyosawa, Hidenori; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2016-08-01

    Occupational inhalation of indium compounds can cause the so-called "indium lung disease". Most affected individuals show pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease. In animal experiments, inhalation of indium tin oxide or indium oxide has been shown to cause lung damage. However, the mechanisms by which indium compounds lead to indium lung disease remain unknown. In this study, we constructed a mouse model of indium lung disease and analyzed gene expression in response to indium exposure. Indium oxide (In2O3, 10 mg/kg, primary particle size <100 nm) was administered intratracheally to C57BL/6 mice (male, 8 weeks of age) twice a week for 8 weeks. Four weeks after the final instillation, histopathological analysis exhibited periodic acid-Schiff positive material in the alveoli, characteristic of PAP. Comprehensive gene expression analysis by RNA-Seq, however, revealed expression of fibrosis-related genes, such as surfactant associated protein D, surfactant associated protein A1, mucin 1, and collagen type I and III, was significantly increased, indicating that fibrotic gene expression progresses in early phase of indium lung. These data supported the latest hypothesis that PAP occurs as an acute phase response and is replaced by fibrosis after long-term latency. PMID:27308969

  17. Computational study of multi-color InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with continuously varied indium composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppner, Marcus; Bjelica, Marko; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Gallium nitride based light emitting diodes have emerged as powerful devices which could replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps within the next years. The development of phosphor-free white LEDs is an ongoing field of research because of the lack of high efficiency green LEDs. A promising approach is the growth of InGaN/GaN nanowires with a continuously varied Indium content along the structure. The graded mole fraction profile is supposed to yield a multitude of emission colors due to many emission levels which can sum up to white light emission. The formation of strain and polarization charges is reduced because of the incremental varying lattice constants in combination with the facility of lateral relaxation of the wire. We report on the computational analysis of those nanowire structures in order to understand the electroluminescent behavior. The simulation software calculates the electrostatic potential and the carrier densities in the entire structure by solving the Poisson and the drift/diffusion equations in three dimensions. The luminescence is determined on the basis of a free carrier theory and enters the continuity equations as recombination term with strain and polarization effects included. This comprehensive physical model is employed to analyze carrier injection and luminescence for a white light-emitter design.

  18. Quantification of damage due to low-dose radiation exposure in mice: construction and application of a biodosimetric model using mRNA indicators in circulating white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Tanaka, Mika; Yokochi, Kazuko; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Tajima, Katsushi; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry, the measurement of radiation damage in a biologic sample, is a reliable tool for increasing the accuracy of dose estimation. Although established chromosome analyses are suitable for estimating the absorbed dose after high-dose irradiation, biodosimetric methodology to measure damage following low-dose exposure is underdeveloped. RNA analysis of circulating blood containing radiation-sensitive cells is a candidate biodosimetry method. Here we quantified RNA from a small amount of blood isolated from mice following low-dose body irradiation (<0.5 Gy) aimed at developing biodosimetric tools for situations that are difficult to study in humans. By focusing on radiation-sensitive undifferentiated cells in the blood based on Myc RNA expression, we quantified the relative levels of RNA for DNA damage-induced (DDI) genes, such as Bax, Bbc3 and Cdkn1a. The RNA ratios of DDI genes/Myc in the blood increased in a dose-dependent manner 4 h after whole-body irradiation at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy (air-kerma) of X-rays, regardless of whether the mice were in an active or resting state. The RNA ratios were significantly increased after 0.014 Gy (air-kerma) of single X-ray irradiation. The RNA ratios were directly proportional to the absorbed doses in water ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy, based on gamma-irradiation from 137Cs. Four hours after continuous irradiation with gamma-rays or by internal contamination with a beta-emitter, the increased RNA ratios resembled those following single irradiation. These findings indicate that the RNA status can be utilized as a biodosimetric tool to estimate low-dose radiation when focusing on undifferentiated cells in blood. PMID:26589759

  19. Quantification of damage due to low-dose radiation exposure in mice: construction and application of a biodosimetric model using mRNA indicators in circulating white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Tanaka, Mika; Yokochi, Kazuko; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Tajima, Katsushi; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry, the measurement of radiation damage in a biologic sample, is a reliable tool for increasing the accuracy of dose estimation. Although established chromosome analyses are suitable for estimating the absorbed dose after high-dose irradiation, biodosimetric methodology to measure damage following low-dose exposure is underdeveloped. RNA analysis of circulating blood containing radiation-sensitive cells is a candidate biodosimetry method. Here we quantified RNA from a small amount of blood isolated from mice following low-dose body irradiation (<0.5 Gy) aimed at developing biodosimetric tools for situations that are difficult to study in humans. By focusing on radiation-sensitive undifferentiated cells in the blood based on Myc RNA expression, we quantified the relative levels of RNA for DNA damage-induced (DDI) genes, such as Bax, Bbc3 and Cdkn1a. The RNA ratios of DDI genes/Myc in the blood increased in a dose-dependent manner 4 h after whole-body irradiation at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy (air-kerma) of X-rays, regardless of whether the mice were in an active or resting state. The RNA ratios were significantly increased after 0.014 Gy (air-kerma) of single X-ray irradiation. The RNA ratios were directly proportional to the absorbed doses in water ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy, based on gamma-irradiation from (137)Cs. Four hours after continuous irradiation with gamma-rays or by internal contamination with a beta-emitter, the increased RNA ratios resembled those following single irradiation. These findings indicate that the RNA status can be utilized as a biodosimetric tool to estimate low-dose radiation when focusing on undifferentiated cells in blood. PMID:26589759

  20. Ultra-High Efficiency White Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukawa, Yukio; Narita, Junya; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Deguchi, Kouichiro; Yamada, Takao; Mukai, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    We fabricated the high luminous efficiency white light emitting diode (LED) and the high power white LED by using the patterned sapphire substrates and an indium-tin oxide (ITO) contact as a p-type electrode. The high luminous efficiency white LED was the yellow YAG-phosphors-coated small-size (240 × 420 μm2) high efficiency blue LED with the quantum efficiency of 63.3% at a forward-bias current of 20 mA. The luminous flux (Φ), the forward-bias voltage (Vf), the correlated color temperature (Tcp), the luminous efficiency (ηL), and the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of the high luminous efficiency white LED are 8.6 lm, 3.11 V, 5450 K, 138 lm/W, and 41.7%, respectively. The luminous efficiency is 1.5 times greater than that of a tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp (90 lm/W). The high power white LED was fabricated from the larger-size (1 × 1 mm2) blue LED with the output power of 458 mW at 350 mA. Φ, Vf, Tcp, ηL, and WPE of the high power white LED are 106 lm, 3.29 V, 5200 K, 91.7 lm/W, and 27.7%, respectively, at 350 mA. The WPE is greater than that of a fluorescent lamp (25%) in the visible region. Moreover, the luminous flux of the high power white LED reaches to 402 lm at 2 A, which is equivalent to the total flux of a 30 W incandescent lamp.

  1. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) and block blood flow or break loose ( ...

  2. Indium Phosphide Nanocrystals Formed in Silica by Sequential Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Denmark, D.; Ueda, A.; Shao, C. L.; Wu, M. H.; Mu, R.; White, Clark W; Vlahovic, B.; Muntele, C. I.; Ila, Dr. Daryush; Liu, Y. C.

