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|Individualdifferences in the reading comprehension standards of 90 undergraduates were examined. Students were classified as having a dualistic or relativistic conception of knowledge by attitude measures. Data suggest that epistemological beliefs may dictate choice of comprehension criteria and that these epistemological standards may control…
Differential psychology refers to the objective and quantitative investigation of individualdifferences in behaviour. While the notion that individualdifferences exist can be dated back to Plato in 400 B.C., the systematic study of individualdifference...
|Sex differences and their relationship to individualdifferences were examined for Maccoby and Jacklin's sex differences summaries, for a diverse set of measures of specific cognitive abilities (including verbal ability), and for objective personality assessments of 216 school-age children. Average differences between groups appeared to be…
|These demonstrations stress individualdifferences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individualdifferences: taste blindness,…
This document contains four papers from a symposium on individualdifferences in learning. "Novice and Expert Learning: Impact on Training" (Barbara J. Daley) reports on a study in which 20 novice and expert nurses were interviewed to identify their different learning processes and the factors that facilitated or hindered their learning. The need…
There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individualdifferences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait
Ruben C. Gur; Jan Richard; Paul Hughett; Monica E. Calkins; Larry Macy; Warren B. Bilker; Colleen Brensinger; Raquel E. Gur
There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individualdifferences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1 hour and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individualdifferences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multisite genetic studies and clinical trials.
With the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia as a back-drop, this review discusses the issue of how indivdual differences in its behavioural manifestation should be conceptualised. It begins by reviewing ways of classifying children with dyslexia from a clinical perspective and proceeds to describe the cognitive neuropsychological approach to classification that has focused on the reading and spelling profiles of
This study explored the relation of certain individualdifferences in personality and motivation to individualdifferences in risk taking, and examined changes in these relations as a function of variations in the risk-taking situation. Ss were 72 male 12...
"Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?
This article summarizes the knowledge base with relevance for researchers and practitioners in their efforts to create school environments that effectively adapt to individual learning needs. Recent theoretical and substantive developments are traced in terms of their impact on how individualdifferences in learning are viewed, types of information that are examined and described, and use of this information for
Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individualdifferences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided.
Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.
Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individualdifferences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344
Unities in the processes involved in solving arithmetic problems of varying operations have been suggested by studies that have used both factor-analytic and information-processing methods. We designed the present study to investigate the convergence of mental processes assessed by paper-and-pencil measures defining the Numerical Facility factor and component processes for cognitive arithmetic identified by using chronometric techniques. A sample of 100 undergraduate students responded to 320 arithmetic problems in a true-false reaction-time (RT) verification paradigm and were administered a battery of ability measures spanning Numerical Facility, Perceptual Speed, and Spatial Relations factors. The 320 cognitive arithmetic problems comprised 80 problems of each of four types: simple addition, complex addition, simple multiplication, and complex multiplication. The information-processing results indicated that regression models that included a structural variable consistent with memory network retrieval of arithmetic facts were the best predictors of RT to each of the four types of arithmetic problems. The results also verified the effects of other elementary processes that are involved in the mental solving of arithmetic problems, including encoding of single digits and carrying to the next column for complex problems. The relation between process components and ability measures was examined by means of structural equation modeling. The final structural model revealed a strong direct relation between a factor subsuming efficiency of retrieval of arithmetic facts and of executing the carry operation and the traditional Numerical Facility factor. Furthermore, a moderate direct relation between a factor subsuming speed of encoding digits and decision and response times and the traditional Perceptual Speed factor was also found. No relation between structural variables representing cognitive arithmetic component processes and ability measures spanning the Spatial Relations factor was found. Results of the structural modeling support the conclusion that information retrieval from a network of arithmetic facts and execution of the carry operation are elementary component processes involved uniquely in the mental solving of arithmetic problems. Furthermore, individualdifferences in the speed of executing these two elementary component processes appear to underlie individualdifferences on ability measures that traditionally span the Numerical Facility factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2955071
We examined individualdifferences in interacting and learning from diagrams, multimedia presentations and hypermedia instructional manuals and how these-individualdifferences related to spatial abilities and knowledge. In several experiments, we found t...
Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…
|Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individualdifferences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)|
Individualdifferences in response to pharmacologic treatment limits the usefulness of mean data obtained from randomized controlled trials. These individualdifferences exist even in genetically uniform inbred mouse strains. While stratification can be of value in large studies, the individual patient history is the most effective currently available guide for personalized medicine in psychopharmacology.
The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individualdifferences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individualdifferences exist.
|Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individualdifferences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individualdifferences in attentional control, as reflected by…
Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.
Whereas a variety of research has investigated how individualdifferences moderate attitude change (persuasion) processes, there is a relative dearth of research investigating how such individualdifferences moderate behavior change (compliance) processes. The current research assessed the extent to which two well-studied personality traits predicted susceptibility to the mindlessness technique (Langer, Blank, & Chanowitz, 1978). After completing need for cognition
M. Scott Key; John E. Edlund; Brad J. Sagarin; George Y. Bizer
Evaluated 3 different methods of measuring individualdifferences as moderators of employee reactions to job characteristics. The 3 methods are urban vs rural background, strong vs weak belief in the Protestant work ethic, and high vs low strength for \\
For nearly forty years the generally held belief has been that there were no individualdifferences in forgetting which were not the result of differences in original learning. This rather surprising conclusion was based on Underwood's 1954 article in whi...
Standards in numeracy are a constant concern to educational policy-makers. However, why are differences in arithmetical performance so marked? In "IndividualDifferences in Arithmetic", Ann Dowker seeks to provide a better understanding of why these differences in ability exist, encouraging a more informed approach to tackling numeracy…
This article describes a research program addressing several issues about the role of individualdifferences in working memory and reading comprehension. The studies show a strong positive relationship between measures of working memory capacity and highe...
This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2. PMID:21098629
Most models of affect suggest either inverse or null associations between positivity and negativity. Recent work has highlighted situations that sometimes lead to mixed positive-negative affect. Focusing on the counterpart to these situational factors, the authors explore the individual-difference tendency toward mixed emotions, which they term affective synchrony. In five studies, the authors show that some individuals demonstrate affective synchrony (overlapping experience of positive and negative moods), others a-synchrony (positive and negative mood that fluctuate independently), and still others de-synchrony (positive and negative moods that function as bipolar opposites). These tendencies are stable over time within persons, vary broadly across individuals, and are associated with individualdifferences in cognitive representation of self and of emotions. PMID:17551163
Rafaeli, Eshkol; Rogers, Gregory M; Revelle, William
In an extension of previous studies on deception and deception detection, the present study investigated the relations among individualdifferences, behavioral cues displayed when deceiving and telling the truth, and the perceptions of naive observers. 63 undergraduates were measured on the Self-Monitoring Scale, the Affective Communication Test, the Personality Research Form, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, their acting ability, and their
Individualdifferences on a variety of framing and conjunction problems were examined in light of Slovic and Tversky's (1974) understanding\\/acceptance principle—that more reflective and skilled reasoners are more likely to affirm the axioms that define normative reasoning and to endorse the task construals of informed experts. The predictions derived from the principle were confirmed for the much discussed framing effect
Keith E. Stanovich Richard F. West; Richard F. West
Individualdifference studies suggest that reasoners highest in cognitive capacity favor analytic, normative responses over fallacious, heuristic responses. The present study complemented reasoning accuracy with timing data to obtain an indication of the nature of the reasoning process underlying the response selection. A total of 199 participants were presented with a measure of working memory capacity and a syllogistic reasoning
|The present study examined individualdifferences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…
Current research and though regarding the relationship of individualdifference (ID) factors to achievement in the basic skills is reviewed. Four major categories and nine subcategories of ID factors are defined and serve as the framework for the review: status factors (age, sex, and race, ethnic group, and socioeconomic status); intelligence…
Four studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of individualdifferences in attitudes towards gossip (ATG). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses of responses to a pool of ATG items identified two factors reflecting attitudes about gossip’s Social Value (SV) and Moral Value (MV), which provided the basis for constructing a 12-item ATG scale. In Study 2, the
Electroencephalographic measures consistently show that adults with sensory processing deficits (e.g., schizophrenia) have reduced abilities to gate out repetitive information. However, studies contrasting children with and without disabilities are inconclusive due to large within-group variances. Characterizing individualdifferences may lead to better understanding of sensory gating in children. We examined sensory gating in 22 children ages 5 to 10 years
Wen-Pin Chang; William J. Gavin; Patricia L. Davies
The Department of Health and Human Services ("HHS'' or "Department'') modifies certain standards in the Rule entitled "Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information'' ("Privacy Rule''). The Privacy Rule implements the privacy requirements of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. The purpose of these modifications is to maintain strong protections for the privacy of individually identifiable health information while clarifying certain of the Privacy Rule's provisions, addressing the unintended negative effects of the Privacy Rule on health care quality or access to health care, and relieving unintended administrative burdens created by the Privacy Rule. PMID:12180470
Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individualdifference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation
Thematically related concepts like coffee and milk are judged to be more similar than thematically unrelated concepts like coffee and lemonade. We investigated whether thematic relations exert a small effect that occurs consistently across participants (i.e., a generalized model), or a large effect that occurs inconsistently across participants (i.e., an individualized model). We also examined whether difference judgments mirrored similarity or whether these judgments were, in fact, non-inverse. Five studies demonstrated the necessity of an individualized model for both perceived similarity and difference, and additionally provided evidence that thematic relations affect similarity more than difference. Results suggest that models of similarity and difference must be attuned to large and consistent individual variability in the weighting of thematic relations. PMID:18721916
We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individualdifferences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individualdifferences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individualdifferences.
Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.
Background Certain facial configurations are believed to be associated with distinct affective meanings (i.e. basic facial expressions), and such associations are common across cultures (i.e. universality of facial expressions). However, recently, many studies suggest that various types of contextual information, rather than facial configuration itself, are important factor for facial emotion perception. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine systematically how contextual information influences individuals’ facial emotion perception, the present study estimated direct observers’ perceptual thresholds for detecting negative facial expressions via a forced-choice psychophysical procedure using faces embedded in various emotional contexts. We additionally measured the individualdifferences in affective information-processing tendency (BIS/BAS) as a possible factor that may determine the extent to which contextual information on facial emotion perception is used. It was found that contextual information influenced observers' perceptual thresholds for facial emotion. Importantly, individuals’ affective-information tendencies modulated the extent to which they incorporated context information into their facial emotion perceptions. Conclusions/Significance The findings of this study suggest that facial emotion perception not only depends on facial configuration, but the context in which the face appears as well. This contextual influence appeared differently with individual’s characteristics of information processing. In summary, we conclude that individual character traits, as well as facial configuration and the context in which a face appears, need to be taken into consideration regarding facial emotional perception.
54 TEST-ANXIOUS COLLEGE FRESHMEN WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EITHER (1) DESENSITIZATION WITH INDIVIDUALIZED ANXIETY HIERARCHIES, (2) DESENSITIZATION WITH A SINGLE STANDARD HIERARCHY, OR (3) A NO-TREATMENT CONTROL GROUP. CRITERIA CONSISTED OF SELF-RATINGS OF ANXIETY BEFORE AND DURING EXAMINATIONS, SCORES ON A TEST ANXIETY SCALE, AND FINAL EXAMINATION GRADES. IT WAS FOUND THAT: (1) STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED DESENSITIZATION RATED THEMSELVES AS
A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individualdifferences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individualdifferences in cognitive factors.
Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.
Thematically related concepts like coffee and milk are judged to be more similar than thematically unrelated concepts like coffee and lemonade. We investigated whether thematic relations exert a small effect that occurs consistently across participants (i.e., a generalized model), or a large effect that occurs inconsistently across participants (i.e., an individualized model). We also examined whether difference judgments mirrored similarity
...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard Â§ 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...
...the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH...the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards...
Three studies were conducted to investigate questions concerning which type of individual is most susceptible to errors in skilled (highly practiced) cognitive task performance. The first study was a small pilot project conducted with university students....
Individuals scoring higher in tests of general cognitive abilities tend to perform better on novel and familiar mathematical\\u000a tasks. It has been scarcely investigated how this superior mathematical performance relates to the amount of cognitive resources\\u000a that is invested to solve a given task. In this study we propose that, on novel tasks, individuals with high cognitive abilities\\u000a outperform less
Boris Bornemann; Manja Foth; Judith Horn; Jan Ries; Elke Warmuth; Isabell Wartenburger; Elke van der Meer
The core marker of progress in psychological science is the degree to which our work enhances the welfare of persons. In order to effectively enhance human welfare, one compelling challenge we face is to develop comprehensive models to explain why differentindividuals progress along different life trajectories. Exciting theoretical accounts that describe transitional processes from gene polymorphisms through moment-to-moment behavior are beginning to emerge. These early accounts highlight opportunities to investigate specific transitional steps along that long pathway, the need to understand the universal and the contextual aspects of psychological processes, and the need to define and measure psychological constructs with more precision and clarity. It is likely that creative new research in each of these areas will bring enormous progress over the coming decade.
Results on human performance on the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) from different laboratories show high consistency. However, one exception is in the area of individualdifferences. While one research group has consistently failed to find systematic individualdifferences across instances of TSPs (Chronicle, MacGregor and Ormerod), another group (Vickers, Lee and associates) has found individualdifferences both within TSP performance
Edward P. Chronicle; James N. MacGregor; Michael Lee; Thomas C. Ormerod; Peter Hughes
|As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…
As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…
The interrelationship of computer assisted instruction and individualdifferences was investigated. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Bloom's hypothesis of decreasing individualdifferences under a mastery-learning strategy, and (2) the random walk interpre...
Administered the Test Anxiety Questionnaire and the Omnibus Personality Inventory to 185 college students taking a psychology course in socialization. Ss were then asked to choose 1 of 3 instructional options: lecture, lecture with discussion, or independent study. Ss preferring each option differed on dimensions such as flexibility, autonomy, preference for abstract thinking, and several variables dealing with academic and
|Although the role of individualdifferences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individualdifferences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individualdifference factors that might explain…
The expression of individualdifferences within a population often depends on environmental conditions. We investigated, first, whether there are differences between individual group-living forest tent caterpillars, Malacosoma disstria, that are expressed only in nutritionally unbalanced environments, and second, to what extent these individual behavioural differences influence the strategies used by the group to exploit food resources. We offered groups of
A. DUSSUTOUR; S. C. NICOLIS; E. DESPLAND; S. J. SIMPSON
Response inhibition is thought to improve throughout childhood and into adulthood. Despite the relationship between age and the ability to stop ongoing behavior, questions remain regarding whether these age-related changes reflect improvements in response inhibition or in other factors that contribute to response performance variability. Functional neuroimaging data shows age-related changes in neural activity during response inhibition. While traditional methods of exploring neuroimaging data are limited to determining correlational relationships, newer methods can determine predictability and can begin to answer these questions. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to determine which aspects of neural function predict individualdifferences in age, inhibitory function, response speed, and response time variability. We administered a stop-signal task requiring rapid inhibition of ongoing motor responses to healthy participants aged 9-30. We conducted a standard analysis using GLM and a predictive analysis using high-dimensional regression methods. During successful response inhibition we found regions typically involved in motor control, such as the ACC and striatum, that were correlated with either age, response inhibition (as indexed by stop-signal reaction time; SSRT), response speed, or response time variability. However, when examining which variables neural data could predict, we found that age and SSRT, but not speed or variability of response execution, were predicted by neural activity during successful response inhibition. This predictive relationship provides novel evidence that developmental differences and individualdifferences in response inhibition are related specifically to inhibitory processes. More generally, this study demonstrates a new approach to identifying the neurocognitive bases of individualdifferences. PMID:20661296
Cohen, Jessica R; Asarnow, Robert F; Sabb, Fred W; Bilder, Robert M; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Knowlton, Barbara J; Poldrack, Russell A
10 Energy 2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01...Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63.321 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard Â§...
10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63.321 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard Â§...
Dyads composed of unacquainted females watched a video while snacking on pizza. Their extraversion and self-monitoring scores were used to predict the extent to which individuals within dyads matched each other's food intake. Matching of intake was high irrespective of the personality composition of the dyad. We consider elements of the situation that enhanced matching and whether personality might moderate
C. Peter Herman; Stephanie Koenig-Nobert; Jordan B. Peterson; Janet Polivy
Is individual-based modelling really a new approach in ecology? A large part of the uncertainty surrounding this question is a consequence of imprecisely delimited boundaries between classical and individual-based modelling. Genuine ‘individual-based’ models describe a population made up of individuals that may differ from one another; they also describe changes in numbers of individuals rather than in the population density,
Individualdifferences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individualdifferences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent of individualdifferences in a normal sample of hooded Lister rats. Three experiments utilized variations of a delay discounting task to measure the degree of variation in impulsive choice behavior across individual rats. The individualdifferences accounted for 22–55% of the variance in choice behavior across the three experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3, the individualdifferences were still apparent when behavior was measured across multiple choice points. Large individualdifferences in the rate of responding, and modest individualdifferences in timing of responding were also observed during occasional peak trials. The individualdifferences in timing and rate, however, did not correlate consistently with individualdifferences in choice behavior. This suggests that a variety of factors may affect choice behavior, response rate, and response timing.
Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two expressive individuals and moderately for dyads with one expressive participant. For dyads with two unexpressive participants, there was no evidence for matching behavior. Highly expressive people seem to be able to synchronize with others and thereby allow for close matching. This is the first study to show an influence of personality on matching consumption behavior. PMID:22182829
The authors report a meta-analysis of individualdifferences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individualdifferences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…
This paper proposes the methodology to quantify the individualdifference in temperature regulation of human body for transient simulation of body temperature. Experiments of transient thermal exposure were conducted for four subjects and the characteristics of individualdifference in themoregulatory response were observed quantitatively. As the result, the differences in core temperature and heart rate were significant. For each subject,
|The authors report a meta-analysis of individualdifferences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individualdifferences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…
In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individualdifference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individualdifferences in other measures. The results also showed that,
|Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individualsdiffer from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…
This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standardindividually ventilated cages.
This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standardindividually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403
In order to measure individualdifferences in the use of clothing cues in impression formation, subjects wre shown slides of one model in two outfits. Three types of data were collected; 1) responses on semantic differential scales, 2) subjects' stated conditional probabilities of the likelihood of an individual wearing the particular garments given that the individual pos sessed particular traits
Franklin G. Miller; Richard A. Feinberg; Leslie L. Davis; Kathleen L. Rowold
|This study compared three ways of analyzing individual mother-infant attachment behaviors in order to test the hypothesis that success in the search for stable individualdifferences in attachment behavior is in part a function of the level at which behavior individuality is assessed. Fifty infants were videotaped in the Ainsworth and Wittig…
The thresholds of vibration perception in healthy people may differ significantly depending on individual and constitutional features: age, weight, height, race and gender, and also on various addictions like smoking or alcohol abuse. These variables have not as yet been analyzed in setting Polish standards of vibration perception thresholds used for therapeutical and certification purposes. The aim of the study was to develop a model that could render it possible to assess the normative values of vibration perception, taking account of individual features. The study covered 187 healthy persons free from exposure to vibration. Two methods were used to determine vibration perception thresholds: the standard Polish method and the method based on the ISO 13091-1/2001 standard. The methods differed in the technical parameters (contact force of vibrating probe 1.2 N and 0.1; probe diameter 12 and 5 mm-standard method and the method according to ISO, respectively), the presentation of stimuli (ascending method versus von: Bekesy method) and their frequencies. Vibration perception thresholds were significantly influenced by age (within the range of 63-250 Hz-standard method; 4-250 Hz-method according to ISO), body mass (full range of frequencies--standard method; 4-125-method according to ISO) and height (single frequencies--both methods). A model for determining vibration perception thresholds, taking account of age, height and body mass of study subjects, was developed. The results of the study show that individual and constitutional features should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of the vibration perception examinations conducted for the purpose of occupational disease certification. PMID:12577808
Zamys?owska-Szmytke, Ewa; Sliwi?ska-Kowalska, Mariola; Szymczak, Wies?aw; Dudarewicz, Adam
We investigated the claim that individualdifferences in working-memory capacity reflect limitations on the ability to inhibit\\u000a task-irrelevant information and\\/or to maintain activation in the face of distracting or interfering events. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether high- and low-capacity individualsdiffered in their susceptibility to interference on the Stroop\\u000a task and whether high-capacity individuals employed a strategy for minimizing Stroop interference.
The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence
Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer
Individualdifferences in perceiving, learning, and recognizing faces, summarized under the term face cognition, have been shown on the behavioral and brain level, but connections between these levels have rarely been made. We used ERPs in structural equation models to determine the contributions of neurocognitive processes to individualdifferences in the accuracy and speed of face cognition as established by
Grit Herzmann; Olga Kunina; Werner Sommer; Oliver Wilhelm
This study examined the effect of ethnicity on individualdifferences in achievement goals in a replication of the paradigm used by P. Smiley and C. Dweck (1994) to explore individualdifferences in achievement goals held by young children. The emphasis was on learning goals, which focus effort on mastering new tasks, and performance goals, which…
Stress is a ubiquitous aspect of everyday life. As such, there exists a great deal of variability in the individual response to stress, particularly as a functional cause of depression. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the mechanisms behind individualdifferences in response to stressful events in the attempt to explain differing levels of vulnerability to depression and
In this paper a method for handling individualdifferences in conjoint analysis is described and discussed. This method is a combination of ANOVA and PCA\\/PLS both of which are well-known techniques that can be run in almost all statistical software packages. Main attention will be given to the way individualdifferences in acceptance pattern are interpreted and related to consumer
|Individualdifferences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individualdifferences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the…
|This article concerns individualdifferences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individualdifferences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal…
|The assessment of individualdifferences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individualdifferences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…
Scholars have debated whether social networking websites provide valuable social connections or distract individuals from more rewarding real-life relationships. We propose that examining individualdifferences in one’s tendency to approach versus avoid the perspectives of other people can help resolve this issue: perspective curiosity and perspective defensiveness may predict different patterns of online behaviors. The present study uses a trait
Jordan M. Carpenter; Melanie C. Green; Jeff LaFlam
From a conceptual viewpoint, individualdifferences in susceptibility to motion sickness are determined by differences in the following: initial reactivity (receptivity), ability to adapt to the motion, ability to retain the adaptation during abstinence p...
This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individualdifference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and
Researchers interested in measuring individualdifferences in affective style via asymmetries in frontal brain activity have depended almost exclusively upon the resting state for EEG recording. This reflects an implicit conceptualization of affective style as a response predisposition that is manifest in frontal EEG asymmetry, with the goal to describe individuals in terms of their general approach or withdrawal tendencies.
James A. Coan; John J. B. Allen; Patrick E. McKnight
Individualdifferences in eye movements during picture viewing were examined across image format, content, and foveal quality in 3 experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that an individual's fixation durations were strongly related across 3 types of scene formats and that saccade amplitudes followed the same pattern. In Experiment 2, a similar relationship was observed for fixation durations across faces and scenes,
|This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…
Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.
Partial Contents: Introduction: IndividualDifferences in the Biobehavioral Etiology of Drug Abuse; Genetic Factors in Drug Abuse and Dependece; Genotype-Environment Correlations and Interactions in the Etiology of Substance Abuse and Related Behaviors; A...
This report discusses prediction of individualdifferences in task performance during and subsequent to task practice. Previous literature indicates that pre-practice prediction of post-practice performance declines rapidly as time-on-task increases (for ...
A guiding principle of the work of this panel on multinational coalitions is an acknowledgement of the multitude of factors that can affect teamwork under such challenging conditions. Individualdifferences in cognitive processing is one such factor that ...
The extent to which personality and individualdifferences predict preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media was examined. Personality (e.g., intelligence, aggression) and individualdifference factors (e.g., prior sexual experience) were assessed in 160 undergraduate men. These men also indicated their preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media (e.g., “erotic,” female insatiability, violent). As
Because of the national commitment to educational opportunity, human diversity poses a major challenge to American schools. Snow reviews the state of knowledge in four categories of individualdifferences in aptitude for learning: cognitive abilities, achievement motivation, interests, and creativity. He also briefly notes a variety of other psychological differences and then examines how research on these differences has led
This study examined differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals on a range of personality and individualdifference measures. A community sample of 540 individuals from the southern German-speaking area of central Europe completed a survey consisting of measures of the Big Five personality factors, Need for Uniqueness, Self-esteem, sensation seeking, Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Tattoos, tattoo possession, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that 22% of the total sample possessed at least one tattoo. Further analyses showed that, compared with non-tattooed (n = 420) individuals, tattooed participants (n = 120) had significantly higher scores on Extraversion, Experience Seeking, Need for Uniqueness, and held more positive Attitudes Toward Tattoos, although effect sizes of these group differences were generally small- to medium-sized. These results are considered in relation to the contemporary prevalence of tattoos in socioeconomically developed societies. PMID:23045851
The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints.
Aggregate criteria for individual bioequivalence allow a tradeoff between difference in average bioavailability and reduction in within-subject variability. That is, a large difference in the average bioavailability between a test and a reference formulation can be offset by a sufficient reduction in variability of the test formulation. This offset could allow the test formulation to pass many individual bioequivalence criteria. We have identified 4 possible approaches for dealing with this tradeoff issue: say "No problem," since a reduction in variability is desirable; use disaggregate criteria; use general weighted forms of the individual bioequivalence criteria that weight the variance terms; and change the acceptable upper limits to reduce the impact of scaling to the reference formulation's within-subject variability. A dataset with a 14% increase in average bioavailability and a 48% reduction in within-subject standard deviation is used as an example of these issues. PMID:8996848
Hauck, W W; Chen, M L; Hyslop, T; Patnaik, R; Schuirmann, D; Williams, R
Aim: The aim of this paper was to determine if the total parenteral nutrition (PN) goals for newborns in the first two weeks of lifer were better achieved with individualized prescriptions (IND-PN) or standardized formulations STD-PN prescriptions. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a 16-bed polyvalent pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital, to compare two one-year periods, before and after a move from individualized to standardized formulations. All the prescriptions for newborns who were admitted to our unit on their first day of life and required total PN were evaluated. The primary end-point was the percentage of prescriptions full filling the PN goals defined in the written policy of our unit. Results: More than 3500 prescriptions were included. The goals of PN were better achieved with STD-PN (44.0% vs. 9.4% of the prescriptions)., even after adjustment for term and birth weight. Differences between groups appeared as early as the third day of PN and remained during the first 15 days of PN. Conclusion: The goals of total PN were better achieved with STD-PN. Perhaps because standardized formulations contain fixed and proportional amounts of nutrients, their use results in less deviation from the established policy. PMID:24056376
There are individualdifferences in reasoning which go beyond dimensions of ability. Valid models of cognition must take these differences into account, otherwise they characterise group mean phenomena which explain nobody. The gap is closing between formal cognitive models, which are designed from the ground up to explain cognitive phenomena, and statistical models, which traditionally concern the more modest task
The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individualdifferences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in…
Barnett, Kylie J.; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E.; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P.; Newell, Fiona N.; Mitchell, Kevin J.
Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individualdifferences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited exposure and tested on judgments about relative locations of objects. They also performed a series of spatial and nonspatial component skill tests. With limited learning, performance after route encoding was worse than performance after survey encoding. Furthermore, performance after route and survey encoding appeared to be preferentially linked to perspective and object-based transformations, respectively. Together, the results provide clues to how different skills might be engaged by differentindividuals for the same goal of learning a large-scale environment. PMID:16719662
Individualdifferences in objective effects of noise on performance were analyzed with respect to their distribution, temporal stability, and the precision of measurement to be attained. Seventy-two subjects had to memorize sequences of visually presented digits while being exposed to one of three auditory background conditions which were randomly mixed on a trial-by-trial basis: (1) foreign speech; (2) pink noise; and (3) silence. Individual "irrelevant speech effects," operationalized by the difference in recall errors under speech and in silence, were normally distributed over a wide range extending from slight facilitation to severe disruption. When 25 subjects repeated the experiment after four weeks, the individualdifferences were replicated with a reliability of rtt = 0.45. Internal consistency, a measure of the precision with which individual effects can be measured in a single session, was moderate (alpha = 0.55). However, both retest, and consistency coefficients are severely attenuated by the use of (sound-minus-silence) difference scores, the reliability of which is bound to be considerably lower than that of the original error scores whenever these are correlated. Given that the original error rates in a specific auditory condition can be determined with reliabilities approaching 0.85, it may be concluded that individual performance decrements due to noise can be reliably measured in the "irrelevant speech" paradigm. Self-report measures of noise susceptibility collected to explore potential sources of the large inter-individual variation exhibited only weak relationships with the objectively measured noise effects: Subjects were quite inaccurate in assessing their individual impairment in the three auditory conditions, and a questionnaire-based measure of general noise sensitivity only accounted for a small portion of the variance in objectively measured performance decrements, although in both cases the predictive relationship was much stronger in female than in male subjects. PMID:9348677
Different procedures for setting cut points on achievement test scales provide the standard-setting participants with different information to support the unique judgment task associated with each procedure. This study examined how participants in standard settings used the different information from three different procedures in Kentucky in 2000.…
This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individualdifference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that
Viren Swami; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Stacey Bridges; Adrian Furnham
Describes a study conducted with 14 preschoolers to determine (1) whether all children are competent programers functioning adequately in a LOGO environment and (2) if individualdifferences in learning do exist, whether they can be attributed to children's mathematical aptitude, creativity, cognitive style, and computer or computer-related…
|The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that children learn orthographic structure of words through the experience of phonologically recoding them. The current study is an individualdifferences analysis of the self-teaching hypothesis. A total of 40 children in Grades 2 and 3 (7-9 years of age) completed tests of phonological recoding, word…
Conners, Frances A.; Loveall, Susan J.; Moore, Marie S.; Hume, Laura E.; Maddox, Christopher D.
|This article explores the complex, hierarchical relation among school characteristics, individualdifferences in academic achievement, extracurricular activities, and socioeconomic background on performance on the verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Using multilevel structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we…
|This study used fMRI to examine individualdifferences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…
Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam
The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the attentional demands of word recognition covary with other measures of reading efficiency. Individualdifferences in efficiency were indexed by (a) speed and accuracy of lexical access, (b) obligatory activation of phonological codes, and (c) working memory capacity. The attentional demands of word recognition were measured with a dual-task
People vary in their ability to learn new motor skills. We hypothesize that between-subject variability in brain structure and function can explain differences in learning. We use brain functional and structural MRI methods to characterize such neural correlates of individual variations in motor learning. Healthy subjects applied isometric grip force of varying magnitudes with their right hands cued visually to generate smoothly-varying pressures following a regular pattern. We tested whether individual variations in motor learning were associated with anatomically colocalized variations in magnitude of functional MRI (fMRI) signal or in MRI differences related to white and grey matter microstructure. We found that individual motor learning was correlated with greater functional activation in the prefrontal, premotor, and parietal cortices, as well as in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Structural MRI correlates were found in the premotor cortex [for fractional anisotropy (FA)] and in the cerebellum [for both grey matter density and FA]. The cerebellar microstructural differences were anatomically colocalized with fMRI correlates of learning. This study thus suggests that variations across the population in the function and structure of specific brain regions for motor control explain some of the individualdifferences in skill learning. This strengthens the notion that brain structure determines some limits to cognitive function even in a healthy population. Along with evidence from pathology suggesting a role for these regions in spontaneous motor recovery, our results also highlight potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to maximize plasticity for recovery of similar visuomotor skills after brain injury.
Tomassini, Valentina; Jbabdi, Saad; Kincses, Zsigmond T.; Bosnell, Rose; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Pozzilli, Carlo; Matthews, Paul M.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi
Reliability and validity data are reported for a questionnaire measure of individualdifferences in dominance-submissiveness. The measure was based on an initial set of 457 items which was subsequently augmented by an additional 62 rewritten and new items. The initial pool of items, which was carefully constructed to assure broad generality, contained 64 content groups representing various aspects of dominance-submissiveness.
The goal of the current research program was to select a critical subset of task conditions and individualdifferences variables and evaluate the joint effects of these variables on task performance in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task condi...
In preparation for a conference on learning and individualdifferences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…
Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.
The authors examined developmental and individualdifferences in pure numerical estimation, the type of estimation that depends solely on knowledge of numbers. Children between kindergarten and 4th grade were asked to solve 4 types of numerical estimation problems: computational, numerosity, measurement, and number line. In Experiment 1, kindergartners and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders were presented problems involving the numbers
|Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individualdifferences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…
|In opposition to conceptualizing working memory (WM) in terms of a general capacity, we present four experiments that favor the view that individualdifferences in WM depend on attentional control. High- and low-WM participants, as assessed by the operation span task, learned unrelated sentences for which the subject and predicate of the…
|Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…
This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individualdifferences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with
Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Elizabeth F. Loftus; Chongde Lin; Qinghua He; Chunhui Chen; He Li; Gui Xue; Zhonglin Lu; Qi Dong
A series of studies is presented in an initial attempt to address issues thought to be related to individualdifferences in schematic concept formation (SCF). The first two studies were concerned primarily with task development. It was found that a task w...
|In preparation for a conference on learning and individualdifferences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…
Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.
|Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individualdifference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…
Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.
ObjectivesThe primary objective of the study was to challenge the notion that risk taking populations are homogenous, and that risk taking in sport necessarily reflects the expression of trait sensation seeking. A secondary objective was to examine the potential role of additional individualdifferences, such as self-efficacy and impulsivity, which have traditionally received limited attention.
Research on relapse has often focused either on the momentary context of lapses or on stable traits that predict who will relapse. We examine the relation between the two, analyzing how individualdifferences relate to characteristics of initial lapses, which were recorded nearly in real time by 105 smokers using hand-held computers. More nicotine-dependent smokers lapsed under more negative affect
Saul Shiffman; Mary Hickcox; Jean A. Paty; Maryann Gnys; Tom Richards; Jon D. Kassel
Until recently, variations in life history strategy were studied exclusively at the species level. Although this domain of study has been extended to examine systematic differences in life history strategy among various human ethnic groupings, more recent evolutionary theories of human development and related behavioral genetic work imply substantial within-group individual variation in life history strategy. We constructed a latent
Aurelio José Figueredo; Geneva Vásquez; Barbara Hagenah Brumbach; Jon Adam Sefcek; Beth R. Kirsner; W. Jake Jacobs
\\u000a Technologies that augment human cognition have the potential to enhance human performance in a wide variety of domains. However,\\u000a there are a number of individualdifferences in brain activity that must be taken into account during the development, validation,\\u000a and application of augmented cognition tools. A growing body of research in cultural neuroscience has shown that there are\\u000a substantial differences
This article reviews some of our investigations concerning individualdifferences in temporal information processing. Two different levels of temporal information processing are discussed, namely the low-frequency (i.e., a few seconds time range) and the high-frequency processing level (i.e., some tens of milliseconds range) of temporal information with respect to various experimental paradigms. Evidence has been obtained indicating that the processing
Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individualdifferences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…
To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individualdifferences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:17638471
Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P
Individualdifferences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation are considerable and represent a neurobiological trait. Genetic polymorphisms reported to be predictors have suggested the involvement of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep regulation in determining this trait. We applied mathematical and statistical modeling of these two processes to psychomotor vigilance performance and sleep physiological data from a laboratory study of repeated exposure to 36 h of total sleep deprivation in 9 healthy young adults. This served to quantify the respective contributions of individualdifferences in the two processes to the magnitudes of participants’ individual vulnerabilities to sleep deprivation. For the homeostatic process, the standard deviation for individualdifferences was found to be about 60% as expressed relative to its group-average contribution to neurobehavioral performance impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation period, the group-average effect of the homeostatic process was twice as big as that of the circadian process. In absolute terms, therefore, the impact of the individualdifferences in the homeostatic process was twice as large as the impact of the individualdifferences in the circadian process in this study. These modeling results indicated that individualized applications of mathematical models predicting performance on the basis of a homeostatic and a circadian process should account for individualdifferences in both processes.
Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Bender, Amy M.; Dinges, David F.
Individualdifferences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation are considerable and represent a neurobiological trait. Genetic polymorphisms reported to be predictors have suggested the involvement of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep regulation in determining this trait. We applied mathematical and statistical modeling of these two processes to psychomotor vigilance performance and sleep physiological data from a laboratory study of repeated exposure to 36 h of total sleep deprivation in 9 healthy young adults. This served to quantify the respective contributions of individualdifferences in the two processes to the magnitudes of participants' individual vulnerabilities to sleep deprivation. For the homeostatic process, the standard deviation for individualdifferences was found to be about 60% as expressed relative to its group-average contribution to neurobehavioral performance impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation period, the group-average effect of the homeostatic process was twice as big as that of the circadian process. In absolute terms, therefore, the impact of the individualdifferences in the homeostatic process was twice as large as the impact of the individualdifferences in the circadian process in this study. These modeling results indicated that individualized applications of mathematical models predicting performance on the basis of a homeostatic and a circadian process should account for individualdifferences in both processes. PMID:22239924
Van Dongen, Hans P A; Bender, Amy M; Dinges, David F
The assessment of individualdifferences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individualdifferences in the recognition of the six basic emotions, 'sensitivities to basic emotions in faces.' We attempted to address the two major assessment issues by using morphing techniques and item response theory (IRT). We used morphing to create intermediate, mixed facial expression stimuli with various levels of recognition difficulty. Applying IRT enabled us to estimate the individual latent trait levels underlying the recognition of respective emotions (sensitivity scores), unbiased by stimulus properties that constitute difficulty. In a series of two experiments we demonstrated that the sensitivity scores successfully addressed the two major assessment issues and their concomitant individual variability. Intriguingly, correlational analyses of the sensitivity scores to different emotions produced orthogonality between happy and non-happy emotion recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the independence of happiness recognition, unaffected by stimulus difficulty. PMID:15993402
Experimental studies show that training people to attend to negative stimuli makes them more likely to respond with greater anxiety to stress. The present study investigated this effect in students using measures of cardiovascular responses to stress and examined whether individualdifferences influence the impact of attention training on stress responses. Using a standard dot probe task, 30 participants underwent
Experimental studies show that training people to attend to negative stimuli makes them more likely to respond with greater anxiety to stress. The present study investigated this effect in students using measures of cardiovascular responses to stress and examined whether individualdifferences influence the impact of attention training on stress responses. Using a standard dot probe task, 30 participants underwent
|With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…
With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…
Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and
Volker Grimm; Uta Berger; Finn Bastiansen; Sigrunn Eliassen; Vincent Ginot; Jarl Giske; John Goss-Custard; Tamara Grand; Simone K. Heinz; Geir Huse; Andreas Huth; Jane U. Jepsen; Christian Jørgensen; Wolf M. Mooij; Birgit Müller; Guy Pe’er; Cyril Piou; Steven F. Railsback; Andrew M. Robbins; Martha M. Robbins; Eva Rossmanith; Nadja Rüger; Espen Strand; Sami Souissi; Richard A. Stillman; Rune Vabø; Ute Visser; Donald L. DeAngelis
Experiments were made to determine the degree of constancy of individualdifferences in maze ability over a long span of the rats' life period. The procedure was to run the rats for twenty trials on a 17-blind T-maze (original learning series), then to interpolate an interval of from six to eight months, after which the rats were run again for
Individual variations in head and outer ear size, as well as growth of these structures during development, can markedly alter the values of the binaural and monaural cues which form the basis for auditory localization. This study investigated individualdifferences in the directional component of the head-related transfer function of both adult and juvenile ferrets. In line with previous studies in humans and cats, intersubject spectral differences were found to be reduced by scaling one of the directional transfer functions on a log-frequency axis. The optimal scale factor correlated most highly with pinna cavity height. Optimal frequency scaling reduced interear spectral difference equally well for adult-juvenile comparisons as for comparisons between pairs of adult ears. This illustrates that the developmental changes in localization cue values should be at least partly predictable on the basis of the expected growth rate of the outer ear structures. Predictions of interaural time differences (ITDs) were also derived from the physical dimensions of the head. ITDs were found to be poorly fitted by the spherical head model, while much better predictions could be derived from a model based on von Mises spherical basis functions. Together, these findings show how more accurate estimates of spatial cue values can be made from knowledge of the dimensions of the head and outer ears, and may facilitate the generation of virtual acoustic space stimuli in the absence of acoustical measurements from individual subjects.