    2005-01-01

    Fused silica substrates were implanted with: (1) phosphorus only, (2) indium only, and (3) phosphorus plus indium ions. Vibrational and electronic characterizations have been performed on the P only and In only samples to obtain an understanding of the thermal annealing behavior in order to obtain a meaningful guide for the fabrication of InP quantum dots (QDs) formed by sequential ion implantation of In and P in SiO{sub 2}. Thermal annealing procedures for InP synthesis have been established and InP quantum dots are confirmed by TEM, XRD and far infrared measurements. Far IR spectra show a single resonance at 323 cm{sup -1} rather than two absorption peaks in its counterpart of bulk InP crystals. The single band absorption is attributed to the surface phonon of InP quantum dots which will appear between transverse optical (TO) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes of the bulk.

  3. Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.S.; Chu, J.-H.; Toney, M.F.; Geballe, T.H.; Fisher, I.R.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

  4. Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.S.

    2010-05-03

    The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

  5. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-01

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (InxO) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In2O3-x) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  6. Determination of series resistance of indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The series resistance of a solar cell is an important parameter, which must be minimized to achieve high cell efficiencies. The cell series resistance is affected by the starting material, its design, and processing. The theoretical approach proposed by Jia, et. al., is used to calculate the series resistance of indium phosphide solar cells. It is observed that the theoretical approach does not predict the series resistance correctly in all cases. The analysis was modified to include the use of effective junction ideality factor. The calculated results were compared with the available experimental results on indium phosphide solar cells processed by different techniques. It is found that the use of process dependent junction ideality factor leads to better estimation of series resistance. An accurate comprehensive series resistance model is warranted to give proper feedback for modifying the cell processing from the design state.

  7. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L. , Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  8. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shouxin; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  9. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  10. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  11. Detection of rejection of canine orthotopic cardiac allografts with indium-111 lymphocytes and gamma scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, H.J.; Rosenbloom, M.; Laschinger, J.C.; Saffitz, J.E.; Cox, J.L.; Sobel, B.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting canine heterotopic cardiac allograft rejection scintigraphically after administration of 111In lymphocytes. To determine whether the approach is capable of detecting rejection in orthotopic cardiac transplants in which labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool may reduce sensitivity, the present study was performed in which canine orthotopic cardiac transplants were evaluated in vivo. Immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine A (10-20 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 2 wk after transplantation. Subsequently, therapy was tapered. Five successful allografts were evaluated scintigraphically every 3 days after administration of 100-350 microCi 111In autologous lymphocytes. Correction for labeled lymphocytes circulating in the blood pool, but not actively sequestered in the allografts was accomplished by administering 3-6 mCi 99mTc autologous erythrocytes and employing a previously validated blood-pool activity correction technique. Cardiac infiltration of labeled lymphocytes was quantified as percent indium excess (%IE), scintigraphically detectable 111In in the transplant compared with that in blood, and results were compared with those of concomitantly performed endomyocardial biopsy. Scintigraphic %IE for hearts not undergoing rejection manifest histologically was 0.7 +/- 0.4. Percent IE for rejecting hearts was 6.8 +/- 4.0 (p less than 0.05). Scintigraphy detected each episode of rejection detected by biopsy. Scintigraphic criteria for rejection (%IE greater than 2 s.d. above normal) were not manifest in any study in which biopsies did not show rejection. Since scintigraphic results with 111In-labeled lymphocytes were concordant with biopsy results in orthotopic cardiac transplants, noninvasive detection of graft rejection in patients should be attainable with the approach developed.

  12. Reduction of indium-111 platelet deposition on Dacron vascular grafts in humans by aspirin plus dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduces platelet accumulation on short-term Dacron vascular grafts in man. To determine whether drug inhibition of platelet deposition is sustained on older grafts, we studied 18 men aged 41 to 87 years who had Dacron aortic bifurcation grafts in place a mean of 43.4 months (range 9.8 to 121.0) before and during short-term therapy with aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid). During both the baseline and drug studies, indium-111 (/sup 111/In) platelet deposition was quantitated by two techniques, standard planar imaging performed at 24, 48, and 72 hr after injection of platelets and single photon emission computed tomographic imaging performed at 24 and 72 hr after injection. All analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. On both the planar and tomographic images, platelet accumulation on the graft was quantitated by a graft/blood ratio that compared activity in the graft to simultaneously collected whole blood /sup 111/In platelet activity. Aspirin plus dipyridamole reduced the tomographic graft/blood ratio at 24 hr (20.6 +/- 3.5 vs 17.3 +/- 2.5) (+/-SEM) and at 72 hr (29.0 +/- 4.8 vs 25.0 +/- 4.1) after injection of platelets (p = .02). Dacron vascular grafts. Similarly, the planar graft/blood ratio was reduced at 24 hr (2.7 +/- 0.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.5), 48 hr (3.7 +/- 0.9 vs 3.1 +/- 0.7), and 72 hr (4.0 +/- 0.9 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8) (p = .04). We conclude that aspirin (325 mg tid) plus dipyridamole (75 mg tid) reduces platelet accumulation on long-term Dacron vascular grafts.

  13. Indium-111 labeled purified granulocytes in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.A.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 labeled leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection. To minimize the potential effects of labeled red blood cells and platelets on image interpretation, the authors prepared purified autologous granulocytes (PG) from 84 ml of blood using Volex enhanced gravity sedimentation and Ficoll-Hypaque double density centrifugation. The labeling efficiency of PG with In-111 tropolone was 90 +/- 9% (mean +/- SD). Imaging was performed 18-24 hours following injection of approximately 445 microcuries of In-111 PG in 26 patients with suspected infection of vascular grafts that had been implanted 12 days to 12 years prior to the study. In ten patients with proven graft infection, seven had positive In-111 PG scans. Ten of 11 patients without infection had negative scans. In five patients with clinically equivocal findings, scan results were positive in one, negative in one, and equivocal in three. A false-positive scan occurred in a patient with an uninfected inflammatory pseudoaneurysm of an aortic graft. These results confirm an earlier report that In-111 PG imaging is a useful technique in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection.

  14. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting; Pietralunga, Silvia M.; Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto; Lourdudoss, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III-V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  15. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Pietralunga, Silvia M.; Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  16. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  17. Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon-sik; Brueckner, Eric; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Kim, Seok; Lu, Chaofeng; Sulkin, Joshua; Choquette, Kent; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Properties that can now be achieved with advanced, blue indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) lead to their potential as replacements for existing infrastructure in general illumination, with important implications for efficient use of energy. Further advances in this technology will benefit from reexamination of the modes for incorporating this materials technology into lighting modules that manage light conversion, extraction, and distribution, in ways that minimize adverse thermal effects associated with operation, with packages that exploit the unique aspects of these light sources. We present here ideas in anisotropic etching, microscale device assembly/integration, and module configuration that address these challenges in unconventional ways. Various device demonstrations provide examples of the capabilities, including thin, flexible lighting “tapes” based on patterned phosphors and large collections of small light emitters on plastic substrates. Quantitative modeling and experimental evaluation of heat flow in such structures illustrates one particular, important aspect of their operation: small, distributed LEDs can be passively cooled simply by direct thermal transport through thin-film metallization used for electrical interconnect, providing an enhanced and scalable means to integrate these devices in modules for white light generation. PMID:21666096

  18. Whiteness in Social Work Education Authentic White Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is guided by the following questions: How do People of Color define and experience White people as "authentic" allies? What does a White ally look like to People of Color? How do White allies view themselves as "authentic" White allies? What experiences lead White people to anti-racism and anti-racist praxis?…

  19. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  20. Optimization of indium bump preparation in infrared focal plane array fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhijin; Si, Junjie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haizhen; Wang, Liwen

    2014-11-01

    Optimization of indium bump preparation in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) fabrication is presented. Reasons of bringing defective pixels during conventional lift-off and cleanout process in fabrication of indium bump are discussed. IRFPAs are characterized by IRFPA test-bench. Results show that defective pixels of InSb IRFPA are owing to indium bumps connecting through indium residue on the surface of wafer. The characteristic and configuration of defective pixels of InSb IRFPA are given and analyzed. A method of reducing defective pixels through optimizing liftoff and cleanout process in InSb IRFPA is proposed. Results prove that this method is effective.

  1. Method for enhancing the solubility of boron and indium in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadigh, Babak; Lenosky, Thomas J.; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas; Giles, Martin; Caturla, Maria-Jose; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Theiss, Silva; Foad, Majeed; Quong, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron and indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.

  2. Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

  3. Thermodynamics of Indium Dissolution Behavior in FeO-Bearing Metallurgical Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yun Soon; Park, Joo Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Indium solubility in the FeO-SiO2-Al2O3-5CaO-MgOsat slag system was measured at 1573 K (1300 °C) to confirm the thermodynamic dissolution behavior of indium at atm. The indium solubility in FeO-bearing slags increased with increasing oxygen partial pressure and decreased with increasing basicity which is in proportion to the activity of FeO. The dissolution of indium in FeO-bearing slags was confirmed to progress according to the following reaction: The enthalpy change for the dissolution of indium in FeO-bearing slag was about -181 kJ/mol, indicating that indium dissolution is exothermic. The indium solubility in the FeO-SiO2-Al2O3-5CaO-MgOsat slag system was minimized as a function of alumina content at a given FeO/SiO2 ratio, which can be explained by the amphoteric behavior of Al2O3 in the slag system. To improve indium recovery by lowering indium loss to the slag phase during the pyro-recycling of In-containing materials using FeO-bearing metallurgical slags, a lower oxygen potential and lower silica content are highly favorable.

  4. Blood flow and blood cell interactions and migration in microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry; Fornleitner, Julia; Gompper, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    Blood flow in microcirculation plays a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological processes and pathologies in the organism. To understand and, if necessary, manipulate the course of these processes it is essential to investigate blood flow under realistic conditions including deformability of blood cells, their interactions, and behavior in the complex microvascular network which is characteristic for the microcirculation. We employ the Dissipative Particle Dynamics method to model blood as a suspension of deformable cells represented by a viscoelastic spring-network which incorporates appropriate mechanical and rheological cell-membrane properties. Blood flow is investigated in idealized geometries. In particular, migration of blood cells and their distribution in blood flow are studied with respect to various conditions such as hematocrit, flow rate, red blood cell aggregation. Physical mechanisms which govern cell migration in microcirculation and, in particular, margination of white blood cells towards the vessel wall, will be discussed. In addition, we characterize blood flow dynamics and quantify hemodynamic resistance. D.F. acknowledges the Humboldt Foundation for financial support.

  5. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American…

  6. White Mold of Chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold of chickpea can occur at either seedling stage or at flowering and pod filling stages. At seedling stage, the disease occurs at the base of the stem causing symptoms like collar rot. Often white mycelial growth around the stem on soil surface is visible. Affected plants wilt and die. ...

  7. The Hidden Curriculum of Whiteness: White Teachers, White Territory, and White Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    This paper suggests that space and spatiality are major features of racial identity and the formation of student resistance. It brings together critical studies of "Whiteness," human territoriality, and theories of resistance in education. The problems between white teachers and students of color can be understood better through a combination of…

  8. Sailing to White Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  9. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  10. Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  11. Measurement of fluorescent white effects and whiteness.

    PubMed

    Anders, G

    1975-01-01

    This report surveys the literature and describes various techniques of whiteness measurement and evaluation in current use. Measuring techniques are described for dealing separately with the effects obtained by bleaching, blueing and fluorescent whitening, and an example is given of the direct quantitative estimation of a fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) on a substrate by measuring reflectance in the ultraviolet region. Another chapter deals with the colorimetric estimation of the whiteness and the shade of a fluorescent white using modern apparatus in conjunction with a programmable minicomputer. A new simple and universally applicab,e formula was worked out: W=D-Y+P-x+Q-y+C which has been successfully used in routine tests and which for the first time gives different weight to whiteness values corresponding to all shade preferences existing in theory. Each user can match the formula to his own preference by appropriate adjustment of the D, P, Q andC values. Y,x and y are the customary colorimetric values as standardized by the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage). It was also found that with another formula the shades of fluorescent whitening effects (green to red tints) may be defined in a simple way. PMID:1064551

  12. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  13. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  14. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  15. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  16. Synthesis and Electroluminescent Property of New Orange Iridium Compounds for Flexible White Organic Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Hyunjin; Kim, Young Kwan; Ha, Yunkyoung

    2015-10-01

    Recently, white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have aroused considerable attention because they have the potential of next-generation flexible displays and white illuminated applications. White OLED applications are particularly heading to the industry but they have still many problems both materials and manufacturing. Therefore, we proposed that the new iridium compounds of orange emitters could be demonstrated and also applied to flexible white OLEDs for verification of potential. First, we demonstrated the chemical properties of new orange iridium compounds. Secondly, conventional two kinds of white phosphorescent OLEDs were fabricated by following devices; indium-tin oxide coated glass substrate/4,4'-bis[N-(napthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl/N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene doped with blue and new iridium compounds for orange emitting 8 wt%/1,3,5-tris[N-phenylbenzimidazole-2-yl]benzene/lithium quinolate/aluminum. In addition, we fabricated white OLEDs using these emitters to verify the potential on flexible substrate. Therefore, this work could be proposed that white light applications can be applied and could be extended to additional research on flexible applications. PMID:26726407

  17. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded. PMID:24458659

  18. Intracellular accumulation of indium ions released from nanoparticles induces oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Due to the widespread use of indium tin oxide (ITO), it is important to investigate its effect on human health. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs), indium chloride (InCl3) and tin chloride (SnCl3) using human lung epithelial A549 cells. Transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were employed to study cellular ITO NP uptake. Interestingly, greater uptake of ITO NPs was observed, as compared with soluble salts. ITO NP species released could be divided into two types: 'indium release ITO' or 'tin release ITO'. We incubated A549 cells with indium release ITO, tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2 and investigated oxidative stress, proinflammatory response, cytotoxicity and DNA damage. We found that intracellular reactive oxygen species were increased in cells incubated with indium release ITO, but not tin release ITO, InCl3 or SnCl2. Messenger RNA and protein levels of the inflammatory marker, interleukin-8, also increased following exposure to indium release ITO. Furthermore, the alkaline comet assay revealed that intracellular accumulation of indium ions induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of ionic indium, but not ionic tin, from ITO NPs in the intracellular matrix has extensive cellular effects. PMID:26378248