The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individualdifferences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individualdifferences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. PMID:23025924
We investigated the claim that individualdifferences in working-memory capacity reflect limitations on the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information and/or to maintain activation in the face of distracting or interfering events. Specifically, we investigated whether high- and low-capacity individualsdiffered in their susceptibility to interference on the Stroop task and whether high-capacity individuals employed a strategy for minimizing Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, we found that high-capacity participants showed substantial interference when conflict trials were infrequent, but almost no interference when conflict trials were frequent. In contrast, low-capacity participants showed substantial interference irrespective of the proportion of conflict trials. In Experiment 2, we found that high-capacity participants experienced substantial negative priming, slow responses when the to-be-named color was the irrelevant word on the previous trial. We discuss these results and their implications for high-capacity individuals' ability to reduce Stroop interference in light of both inhibitory and noninhibitory accounts of negative priming. PMID:12035891
This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individualdifference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that the predictor variables explained a large proportion of the variance in ACSS factors (Adj. R(2) ranging between .31 and .60). In addition, structural equation modelling revealed that distal factors (sex and age) were generally associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery through the mediate influence of more proximate variables (in the first instance, the Big Five personality factors, followed by self-esteem and conformity, and finally self-assessed attractiveness). These results allow for the presentation of a preliminary model integrating personality and individualdifferences in predicting acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:19041287
Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Bridges, Stacey; Furnham, Adrian
The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a set of 7 behavioral decision-making tasks, measuring different aspects of the decision-making process. The tasks were administered to individuals from diverse populations. Participants showed relatively consistent performance within and across the 7 tasks, which were then aggregated into an Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) index that showed good reliability. The validity of
Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Andrew M. Parker; Baruch Fischhoff
Previous reports that the sensitivity to the bitter tasting substance 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is related to the sensitivity to other tastes, to chemical irritants, and to fats and oils have led to adoption of PROP as a measure of general oral sensitivity and as a predictor of dietary habits that could impact health. The results, however, have not been consistent. It was recently discovered that the ability to perceive “thermal taste” (i.e., sweetness from thermal stimulation alone) was associated with higher responsiveness to 4 prototypical taste stimuli but not to PROP. This finding implied that individualdifferences in taste perception are determined in large part by factors other than those related to genetic expression of the PROP receptor. The present study followed up this observation by comparing individualdifferences in perception of 4 prototypical taste stimuli (sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine) and PROP under conditions that also enabled assessment of the reliability of individual intensity ratings of taste. Creaminess ratings of 3 milk products that had different fat contents were also collected to investigate further the relationship between taste and oral somatosensory perception. The results showed that intensity ratings across 2 trials were significantly correlated for all 5 taste stimuli and that averaging across replicates led to significant correlations among the 4 prototypical stimuli. In contrast, the bitterness of PROP was correlated only with the bitterness of quinine. None of the taste stimuli, including PROP, was significantly correlated with ratings of creaminess. These results imply 1) that with the exception of PROP, as few as 2 intensity ratings of common taste stimuli can reveal individualdifferences in overall taste perception and 2) that any relationship between taste and oral sensation is too weak to be detected under the same conditions. Accordingly, the results support other evidence that the genetic factors which determine the ability to perceive PROP do not play a major role in overall taste and oral somatosensory perception.
Many researchers consider costs in shifting attention and mental set to reflect a basic ability to use top-down goal information\\u000a to guide action. Although switch costs have been used as measures of individuals’ executive function, whether common abilities\\u000a underlie task set switching across different types of shifting tasks has not been well studied. In 249 participants, we studied\\u000a whether switch
The objective of this study is to examine the influence of different facets of needs (i.e. self-achievement, power, and affiliation needs) on the relationship between individual dispositions (i.e. independence and interdependence of self) and attitudes to equity (i.e. entitled and benevolent). Data were collected from a sample of 243 Japanese university students. Structural equation analysis and simple regression analysis were
This study investigated individualdifferences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol and explored their relation to several psychosocial variables and to upper-respiratory symptoms. Cortisol and daily experience were assessed for 2 days in 109 healthy employed and unemployed community residents (mean age = 36.4 ± 12.1, 69% female); self-report upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms were assessed for an additional 10
Joshua M. Smyth; Margit C. Ockenfels; Amy A. Gorin; Delwyn Catley; Laura S. Porter; Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Arthur A. Stone
Selective attention is responsible for detecting, localizing and identifying a target while neglecting distractors ,.\\u000a A superior capacity in selective attention contributes to good performance in tasks that require monitoring the environment\\u000a and searching for a target ,,. Since it is our goal to optimize work efficiency, understanding individualdifferences\\u000a in attentional capacity and whether they are mutable is important.
Purpose – This study aims to examine the influence of individualdifferences on self-directed social learning and self-efficacy. Inter-dependent self-construal, agreeableness, and extraversion were expected to predict five ways of self-directed social learning: relating, benchmarking, modeling, identifying, and distancing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The sample consisted of 356 responses from professionals to a questionnaire survey. Using step-wise regression analyses, the effect of
The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individualdifferences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in the subjective synaesthetic experience. An investigation of the inheritance patterns of different types of synaesthesia is likely to elucidate whether a single underlying mechanism can explain all types. This study is the first to systematically survey all types of synaesthesia within a familial framework. We recruited 53 synaesthetes and 42% of these probands reported a first-degree relative with synaesthesia. We then directly contacted as many first-degree relatives as possible and collected complete data on synaesthetic status for all family members for 17 families. We found that different types of synaesthesia can occur within the same family and that the qualitative nature of the experience can differ between family members. Our findings strongly indicate that various types of synaesthesia are fundamentally related at the genetic level, but that the explicit associations and the individualdifferences between synaesthetes are influenced by other factors. Synaesthesia thus provides a good model to explore the interplay of all these factors in the development of cognitive traits in general. PMID:17586484
This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate individualdifferences in the neural underpinnings of sentence comprehension, with a focus on neural adaptability (dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing task demands). Twenty-seven undergraduates, with varying working memory capacities and vocabularies, read sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex under conditions of varying extrinsic working memory demands (sentences alone or preceded by to-be-remembered words or nonwords). All readers showed greater neural adaptability when extrinsic working memory demands were low, suggesting that adaptability is related to resource availability. Higher capacity readers showed greater neural adaptability (greater increase in activation with increasing syntactic complexity) across conditions than did lower capacity readers. Higher capacity readers also showed better maintenance of or increase in synchronization of activation between brain regions as tasks became more demanding. Larger vocabulary was associated with more efficient use of cortical resources (reduced activation in frontal regions) in all conditions but was not associated with greater neural adaptability or synchronization. The distinct characterizations of verbal working memory capacity and vocabulary suggest that dynamic facets of brain function such as adaptability and synchronization may underlie individualdifferences in more general information processing abilities, whereas neural efficiency may more specifically reflect individualdifferences in language experience. PMID:21148612
This paper deals with psychological differences between two cultures, with respect to the differences between individuals in those same cultures. Five principles are presented which describe either actual or probable empirical relationships between within- and between-culture differences, and a possible theoretical account is given for each of the presumed differences. (1) The differences between “cultures” seem “bigger” than the actual
Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individualdifferences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individualdifferences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individualdifferences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.
Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Kramer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Munte, Thomas F.
Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individualdifferences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individualdifferences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individualdifferences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individualdifferences. PMID:21767008
Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded from 2 sites (Cz and Fz) on 17 subjects while awake. Five sound intensities were used (40-50-60-70-80 dB). Regression slopes relating AEP amplitude (N1-P2 component) to stimulus intensity were used to describe augmentation or reduction (A/R) of amplitude with increasing intensity. The individualdifferences thereby obtained have been related with the individual responsiveness to methylphenidate (MPD) measured by the modifications of polygraphic sleep parameters after absorption of this substance. The sleep parameters were recorded under 3 conditions: N1, night of habituation; N2, reference night (placebo); N3, night after 20 mg of methylphenidate (MPD); nights 2 and 3 consisted of a double blind cross-over. For the placebo condition, the lower the A/R slope while awake (and particularly the Fz slope), the higher the sleep efficiency, with scarcity of nocturnal awakening and precocity of the morning awakening. Individualdifferences concerning MPD responsiveness measured with sleep parameter modifications are significantly correlated with the frontal A/R slopes: the wakefulness effect of MPD increases as the frontal A/R slope weakens while a paradoxal drowsiness effect is observed at the other extreme (frontal augmenters). Moreover, sleep modifications due to the first night effect show similarities with those due to MPD and are correlated in the same way with frontal A/R slopes. PMID:6463312
Bruneau, N; Laffont, F; Roux, S; Autret, A; Cathala, H P
Despite growing evidence on the neural bases of emotion regulation, little is known about the mechanisms underlying individualdifferences in cognitive regulation of negative emotion, and few studies have used objective measures to quantify regulatory success. Using a trait-like psychophysiological measure of emotion regulation, corrugator electromyography, we obtained an objective index of the ability to cognitively reappraise negative emotion in 56 healthy men (session 1), who returned 1.3 years later to perform the same regulation task using fMRI (session 2). Results indicated that the corrugator measure of regulatory skill predicted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity. Individuals with greater ability to down-regulate negative emotion as indexed by corrugator at session 1 showed not only greater amygdala attenuation but also greater inverse connectivity between the amygdala and several sectors of the prefrontal cortex while down-regulating negative emotion at session 2. Our results demonstrate that individualdifferences in emotion regulation are stable over time and underscore the important role of amygdala-prefrontal coupling for successful regulation of negative emotion.
Lee, Hyejeen; Heller, Aaron S.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Nelson, Brady; Davidson, Richard J.
...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...
...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...
The authors review findings from the psychology of religion showing that believers' perceived relationships with God meet the definitional criteria for attachment relationships. They also review evidence for associations between aspects of religion and individualdifferences in interpersonal attachment security and insecurity. They focus on two developmental pathways to religion. The first is a "compensation" pathway involving distress regulation in the context of insecure attachment and past experiences of insensitive caregiving. Research suggests that religion as compensation might set in motion an "earned security" process for individuals who are insecure with respect to attachment. The second is a "correspondence" pathway based on secure attachment and past experiences with sensitive caregivers who were religious. The authors also discuss conceptual limitations of a narrow religion-as-attachment model and propose a more inclusive framework that accommodates concepts such as mindfulness and "nonattachment" from nontheistic religions such as Buddhism and New Age spirituality. PMID:20023208
Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R
This research offers an empirical investigation inspired by Butler's theory of melancholy gender (1995) and a revision of this theory (Jay 2007a). Psychoanalytic feminist theory is drawn on to suggest that melancholy and gender are more likely to be associated in female development than in male development, and Freud's theory of melancholy (1917) is taken to suggest that ambivalence predicts individualdifferences in melancholy gender among women. In a longitudinal study of women's adult development, an examination of femininity, depressive symptoms, and ambivalence in attachment was conducted in order to evaluate these claims. Findings show that depressive symptoms and femininity are significantly correlated within the sample, but that individualdifferences in melancholy gender exist. To understand these differences, an analysis was conducted to determine whether ambivalence in attachment accounts for the relation between depressive symptoms and femininity; complementary analyses examined whether low ambivalence in attachment attenuates, or lessens, the relation between femininity and depressive symptoms. Results from these analyses support the notion that it is not the loss and internalization of the same-sex object choice per se that results in melancholy gender in women, as Butler argues; rather, it is the internalization of a lost, ambivalent same-sex attachment that forges the link between melancholy and gender. Narrative material is presented to personify melancholy and unmelancholy gender. PMID:18246763
Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individualdifferences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individualdifferences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None of the existing approaches were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014
McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J Bruce
A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individualdifferences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individualdifferences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288
We conducted an exploratory study to examine the resting electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of pseudoneglect, a phenomenon wherein neurologically intact individuals show greater attentional bias toward the left side compared with the right side of space. We took the resting EEG of 21 college students for 5 min and then had them complete a computerized line perception task, during which we asked them to judge the midpoint of horizontal lines on the screen. We computed EEG asymmetry measures for theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands for each of eight locations (right electrode activity-left electrode activity in the analogous location) and separately regressed these onto the degree of pseudoneglect using stepwise multiple regression analyses. We found significant effects for gamma, theta, and beta bands at location F3/4, indicating greater tonic right midfrontal activation in this location. These findings show that individuals with generally greater right midfrontal resting activation across theta, beta, and gamma bands also demonstrate pseudoneglect during a line perception task. These results lend a novel finding to the pseudoneglect literature, namely an individualdifferences corollary to current active task observations in the field. PMID:23839306
Simon-Dack, Stephanie L; Holtgraves, Thomas; Marsh, Lindsay M; Fogle, Kelly L
A simulation model was designed in which each individual in a group can be programmed with a different set of movement decision rules based on: the distance of others within the group, velocity of individuals, its own previous vector (momentum), and biased (leadership) or random influences. This paper focuses on the role of variability in the group composition and its
Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individualdifferences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individualdifferences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.
Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individualdifference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied.
Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.
This study was conducted to determine if neurological differences between individuals - as measured by brain wave characteristics - are related to their psychological/motivational profiles. The hypothesis was that voltage levels produced by brain wave act...
The relationship between individualdifferences in self-statements and response to self-instruction (SI) and attention diversion (AD) coping strategies for acute pain was investigated. Previous research suggests that an individual's cognitive activity may be an important moderator variable in determining the effectiveness of different coping strategies. Sixty-eight female volunteers were given two cold pressor arm immersions. Subjects were asked to think
Nicholas E. Heyneman; William J. Fremouw; Diane Gano; Frank Kirkland; Linda Heiden
Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individualdifferences in mathematical competence. Twenty-five adult students were selected from a larger pool based on their performance on standardized tests of intelligence and arithmetic and divided into groups of individuals with relatively lower and higher mathematical competence. These groups did not differ in their non-numerical intelligence or age. In an fMRI block-design, participants had to verify the correctness of single-digit and multi-digit multiplication problems. Analyses revealed that the individuals with higher mathematical competence displayed stronger activation of the left angular gyrus while solving both types of arithmetic problems. Additional correlational analyses corroborated the association between individualdifferences in mathematical competence and angular gyrus activation, even when variability in task performance was controlled for. These findings demonstrate that the recruitment of the left angular gyrus during arithmetic problem solving underlies individualdifferences in mathematical ability and suggests a stronger reliance on automatic, language-mediated processes in more competent individuals. PMID:17851092
We have developed a set of upper-limb functional tasks to guide the design and test the performance of rehabilitation technologies that restore arm motion in people with high tetraplegia. Our goal was to develop a short set of tasks that would be representative of a much larger set of activities of daily living (ADLs), while also being feasible for a user of a unilateral, implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. To compile this list of tasks, we reviewed existing clinical outcome measures related to arm and hand function and were further informed by surveys of patient desires. We ultimately selected a set of five tasks that captured the most common components of movement seen in ADLs and is therefore highly relevant for assessing FES-restored unilateral arm function in individuals with high cervical spinal cord injury. The tasks are intended to be used when setting design specifications and for evaluating and standardizing rehabilitation technologies under development. While not unique, this set of tasks will provide a common basis for comparing different interventions (e.g., FES, powered orthoses, robotic assistants) and testing different user command interfaces (e.g., sip-and-puff, head joysticks, brain-computer interfaces). PMID:22773199
Cornwell, Andrew S; Liao, James Y; Bryden, Anne M; Kirsch, Robert F
The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model’s predictions and the data were examined for the “worst performance rule”, the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses.
The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a "fragile effect". Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individualdifferences in control over the task conflict (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading in the Stroop task). We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect-participants with low inhibitory control (i.e., long SSRT) had no facilitation effect or even a reversed one. These results shed new light on the "fragile" facilitation effect and highlight the necessity of awareness of task conflict, especially in the Stroop task. PMID:23416541
This paper examines the behavioral consequences of individualdifferences in persuadability in the health promotion domain. We use a 7-item persuadability instrument to determine participants persuadability score. Based on this score two groups are created: the low and high persuadables. Subsequently, we present 2 studies that test the responses to health-related persuasive messages of both low and high persuadables. The results consistently show that high persuadables comply more to messages with a persuasive content as compared to a neutral message than low persuadables. Even more, both studies indicate lower compliance by low persuadables when persuasive messages are employed. Implications of this possible detrimental effect of the use of persuasive messages for low persuadables are discussed.
Why do some people recognize faces easily and others frequently make mistakes in recognizing faces? Classic behavioral work has shown that faces are processed in a distinctive holistic manner that is unlike the processing of objects. In the study reported here, we investigated whether individualdifferences in holistic face processing have a significant influence on face recognition. We found that the magnitude of face-specific recognition accuracy correlated with the extent to which participants processed faces holistically, as indexed by the composite-face effect and the whole-part effect. This association is due to face-specific processing in particular, not to a more general aspect of cognitive processing, such as general intelligence or global attention. This finding provides constraints on computational models of face recognition and may elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders, such as prosopagnosia and autism, that are associated with deficits in face recognition. PMID:22222218
We investigated individualdifferences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations. PMID:18089197
Background: Hemisphericity or individualdifference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individualdifference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric) mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing (again a right hemispheric mode). The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses, however, indicated that “nonacceptance of emotional responses’ and ‘limited access to emotion regulation strategies” facets of emotion regulation difficulties were best predicted by a preference for the global/synthetic mode of information processing. While others like difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviour, impulse control difficulties, and lack of emotional clarity were best predicted by a preference for visuo-spatial rather than the verbal mode of information processing. Conclusion: Overall, the findings imply that greater preference for right hemispheric mode of information processing as compared to the left is associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions.