  19. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  20. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  1. Materials recovery from waste liquid crystal displays: A focus on indium.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Danilo; Forte, Federica; De Carolis, Roberta; Grosso, Mario

    2015-11-01

    In the present work the recovery of indium and of the polarizing film from waste liquid crystal displays was experimentally investigated in the laboratory. First of all, the polarizing film was removed by employing a number of different techniques, including thermal and chemical treatments. Leaching of indium was then performed with HCl 6N, which allowed solubilisation of approximately 90% In (i.e. 260 mg In per kg of glass) at room temperature, without shredding. Indium recovery from the aqueous phase was then investigated through solvent extraction with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems. Indium extraction tests through the PEG-ammonium sulphate-water system were conducted as a function of PEG concentration, salt concentration and molecular weight of PEG, using 1,10 phenanthroline as a ligand. The experimental results demonstrated that indium partitioning between the bottom (salt-rich) and the top (PEG-rich) phase is quite independent on the composition of the system, since 80-95% indium is extracted in the bottom phase and 5-20% in the top phase; it was also found that when PEG concentration is increased, the ratio between the bottom and the upper phase volumes decreases, resulting in an increase of indium concentration in the bottom phase (at [PEG]=25% w/w, indium concentration in the bottom phase is ∼30% higher than the initial concentration before the extraction). PMID:26239936

  2. Ab initio calculation of the thermal conductivity of indium antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Alonso L.; Xu, Bin; Hellman, Olle; Romero, Aldo H.; Verstraete, Matthieu J.

    2014-12-01

    A theoretical study based on the density functional theory and the temperature-dependent effective potential method is performed to analyze the changes in the phonon band structure as a function of temperature for indium antimonide. In particular, we show changes in the thermal expansion coefficient and the thermal resistivity that agree rather well with experimental measurements. From the theoretical side, we show a weak dependence with respect to the chosen thermostat used to obtain the inter-atomic force constants, which strengthens our conclusions.

  3. Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon electrodes connected by indium phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.; VJ, Logeeswaran; Saif Islam, M.; Li, Xuema; Straznicky, Joseph; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Stanley Williams, R.; Chen, Yong

    2007-09-01

    The authors report the connection of two planar hydrogenated silicon (Si:H) electrodes by intersecting and bridging indium phosphide nanowires (InP NWs). A simple metal-semiconductor-metal photoconductor was used as a test vehicle to measure electrical and optical characteristics of the connected InP NWs. This implementation of III-V compound semiconductor nanowires on Si:H combines the characteristics of a direct bandgap semiconductor with the flexible fabrication processes of non-single-crystal silicon platforms that do not require single-crystal substrates.

  4. Liquid phase synthesis of copper indium diselenide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jakhmola, Priyanka; Agarwal, Garima; Jha, Prafulla K.; Bhatnagar, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    Nanoparticles of Copper Indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}), belongs to I-III-VI{sub 2} family has been synthesized via liquid phase route using ethylenediamine as a solvent. Characterization of as-grown particles is done by XRD, HRTEM, DLS, optical microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the CuInSe2 nanoparticles obtained reveals chalcopyrite structure. Particle size evaluated from dynamic light scattering of as grown particle possessing radius of 90 nm. The bandgap of 1.05eV is obtained from UV-Vis spectrum which will applicable to the solar cell devices.

  5. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  6. Radiation damage in proton irradiated indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1986-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells exposed to 10 MeV proton irradiations were found to have significantly greater radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si. Performance predictions were obtained for two proton dominated orbits and one in which both protons and electrons were significant cell degradation factors. Array specific power was calculated using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure, and projected cell efficiencies. Results indicate that arrays using fully developed InP cells should out-perform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor.

  7. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  8. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  9. Size-dependent electrical conductivity of indium zinc oxide deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young-Woo; Pearton, S J; Norton, D P

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the size-dependent electrical conductivities of indium zinc oxide stripes with different widths from 50 nm to 4 microm and with the same thickness of 50 nm deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The size of the indium zinc oxide stripes was controlled by e-beam lithography. The distance of the two Ti/Au Ohmic electrodes along the indium zinc oxide stripes was kept constant at 25 microm. The electrical conductivity decreased as the size of the indium zinc oxide stripes decreased below a critical width (80 nm). The activation energy, derived from the electric conductivity versus temperature measurement, was dependent on the dimensions of indium zinc oxide stripes. These results can be understood as stemming from surface charge trapping from the absorption of oxygen and/or water vapor, which leads to an increase in the energy difference between the conduction energy band and the Fermi energy. PMID:22849102

  10. Sputtering of the gallium-indium eutectic alloy in the liquid phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumke, M. F.; Tombrello, T. A.; Weller, R. A.; Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.

    1983-01-01

    Watson and Haff (1980) have discussed a theory which is designed to explain quantitatively isotopic fractionation effects observed during sputtering of simple or complex targets. This theory is based on the assumption that most of the atoms sputtered from a surface originate in the top monolayer. The present investigation is mainly concerned with a direct experimental test of that assumption. The sputtering of both solid and liquid phases of gallium, indium, and the gallium-indium eutectic alloy is studied. Results obtained with the aid of ion scattering and Auger spectroscopy show that, in agreement with rough theoretical expectations, the surface monolayer of a gallium-indium alloy with 16.5 percent indium in bulk contains more than 94 percent indium, while the next layer can be only slightly enriched.

  11. The study of selective heating of indium bump in MCT infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Cao, Lan; Zhuang, Fulong; Hu, Xiaoning; Gong, Haimei

    2012-10-01

    Generally the electrical interconnectivity between The Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) device and circuit takes the flip chip technology using indium bump as a connection medium. In order to improve the reliability of the interconnectivity indium melting is a common packaging technique at present. This technique is called reflow soldering. The heating is transferred to the indium bump by heating the device and circuit. This heating process will persist about 10 minutes resulting in the MCT material going through a 10 minutes high temperature baking course. This baking process will strongly degenerate the characteristic of the MCT device. Under this circumstance this article gives a new heating technique for indium bump which is call induction heating melting technique. This method realizes the selective heating. While the indium bump is melted by the conduction heating the semiconductor material such as MCT can't be heated.

  12. Effect of doping of tin on optoelectronic properties of indium oxide: DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath

    2015-06-24

    Indium tin oxide is widely used transparent conductor. Experimentally observed that 6% tin doping in indium oxide is suitable for optoelectronic applications and more doping beyond this limit degrades the optoelectronic property. The stoichiometry (In{sub 32-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 48+x/2}; x=0-6) is taken to understand the change in lattice parameter, electronic structure, and optical property of ITO. It is observed that lattice parameter increases and becomes constant after 6% tin doping that is in good agreement of the experimental observation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the high tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the dispersive nature of the bottom of conduction band of pure indium oxide and decreases the carrier mobility. Optical calculations show that transmittance goes down upto 60% for the tin concentration more than 6%. The present paper shows that how more than 6% tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the optoelectronic property of ITO.

  13. Synthesis and structure of undoped and indium-doped thermoelectric lead telluride nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Undoped and indium (In)-doped lead telluride (PbTe) nanostructures were synthesized via solvothermal/hydrothermal route. The crystalline structure of the as-prepared undoped and In-doped PbTe samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which indicated the formation of face-centered single-phase cubic crystal. A first principle calculation on indium doping shows that the indium atoms are more likely to replace lead (Pb) rather than to take the interstitial sites. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis confirms that indium is incorporated into the PbTe matrix of the indium-doped PbTe samples. The effects of surfactant and synthesis temperature on the structure and morphology of the undoped PbTe were also investigated; it was found that PbTe nanostructures synthesized with the addition of surfactants exhibited uniform shapes and their size increased with the synthesis temperature. PMID:24872808

  14. When White Dwarfs Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Wendy Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate collisions. Observations of individual SNIa, SNIa rates in different galaxy types, and double white dwarf binary systems suggest that mergers or collisions between two white dwarfs play a role in the overall SNIa population. Given the possibility of two progenitor systems (single-degenerate and double-degenerate), the sample of SNIa used in cosmological calcula- tions needs to be carefully examined. To improve calculations of cosmological parameters, the development of calibrated diagnostics for double-degenerate progenitor SNIa is essential. Head-on white dwarf collision simulations are used to provide an upper limit on the 56Ni production in white dwarf collisions. In chapter II, I explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs using the Eulerian grid code FLASH. The initial 1D white dwarf profiles are created assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and a uniform composition of 50% 12C and 50% 16O. The masses range from 0.64 to 0.81 solar masses and have an isothermal temperature of 107 K. I map these 1D models onto a 3D grid, where the dimensions of the grid are each eight times the white dwarf radius, and the dwarfs are initially placed four white dwarf radii apart (center to center). To provide insight into a larger range of physical possibilities, I also model non-zero impact parameter white dwarf collisions (Chapter III). Although head-on white dwarf collisions provide an upper limit on 56Ni production, non-zero impact parameter collisions provide insight into a wider range of physical scenarios. The initial conditions (box size, initial separation, composition, and initial temperature) are identical to those used for the head-on collisions (Chapter II) for the same range of masses. For each mass pair- ing, collision simulations are carried

  15. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments. PMID:27535246

  16. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  17. Beyond Black and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    Black and white conflict is a by-product of a more basic problem: the failure of this society to develop a social system that enables all people to meet their basic human needs at a reasonable level. Until this is done, we will not be able to move beyond black and white. The underlying problem is related to a sudden acceleration of human history…

  18. [Surprising white lesions].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; van der Waal, I

    2011-09-01

    A 46-year-old man appeared with white lesions of the oral cavity. A previously taken biopsy revealed no classifying diagnosis and treatment with mouth rinse produced no improvement. A new biopsy was taken, on which the pathologist performed additional tests. This resulted in the diagnosis 'syphilis'. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and the oral white lesions disappeared. Although nowadays syphilis is rare, special attention is required when noticing these kinds of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:21957637

  19. Uptake of indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody ZME-018 as a function of tumor size in a patient with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, D.J.; Denardo, S.J.; Denardo, G.L.; Goodnight, J.K.; Unger, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of an Indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb), ZME-018, in melanoma tumors in a patient was determined by sequential, quantitative gamma camera imaging. The amount and concentration of In-111 in each tumor changed in a characteristic pattern with time, reaching a peak at day 3 followed by a steady clearance. The concentration of In-111 in the tumor and the ratios of tumor to whole-body or blood decreased as the size of the tumor increased. These results were interpreted to indicate that the fraction of active, perfused tumor decreased as the melanoma lesions increased in size. The maximum number of MoAb molecules bound per melanoma cell was calculated to be abut 35,000. The implications of these observations for radioimmunoimaging and therapy are significant.

  20. Early Changes in Clinical, Functional, and Laboratory Biomarkers in Workers at Risk of Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Healey, Terrance; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Occupational exposure to indium compounds, including indium–tin oxide, can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. However, the early effects of exposure on the lungs are not well understood. Objectives To determine the relationship between short-term occupational exposures to indium compounds and the development of early lung abnormalities. Methods Among indium–tin oxide production and reclamation facility workers, we measured plasma indium, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, chest computed tomography, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Relationships between plasma indium concentration and health outcome variables were evaluated using restricted cubic spline and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results Eighty-seven (93%) of 94 indium–tin oxide facility workers (median tenure, 2 yr; median plasma indium, 1.0 μg/l) participated in the study. Spirometric abnormalities were not increased compared with the general population, and few subjects had radiographic evidence of alveolar proteinosis (n = 0), fibrosis (n = 2), or emphysema (n = 4). However, in internal comparisons, participants with plasma indium concentrations ≥1.0 μg/l had more dyspnea, lower mean FEV1 and FVC, and higher median serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein-D levels. Spline regression demonstrated nonlinear exposure response, with significant differences occurring at plasma indium concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/l compared with the reference. Associations between health outcomes and the natural log of plasma indium concentration were evident in linear regression models. Associations were not explained by age, smoking status, facility tenure, or prior occupational exposures. Conclusions In indium–tin oxide facility workers with short-term, low-level exposure, plasma indium concentrations lower than previously reported were associated with lung symptoms, decreased spirometric parameters, and increased serum biomarkers of lung

  1. Theoretical Study of Indium Compounds of Interest for Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, C. A.; Frazier, D. O.; Backmann, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The structural. electronic and therinochemical properties of indium compounds which are of interest in halide transport and organometallic chemical vapor deposition processes have been studied by ab initio and statistical mechanics methods. The compounds reported include: indium halides and hydrides (InF, InCl, InCl3, InH, InH2, InH3); indium clusters (In2, In3); methylindium, dimethylindium, and their hydrogen derivatives [In(CH3), In(CH3)H, In(CH3)H2, In(CH3)2, In(CH3)2H]; dimethyl-indium dimer [In2(CH3)4], trimethyl-indium [In(CH3)3]; dehydrogenated methyl, dimethyl and trimethylindium [In(CH3)2CH2, In(CH3)CH2, In(CH2)], trimethylindium adducts with ammonia, trimethylamine and hydrazine [(CH3)3In:NH3, (CH3)3In:N(CH3)3, (CH3)3In:N(H2)N(H2)]; dimethylamino-indium and methylimino-indium [In(CH3)2(NH2), In(CH3)(NH)]; indium nitride and indium nitride dimer (InN, In2N2), indium phosphide, arsenide and antimonide ([InP, InAs, InSb). The predicted electronic properties are based on density functional theory calculations; the calculated thermodynamic properties are reported following the format of the JANAF (Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force) Tables. Equilibrium compositions at two temperatures (298 and 1000 K) have been analyzed for groups of competing simultaneous reactions.

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation in musculoskeletal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.; Brown, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    In this article, the mechanism of technetium, gallium, and indium-labeled white blood cell localization in septic processes is detailed, and the method of interpretation of these three isotopes with relationship to musculoskeletal infection is outlined. Specific clinical application of technetium, gallium, and indium-labeled white blood cell imaging for musculoskeletal sepsis is reviewed.