Smoking cessation programs might benefit from tailoring messages to individualdifferences in regulatory focus (see Higgins, 1997), but there is little evidence on the stability or convergent validity of regulatory focus measures. In two studies, smokers completed four measures of regulatory focus: (a) Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ); (b) actual-ideal and actual-ought self-discrepancies; (c) response duration in naming name ideal or ought self-guides; and (d) reaction time for lexical decisions about one’s ideal or ought self-guides. Study 1 included a one-month retest. Retest reliability was adequate, but convergent validity was poor. Questionnaire and self-discrepancy measures were unrelated to each other or to the reaction time measures. To facilitate future studies of tailored health behavior change interventions, research is needed to determine whether weak convergent validity resulted from (a) invalidity of some or all of the regulatory focus measures or (b) validity of each for measuring a different aspect of the construct.
Haaga, David A. F.; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara G.; McIntosh, Elizabeth; Ahrens, Anthony H.
Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625
Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D; Williams, Justin H G
...Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? ...Applying for A Standardized Permit Â§ 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized...
The masking level difference (MLD) for a narrowband noise masker is associated with marked individualdifferences. This pair of studies examines factors that might account for these individualdifferences. Experiment 1 estimated the MLD for a 50 Hz wide band of masking noise centered at 500 or 2000 Hz, gated on for 400 ms. Tonal signals were either brief (15 ms) or long (200 ms), and brief signals were coincident with either a dip or peak in the masker envelope. Experiment 2 estimated the MLD for both signal and masker consisting of a 50 Hz wide bandpass noise centered on 500 Hz. Signals were generated to provide only interaural phase cues, only interaural level cues, or both. The pattern of individualdifferences was dominated by variability in NoSpi thresholds, and NoSpi thresholds were highly correlated across all conditions. Results suggest that the individualdifferences observed in Experiment 1 were not primarily driven by differences in the use of binaural fine structure cues or in binaural temporal resolution. The range of thresholds obtained for a brief NoSpi tonal signal at 500 Hz was consistent with a model based on normalized interaural correlation. This model was not consistent for analogous conditions at 2000 Hz. PMID:17297796
Much publicity has been given to the fact that people's economic decisions often deviate from the rational predictions of standard economic models. In the classic ultimatum game, for example, most people turn down financial gains by rejecting unequal monetary splits. The present study points to neglected individualdifferences in this debate. After participants played the ultimatum game we tested for individualdifferences in cognitive control capacity of the most and least economic responders. The key finding was that people who were higher in cognitive control, as measured by behavioral (Go/No-Go performance) and neural (No-Go N2 amplitude) markers, did tend to behave more in line with the standard models and showed increased acceptance of unequal splits. Hence, the cognitively highest scoring decision-makers were more likely to maximize their monetary payoffs and adhere to the standard economic predictions. Findings question popular claims with respect to the rejection of standard economic models and the irrationality of human economic decision-making.
De Neys, Wim; Novitskiy, Nikolay; Geeraerts, Leen; Ramautar, Jennifer; Wagemans, Johan
We report an investigation of individualdifferences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production. PMID:23882229
Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher
We investigated if college students will create false childhood memories, the role of self-knowledge in memory creation, and if there are reliable individualdifferences related to memory creation. Based on information obtained from parents, we asked college students about several true childhood experiences. We also asked each student about one false event and presented the false event as if it was based on parent information. We asked the students to describe all events in two interviews separated by one day. When participants could not recall an event (whether true or false), we encouraged them to think about related self-knowledge and to try to imagine the event. In an unrelated experimental session, the students were administered four cognitive/personality scales: the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS). We found that approximately 25% of the students created false childhood memories. Participants who made connections to related self-knowledge in the first interview were more likely to create false memories. We also found that the CIS and the DES were positively related to memory creation. Factors that decrease one's ability to engage in reality monitoring are related to the acceptance of false events and the creation of false memories. PMID:9640430
Large individualdifferences in pain sensitivity present a challenge for medical diagnosis and may be of importance for the development of chronic pain. Variance in pain sensitivity is partially mediated by genetic factors, but the extent of this contribution is uncertain. We examined cold-pressor pain and contact heat pain in 53 identical (MZ) and 39 fraternal (DZ) twin pairs, and 4 single twins to determine the heritability of the two phenotypes, and the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors affect both pain modalities. An estimated 60% of the variance in cold-pressor pain and 26% of the variance in heat pain was genetically mediated. Genetic and environmental factors were only moderately correlated across pain modalities. Genetic factors common to both modalities explained 7% of the variance in cold-pressor and 3% of the variance in heat pain. Environmental factors common to both modalities explained 5% of variance in cold-pressor and 8% of the variance in heat pain. The remaining variance was due to factors that were specific to each pain modality. These findings demonstrate that cold-pressor pain and contact heat pain are mainly distinct phenomena from both a genetic and an environmental standpoint. This may partly explain disparate results in genetic association studies and argues for caution in generalizing genetic findings from one pain modality to another. It also indicates that differences in pain scale usage account for a minor portion of the variance, providing strong support for the validity of subjective pain ratings as measures of experienced pain. PMID:17692462
Nielsen, Christopher S; Stubhaug, Audun; Price, Donald D; Vassend, Olav; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Harris, Jennifer R
Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN) improves the growth and outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Optimal PN composition, standard (STD-PN) or individualized (IND-PN), is still controversial. Aim: To compare IND-PN and STD-PN as to nutritional and growth parameters, complications and cost. Patients and Methods: 140 VLBW infants were studied. Each of the 70 neonates from the IND-PN group was
Tatiana Smolkin; Giselle Diab; Irit Shohat; Huda Jubran; Shraga Blazer; Geila S. Rozen; Imad R. Makhoul
The Sunk Cost fallacy is a biased committed when individuals base their decisions to stop or continue a course of action solely on past irrecoverable invested costs (i.e., monetary or time-related). Individuals' susceptibility to the Sunk Cost fallacy has been justified as the need to try to avoid appearing wasteful, to avoid appearing…
A number of standards addresses the problem of high-speed data transmission on serial or serial-parallel data lines. Serial-parallel data transmission means the transmitted information is distributed on parallel data lines. Even though several standards exist, there are only a few basic techniques used in most of these standards. This paper is giving an overview of these different basic techniques used in the physical layer of today’s data transmission standards, for example DVI/HDMI, USB2.0, Infiniband, SFI5, etc. [1-9]. The main focus lies on the approaches used for physical signaling, line coding and information synchronization in serial and serialparallel systems. In addition, currently discussed techniques to improve data transmission in the future will be presented.
Most healthy individuals display a subtle spatial attentional bias, exhibiting relative inattention for stimuli on one side of the visual field, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect. Prior work in animals and patients has implicated dopamine in spatial attention asymmetries. The current study therefore examined - in healthy individuals - the relationship between the attentional bias and spontaneous eye-blink rate (EBR), a putative measure of central dopaminergic function. We found that those individuals, who blinked more often under resting conditions, displayed greater preference for the right side of the visual display in a subsequent attention task. This finding may support the idea that the observed attentional bias in healthy individuals reflects asymmetries in dopaminergic circuits, and corroborates previous findings implicating dopamine in spatial attention.
Slagter, Heleen A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Tomer, Rachel
Summary INTRODUCTION: The aim of this project was to develop a standard food model, which can be used not only in experimental settings,\\u000a but also in clinical diagnosis. On the basis of the findings of a systematic literature search, an elastic food model was\\u000a created with the aim of standardizing the size and the elastic properties. Three different eatable jellied products
G. Slavicek; M. Soykher; H. Gruber; P. Siegl; M. Oxtoby
Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activation is adaptive in response to stress, and HPA dysregulation occurs in stress-related psychopathology. It is important to understand the mechanisms that modulate HPA output; yet, few studies have addressed the neural circuitry associated with HPA regulation in primates and humans. Using high-resolution [F-18]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in rhesus monkeys, we assessed the relation between individualdifferences in brain activity and HPA function across multiple contexts that varied in stressfulness. Methods Using a logical AND conjunctions analysis, we assessed cortisol and brain metabolic activity with FDG-PET in 35 adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to two threat and two home-cage conditions. To test the robustness of our findings, we used similar methods in an archival data set. In this data set, brain metabolic activity and cortisol were assessed in 17 adolescent male rhesus monkeys that were exposed to three different stress-related contexts. Results Results from the two studies, revealed that subgenual PFC metabolism (Area 25/24) consistently predicted individualdifferences in plasma cortisol concentrations regardless of the context in which brain activity and cortisol were assessed. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation in subgenual PFC may be related to HPA output across a variety of contexts (including familiar settings and novel or threatening situations). Individuals prone to elevated subgenual PFC activity across multiple contexts may be individuals who consistently show heightened cortisol, and may be at risk for stress-related HPA dysregulation.
Jahn, Allison L.; Fox, Andrew S.; Abercrombie, Heather C.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.
|The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…
To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after
Remus Ilies; David T. Wagner; Frederick P. Morgeson
Objective: Determine the reliability of two different modified (MOD1 and MOD2) testing methods compared to a standard method (ST) for testing trunk flexion and extension endurance. Participants: Twenty?eight healthy individuals (age 26.4 ± 3.2 years, height 1.75 ± m, weight 71.8 ± 10.3 kg, body mass index 23.6 ± 3.4 m/kg2). Method: Trunk endurance time was measured in seconds for flexion and extension under the three different stabilization conditions. The MOD1 testing procedure utilized a female clinician (70.3 kg) and MOD2 utilized a male clinician (90.7 kg) to provide stabilization as opposed to the ST method of belt stabilization. Results: No significant differences occurred between flexion and extension times. Intraclass correlations (ICCs3,1) for the different testing conditions ranged from .79 to .95 (p <.000) and are found in Table 3. Concurrent validity using the ST flexion times as the gold standard coefficients were .95 for MOD1 and .90 for MOD2. For ST extension, coefficients were .91 and .80, for MOD1 and MOD2 respectively (p <.01). Conclusions: These methods proved to be a reliable substitute for previously accepted ST testing methods in normal college?aged individuals. These modified testing procedures can be implemented in athletic training rooms and weight rooms lacking appropriate tables for the ST testing. Level of Evidence: 3
Krier, Amber D.; Nelson, Julie A.; Rogers, Michael A.; Stuke, Zachariah O.; Smith, Barbara S.
|Relationships between verbal ability, semantic category clustering, and speed of retrieval were studied. Lists of 30 words were presented individually to subjects with high- and low-verbal ability under free recall, delayed free recall, and clustering recall conditions. In the first stage of recall, high verbals displayed a significantly higher…
In the current work we asked whether executive function, as measured by tests of working memory capacity, might benefit from an acute bout of exercise and, more specifically, whether individuals who are lower or higher in working memory to begin with would be more or less affected by an exercise manipulation. Healthy adults completed working memory measures in a nonexercise
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced
The present work aims to establish a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms involved in avoiding distraction from speech and nonspeech sounds. Although mixed results have been presented by research investigating the hypothesis that individuals with superior working memory abilities are better able to avoid acoustic distraction, we found that working memory correlated with some aspects of performance during distraction
Emily M. Elliott; Katie M. Barrilleaux; Nelson Cowan
For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…
|The notion of language as a complex adaptive system has been conceived within an agent-based framework, which highlights the significance of individual-level variation in the characteristics and contextual circumstances of the learner/speaker. Yet, in spite of this emphasis, currently we know relatively little about the interplay among language,…
Introduction. Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology.Methods. Twenty-one
Devin Blair Terhune; Etzel Cardeña; Magnus Lindgren
Male and female hooded rats were evaluated individually for performance in burrowing, food hoarding, exploration, and insect predation in the laboratory. The results were that (a) performance in each of these behaviors was distributed over a wide range; (b) females as a group had significantly better burrowing and insect predation performance than did males; (c) there were significant correlations between
Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from different habitats have been observed to differ in shoaling behavior, both in the wild and in laboratory studies. In the present study, we surveyed the shoaling behavior of sticklebacks from a variety of marine, lake, and stream habitats throughout the Pacific Northwest. We tested the shoaling tendencies of 113 wild-caught sticklebacks from 13 populations using a laboratory assay that was based on other published shoaling assays in sticklebacks. Using traditional behavioral measures for this assay, such as time spent shoaling and mean position in the tank, we were unable to find population differences in shoaling behavior. However, simple plotting techniques revealed differences in spatial distributions during the assay. When we collapsed individual trials into population-level data sets and applied information theoretic measurements, we found significant behavioral differences between populations. For example, entropy estimates confirm that populations display differences in the extent of clustering at various tank positions. Using log-likelihood analysis, we show that these population-level observations reflect consistent differences in individual behavioral patterns that can be difficult to discriminate using standard measures. The analytical techniques we describe may help improve the detection of potential behavioral differences between fish groups in future studies.
Wark, Abigail R.; Wark, Barry J.; Lageson, Tessa J.
The main objective of the HIPAA Privacy Rule is to provide a uniform and simplified minimum standard for the privacy of individually identifiable health information. Five broad categories are covered: boundaries, security, consumer control, accountability and public responsibility. Compliance with the Privacy Rule includes appointing a security official, making some basic assessments about a fund's current policies and procedures, assessing security protocols for network systems, developing a participant complaint mechanism and creating an internal grievance procedure for employer action and employee whistle-blowing. At this writing, although the final standards are still under debate, most health care plans should accept the regulation and begin compliance procedures. Successful implementation of the Privacy Rule can streamline fund operations and give participants the added security and peace of mind they demand. PMID:12219566
Based on R. G. Lord and P. E. Levy (1994), this study investigated the roles of conscious and unconscious suppression processes in self-regulation. As hypothesized, both action–state orientation (reflecting conscious suppression processes) and negative priming (reflecting unconscious suppression processes) had significant positive relationships with perceived self-regulatory success across multiple life domains. The results suggest that individuals who can effectively initiate
James M. Diefendorff; Robert G. Lord; Emily T. Hepburn; Joseph S. Quickle; Rosalie J. Hall; Raymond E. Sanders
Tested the prediction that only individuals whose past behaviors have been relatively invariant (low behavioral variability) and who tend to infer their attitudes from those past behaviors (low self-monitoring) would express attitudes that summarize past behaviors and, hence, strongly predict future behaviors. In the 1st session, 103 undergraduates completed a self-monitoring scale. Ss' attitudes toward religion were also assessed, and
\\u000a Children go about learning language in different ways and at different rates. Brown’s (1973) Eve had utterances averaging\\u000a more than four morphemes when she was a little over 2 years old; Adam’s utterances did not even quite reach that length when\\u000a he was 3 years and 8 months old. Are such variations due to different neurological organization, different general cognitive
People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity [RS]) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high compared to low individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or nonsocial stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767
Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N
Individualdifferences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009; Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, Towler, et al., 2009; Welcome et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioural classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individualdifferences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralisation profiles. These findings generalised to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard participant variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. A total of 17 participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioural profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterise such individuals. PMID:22385144
Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E; Leonard, Christiana M
Individualdifferences in reading and cerebral lateralization were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments, divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behavior correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, et al., 2009a,b; Welcome, et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioral classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individualdifferences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralization profiles. These findings generalized to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard subject variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. Seventeen participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioral profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterize such individuals.
Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced 119 child sexual abuse myths, some with overlapping themes. Coders grouped myths into four categories: (a) minimizations or exaggerations of the extent of harm child sexual abuse poses, (b) denials of the extent of child sexual abuse, (c) diffusions of perpetrator blame, and (d) perpetrator stereotypes. This review provides available data regarding the prevalence for these myths, empirical research that refutes or confirms myth categories, and considerations of cultural contexts and implications. PMID:21113832
Rapid detection of evolutionarily relevant threats (e.g., fearful faces) is important for human survival. The ability to rapidly detect fearful faces exhibits high variability across individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between behavioral detection ability and brain activity, using both event-related potential (ERP) and event-related oscillation (ERO) measurements. Faces with fearful or neutral facial expressions were presented for 17 ms or 200 ms in a backward masking paradigm. Forty-two participants were required to discriminate facial expressions of the masked faces. The behavioral sensitivity index d' showed that the detection ability to rapidly presented and masked fearful faces varied across participants. The ANOVA analyses showed that the facial expression, hemisphere, and presentation duration affected the grand-mean ERP (N1, P1, and N170) and ERO (below 20 Hz and lasted from 100 ms to 250 ms post-stimulus, mainly in theta band) brain activity. More importantly, the overall detection ability of 42 subjects was significantly correlated with the emotion effect (i.e., fearful vs. neutral) on ERP (r?=?0.403) and ERO (r?=?0.552) measurements. A higher d' value was corresponding to a larger size of the emotional effect (i.e., fearful – neutral) of N170 amplitude and a larger size of the emotional effect of the specific ERO spectral power at the right hemisphere. The present results suggested a close link between behavioral detection ability and the N170 amplitude as well as the ERO spectral power below 20 Hz in individuals. The emotional effect size between fearful and neutral faces in brain activity may reflect the level of conscious awareness of fearful faces.
Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission-fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive 'chur' calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation-discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of differentindividuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individualdifferences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445
Two experiments were performed to examine (a) the encoding function of note-taking and (b) processing differences between successful and less successful students in lecture situations. In the first experiment, subjects either took notes or listened during a lecture. Different memory patterns were found for these two groups, with note-takers recalling many more high-importance propositions than low-importance propositions and non-note-takers recalling
This research examined achievement treatment interaction (ATI) between individualdifferences and instructional methods on the cognitive processing (i.e., macroprocessing) of instruction. Individualdifferences in reading, prior knowledge, and anxiety wer...
The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI), within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53–93 years old). Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r?=?0.64 and r?=?0.55 respectively), relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain.
Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Baddeley, Roland J.; Jones, Derek K.; Aggleton, John P.; O'Sullivan, Michael J.
Two hundred second- to fifth-grade students (aged approximately 7 to 11 years) spent 29 h in a computer-assisted remedial reading program that compared benefits from accurate, speech-supported reading in context, with and without explicit phonological training. Children in the "accurate-reading-in-context" condition spent 22 individualized computer hours reading stories and 7 small-group hours learning comprehension strategies. Children in the "phonological-analysis" condition learned phonological strategies in 7 small-group hours, and divided their computer time between phonological exercises and story reading. Phonologically trained children gained more in phonological skills and untimed word reading; children with more contextual reading gained more in time-limited word reading. Lower level readers gained more, and benefited more from phonological training, than higher level readers. In follow-up testing, most children maintained or improved their levels, but not their rates, of training gains. Phonologically trained children scored higher on phonological decoding, but children in both conditions scored equivalently on word reading. PMID:11023657
A growing number of investigators explore evolutionary psychological hypotheses concerning the avoidance of rape using self-report measures of behavior. Among the most recent and most ambitious, is the work of McKibbin et al. (2011). McKibbin et al. presented evidence supporting their predictions that such behaviors would vary according to the individual's physical attractiveness, relationship status, and proximity to kin. In addition, McKibbin et al. predicted, but failed to find evidence, that age would exercise a similar influence. We question McKibbin et al.'s position on both theoretical and empirical grounds, arguing that (1) two of their predictions do not rule out alternative explanations, and (2) their key supporting findings may well be artifacts of their measurement instrument, the Rape Avoidance Inventory (RAI). Employing new empirical evidence derived from a broader sample of U.S. women, we simultaneously tested McKibbin et al.'s predictions and compared the RAI to alternative dependent measures. We found that McKibbin et al.'s substantive predictions were not supported, and suggest that there may be limits to the utility of the RAI beyond one specific demographic category. PMID:22722957
Accurate data on evacuation activities are required under visually handicapped conditions to increase the certainty of the fire performance-based designs and evacuation calculation models. This study was to analyze human behavior characteristics and evacuation performance change through the experiments under evacuation environment where smoke influences visibility. The evacuation experiment was conducted in four different visibility conditions at underground facilities with
|According to A. R. Luria (1973) the cerebral organization of mental activity can be understood through analyzing how mental activity is altered in different local brain lesions. Recent brain function research has used this approach in locating areas of the brain involved in specific processes. This study recognized the importance of this method…
|Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students…
Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individualdifferences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…
Investigating the neural substrates of perceived quality in olfaction using different odorants is intrinsically difficult. By utilizing individualdifferences in perceived quality of the odor of androstenone, we obtained a continuum of individualdifferences in rated valence of the same stimulus allowing investigations of its manifestation in the olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs). In an initial group consisting of 43 individuals
Johan N. Lundstrom; Suzi Seven; Mats J. Olsson; Benoist Schaal; Thomas Hummel
There has been considerable debate regarding the extent to which prejudice results from individualdifferences versus situational factors affecting self-categorization. We provide evidence for a stable baseline level of association between one individualdifference index of prejudice proneness, that of social dominance orientation (SDO), and generalized racist attitudes. Consistent with an individualdifference perspective, SDO retained a baseline level of
The present study investigated differences in statistics anxiety levels based on students' gender and age. Using the statistics anxiety scores of 246 college students, a 2×3 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on the six dependent variables (worth of statistics, interpretation anxiety, test and class anxiety, computational self-concept, fear of asking for help, and fear of statistics teachers)
Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which measures a wide range of skills. We administered the TEMA-2 to 14 individuals with WS and 14 children matched individually for mental age on the matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. There were no differences between groups on the overall scores on the TEMA-2. However, an item-by-item analysis revealed group differences. Participants with WS performed more poorly than controls when reporting which of two numbers was closest to a target number, a task thought to utilize a mental number line subserved by the parietal lobe, consistent with previous evidence showing parietal abnormalities in people with WS. In contrast, people with WS performed better than the control group at reading numbers, suggesting that verbal math skills may be comparatively strong in WS. These findings add to evidence that components of mathematical knowledge may be differentially damaged in developmental disorders.
The present study examines differences between homeless adolescents, young adults, and older adults served by homeless shelters or food programs to inform service provision. Four homeless studies using the same sampling and measurement methods were pooled to permit comparisons across age groups. Results showed that homeless adolescents demonstrated greater resilience than younger and older adults. Adolescents reported the shortest duration of homelessness, lowest number of life stressors, fewest physical symptoms, largest social networks, and fewest clinically significant mental health problems. Adolescents also received fewer alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses than younger and older adults. Younger adults reported less time homeless and fewer physical symptoms than older adults, but more life stressors. Younger adults also endorsed higher levels of hostile and paranoid psychological symptoms. Implications for service provision and policy are discussed. PMID:19363770
Tompsett, Carolyn J; Fowler, Patrick J; Toro, Paul A
In three experiments we tested the effects of spatial visualization ability on performance of a motion-verification task, in which subjects were shown a diagram of a mechanical system and were asked to verify a sentence stating the motion of one of the system components. We propose that this task involves component processes of (1) sentence comprehension, (2) diagram comprehension, (3) text-diagram integration, and (4) mental animation. Subjects with low spatial ability made more errors than did subjects with high spatial ability on this task, and they made more errors on items in which more system components had to be animated to solve the problem. In contrast, the high-spatial subjects were relatively accurate on all trials. These results indicate that spatial visualization is correlated with accuracy on the motion-verification task and suggest that this correlation is primarily due to the mental animation component of the task. Reaction time and eye-fixation data revealed no differences in how the high- and low-spatial subjects decomposed the task. The data of the two groups of subjects were equally consistent with a piecemeal model of mental animation, in which components are animated one by one in order of the causal chain of events in the system. PMID:7934947
Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology.
Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefevre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus
Attentional mechanisms are a crucial prerequisite to organize behavior. Most situations may be characterized by a ‘competition’ between salient, but irrelevant stimuli and less salient, relevant stimuli. In such situations top-down and bottom-up mechanisms interact with each other. In the present fMRI study, we examined how interindividual differences in resolving situations of perceptual conflict are reflected in brain networks mediating attentional selection. Doing so, we employed a change detection task in which subjects had to detect luminance changes in the presence and absence of competing distractors. The results show that good performers presented increased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11), anterior cingulate (BA 25), inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and visual areas V2 and V3 but decreased activation in BA 39. This suggests that areas mediating top-down attentional control are stronger activated in this group. Increased activity in visual areas reflects distinct neuronal enhancement relating to selective attentional mechanisms in order to solve the perceptual conflict. Opposed to good performers, brain areas activated by poor performers comprised the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 39) and fronto-parietal and visual regions were continuously deactivated, suggesting that poor performers perceive stronger conflict than good performers. Moreover, the suppression of neural activation in visual areas might indicate a strategy of poor performers to inhibit the processing of the irrelevant non-target feature. These results indicate that high sensitivity in perceptual areas and increased attentional control led to less conflict in stimulus processing and consequently to higher performance in competitive attentional selection.
Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina
Individualdifferences in children's emotion understanding have been intensively investigated during the past decade. Theses studies suggest that individualdifferences emerge quite early, are present among both preschool and school-aged children, are not restricted to the understanding of some specific components of emotions, correlate with other characteristics of the individual and his or her social network, and may persist even
In the discussion of the relations of investigations of structure underlying individualdifferences in psychological phenomena to cluster analysis, emphasis was placed on the importance of clustering according to similarity of within-individual relations ...
Fatigue from sleep loss exerts deleterious effects on group performance, and some individuals are more affected than others. Underlying pattern of cortical activation may partially account for such individualdifferences. The present research utilized fMR...
J. A. Caldwell J. K. Smith J. L. Caldwell Q. Mu M. George
BACKGROUND Carriers of a premutation (CGG repeat length 55–200) in the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene are at risk for primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level acts as a useful marker of ovarian follicle reserve and, thus, may serve to predict when this ovarian reserve becomes too low to sustain ovarian function. We investigated the intra-individual variation of AMH levels over time for premutation carriers compared with non-carriers. METHODS We determined AMH levels in blood samples from 240 women ascertained through fragile X families, of which 127 were premutation carriers and 113 were non-carriers. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of age and premutation status on AMH levels and to determine a modeled AMH value. The stability over time of the deviation of observed AMH levels from modeled levels, referred to as standardized AMH values, was assessed through correlation coefficients of 41 longitudinal samples. RESULTS At all ages, premutation carriers exhibited lower AMH levels. For all women, AMH was found to decrease by 10% per year. The added effect of having a premutation decreased AMH levels by 54%. The deviation of an individual's AMH level from the modeled value showed a reasonable intra-individual correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient of two samples taken at different ages was 0.36 (P = 0.05) for non-carriers and 0.69 (P = 0.01) for carriers. CONCLUSIONS We developed a unique standardized AMH value, taking FMR1 premutation status and the subject's age into account, which appears to be stable over time and may serve as a predictor for FXPOI after further longitudinal assessment.
Spath, M.A.; Feuth, T.B.; Allen, E.G.; Smits, A.P.T.; Yntema, H.G.; van Kessel, A. Geurts; Braat, D.D.M.; Sherman, S.L.; Thomas, C.M.G.
Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon differentindividuals.
Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon differentindividuals. PMID:23983983
Background The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons) and conventional group method (three persons). The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation) test score was 65.35 (8.38), with a median of 64 (range 46–82). The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57) or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three). Conclusion The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors.
Directly measured standard gamble (SG) utility scores reflect the respondent's assessment and valuation of their own health status. Scores from the health utilities index (HUI) are based on self-assessed health status but valued using community preferences obtained using the SG. Our objectives were to find if mean directly measured utility scores agree with mean HUI mark 2 (HUI2) and mean HUI mark 3 (HUI3) scores. Also, if individual directly measured utility scores agree with HUI2 and HUI3 scores, and whether HUI2 and HUI3 scores agree. Questionnaires based on the HUI2 and HUI3 health-status classification systems were administered by interviewers to 140 teenage survivors of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) and 124 control group teens. Respondents were asked to think about their own usual health states using six dimensions from HUI2 and value that state using the SG. Mean SG scores are compared with mean HUI2 and mean HUI3 scores using paired sample t-tests. Mean HUI2 scores are compared with mean HUI3 scores. Agreement among scores is assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The effect of severity of health-state morbidity on agreement was assessed using three approaches. ELBW cohort mean (standard deviation) SG, HUI2, and HUI3 scores were 0.90 (0.20), 0.89 (0.14), and 0.80 (0.22). Results for controls were 0.93 (0.11), 0.95 (0.09), and 0.89 (0.13). Mean SG and HUI2 scores did not differ; mean SG and HUI3 did differ; mean HUI2 and HUI3 also differed. At the individual level for ELBW, the ICCs between SG and HUI2, SG and HUI3, and HUI2 and HUI3 scores were 0.13, 0.28, and 0.64. For controls the ICCs were 0.14, 0.24, and 0.56. HUI2 scores appear to match directly measured utility scores reasonably well at the group level. HUI2 and HUI3 scores differ systematically. At the individual level, however, HUI2 and HUI3 scores are poor substitutes for directly measured scores. PMID:14672594
Although personality psychology sub- sumes the study of both individualdifferences and species-typical characteristics, the field has not yet resolved several key concerns: (a) what are the most important species-typical characteristics; (b) what are the most important ways in which individualsdiffer; and (c) how can species-typical characteristics and individualdifferences be reconciled within a general theory of personality. Evolutionary
The notion that the physical healthcare environment can affect our mood and behavior is well established. Despite this, individualdifferences in sensitivity to environmental stimuli have not received much attention. With the current research showing the importance of individualdifferences in sensitivity towards color, these may explain the contradictory effects found in color research. Two experiments focused on differences in
|The purpose of this study was to examine individualdifferences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individualdifferences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…
Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.
The purpose of this study was to examine individualdifferences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individualdifferences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…
Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.
Can the study of individualdifferences inform debates about modularity and the specialization of function? In this article, we consider the implications of a highly replicated, robust finding known as positive manifold: Individualdifferences in different cognitive domains tend to be positively intercorrelated. Prima facie, this fact, which has generally been interpreted as reflecting the influence of a domain-general cognitive
The Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may be related to individualdifferences in cognition, likely via modulation of prefrontal dopamine catabolism. However, the available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly in part because they do not consistently account for other genes that affect cognition. We hypothesized that COMT Met allele homozygosity, which is associated with higher levels of prefrontal dopamine, would predict better executive function as measured using standard neuropsychological testing, and that other candidate genes might interact with COMT to modulate this effect. Participants were 95 healthy, right-handed adults who underwent genotyping and cognitive testing. COMT genotype predicted executive ability as measured by the Trail-Making Test, even after covarying for demographics and APOE, BDNF and ANKK1 genotype. There was a COMT-ANKK1 interaction in which individuals having both the COMT Val allele and the ANKK1 T allele showed the poorest performance. This study suggests the heterogeneity in COMT effects reported in the literature may be due in part to gene-gene interactions that influence central dopaminergic systems.
Wishart, Heather A.; Roth, Robert M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Rhodes, C. Harker; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Pattin, Kristine A.; Moore, Jason H.; Mcallister, Thomas W.
Background: Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods: In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs' specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients' own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results: Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion: We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent. PMID:24054352
Mjølstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene
Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological–hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs’ specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients’ own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent.
Mj?lstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene
The importance of dominating the T in squash is recognized by coaches and players but there has been little formal investigation of this aspect of tactical play. Consequently, the aim of this research was to analyse player occupancy of a T area, to establish whether there are differences between winners and losers of games at different playing standards. An automated player-tracking system, with operator supervision and intervention, captured players' movements during matches at the World Team Championships (n = 11), the Slovenian National Championships (n = 11), and a local tournament (n = 15). Frequency of occupying the T area at the moment opponents played their shot best discriminated playing standard. Winners spent a greater proportion of total playing time in the T area than losers (P < 0.001), except during closely contested games. The results suggest that time in the T area indicates dominance of rallies. Future studies need to consider both between-group (playing standard) and within-game (individual player standard) differences, as both were shown to influence the time players spent in the T area. PMID:19551552
Vuckovi?, Goran; Pers, Janez; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike
The argument over standardization versus adaptation of marketing strategy in international markets has raged for several decades. This argument has generally taken place at the aggregate level to include all four strategic areas of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place) taken together. This article disaggregates the standardization-versus-adaptation argument by focusing on just one strategic area of the marketing
Examined the hypothesis that much of the variance among right-handed Ss in perceptual asymmetries on standard behavioral measures of laterality arises from individualdifferences in characteristic patterns of asymmetric hemispheric arousal using 32 undergraduates. Dextrals with large right-visual-field (RVF) advantages on a tachistoscopic syllable-identification task outperformed those having weak or no visual-field asymmetries. The 2 groups were equal, however, in
Jerre Levy; Wendy Heller; Marie T. Banich; Leslie A. Burton
Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individualdifferences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individualdifferences present in…
Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.
Natural selection often promotes a mix of behavioural phenotypes in a population. Adaptive variation in the propensity to take risks might explain individualdifferences in shyness and boldness in humans and other species. It is often implicitly assumed that shyness and boldness are general personality traits expressed across many situations. From the evolutionary standpoint, however, individualdifferences that are adaptive
|Proposes a new thesis about the role of individualdifferences in managers' media choice behavior. Argues that individualdifferences influence media choice only under conditions of low message equivocality. Reports that the findings of an exploratory study provide some support for this theoretical notion. (MG)|
|In psychological research, one often aims at explaining individualdifferences in S-R profiles, that is, individualdifferences in the responses (R) with which people react to specific stimuli (S). To this end, researchers often postulate an underlying sequential process, which boils down to the specification of a set of mediating variables (M)…
|We examined whether individualdifferences in working memory influence the facility with which individuals learn new categories. Participants learned two different types of category structures: "rule-based" and "information-integration." Successful learning of the former category structure is thought to be based on explicit hypothesis testing…
DeCaro, Mari S.; Thomas, Robin D.; Beilock, Sian L.
In psychological research, one often aims at explaining individualdifferences in S-R profiles, that is, individualdifferences in the responses (R) with which people react to specific stimuli (S). To this end, researchers often postulate an underlying sequential process, which boils down to the specification of a set of mediating variables (M)…
|Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance--it may be of direct interest as a result of individualdifferences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individualdifferences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for…
|Three experiments examined the nature of individualdifferences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individualdifferences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…
The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for improving individual visual performance of inspectors. The relationship between the correct count rate and eye movements of subjects when they counted dots arranged on samples presented for different lengths of time were analysed mainly to determine individualdifferences. Subjects' eye movements were measured with a corneal reflectance eye camera
Of the numerous factors believed to influence MIS success, the area of individualdifferences has by far been the most extensively studied. This paper synthesizes the findings of empirical investigations of the manner in which individualdifferences impact MIS success. Suggestions are made regarding those aspects which would benefit most from future research.
Individualsdiffer in the intensity of exercise they prefer and the intensity they can tolerate. The purpose of this project was to develop a measure of individualdifferences in the preference for and tolerance of exercise intensity. The steps involved in (a) item generation and face validation, (b) exploratory factor analysis and item selection, (c) structural validation, (d) examination of
Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Eric E. Hall; Steven J. Petruzzello
The methodology to describe the individualdifference in temperature regulation of human body in transient state is proposed in this paper. In order to clarify the individualdifference experimentally, the change in skin and core temperatures was measured for four subjects exposed to a thermal transient condition including stepwise air temperature change of coming and going to lower and higher
Rats exhibit individualdifferences in their consumption of sugar and in their response to amphetamine treatments. Intrinsic variation in the functioning of the mesolimbic dopamine system is one potential mechanism underlying the expression of these individualdifferences. The present experiment examined the relationship between sugar consumption and the dopaminergic response to amphetamine. In vivo microdialysis was used to assess amphetamine-stimulated
Individualdifferences in processing information about a personal threat message about bisphenol A (BPA) risk were examined using the threat orientation model (Thompson & Schlehofer, 2008). Adults (N = 448) read a risk message concerning BPA in plastics. Threat orientations, intentions to protect oneself from BPA risk, and emotional and cognitive reactions to the message were measured. Individuals with different approaches to
This paper deals with sex differences in managerial behaviour, by testing the extent to which such differences match those expected from gender stereotypes. Unlike previous research on the topic, always based on opinions about individual managers, this investigation uses firm-level evidence from the British 1998 Workplace Employment Relationship Survey (WERS 98). This means that some problems usually present in individual-level
Freezing is an adaptive defensive behavior that is expressed in response to an imminent threat. In prior studies with rhesus monkeys, stable individualdifferences in animals' propensities to freeze have been demonstrated. To understand the factors associated with these individualdifferences, freezing behavior was examined in infant rhesus monkeys and their mothers, in conjunction with levels of the stress-related hormone
Ned H. Kalin; Steven E. Shelton; Maureen Rickman; Richard J. Davidson
|Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individualdifferences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individualdifferences present in…
Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.
Quantitative analyses of alteration products formed during the aqueous corrosion of glass were performed using four different sets of standards: relevant mineral standards, an NBS glass standard, and the unreacted center of the reacted glass. A simple sil...
|In two separate paired-associate learning experiments each employing 40 university students as subjects, the contribution of individualdifferences (IDs) in arousal to short- and long-term retention was investigated using IDs in salivary response to lemon juice stimulation as an index of arousal. Experimental subjects were pre-selected out of 184…
Abstract Variation in how individuals invest in acquiring information (sampling) and in insuring themselves against potential negative consequences of uncertainty (e.g., by storing energy reserves) has been suggested to underlie consistent individualdifferences in suites of behavioral traits. However, the key drivers of individualdifferences in information use remain poorly understood. We use dynamic programming to explore how existing variation in metabolic rates (MRs) affects the use of sampling and insurance under starvation risk. Our analysis reveals nonlinear effects of MRs on diurnal patterns of sampling and insurance. Individuals with low MRs accrue reserves quickly, because they invest in sampling and are able to exploit profitable options when they arise. Individuals with intermediate MRs initially lose reserves, because sampling, while optimal, is relatively expensive; however, they later build reserves due to efficient exploitation of alternative foraging options. Sampling rarely pays for individuals with the highest MRs, which show relatively constant levels of energy reserves throughout the foraging period. Thus, individual variation in MRs on the scale observed in natural populations can lead to important differences in investment in sampling and insurance and may underpin consistent individualdifferences in suites of other behavioral traits, including individualdifferences in behavioral responsiveness. PMID:24107368
Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272
Suggest that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Discusses variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by status for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (SLD)
We comment on three areas related to tinnitus. The standard of care should include counseling that is collaborative and that addresses the overall emotional well-being of the patient. Utilizing management and coping strategies is desirable. Our new tinnitus activities treatment is an example of such a protocol. We believe that the notions of fearfulness and acceptance have the potential to
The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.
Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)
This study investigated how cultural differences between Korea and the United States in attitudinal and normative components affect individuals’ explanation of their intentions to lie or tell the truth. Study 1 examined individuals’ intentions to base their lying or truth-telling tendencies on attitude-related reasons (i.e., attitudinal reasons) and subjective norm-related reasons (i.e., normative reasons). Study 2 examined individuals’ evaluation of
The relationship between setting and individualdifferences in determining acute adverse reactions to psychoactive drugs was examined using retrospective data from 483 drug users. Five dimensions of setting were identified. Although there were some small setting main effects, these effects failed to reach significance when shared variance with individualdifference variables was considered. For acute adverse reactions to LSD, however, there were seven independent interaction effects between setting and individualdifference variables. There were two interaction effects of smaller magnitude related to acute adverse reactions to marijuana. The significance of these results for the current controversy over the relative importance of situational vs. personality determinants of behavior was discussed. PMID:1185154
Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) meta-analysis suggested problems in the measurement of individualism and collectivism. Studies using Hofstede's individ- ualism scores show little convergent validity with more recent measures of individual- ism and collectivism. We propose that the lack of convergent validity is due to national differences in response styles. Whereas Hofstede statistically controlled for response styles, Oyserman et al.'s
|Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individualdifferences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…
MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.
Individualdifferences in behavioural responses are of increasing interest in the behavioural sciences. There could be enormous benefits for animal husbandry if a test could be developed that would identify categories or types of individuals unlikely to cope with subsequent challenges. The present study compared the behavioural responses of two series of 16 groups (n = 6 or 7 gilts)
Hans A. M. Spoolder; Jackie A. Burbidge; Alistair B. Lawrence; P. Howard Simmins; Sandra A. Edwards
A moderation-mediation model was developed to investigate relationships among adolescents’ family, school learning environments, individual characteristics, and measures of the academic, affective, and social outcomes of young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth. The findings indicated that: (1) adolescents’ family backgrounds, family and school capital, and individual characteristics combined
Recognizing faces swiftly and accurately is of paramount importance to humans as a social species. Individualdifferences in the ability to perform these tasks may therefore reflect important aspects of social or emotional intelligence. Although functional models of face cognition based on group and single case studies postulate multiple component processes, little is known about the ability structure underlying individual
Oliver Wilhelm; Grit Herzmann; Olga Kunina; Vanessa Danthiir; Annekathrin Schacht; Werner Sommer
Stereotyped individuals vary in how chronically self-conscious they are of their stigmatized status, which Pinel (1999) has dubbed stigma consciousness. The current study investigated whether individualdifferences in stigma consciousness moderate the impact of gender stereotypes on the math performance of women. Results indicated that, under conditions designed to evoke stereotype threat (Steele, 1997), women high in stigma consciousness scored
|This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individualdifferences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…
The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individualdifferences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each of the 3 ex-Gaussian parameters and for 3 parameters central to the diffusion model
Florian Schmiedek; Klaus Oberauer; Oliver Wilhelm; Heinz-Martin Sü?; Werner W. Wittmann
50 infants were seen twice in the Ainsworth and Wittig Strange Situation to assess individualdifferences in the quality of infant-mother attachment at 12 and at 18 months of age. Evidence for the stability of individual dif- ferences was clearly a function of the level of analysis. The reliability of discrete-behavior variables was typi- cally very low, and there was
Brain imaging can help identify the functional neuroanatomy of general intelligence (i.e., “g”) and indicate how brain areas salient to g relate to information processing. An important question is whether individualdifferences in g among subjects are related to brain function even when nonreasoning tasks are studied. If so, this would imply that individuals with high g scores may process
Richard J. Haier; Nathan S. White; Michael T. Alkire
The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individualdifferences. This overview will be focused on
Cornelius R. Pawlak; Ying-Jui Ho; Rainer K. W. Schwarting
The authors addressed whether individualdifferences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…
Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.
|The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individualdifferences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…
Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.
Background.?The National HIV/AIDS Strategy proposes to scale-up post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Intensive risk reduction and adherence counseling appear to be effective but are resource intensive. Identifying simpler interventions that maximize the HIV prevention potential of PEP is critical. Methods.?A randomized noninferiority study comparing 2 (standard) or 5 (enhanced) risk reduction counseling sessions was performed. Adherence counseling was provided in the enhanced arm. We measured changes in unprotected sexual intercourse acts at 12 months, compared with baseline; HIV acquisition; and PEP adherence. Outcomes were stratified by degree of baseline risk. Results.?We enrolled 457 individuals reporting unprotected intercourse within 72 h with an HIV-infected or at-risk partner. Participants were 96% male and 71% white. There were 1.8 and 2.3 fewer unprotected sex acts in the standard and enhanced groups. The maximum potential risk difference, reflected by the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval, was 3.9 acts. The difference in the riskier subset may have been as many as 19.6 acts. The incidence of HIV seroconversion was 2.9% and 2.6% among persons randomized to standard and enhanced counseling, respectively, with a maximum potential difference of 3.4%. The absolute and maximal HIV seroconversion incidence was 9.9% and 20.4% greater in the riskier group randomized to standard, compared with enhanced, counseling. Adherence outcomes were similar, with noninferiority in the lower risk group and concerning differences among the higher-risk group. Conclusions.?Risk assessment is critical at PEP initiation. Standard counseling is only noninferior for individuals with lower baseline risk; thus, enhanced counseling should be targeted to individuals at higher risk.
Neilands, Torsten B.; Krone, Melissa R.; Coates, Thomas J.; Franses, Karena; Chesney, Margaret A.; Kahn, James S.; Martin, Jeffrey N.
Objective. To establish a standardized animal model for liver fibrosis with the same assessment criteria for liver fibrosis studies that have been established on a unified platform. Methods. The standardized liver fibrosis model was established using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that either received an intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in small dosages or ingested an ethanol solution. Results. The definite corresponding rules among modeling of different weeks and corresponding serology indices as well as different pathological staging can be observed by modeling with small dosages and slow, individualized, and combined administrations. Conclusion. This method can be used for the standardized establishment of a liver fibrosis model in rats across 5 pathological stages, ranging from S0 to S4, with a high success rate (89.33%) and low death rate (17.3%) because of the application of multiple hypotoxic chemicals for modeling. We refer to the criteria of Histological Grading and Staging of Chronic Hepatitis for Fibrosis established by the 10th World Digestive Disease Academic Conference in Los Angeles in September 1994 (revised in November 2000).
Theories of intelligence and learning ability emphasize individualdifferences in adaptation of information processing during performance on novel, changing tasks, but measures of adaptation have been lacking. This research sought to develop and evaluate ...
Individualdifferences in perceptual information processing were tested using 327 ten year old children, with verbal tasks representing successive information processing and spatial tasks representing simultaneous information processing. Three sets of tas...
TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)
The authors describe a series of experiments that explore 3 major ability determinants of individualdifferences in skill acquisition in the context of prior theory (e.g., P.L. Ackerman, 1988) and subsequent empirical and theoretical research. Experiment 1 assessed the predictability of individualdifferences in asymptotic skill levels on the Kanfer-Ackerman Air Traffic Controller (ATC) task. Experiment 2 provided an exploration of the construct space underlying perceptual-speed abilities. Experiment 3 concerned an evaluation of theoretical predictions for individualdifferences in performance over skill development in a complex air traffic control simulation task (TRACON) and the ATC task, with an extensive battery of general and perceptual-speed measures, along with a newly developed PC-based suite of psychomotor ability measures. Evidence addressing the predictability of individualdifferences in performance at early, intermediate, and asymptotic levels of practice is presented. PMID:11218338
|TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)|
Journal article "Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by DifferentIndividual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects", from the Journal of Applied Physiology, by David W. Degroot, W. Larry Kenny, and George Havenith.
David W DeGroot (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology); Larry W. Kenny (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology); George Havenith (Loughborough University Human Sciences)
It is hypothesized that there are systematic individualdifferences in the premises used to generate messages through ends to means reasoning. Reliance on these alternative sets of premises and beliefs—referred to as “message design logics\\
The traditional “one-size-fits-all” approach to curriculum denies the vast individualdifferences in learning strengths, challenges,\\u000a and interests. The focus of this article is a novel approach, called Universal Design for Learning, to addressing the challenge\\u000a of individual learner differences. Cognitive science research suggests the joint action of three broad sets of neural networks\\u000a in cognition and learning: one that recognizes
Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance—it may be of direct interest as a result of individualdifferences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individualdifferences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for heterogeneous variances have been utilized in group
\\u000a In the particular field of the psychology of individualdifferences, the one that deals with cognitive performance probably\\u000a has the longest and maybe the most comprehensive research tradition. Individualdifferences in cognitive ability, viz. intelligence,\\u000a now span more than 100 years of research tradition, if we start from Francis Galton’s (1883) notion of intelligence as an\\u000a inherited feature of an
Multimodal interfaces are designed with a focus on flexibility, although very few currently are capable of adapting to major sources of user, task, or environmental variation. The development of adaptive multimodal processing techniques will require empirical guidance from quantitative modeling on key aspects of individualdifferences, especially as users engage in different types of tasks in different usage contexts. In
Benfang Xiao; Rebecca Lunsford; Rachel Coulston; Matt Wesson; Sharon L. Oviatt
The present study aims to identify individualdifferences in both rate and style of language acquisition in a sample of 15 Italian- speaking children, observed at 16 and 20 months of age. The nature as well as the stability of such differences over time were investigated, and the usefulness of different criteria for defining stylistic tendencies was evaluated. Fifteen middle-high
The relative amounts of volatiles, mainly monoterpene hydrocarbons, were determined in eight different tissues of each of four individuals of Pinus sylvestris. The four trees represented widely different monoterpene compositions. Two-dimensional gas chromatography, using columns with stationary phases containing functionalized cyclodextrins, allowed the determination of the enantiomeric compositions of seven major chiral monoterpene hydrocarbons. Large differences in the relative amounts
The authors address the long-standing mystery of stable individualdifferences in negotiation performance, on which intuition and conventional wisdom have clashed with inconsistent empirical findings. The present study used the Social Relations Model to examine individualdifferences directly via consistency in performance across multiple negotiations and to disentangle the roles of both parties within these inherently dyadic interactions. Individualdifferences explained a substantial 46% of objective performance and 19% of subjective performance in a mixed-motive bargaining exercise. Previous work may have understated the influence of individualdifferences because conventional research designs require specific traits to be identified and measured. Exploratory analyses of a battery of traits revealed few reliable associations with consistent individualdifferences in objective performance—except for positive beliefs about negotiation, positive affect, and concern for one's outcome, each of which predicted better performance. Findings suggest that the field has large untapped potential to explain substantial individualdifferences. Limitations, areas for future research, and practical implications are discussed.
Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Curhan, Jared R.; Eisenkraft, Noah; Shirako, Aiwa; Baccaro, Lucio
Investigations of individualdifferences have become increasingly important in the cognitive neuroscience of executive control. For instance, individual variation in lateral prefrontal cortex function (and that of associated regions) has recently been used to identify contributions of executive control processes to a number of domains, including working memory capacity, anxiety, reward/motivation, and emotion regulation. However, the origins of such individualdifferences remain poorly understood. Recent progress toward identifying the genetic and environmental sources of variation in neural traits, in combination with progress in identifying the causal relationships between neural and cognitive processes, will be essential for developing a mechanistic understanding of executive control. PMID:20381337
In ensuring safe working conditions at enterprises of the chemical, mining, petroleum, atomic, and other branches of industry, as well as in the exploration of underwater areas and outer space an important role is played by individual gas-defense devices....
S. M. Gorodinskii G. V. Bavro E. I. Kuznets Y. G. Pletenskii S. P. Raykhman
|Many special education professionals perceive a dilemma created by what seems to be conflicting mandates of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2002. Teachers and IEP (Individualized Education Program) teams serving students with significant disabilities are confronted with the challenge of designing programs that assure access to the general curriculum while at…
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) as part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). While the safety and efficacy of ART is well established, physicians should always be aware of the risk of OHSS in patients undergoing COS, as it can be fatal. This article will briefly present the pathophysiology of OHSS, including the key role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), to provide the foundation for an overview of current techniques for the prevention of OHSS. Risk factors and predictive factors for OHSS will be presented, as recognizing these risk factors and individualizing the COS protocol appropriately is the key to the primary prevention of OHSS, as the benefits and risks of each COS strategy vary among individuals. Individualized COS (iCOS) could effectively eradicate OHSS, and the identification of hormonal, functional and genetic markers of ovarian response will facilitate iCOS. However, if iCOS is not properly applied, various preventive measures can be instituted once COS has begun, including cancelling the cycle, coasting, individualizing the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger dose or using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (for those using a GnRH antagonist protocol), the use of intravenous fluids at the time of oocyte retrieval, and cryopreserving/vitrifying all embryos for subsequent transfer in an unstimulated cycle. Some of these techniques have been widely adopted, despite the scarcity of data from randomized clinical trials to support their use.
This article explores an alternative approach to the study of individualdifferences of cognitive function-- that people may have the same strategies but differential ability to adaptively select among them in response to success and failure feedback from the environment. Three studies involving the complex and dynamic Kanfer-Ackerman Air Traffic Control Task (P. L. Ackerman & R. Kanfer, 1994) demonstrate (a) that individuals do differ systematically along this strategy adaptivity dimension, (b) that those differences have important consequences for overall task performance, and (c) that the differences are primarily associated with reasoning ability and working-memory capacity. PMID:11293460
Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individualdifference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individualdifferences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individualdifference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422
Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individualdifferences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were “individualizing” (values of harm/care and fairness), and “binding” (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex volume, and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individualdifferences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.
Insulin secretion rates can be accurately estimated from plasma C-peptide levels with a two-compartment model for C-peptide distribution and degradation. In previous studies, the kinetic parameters of C-peptide clearance were derived in each subject from the decay curve observed after bolus intravenous injection of biosynthetic human C-peptide. To determine whether standard parameters for C-peptide clearance could be defined and used to calculate insulin secretion without obtaining a decay curve in each subject, we analyzed 200 decay curves of biosynthetic human C-peptide obtained in normal, obese, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects studied in our laboratory. This analysis showed that the volume of distribution and kinetic parameters of C-peptide distribution and metabolism vary by less than 30% in a population highly heterogeneous in terms of age, sex, degree of obesity, and degree of glucose tolerance. The volume of distribution correlated with the degree of obesity as quantified by body surface area (BSA). This dependence of C-peptide distribution volume on BSA was more marked in men than in women. The long half-life was slightly longer in elderly subjects than in younger adults. When effects of BSA, sex, and age were taken into account, the parameters of C-peptide kinetics were very similar in normal, obese, and diabetic subjects. Based on these findings, a simple procedure to derive standard parameters for C-peptide clearance taking into account degree of obesity, sex, and age was defined. These standard parameters resulted in estimations of mean insulin secretion rates, which differed in each subject by only 10-12% from those obtained with individual parameters. The approach of using standard rather than individual parameters did not systematically underestimate or overestimate insulin secretion so that group values for the fasting secretion rate, the mean 24-h secretion rate, and the number and the amplitude of secretory pulses obtained with standard parameters differed by only 1-2% from the values obtained with individual parameters. Furthermore, the accuracy of measurements based on standard parameters was not different from that associated with replicate determinations of the parameters of C-peptide clearance in the same subject. We conclude that it is possible to estimate insulin secretion rates from plasma C-peptide levels with standard parameters for C-peptide clearance rather than individually derived parameters without significant loss of accuracy. PMID:1551497
Van Cauter, E; Mestrez, F; Sturis, J; Polonsky, K S
Individualdifferences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the maze without any consistent or definable pattern); and 3) nonrunners (i.e., nonperformers of the task who remained relatively immobile in the arms of the maze). The algorithmic and nonalgorithmic voles further differed in their responses to an interference manipulation of the radial maze task. Algorithmic individuals displayed a marked performance deficit, while the nonalgorithmic individuals showed minimal disruption to a 1-min delay interruption of the maze task. Measurements of several aspects of locomotor activity using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system revealed that the algorithmic individuals also displayed significantly greater levels of activity than the nonalgorithmic or nonrunners, with no significant difference in activity between the latter two groups. These findings suggest that the algorithmic voles were relatively inflexible in their behavior, while the nonalgorithmic individuals were more flexible in their maze performance and likely in their use of spatial and nonspatial information. These individualdifferences in laboratory measures of learning behavior and locomotor activity in meadow voles are consistent with the polymorphism that is proposed to occur in the wild. PMID:9877423
Teskey, G C; Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M; Innis, N K; Boon, F H
We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individualdifferences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individualdifferences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individualdifferences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individualdifferences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work.
Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across differentindividuals of the same species. Increasingly, individualdifferences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals' genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individualdifferences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individualdifferences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine (DA)-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between DA-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204
Wong, Patrick C M; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing
The aim of applying science into practice is to deliver high-quality health care. Thinking about teaching the necessary accompanying skills, a distinction can be made between using evidence for individual patient care and using scientific knowledge for the development of protocols or guidelines for groups of patients or professionals. In this paper, these two ways of applying science into practice are being considered. We plea for explicating the differences between the individual patient and a group of patients or professionals when applying scientific knowledge in the decision-making process. The acknowledgment of these differences facilitates the teaching of the accompanying competences and different CanMEDS roles. PMID:24101580
de Groot, M; van der Wouden, J M; van Hell, E A; Nieweg, M B
Individualsdiffer greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individualdifferences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individualdifferences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067
Although individuals with disabilities are at increased risk of victimization, few studies examine persons with different disability conditions to determine whether distinctive cognitive-behavioral profiles are associated with different levels of social vulnerability. To determine the differences in social vulnerability and experiences of victimization, caregiver responses to a Social Vulnerability Questionnaire were examined for 103 caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and Down syndrome (DS). Although all three groups experienced similar rates and types of victimization, the specific correlates of social vulnerability differed by disability. Individuals with ASD displayed less risk awareness and had less social protection; those with WS were rated higher on risk factors related to perceived vulnerability and parental independence; and those with DS had less risk awareness and were perceived to be more vulnerable. Safety interventions should be tailored to address each group's specific correlates of social vulnerability. PMID:23745132
Fisher, Marisa H; Moskowitz, Andrew L; Hodapp, Robert M
The size of the tympanic membrane and ossicles and the stiffness of the middle-ear ligaments and joint are different between individuals, and the effects of these differences on middle-ear transfer function have not been clarified. In this study, using finite-element middle-ear models, the effects of individualdifferences in the size and mobility of the middle ear on its transmission characteristics were analyzed. The individualdifferences in the size of the normal middle ear were found to affect the transfer function by up to 10dB. The effects of the Young’s moduli of the stapedial annular ligaments and the incudostapedial joint on the transfer function were large compared to the effects of the Young’s moduli of the other parts of the middle ear.