  3. White organic light-emitting diodes based on tandem structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fawen; Ma, Dongge

    2005-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes made of two electroluminescent (EL) units connected by a charge generation layer were fabricated. Thus, with a tandem structure of indium tin oxide/N ,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N ,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/9,10-bis-(β-naphthyl)-anthrene (ADN)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/BCP:Li/V2O5/NPB/Alq3:4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyle-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)4H-pyran (DCJTB)/Alq3/LiF/Al, a stable white light with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates from (0.35, 0.32) at 18V to (0.36, 0.36) at 50V was generated. It was clearly seen that the EL spectra consist of red band at 600nm due to DCJTB, green band at 505nm due to Alq3, and blue band at 435nm due to ADN, and the current efficiency and brightness equal basically to the sum of the two EL units. As a result, the tandem devices showed white light emission with a maximum brightness of 10200cd /m2 at a bias of 40V and a maximum current efficiency of 10.7cd/A at a current density of 3.5mA/cm2.

  4. Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n + p and p + n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9 percent (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AM0 efficiency of 20.5 percent was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 to the 16th power/cu cm, respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n + p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p + n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

  5. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    PubMed Central

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Three absorption bands in the UV region are attributed to the In+ centre: two weak forbidden bands (1S0 → 3P1, 1S0 → 3P2) and a strong allowed band (1S0 → 1P1). The strongest PL excitation band cannot be attributed to the conventional allowed transition to the singlet excited state. Emission decay of the order of microseconds suggests that radiative relaxation occurs from the triplet excitation state. The XAFS analysis suggests that these In+ species have shorter In–O distances with lower coordination numbers than in In2O3. These results clearly demonstrate that In+ exists in a metastable amorphous network, which is the origin of the observed luminescent properties.

  6. Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n+p and p+n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9% (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AMO efficiency of 20.5% was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 the the 16th power/cu cm respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n+p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p+n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

  7. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3−x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  8. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-09-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Three absorption bands in the UV region are attributed to the In+ centre: two weak forbidden bands (1S0 → 3P1, 1S0 → 3P2) and a strong allowed band (1S0 → 1P1). The strongest PL excitation band cannot be attributed to the conventional allowed transition to the singlet excited state. Emission decay of the order of microseconds suggests that radiative relaxation occurs from the triplet excitation state. The XAFS analysis suggests that these In+ species have shorter In-O distances with lower coordination numbers than in In2O3. These results clearly demonstrate that In+ exists in a metastable amorphous network, which is the origin of the observed luminescent properties.

  9. Solder joint reliability of indium-alloy interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kozo; Nakanishi, Teru; Karasawa, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Kaoru; Niwa, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Recent high-density very large scale integrated (VLSI) interconnections in multichip modules require high-reliability solder interconnection to enable us to achieve small interconnect size andlarge number of input/output terminals, and to minimize soft errors in VLSIs induced by α-particle emission from solder. Lead-free solders such as indium (In)-alloy solders are a possible alternative to conventional lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. To realize reliable interconnections using In-alloy solders, fatigue behavior, finite element method (FEM) simulations, and dissolution and reaction between solder and metallization were studied with flip-chip interconnection models. We measured the fatigue life of solder joints and the mechanical properties of solders, and compared the results with a computer simulation based on the FEM. Indium-alloy solders have better mechanical properties for solder joints, and their flip-chip interconnection models showed a longer fatigue life than that of Pb-Sn solder in thermal shock tests between liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. The fatigue characteristics obtained by experiment agree with that given by FEM analysis. Dissolution tests show that Pt film is resistant to dissolution into In solder, indicating that Pt is an adequate barrier layer material for In solder. This test also shows that Au dissolution into the In-Sn solder raises its melting point; however, Ag addition to In-Sn solder prevents melting point rise. Experimental results show that In-alloy solders are suitable for fabricating reliable interconnections.

  10. Anomalous behavior of silver doped indium sulfide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Meril; Jayakrishnan, R.; Ratheesh Kumar, P. M.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Abe, T.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of doping spray pyrolyzed thin films of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} with silver is discussed. It was observed that silver diffused into In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films in as deposited condition itself. Depth profile using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clearly showed diffusion of silver into In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer without any annealing. X-ray analysis revealed significant enhancement in crystallinity and grain size up to an optimum percentage of doping concentration. This optimum value showed dependence on thickness and atomic ratio of indium and sulfur in the film. Band gap decreased up to the optimum value of doping and thereafter it increased. Electrical studies showed a drastic decrease in resistivity from 1.2x10{sup 3} to 0.06 {omega} cm due to doping. A sample having optimum doping was found to be more photosensitive and low resistive when compared with a pristine sample. Improvement in crystallinity, conductivity, and photosensitivity due to doping of spray pyrolyzed In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films with Ag helped to attain efficiency of 9.5% for Ag/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuInS{sub 2}/ITO (indium tin oxide) solar cell.

  11. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  12. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... to check the levels of certain immunoglobulins (or antibodies) associated with multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. This ...

  13. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with /sup 111/In oxide labeled while blood cells and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p less than 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attenuation coefficient of the medullary cavities in the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  14. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  15. Microglia of Prefrontal White Matter in Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Schnieder, Tatiana P.; Trencevska, Iskra; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Stankov, Aleksandr; Mann, J. John; Smiley, John; Dwork, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Immune functions in the brain are associated with psychiatric illness and with temporary alteration of mental state. Microglia, the principal brain immunological cells, respond to changes in the internal brain milieu through a sequence of activated states, each with characteristic function and morphology. To assess a possible association of frontal white matter pathology with suicide, autopsy brain tissue samples from 11 suicide and 25 non-suicide subjects were stained for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), CD68, and myelin. Groups were matched by age, sex, and psychiatric diagnosis. We classified Iba-1-immunoreactive cells on the basis of shape, immunoreactivity for CD68, and association with blood vessels to obtain stereologic estimates of densities of resting microglia, activated phagocytes, and perivascular cells. We found no effect of psychiatric diagnosis but 2 statistically significant effects of suicide: 1) the dorsal-ventral difference in activated microglial density was reversed such that with suicide, the density was greater in ventral than in dorsal prefrontal white matter, whereas in the absence of suicide, the opposite was true; and 2) with suicide there was a greater density of Iba-1-immunoreactive cells within or in contact with blood vessel walls in dorsal prefrontal white matter. These observations could reflect a mechanism for the stress/diathesis (state/trait) model of suicide whereby an acute stress activates a reactive process in the brain, either directly or by compromising the blood-brain barrier, and creates a suicidal state in an individual at risk. They also indicate the theoretical potential of imaging studies in live, vulnerable individuals for the assessment of suicide risk. Further studies are needed to investigate specific phenotypes of perivascular cells and blood-brain barrier changes associated with suicide. PMID:25101704

  16. Fused SPECT/CT imaging of Peri-iliopsoas infection using Indium-111-labeled leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Jennifer; Crawford, Joseph A; Sodee, D Bruce; Bakale, George

    2006-12-01

    Nuclear imaging with In-111-labeled leukocytes has become an instrumental tool in localizing sites of infection and is superior to Ga-67 in localizing abdominal and pelvic abscesses resulting from absence of a normal bowel excretory pathway. Labeled white blood cells (WBCs) localize at sites of infection through diapedesis, chemotaxis, and enhanced vascular permeability and can thus be used to identify infection. The accuracy of this functional imaging modality can be enhanced by fusing SPECT images of labeled WBC with CT images that provide anatomic detail to facilitate reading as illustrated in the case described. PMID:17117077

  17. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... you'd like to help, learn more about blood donation . It's one way to be an everyday superhero and save lives! Reviewed by: Maureen F. Edelson, MD Date reviewed: June 2014 previous ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Health Care: What Do ...