Performed an analysis of recent research on sex and gender in terms of 3 major approaches: (a) sex as an S variable; (b) individualdifferences in masculinity, femininity, and androgyny; and (c) sex as a social category. The variance accounted for by main effect differences of S sex was found to be small in most cases. The unique contribution of
In two different contexts, we examined the hypothesis that individualdifferences in working memory (WM) capacity are related to the tendency to infer complex, ordinal relationships "between" numerical symbols. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether this tendency arises in a learning context that involves mapping novel symbols to quantities by…
Behavioural syndromes are correlations between behaviours in different functional contexts. Behavioural syndromes are attracting the attention of evolutionary biologists because they mean that different behaviours might not be free to evolve independently of one another. In a landmark study, Huntingford (1976) showed that individual stickleback which were bold toward predators were also aggressive toward conspecifics and active in an unfamiliar
This study examined the relationship between individualdifferences in face memory and eye fixation patterns during face learning. Participants watched short movies of 20 faces and were divided into high and low face memory groups based on their performance in a recognition memory test. No qualitative difference was observed in the eye fixation distribution between high and low groups. Both
The purpose of this study was to explore individualdifferences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at…
The current study demonstrates that when a strong inhibition process is invoked during multimodal (auditory-visual) language understanding: older adults perform worse than younger adults, visible speech does not benefit language-processing performance, and individualdifferences in measures of working memory for language do not predict performance. In contrast, in a task that does not invoke inhibition: adult age differences in performance
|Two studies involving 274 Air Force recruits and 163 college students, respectively, investigated the relationship between priming effects and declarative knowledge acquisition within repetitive practice models. Individualdifferences in repetition-priming effects uniquely predicted learning differences relative to other cognitive measures.…
This research assessed whether individualdifferences in anterior brain asymmetry are linked to differences in basic dimensions of emotion. In each of 2 experimental sessions, separated by 3 weeks, resting electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded from female adults during 8 60-s baselines. Mean alpha power asymmetry across both sessions was extracted in mid-frontal and anterior temporal sites. Across both regions,
Andrew J. Tomarken; Richard J. Davidson; Robert E. Wheeler; Robert C. Doss
We develop and compare two non-parametric Bayesian ap- proaches for modeling individualdifferences in cognitive pro- cesses. These approaches both allow major discrete differ- ences between groups of people to be modeled, without mak- ing strong prior assumptions about how many groups are re- quired. Instead, the number of groups can naturally grow as more information about the behavior of
Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individualdifferences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of
Lisa Feldman Barrett; Michele M. Tugade; Randall W. Engle
The concept of status differentiation is introduced along with a description of the development and initial validation of an individual-difference measure called the Status Differentiation Scale (SDS). This is followed by reports of cross-cultural differences on the SDS in three countries. Study 1 used American participants and established the scoring procedure for the SDS, its internal reliability and structural relationships,
Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individualdifferences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory…
Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.
Maturational differences in brain responsiveness to rewards have been implicated in the increased rates of injury and death in adolescents from behavior-related causes. However, much of this morbidity is related to drug intoxication or other externalizing behaviors, and may be concentrated in a subset of adolescents who are at psychosocial or neurobiological risk. To examine whether individualdifferences in psychosocial
James M. Bjork; Ashley R. Smith; Gang Chen; Daniel W. Hommer
|This volume examines the ramifications of individualdifferences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…
To test the hypothesis that the etiology of individualdifferences in reading performance differs in males and females, reading performance data from twin pairs tested in the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center were fitted to structural equation models of sex limitation. The sample included 513 pairs of twins in which at least one member of each pair has a positive
|Investigates the dominance of global versus local visual properties in four-month-old infants as a function of individualdifferences in fixation duration. Suggests that long-looking infants process visual information more slowly than short-looking infants, and there may be qualitative differences in the manner in which the two groups of infants…
Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individualdifferences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in interference-rich contexts, it is unclear whether corresponding differences exist in neural responses that arise
Five studies (N=361) sought to model a class of errors—namely, those in routine tasks—that several literatures have suggested may predispose individuals to higher levels of emotional distress. Individualdifferences in error frequency were assessed in choice reaction-time tasks of a routine cognitive type. In Study 1, it was found that tendencies toward error in such tasks exhibit trait-like stability over
Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these.
Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen
The immunostimulatory activities of garlic extract using a cell line or animal models have been reported; however, no previous studies have evaluated individualdifferences in regards to the immunostimulatory activities. The immunostimulatory activities such as cell proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and nitric oxides (NO) production of raw garlic and black garlic extracts on individual primary lymphocytes or macrophages isolated from the blood of 21 volunteers were evaluated. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of raw garlic and black garlic ethanol extract was measured to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The 70% ethanol black garlic extracts at 70°C for 12?h (70% BGE) showed the strongest antioxidant and anticancer activities. Immunostimulatory activities of garlic extracts extracted under optimal condition on primary immune cells obtained from 21 volunteers were analyzed. Results showed that the cell proliferation, TNF-? and NO production of primary immune cells treated with 70% raw garlic extract (70% RGE) were significantly different; however, little difference was observed for the 70% BGE treatment. BGE showed stronger immunostimulatory activities than RGE. These results indicate that the immunostimulatory activities of RGE and BGE can be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and anticancer activities. Determination of immunostimulatory activities of different types of garlic using immune cells isolated from volunteers was dependent on the individual constituents due to changes in the composition of garlic during processing. Individual primary immune cells might be used as important tools to determine individualdifferences in all food ingredients for the development of personalized immunostimulatory active foods. PMID:22260639
Dose management in medical imaging is about using the right dose for the specific patient and the specific diagnostic task; since patients and diagnostic tasks vary widely, the applied doses must also vary widely. Thus, a large amount of the variation observed in the computed tomography (CT) doses applied in medical imaging is appropriate. However, unacceptable sources of variations also exist. For similar sized patients and similar diagnostic tasks, variations in the applied doses should be small. It is the responsibility of the medical professionals in the imaging community, therefore, to ensure appropriate variations while minimizing unacceptable variations. That is, imaging professionals must make it standard practice to optimize scan parameters in a way that is specific to both patient size and diagnostic task. PMID:24077044
The arithmetical performance of typically achieving 5- to 7-year-olds (N=29) was measured at four 6-month intervals. The same seven tasks were used at each time point: exact calculation, story problems, approximate arithmetic, place value, calculation principles, forced retrieval, and written problems. Although group analysis showed mostly linear growth over the 18-month period, analysis of individualdifferences revealed a much more complex picture. Some children exhibited marked variation in performance across the seven tasks, including evidence of difficulty in some cases. Individual growth patterns also showed differences in developmental trajectories between children on each task and within children across tasks. The findings support the idea of the componential nature of arithmetical ability and underscore the need for further longitudinal research on typically achieving children and of careful consideration of individualdifferences. PMID:19296965
Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individualdifferences in grey matter volume and individualdifferences in empathy traits. We found that individualdifferences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy.
Banissy, Michael J.; Kanai, Ryota; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint
Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individualdifferences in grey matter volume and individualdifferences in empathy traits. We found that individualdifferences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy. PMID:22683384
Banissy, Michael J; Kanai, Ryota; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint
Human multisensory systems are known to bind inputs from the different sensory modalities into a unified percept, a process that leads to measurable behavioral benefits. This integrative process can be observed through multisensory illusions, including the McGurk effect and the sound-induced flash illusion, both of which demonstrate the ability of one sensory modality to modulate perception in a second modality. Such multisensory integration is highly dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory inputs, with perceptual binding occurring within a limited range of asynchronies known as the temporal binding window (TBW). Previous studies have shown that this window is highly variable across individuals, but it is unclear how these variations in the TBW relate to an individual’s ability to integrate multisensory cues. Here we provide evidence linking individualdifferences in multisensory temporal processes to differences in the individual’s audiovisual integration of illusory stimuli. Our data provide strong evidence that the temporal processing of multiple sensory signals and the merging of multiple signals into a single, unified perception, are highly related. Specifically, the width of right side of an individuals’ TBW, where the auditory stimulus follows the visual, is significantly correlated with the strength of illusory percepts, as indexed via both an increase in the strength of binding synchronous sensory signals and in an improvement in correctly dissociating asynchronous signals. These findings are discussed in terms of their possible neurobiological basis, relevance to the development of sensory integration, and possible importance for clinical conditions in which there is growing evidence that multisensory integration is compromised.
Stevenson, Ryan A.; Zemtsov, Raquel K.; Wallace, Mark T.
Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual's propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731
Lempert, Karolina M; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R; Tricomi, Elizabeth
Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics.
Using a sample of individuals (277 males, 315 females) studied since birth in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the present study investigated how early pubertal maturation and school transition alter youth trajectories of social competence during the transition to adolescence. Social competence showed strong continuity, with the most socially competent children remaining so in adolescence. Early pubertal maturation and school transitions accentuate individualdifferences, increasing social competence among more competent youth, but further diminishing social competence among less competent individuals. In essence, facing challenges that require social competence may further separate competent individuals from less competent peers. Thus, the psychosocially rich become richer, while the psychosocially poor become poorer.
Iscador is being used by many patients as unconventional anticancer and immunomodulating therapy. To determine the toxicity profile and biochemical effects of Iscador Qu Spezial (Weleda AG Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and healthy controls, we performed a phase I/II study. Escalating doses of Iscador Qu Spezial, standardized for its lectin and viscotoxin content, were administered to 16 HIV-positive patients and 8 healthy subjects during a period of 6 to 8 months. Iscador Qu Spezial preparations were administered twice per week subcutaneously in increasing doses (ie, 0.01 mg, 0.1 mg, 1.0 mg, 2.0 mg, 5.0 mg, and 0.1 mg/kg for 2-6 weeks per dose). Drug-related adverse effects were flulike symptoms, gingivitis, fever, local erythema, and eosinophilia. These side effects were never severe. The incidence of systemic adverse events was highest in HIV-positive patients. Furthermore, increased urea levels and slightly decreased total protein caused by a minor decrease in albumin were observed. None of the HIV-positive patients progressed in disease stage. Iscador Qu Spezial can be administered safely to immunocompromised patients. PMID:10423645
Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individualdifferences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individualdifferences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individualdifferences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individualdifferences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer contributions (increased free riding) as compared to the situation when punishment was not implemented. This has implications for our understanding of why some people cannot resist the temptation to free ride, even when facing possible punishment for their actions. Our findings suggest that the diminished functioning of mechanisms, associated with trait behavioural inhibition, can partly explain such behaviours.
Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality.
Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim
Preferences for different combinations of costs and benefits are a key source of variability in economic decision-making. However, the neurochemical basis of individualdifferences in these preferences is poorly understood. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that direct manipulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) significantly impacts cost/benefit decision-making, but less is known about how naturally occurring variation in DA systems may relate to individualdifferences in economic behavior. In the present study, 25 healthy volunteers completed a dual-scan PET imaging protocol with [18F]fallypride and d-amphetamine to measure DA responsivity, and separately completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making in humans. We found that individualdifferences in DA function in the left striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex were correlated with a willingness to expend greater effort for larger rewards, particularly when probability of reward receipt was low. Additionally, variability in DA responses in the bilateral insula was negatively correlated with willingness to expend effort for rewards, consistent with evidence implicating this region in the processing of response costs. These findings highlight the role of DA signaling in striatal, prefrontal and insular regions as key neurochemical mechanisms underlying individualdifferences in cost/benefit decision-making.
Treadway, Michael T.; Buckholtz, Joshua W.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Woodward, Neil D.; Li, Rui; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Schwartzman, Ashley N.; Kessler, Robert M.; Zald, David H.
The obesity epidemic has unfolded in a matter of decades, not millennia, and cannot therefore be attributed to a drift in the genome. Rather, the temporal characteristics of the epidemic more closely track environmental and lifestyle changes, such as reduced physical activity, increased availability of palatable and caloric foods and drinks, and increased acceptance of eating outside of meal time (among others). One important observation is that not everyone is becoming obese. This suggests that individual factors interact with recent environmental changes to predispose some to overeat (1). One hypothesis that has been gaining traction in the neuroscience community is that individualdifferences in the neural encoding of foods may predispose some to overeat in the presence of a surplus of caloric palatable foods and drinks (2-6). The aim of this paper is to highlight several possible ways by which individualdifferences in the neurophysiology of food reward may lead to overeating.
Why are some individuals more susceptible to the formation of inflexible habits than others? In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate that brain connectivity predicts individualdifferences in relative goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in humans. Specifically, vulnerability to habitual "slips of action" toward no-longer-rewarding outcomes was predicted by estimated white matter tract strength in the premotor cortex seeded from the posterior putamen (as well as by gray matter density in the posterior putamen as determined with voxel-based morphometry). In contrast, flexible goal-directed action was predicted by estimated tract strength in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seeded from the caudate. These findings suggest that integrity of dissociable corticostriatal pathways underlies individualdifferences in action control in the healthy population, which may ultimately mediate vulnerability to impulse control disorders. PMID:22933790
de Wit, Sanne; Watson, Poppy; Harsay, Helga A; Cohen, Michael X; van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard
|Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English…
Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger
The large and rapidly expanding body of literature on bilingual acquisition is mostly comprised of either single-case or cross-sectional studies. While these studies have made major contributions to our understanding of bilingual children's language development, they do not allow researchers to compare and contrast results with regard to individualdifferences over time. This paper aims to investigate the issue of
Reading in another language (L2) is a complex, multidimensional process dependent upon both reader-based and text-based factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of reader-based individualdifference variables and of the text-based variable of genre in reading comprehension in French. The sample included 153 adult learners…
|Sender demeanor is an individualdifference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…
Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon
We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individualdifference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…
Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.
Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individualdifferences in…
Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.
The current study examined individualdifferences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…
Social communication is an important skill that emerges during infancy. We examined individualdifferences in this skill as a function of temperament and neural activity in nine-month-old infants. We found that maternal ratings of temperament were associated with joint attention, an important index of early social communication. More specifically, maternal ratings of pleasure were associated with joint attention bids that
Kate E. NICHOLS; Jennifer N. MARTIN; Nathan A. FOX
|C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individualdifferences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…
The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…
|Although it is difficult to ascertain precisely the time at which the study of individualdifferences became recognized as a specialty within the psychological sciences, there appears to be much agreement among historians that its development was fostered primarily within the United States during the late 19th century. This paper examines the…
Sender demeanor is an individualdifference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…
Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon
|Individualdifferences in temperament and personality influence children's development of self-regulation, social relationships, and adaptation within varied contexts. For young children with disabilities and/or family poverty, early school experiences provide both significant challenges and opportunities. In this study, teachers rated the…
|This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individualdifferences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…
Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.
Remembering previous experiences from one's personal past is a principal component of psychological well-being, personality, sense of self, decision making, and planning for the future. In the current study the ability to search for autobiographical information in memory was examined by having college students recall their Facebook friends. Individualdifferences in working memory capacity manifested itself in the search of
Nash Unsworth; Gregory J. Spillers; Gene A. Brewer
Even simple perceptual decisions are influenced by the emotional content of a stimulus. Recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence about the neural mechanisms of perceptual decision making on emotional stimuli. However, the effect of individualdifferences in cognitive processing of emotions on perceptual decision making remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated how changes in the fMRI signal during perceptual decision making
Katja Mériau; Isabell Wartenburger; Philipp Kazzer; Kristin Prehn; Claas-Hinrich Lammers; Elke van der Meer; Arno Villringer; Hauke R. Heekeren
Given the wide individualdifferences among any group of students and since measurements are always accompanied by errors, the question of how tests should be used in assessing the quality of an educational program is considered. The ways in which educators have dealt with this problem are reviewed, from the systematic examinations of the question…
This paper reviews a program of research, conducted in collaboration with several of my colleagues, which examines individualdifferences in spatial ability from a biological\\/environmental interaction perspective. Our research strategy has been to identify the females who provide the exceptions to the male advantage in mental rotation ability. We tested a “bent twig” model, identifying a subgroup of females predicted
|This study examined how individualism, collectivism, and counselor emphasis of different client emotions were related to perceived counselor effectiveness. Data were collected from 192 (122 women and 70 men) Korean students attending a large university in South Korea and from 170 (115 women and 55 men) American students attending a large…
The authors examined the role of individualdifference and event outcome variables in younger and older adults' memory failures appraisal. Participants read vignettes that described fictitious younger characters (in their 20s-30s) or older characters (in their 60s-70s) who had experienced a minor or severe consequence of their forgetfulness. The…
Examined the determination of individualdifferences in marital change across the transition to parenthood. Results indicated parents whose postnatal experiences turned out less positive and more negative than anticipated experienced more negative change in marriage. Prenatal expectations of well-educated parents generally matched their…
The similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels provide one starting point for carrying out studies that attempt to discover correspondences between dream content and various types of waking cognition. Hobson and Kahn's (Hobson, J. A., & Kahn, D. (2007). Dream content: Individual and generic aspects. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 850-858.) conclusion that dream content may be more generic than most researchers realize, and that individualdifferences are less salient than usually thought, provides the occasion for a review of findings based on the Hall and Van de Castle (Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) coding system for the study of dream content. Then new findings based on a computationally intensive randomization strategy are presented to show the minimum sample sizes needed to detect gender and individualdifferences in dream content. Generally speaking, sample sizes of 100-125 dream reports are needed because most dream elements appear in less than 50% of dream reports and the magnitude of the differences usually is not large. PMID:18835727
We examined the extent to which individualdifferences in authenticity and mindfulness predicted verbal defensiveness. Participants first completed measures of authenticity [Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2006). A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity: Theory and research. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 38 (pp. 283–357).] and mindfulness [Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M.
Chad E. Lakey; Michael H. Kernis; Whitney L. Heppner; Charles E. Lance
|While language learners and teachers have long known that individualdifferences (IDs) among students result in differential learning, we still do not know how traditional ID variables interact or the specific impact each one has on language learning. The present study proposes that instead of looking at isolated variables, researchers should…
Speakers in informal conversations tend to alternate regularly between lower and higher amounts of talking; the periods of these low\\/high activity cycles are on the order of 3, 6, and 15 minutes. Statistically significant periodicities occurred in 55% of the conversations studied. The periodograms that describe the partition of variance among periodic components whow consistent individualdifferences in the cyclic
To explain individualdifferences in human sexual expression, investigators most often stress either physiological or experiential determinants. Psychologists commonly espouse some variant of learning theory (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or social learning theory) as an explanatory framework and a source of hypotheses and methodology. The historical use of social learning theory is described in this article, and we review its
This research conceptualizes and develops a scale to measure individualdifferences in the centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA), defined as the level of significance that visual aesthetics hold for a particular consumer in his\\/her relationship with products. Three related dimensions of product aesthetics centrality emerged from the research: value, acumen, and response intensity. A series of eight studies provided
C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individualdifferences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…
|This study examined the moderating role of the individualdifferences of goal orientation and affectivity on self-efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive…
Two hundred thirty of the feral rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago were observed individually for postural adjustments, locomotor behavior, manipulation, and other nonsocial activities. Both form and frequency of activity were influenced strongly by age; sex differences were minimal. Most activities decreased with age, but head movements, presumably reflecting visual scanning, were more frequent in adults.
|Individualdifferences in fourth grade students' abilities to profit from experimenter-provided picture adjunct aids on prose recall tasks were examined. It was hypothesized that poor paired associate learners would benefit from picture adjunct aids to a greater extent than good paired associate learners. A secondary aim was to assess the effects…
|The present study examined the effects of individualdifferences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…
|Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individualdifferences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…
Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.
|The current study examined individualdifferences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…
|Understanding the user and customizing the interface to augment cognition and usability are goals of human computer interaction research and design. Yet, little is known about the influence of individual visual-verbal information presentation preferences on visual navigation and screen element usage. If consistent differences in visual navigation…
Many recent studies in mass communication have investigated emotional responses to frightening movies and television programs. However, little research has been directed toward documenting and explaining the occurrence of enduring fright reactions that linger on, in one form or another, long after exposure to the media stimulus. The present study investigated the relationship between individualdifferences in “arousability”; (as measured
Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individualdifferences in mathematical…
Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz
Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individualdifferences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…
|Fifty-five recent studies of individualdifferences (IDs) in elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs) are reviewed. Twenty-five data sets are examined, analyzed, or reanalyzed by factor analysis. The following promising dimensions are identified: basic perceptual processes, reaction and movement times, mental comparison and recognition tasks, retrieval…
|Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individualdifferences in particular.…
Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individualdifferences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…
Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.