  18. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  19. Formation of Flexible and Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide/Ag/Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Multilayer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Da-Som; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the electrical, optical, and bending characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)/Ag/IGZO (39 nm/19 nm/39 nm) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature were investigated and compared with those of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) (100 nm thick) films. At 500 nm the ITO film transmitted 91.3% and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film transmitted 88.8%. The calculated transmittance spectrum of the multilayer film was similar to the experimental result. The ITO film and IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film, respectively, showed carrier concentrations of 1.79 × 1020 and 7.68 × 1021 cm-3 and mobilities of 27.18 cm2/V s and 18.17 cm2/V s. The ITO film had a sheet resistance of 134.9 Ω/sq and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film one of 5.09 Ω/sq. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was calculated to be 1.94 × 10-3 for the ITO film and 45.02 × 10-3 Ω-1 for the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film. The resistance change of 100 nm-thick ITO film was unstable even after five cycles, while that of the IGZO/Ag/IGZO film was constant up to 1000 cycles.

  20. Formation of Flexible and Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide/Ag/Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Multilayer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Da-Som; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the electrical, optical, and bending characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)/Ag/IGZO (39 nm/19 nm/39 nm) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature were investigated and compared with those of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) (100 nm thick) films. At 500 nm the ITO film transmitted 91.3% and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film transmitted 88.8%. The calculated transmittance spectrum of the multilayer film was similar to the experimental result. The ITO film and IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film, respectively, showed carrier concentrations of 1.79 × 1020 and 7.68 × 1021 cm-3 and mobilities of 27.18 cm2/V s and 18.17 cm2/V s. The ITO film had a sheet resistance of 134.9 Ω/sq and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film one of 5.09 Ω/sq. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was calculated to be 1.94 × 10-3 for the ITO film and 45.02 × 10-3 Ω-1 for the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film. The resistance change of 100 nm-thick ITO film was unstable even after five cycles, while that of the IGZO/Ag/IGZO film was constant up to 1000 cycles.

  1. Pillar Initiated Growth of High Indium Content Bulk Indium Gallium Nitride to Improve the Material Quality for Photonic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFelea, Heather Dale

    The goal of this research was to reduce dislocations and strain in high indium content bulk InGaN to improve quality for optical devices. In an attempt to achieve this goal, InGaN pillars were grown with compositions that matched the composition of the bulk InGaN grown on top. Pillar height and density were optimized to facilitate coalescence on top of the pillars. It was expected that dislocations within the pillars would bend to side facets, thereby reducing the dislocation density in the bulk overgrowth, however this was not observed. It was also expected that pillars would be completely relaxed at the interface with the substrate. It was shown that pillars are mostly relaxed, but not completely. Mechanisms are proposed to explain why threading dislocations did not bend and how complete relaxation may have been achieved by mechanisms outside of interfacial misfit dislocation formation. Phase separation was not observed by TEM but may be related to the limitations of the sample or measurements. High indium observed at facets and stacking faults could be related to the extra photoluminescence peaks measured. This research focused on the InGaN pillars and first stages of coalescence on top of the pillars, saving bulk growth and device optimization for future research.

  2. White coat, patient gown.

    PubMed

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. PMID:24687912

  3. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Lux-Steiner, M.

    2016-03-01

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  4. Growth of indium oxide nanowalls on patterned conducting substrates: towards direct fabrication of gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changlong; Wei, Yuling; Sun, Guoxin; Shao, Baiqi

    2012-05-01

    Nanowall materials are ideal two-dimensional structures with high surface-to-volume ratios and open edge geometries. We first report on the growth and characterization of indium oxide nanowalls on transparent and conducting indium tin oxide substrates. The nanosheets that compose the nanowalls are single-crystalline and are approximately 8 nm in thickness. The density and the lateral dimensions of the nanosheets on the substrate can be controlled by the growth time. Adopting a bridgework-like strategy, we directly construct indium oxide nanowall gas sensors on the patterned indium tin oxide substrates. The pattern lines on the substrates are etched using transparent plastic adhesive tape as shadow mask, which is both simple and cheap in comparison with the conventional photolithography technique. The sensors exhibit fast response/recovery behavior and good reproducibility to NO(2) gas under mild testing conditions, such as room temperature, ambient pressure, dry air background, and 1.5 V dc bias, and can achieve a detection limit as low as 50 ppb. We propose an assumption that the gas adsorption is composed of deep adsorption and probe adsorption to explain the interesting gas-sensing behavior of the indium oxide nanowalls. We suggest that the work reported herein, including the facile growth of indium oxide nanowalls, the bridgework-like strategy to directly construct electronic devices, and the high gas-sensing performance of the indium oxide nanowalls sensors, is a significant step towards the real applications of novel semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:22328146

  5. 111Indium labeling of hepatocytes for analysis of short-term biodistribution of transplanted cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Lee, C D; Vemuru, R P; Bhargava, K K

    1994-03-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is useful for ex vivo gene therapy and liver repopulation. Methods for hepatic reconstitution have recently been developed but optimization of hepatocyte transplantation systems is necessary. To develop systems for noninvasive assessment of the biodistribution of transplanted cells, we labeled hepatocytes with 111indium-oxine. Our initial studies showed that hepatocytes incorporated 111indium-oxine with an efficiency of approximately 20%. After labeling, cell viability was unchanged and 111indium was present in hepatocytes after overnight culture, as well as after intrasplenic transplantation. Transplanted cells were successfully localized by means of scintigraphic imaging. The scintigraphic patterns of cell distribution were different when hepatocytes were transplanted by means of either spleen or internal jugular vein, which deposit cells into separate vascular beds. Quantitative analysis of the biodistribution of 111indium-labeled hepatocytes indicated that within 2 hr of intrasplenic transplantation, cells were predominantly localized in liver and spleen, and occasionally in lungs. To determine whether the rate of intrasplenic cell injection influenced translocation of hepatocytes, we transplanted cells in normal rats. Despite intrasplenic cell injection at a variety of rates, organ-specific distribution of 111indium-labeled hepatocytes remained unchanged. Labeling with 111indium did not affect long-term survival of transplanted hepatocytes. These results indicate that 111indium-labeling of hepatocytes should greatly assist noninvasive analysis in the short-term of the biodistribution of transplanted hepatocytes. PMID:8119703

  6. Design rule of indium bump in infrared focal plane array for longer cycling life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Yanqiu; Si, Junjie; Meng, Qingduan

    2016-05-01

    In light of the proposed equivalent method, a three-dimensional structural modeling of InSb infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) is created, and the simulated strain distribution is identical to the deformation distribution on the top surface of InSb IRFPAs. After comparing the deformation features at different regions with the structural characteristics of IRFPAs, we infer that the flatness of InSb IRFPAs will be improved with a thinner indium bump array, and this inference is verified by subsequent simulation results. That is, when the diameter of indium bump is smaller than 20 μm, the simulated Z-components of strain on the whole top surface of InSb IRFPAs is uniform, and the deformation amplitude is small. When the diameter of indium bump is larger than 28 μm, the simulated Z-components of strain increases rapidly with the thicker indium bump, and the flatness of InSb IRFPAs is worsened rapidly. According to the changing trend of deformation amplitude with diameters of indium bump, and employing element pitches normalization method, a design rule of indium bump is proposed. That is, when the diameter of indium bump is shorter than 0.4 times the element pitch, the flatness of InSb IRFPAs is in an acceptable range. This design rule was supported by different IRFPAs with different formats delivered by several main research groups for achieving a longer cycling life.

  7. Amorphous Indium Selenide Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering: Thickness-Induced Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Han, Myoung Yoo; Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Nam-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The influence of indium composition, controlled by changing the film thickness, on the optical and electrical properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films was studied for the application of these materials as Cd-free buffer layers in CI(G)S solar cells. Indium selenide thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering method. The indium composition of the amorphous indium selenide thin films was varied from 94.56 to 49.72 at% by increasing the film thickness from 30 to 70 nm. With a decrease in film thickness, the optical transmittance increased from 87.63% to 96.03% and Eg decreased from 3.048 to 2.875 eV. Carrier concentration and resistivity showed excellent values of ≥1015 cm(-3) and ≤ 10(4) Ω x cm, respectively. The conductivity type of the amorphous indium selenide thin films could be controlled by changing the film-thickness-induced amount of In. These results indicate the possibility of tuning the properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films by changing their composition for use as an alternate buffer layer material in CI(G)S solar cells. PMID:27483886

  8. Radioimmunoimaging of lung vessels: An approach using indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, S.M.; Martynov, A.V.; Klibanov, A.L.; Slinkin, M.A.; Sakharov, I.Yu.; Malov, A.G.; Sergienko, V.B.; Vedernikov, A.Yu.; Muzykantov, V.R.; Torchilin, V.P.

    1989-10-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody against human angiotensin-converting enzyme was radiolabeled with {sup 111}In via diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid without substantial loss of antigen-binding capacity. This monoclonal antibody designated 9B9 cross-reacted with rat and monkey angiotensin-converting enzyme. Indium-111-labeled 9B9 selectively accumulated 10-20 times greater in the lung than in blood or other organs following intravenous administration in rats. Kinetics of lung accumulation and blood clearance were studied for {sup 111}In-9B9-antibody and compared to that of {sup 125}I-labeled 9B9 in rat. Highly specific accumulation of {sup 111}In-9B9-antibody in the lung of Macaca Rhesus monkeys after intravenous injection was monitored by gamma-imaging. Images of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody 9B9 biodistribution in monkey lung noticeably differ from the images of biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled albumin microspheres. This difference may provide information concerning the state of the endothelium of lung capillaries, which is different from the blood flow characteristics determined with routine microsphere technique.

  9. Computer Analysis of Eye Blood-Vessel Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. J.; White, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapidly diagnoses diabetes mellitus. Photographs of "whites" of patients' eyes scanned by computerized image analyzer programmed to quantify density of small blood vessels in conjuctiva. Comparison with data base of known normal and diabetic patients facilitates rapid diagnosis.

  10. White light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, J.; Schlotter, P.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN LEDs on SiC substrate chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white light emitting diodes (LUCOLEDs). The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta, is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence downconversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic dye molecules and many inorganic phosphors. For white light generation via the LUCOLED principle, the phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(4f1) is ideally suited. The optical characteristics of Ce3+(4f1) in Y3Al5O12(YAG) are discussed in detail. Possibilities to "tune" the white color by various substitutions in the garnet lattice are shortly outlined.

  11. White LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2004-10-01

    Two life tests were conducted to compare the effects of drive current and ambient temperature on the degradation rate of 5 mm and high-flux white LEDs. Tests of 5 mm white LED arrays showed that junction temperature increases produced by drive current had a greater effect on the rate of light output degradation than junction temperature increases from ambient heat. A preliminary test of high-flux white LEDs showed the opposite effect, with junction temperature increases from ambient heat leading to a faster depreciation. However, a second life test is necessary to verify this finding. The dissimilarity in temperature effect among 5 mm and high-flux LEDs is likely caused by packaging differences between the two device types.

  12. Compositional disorder and transport peculiarities in the amorphous indium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givan, U.; Ovadyahu, Z.

    2012-10-01

    We present results of the disorder-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in three-dimensional amorphous indium-oxide films. The amorphous version studied here differs from the one reported by Shahar and Ovadyahu [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.46.10917 46, 10917 (1992)] in that it has a much lower carrier concentration. As a measure of the static disorder we use the dimensionless parameter kFℓ. Thermal annealing is employed as the experimental handle to tune the disorder. On the metallic side of the transition, the low temperature transport exhibits weak-localization and electron-electron correlation effects characteristic of disordered electronic systems. These include a fractional power-law conductivity versus temperature behavior anticipated to occur at the critical regime of the transition. The MIT occurs at a kFℓ≈0.3 for both versions of the amorphous material. However, in contrast with the results obtained on the electron-rich version of this system, no sign of superconductivity is seen down to ≈0.3 K even for the most metallic sample used in the current study. This demonstrates that using kFℓ as a disorder parameter for the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is an ill defined procedure. A microstructural study of the films, employing high resolution chemical analysis, gives evidence for spatial fluctuations of the stoichiometry. This brings to light that, while the films are amorphous and show excellent uniformity in transport measurements of macroscopic samples, they contain compositional fluctuations that extend over mesoscopic scales. These, in turn, reflect prominent variations of carrier concentrations thus introducing an unusual type of disorder. It is argued that this compositional disorder may be the reason for the apparent violation of the Ioffe-Regel criterion in the two versions of the amorphous indium oxide. However, more dramatic effects due to this disorder are expected when superconductivity sets in, which are

  13. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  14. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  15. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  16. White cell design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The White cell is a unit-magnification image relay system consisting of three noncoaxial spherical mirrors of equal curvature. The cell is used to provide a long optical path in a relatively small physical space. Multiple reflections are used, in a manner similar to a unstable laser resonator. A particular application is an optical delay line on the input of a streak camera to allow for the finite triggering time of the sweep start. This paper addresses the first- and third-order properties of the White cell. A displacement sensitivity analysis is included.

  17. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  18. White cell design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, Paul

    1989-11-01

    The White cell is a unit-magnification image relay system consisting of three noncoaxial spherical mirrors of equal curvature. The cell is used to provide a long optical path in a relatively small physical space. Multiple reflections are used, in a manner similar to a unstable laser resonator. A particular application is an optical delay line on the input of a streak camera to allow for the finite triggering time of the sweep start. This paper addresses the first- and third-order properties of the White cell. A displacement sensitivity analysis is included.

  19. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D. . E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan . E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-06-15

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study.

  20. Positron trapping in vacancies in indium doped CdTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gély-Sykes, C.; Corbel, C.; Triboulet, R.

    1991-10-01

    In weakly n-type CdTe(In) crystals grown by the travelling heater method, positrons annihilate in vacancy-type defects with a lifetime of 320 ± 4 ps. The concentration of these native defects varies with the concentration of indium and electron in agreement with the model of self-compensation where the indium donors are compensated by indium-vacancy complexes. These defects are assumed to be (V CdIn) - complexes. The positron trapping in these complexes disappears at low temperature. This phenomenon is attributed to competing trapping of positrons by negative ions which are either residual impurities or intrinsic defects.