The two-phase study compared two methods of adapting self-instructional materials to individualdifferences among learners. The methods were compared with each other and with a control condition involving only minimal adaptation. The first adaptation procedure was based on subjects' performances on a learning task in Phase I of the study; the…
Individualdifferences in fourth grade students' abilities to profit from experimenter-provided picture adjunct aids on prose recall tasks were examined. It was hypothesized that poor paired associate learners would benefit from picture adjunct aids to a greater extent than good paired associate learners. A secondary aim was to assess the effects…
The present study investigates the relationship between individualdifferences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…
|The present study tested whether individualdifferences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…
Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.
|The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students' postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than…
Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hutchins, Bryan C.
|Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individualdifferences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…
Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.
Semiprofessional players ran basketball circuits under either normal or record performance demands. Lactate concentration and heart rate were measured as indexes of exertion. Number of dribbling errors, attempted shots, hits, and hit rate served as measures of performance and efficiency. Several individualdifference measures were taken in order to identify those athletes who were capable of moderating the extent of
Previous studies have attributed declining episodic memory in increased adult age to less efficient contextual markers that are typically associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex function (e.g., Allen et al., 2005). However, this previous research found the link only for negative affect. Ashby, Isen, and Turken (1999) predicted that individualdifferences in positive affect should also have an impact on cognitive
Philip A. Allen; Kevin Kaut; Elsa Baena; Mei-Ching Lien; Eric Ruthruff
This paper summarizes a study as to whether individualdifferences are significant factors that should affect the design of consumer decision support over the web. Our study postulates two orthogonal dimensions appear to be of relevance - Need for Cognition and Purchase Preference (ie, lifestyle vs. utilitarian), and that consumers can be sorted into one of 4 cells of a
Barry G. Silverman; Gnana Bharathy; John Pourdehnad; Melanie Green; Dave Lowe; Doug Riley; Joyce Salisbury
Several researches have pointed out that the temperature at the nose tip is possibly effective for evaluating driver mental condition. In order to establish methods for driver monitoring, whether a method should be adapted to each person or not is an important question. This paper investigates individualdifferences in effects of performing a cognitively distracting subtask during driving on the
|In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individualdifferences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of…
A test of arithmetic aptitude was developed and validated. The consequences of individualdifferences in this aspect of quantitative literacy were then determined for attention to, and dependent recall of, numeric quantities embedded in printed news reports. It was found that persons of high arithmetic aptitude recalled frequencies and ratios more correctly, both in precise and approximate terms, than did
With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individualdifference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…
Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…
Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.
The oxygen uptake and heart rate of men and boys were determined and compared using a continuous incremental bicycle ergometer test. Both groups had similar patterns for consistency, but the children had smaller individualdifference variations for both oxygen uptake and heart rate. (FG)
We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individualdifference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We tested both mediated and direct effects of the variables. The sequence of relationships observed in the
Todd J. Maurer; Michael Lippstreu; Timothy A. Judge
|With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individualdifference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…
|In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individualdifferences and display design manipulations on…
Cholecystokinin (CCK) decreases food intake in a variety of species when administered systemically or centrally. Moreover, both CCKA and CCKB receptor mechanisms have been implicated in CCK's effects on feeding. Previous work done in our laboratory has shown that rats exhibit significant individualdifferences in the consumption of sugar. Moreover, intra-nucleus accumbens (Acc) administration of CCK reduced sugar consumption in
Objectives: Driver inattention is one of the most common causes of traffic collisions. The aim of this work was to study the reliability and validity of the Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale (ARDES), a novel self-report measure that assesses individualdifferences in driving errors resulting from failures of attention. The relationship between driver inattention and general psychological variables that could be
Rubén D. Ledesma; Silvana A. Montes; Fernando M. Poó; María F. López-Ramón
Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individualdifferences in mathematical competence. Twenty-five adult students were selected from a larger pool based on their performance on
Roland H. Grabner; Daniel Ansari; Gernot Reishofer; Elsbeth Stern; Franz Ebner; Christa Neuper
Two studies are presented that investigated the constraints underlying working memory performance in children and adults. In each case, independent measures of processing efficiency and storage capacity are assessed to determine their relative importance in predicting performance on complex span tasks, which measure working memory capacity. Results show that complex span performance was independently constrained by individualdifferences in domain-general
Donna M. Bayliss; Christopher Jarrold; Deborah M. Gunn; Alan D. Baddeley
|The present study investigates the relationship between individualdifferences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…
|Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individualdifference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…
Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.
|The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…
Isoflavonoids found in legumes, such as soybeans, are converted by intestinal bacteria to metabolites that might have increased or decreased estrogenic activity. Variation in the effects of dietary isoflavonoids among individuals has been attributed to differences in their metabolism by intestinal bacteria. To investigate this variation, the metabolism of the isoflavonoid daidzein by bacteria from ten fecal samples, provided at
Fatemeh Rafii; Christy Davis; Thomas M. Heinze; Richard D. Beger
|Although previous research often showed a positive relationship between pay satisfaction and job satisfaction, we dispute the universality of this finding. Cluster-wise regression analyses on three samples consistently show that two types of individuals can be distinguished, each with a different job reward-job satisfaction relationship. For the…
Hofmans, Joeri; De Gieter, Sara; Pepermans, Roland
Statistical prediction remains an important tool for decisions in a variety of disciplines. An equally important issue is identifying factors that contribute to more or less accurate predictions. The time series literature includes well developed methods for studying predictability and volatility over time. This article develops distribution-appropriate methods for studying individualdifferences in predictability for settings in psychological research. Specifically,
Explored genetic and environmental etiologies of individualdifferences in printed word recognition and related skills in identical and fraternal twin 8- to 18-year-olds. Found evidence for moderate genetic influences common between IQ, phoneme awareness, and word-reading skills and for stronger IQ-independent genetic influences that were common…
Data from two twin studies were used to address two related questions. First, is there any association between handedness and specific speech and language impairment (SSLI) in children? Second, is there genetic influence on individualdifferences in handedness and, if so, are the same genes implicated in the cause of SSLI? The first study used data from 58 MZ and
W e investigated if college students will create false childhood m em ories, the role of self-knowledge in mem ory creation, and if there are reliable individualdifferences related to memory creation. Based on information obtained from parents, we asked college students about several true childhood experiences. W e also asked each student about one false event and presented the
|The goal of this study was to explain individualdifferences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…
Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan
Replies to H. J. Eysenck's (see PA, Vol. 51:Issue 3) contention that Peters was incorrect in suggesting that there are no individualdifferences in reminiscence. It is argued that the relationship between motor performance and extraversion provides evidence for interpreting the reported relationship between reminiscence and extraversion as an artifact.
We measured the quantity of D-aspartic acid (degree of racemization of aspartic acid) in the enamel of different types of teeth from the same individual. We studied the correlation between the degree of racemization and the time of formation of each particular tooth, as well as the applicability of the degree of racemization to estimation of chronological age. If the
Susumu Ohtani; Rei Ito; Szilvia Arany; Toshiharu Yamamoto
The goal of this study was to explain individualdifferences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…
Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan
|Past studies have identified individualdifferences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…
Research suggests that individuals who were never heavy, were once heavy but lost weight, or who are currently obese can be differentiated by physical self concept, number of hours spent in various activities, and the hierarchial reinforcement value of different behaviors. Subjects (N=99) completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Test, the Self-Control…
|To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this…
This study examined the moderating role of the individualdifferences of goal orientation and affectivity on self-efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive affectivity having greater change in self-efficacy as a result of training than those lower
Purpose – The paper seeks to address the lack of empirical research on servant leadership by investigating relationships between servant leadership and four individualdifferences – values of empathy, integrity, and competence and the five-factor model's personality factor of agreeableness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Dennis and Winston's servant leadership scale (a revision of Page and Wong's servant leadership instrument), Braithwaite and Law's
|Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individualdifferences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…
Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson
Individualdifferences have been identified as important factors that might have significant impact on students' learning. This study investigated the effect of student's cognitive styles, achievement motivation, prior knowledge, and attitudes on student's achievement in web-based learning. A web-based course was designed for second year university students in an educational psychology class. Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA), Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS),
|We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individualdifferences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both…
Hertzog, Christopher; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman
The purpose of this study was to examine individualdifferences in the activation and regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis in pre-pubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities, and to evaluate the utility of an individualdifferences approach to the examination of HPA-axis functioning. After a 30 minute controlled baseline period, 73 seven-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to a validity check condition, or one of two experimental tasks designed to elicit fear or frustration. This was followed by a 60-minute controlled regulation phase. A total of 17 saliva samples were collected, including 12 post-stress samples at 5-minute intervals. There was a significant stress modality effect, with children exposed to the fear condition reaching peak cortisol levels at 25 minutes post-stress, while those exposed to the frustration condition reached peak levels at 45 minutes post-stress. There was no difference in peak cortisol levels between the stress modalities. Individual variability across conditions was significant with subjects reaching peak levels as early as 10 minutes post-stress and as late as 60 minutes post-stress. Our data suggest that analysis of individual curves prior to making group level comparisons may improve the explanatory power of HPA-axis-behavior models.
Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.
This study examines the extent to which a study abroad (SA) experience has an effect on the L2 written and oral performance of a group of Spanish undergraduates, studying English as a second language (L2) in a university in the UK. This article also examines the role that individualdifferences, such as the participants' motivation, attitudes,…
Individual response to small-molecule drugs is variable; a drug that provides a cure for some may confer no therapeutic benefit or trigger an adverse reaction in others. To begin to understand such differences systematically, we treated 104 genotyped segregants from a cross between two yeast strains with a collection of 100 diverse small molecules. We used linkage analysis to identify
Ethan O Perlstein; Douglas M Ruderfer; David C Roberts; Stuart L Schreiber; Leonid Kruglyak
|This article examines the relationship between individualdifferences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…
Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.
|The study examined whether individualdifferences in the quality of phonological representations, measured by a categorical perception task (CP), are related with the use of phonological information in a lexical decision pseudohomophone task. In addition, the lexical frequency of the stimuli was manipulated. The sample consisted of…
Luque, David; Luque, Juan L.; Lopez-Zamora, Miguel
Effective teacher beliefs about students are an integral part of effective teaching. Teachers with interventionist beliefs about students (‘I can intervene to help a learner with difficulties’) show more effective practice than teachers with pathognomonic beliefs (‘I blame the learner for his difficulties’). A professional development (PD) course sensitized teachers (N = 234) to individual learning differences (ILDs), using five
Individualsdiffer substantially in their susceptibility to distraction by irrelevant visual information. Previous research has uncovered how individual variability in the goal-driven component of attentional control influences distraction, yet it remains unknown whether other sources of variability between individuals also predict distraction. In this fMRI study, we showed that an individual's inherent sensitivity to passively viewed visual motion predicts his/her susceptibility to distraction by motion. Bilateral MT/V5 was localized in participants during passive viewing of moving stimuli, affording a baseline measure of motion sensitivity. Next, participants performed a visual search task with an irrelevant motion singleton distractor, and both behavioral and neural indices of distraction were recorded. Results revealed that both of these indices were predicted by the independent index of motion sensitivity. An additional analysis of moment-to-moment fluctuations in distraction within individuals revealed that distraction could be predicted by pretrial fMRI activity in several brain regions, including MT+, which likely reflected the observer's momentary propensity to process motion. Together, these results shed light on how variability in factors other than goal-driven processing, both within and between individuals, affects attentional control and one's perception of the visual world.
SUMMARY Smooth-pursuit eye velocity to a moving target is more accurate after an initial catch-up sac- cade than before, an enhancement that is poorly understood. We present an individual- differences-based method for identifying mechanisms underlying a physiological response and use it to test whether visual motion signals driving pursuit differ pre- and postsaccade. Correlating moment-to-moment measurements of pursuit over time
Reviews studies that have dealt with interindividual differences revealed by measurements of physiological, biochemical, and psychological variables at 2 or more times of day in terms of the morningness-eveningness, personality (introversion-extraversion [I-E]), age, or sex of their Ss. Studies of individualdifferences in the response of the circadian system to disturbance (e.g., shift work) are also discussed. The most reliable
We report heritabilities for individualdifferences in female pubertal development at the age of 12. Tanner data on breast\\u000a and pubic hair development in girls and data on menarche were obtained from a total of 184 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic\\u000a twins. Genetic correlations were estimated to determine to what extent the same genes are involved in different aspects of
Stéphanie M. van den Berg; Adi Setiawan; Meike Bartels; Tinca J. C. Polderman; Aad W. van der Vaart; Dorret I. Boomsma
Self-regulation, or the ability to control one’s actions and responses, is essential for healthy development across varied contexts. Self-regulation comes in several forms, including emotional, behavioral, and cognitive. The present study sought to examine whether individualdifferences in one form of self-regulation was related to children’s regulation in another domain. In addition, we explored whether different forms of self-regulation were
Background\\/Objectives:Given the importance of nutrition therapy in diabetes management, we hypothesized that food intake differs between individuals with and without diabetes. We investigated this hypothesis in two large prospective studies including different countries and ethnic groups.Subjects\\/Methods:Study populations were the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC) and the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). Dietary intake was assessed by food
U Nöthlings; H Boeing; G Maskarinec; D Sluik; B Teucher; R Kaaks; A Tjønneland; J Halkjaer; C Dethlefsen; K Overvad; P Amiano; E Toledo; B Bendinelli; S Grioni; R Tumino; C Sacerdote; A Mattiello; J W J Beulens; J A Iestra; A M W Spijkerman; D L van der A; P Nilsson; E Sonestedt; O Rolandsson; P W Franks; A-C Vergnaud; D Romaguera; T Norat; L N Kolonel
This study asks to what extent (a) individuals show consistent performance differences across typical behavioral decision-making tasks, and (b) how those differences correlate with plausible real-world correlates of good decision making. Seven tasks, chosen to span the domain of decision-making skills, were administered to participants in an ongoing longitudinal study providing extensive social, psychological, and behavioral measures. Performance scores on
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
This study investigated aspects of individualdifferences in timing of continuous and discontinuous movements to different pacing signals (auditory or visual), pacing intervals (500, 650, 800, 950 ms), and across effectors (dominant versus non-dominant hand). Correlation and principal component analysis demonstrated that a single statistical dimension accounted for up to 60 % of the explained variance in discontinuous tasks and 25 % of the variance in continuous tasks, when applied to performance obtained from tasks conducted with different effectors and at different pacing rates. Correlation analysis of factor scores representing effector and rate independent task performances showed that timing of discrete or continuous movements can be associated with modality independent mechanisms. Timing variability from discrete and continuous trials was not significantly correlated. This study goes beyond previous correlational work on individualdifferences in discrete and continuous movements, demonstrating that individualdifferences in discrete (event-based) or continuous (emergent) motor timing tasks can be modeled as distinctive statistical components with dissimilar capability to capture effector, rate, and modality independent variance. PMID:23712334
Lorås, H; Stensdotter, A K; Ohberg, F; Sigmundsson, H
Objective: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among a diverse sample of approximately 5,500 seventh and eighth graders. We also evaluated the extent to which individual, family, and school factors mediated racial/ ethnic disparities in use. Method: Students (49% male) from 16 participating middle schools in southern California reported on lifetime and past-month substance use, individual factors (expectancies and resistance self-efficacy), family factors (familism, parental respect, and adult and older sibling use), and school factors (school-grade use and perceived peer use). We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of consumption for each racial/ethnic group adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure. Path analysis models tested mediation of racial/ethnic differences through individual, family, and school factors. Results: After adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure, Hispanics reported higher and Asians reported lower lifetime and past-month substance use, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. Rates of substance use did not differ between non-Hispanic African Americans and Caucasians. Several individual factors mediated the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity and substance use, including negative expectancies and resistance self-efficacy. Higher use among Hispanics was generally not explained by family or school factors. By contrast, several factors mediated the relationship between Asian race and lower alcohol use, including individual, family (parental respect, adult and older sibling use), and school (perceived peer use, school-grade use) factors. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of targeting specific individual, family, and school factors in tailored intervention efforts to reduce substance use among young minority adolescents.
Shih, Regina A.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Tucker, Joan S.; Zhou, Annie J.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.
Analyses of immigrant settlement patterns typically rely on counts of foreign-born individuals by neighborhood, metropolitan area, state, or region. As an alternative, this study classifies immigrants and their descendents into household types to shift attention from individuals to relationships between individuals. The study uses pooled current population survey data to identify seven household types, six of which have various degrees of immigrant or second-generation presence. The research compares distributions of first- and second-generation immigrants with different types of households that include first- and second-generation immigrants. Our analysis shows that the geography of immigration based on households differs considerably from geographies based on individuals. The spatial distribution and concentration of the foreign-stock population provides one picture of immigrant geographies, whereas the patterns of concentration by several different household types opens up the chance to tell other stories. More pointedly, we emphasize that the unit of analysis shapes assimilation research results and implies that this analytical choice cannot be thought of as independent from the politics of immigration.
Several functional neuroimaging studies have been carried out in healthy subjects to investigate the neural correlates of sadness. Importantly, there is little consistency among the results of these studies. Hypothesizing that individualdifferences may account for the discrepancies among these investigations, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to identify the neural circuitry underlying this basic emotion. In these two methodologically identical studies, two different groups (n = 10 for each study) of healthy female subjects were scanned while they were experiencing a transient state of sadness induced by viewing sad film excerpts. In the first of these studies, sadness was correlated with significant loci of activation in the anterior temporal pole and insula (P < 0.05, corrected). In the second study, however, sadness was correlated with significant activation in the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (P < 0.05, corrected). In addition, individual statistical parametric maps revealed a marked degree of interindividual variability in both Study 1 and Study 2. These results strongly support the view that individualdifferences may be responsible for the inconsistencies found in the literature regarding the neural substrates of sadness and of other basic emotions. These findings also suggest that individual data should be reported in addition to group data, because they provide useful information about the variability present in the subjects investigated and, thus, about the typicality and generalizability of the results. PMID:12814585
In this study, 384 respondents provided quantitative and descriptive information about direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements and factors related to message reception and drug adoption. The authors applied M. Booth-Butterfield's ( 2008 ) Standard Model to explain how DTC advertising is used in getting individuals to talk to their doctors about pharmaceutical drugs. The researchers predicted that individuals who talked with their physicians about a pharmaceutical drug (referred to as talkers) would differ from those who did not talk with their physicians (referred to as nontalkers) in a number of meaningful ways. Findings from this data set indicate that individuals who talked with their physician about a specific medication were more likely to be female, older, higher in need for cognition, and reported higher physician satisfaction. Total number of channels (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet) was negatively associated with talking to a physician about a specific medication, as was exposure to DTC advertisement on television. The authors offer explanations for these findings along with descriptive accounts of how talkers and nontalkers differed in their recall of DTC advertisement information. PMID:21512934
Krezmien, Elyse; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara
Human multisensory systems are known to bind inputs from the different sensory modalities into a unified percept, a process that leads to measurable behavioral benefits. This integrative process can be observed through multisensory illusions, including the McGurk effect and the sound-induced flash illusion, both of which demonstrate the ability of one sensory modality to modulate perception in a second modality. Such multisensory integration is highly dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory inputs, with perceptual binding occurring within a limited range of asynchronies known as the temporal binding window (TBW). Previous studies have shown that this window is highly variable across individuals, but it is unclear how these variations in the TBW relate to an individual's ability to integrate multisensory cues. Here we provide evidence linking individualdifferences in multisensory temporal processes to differences in the individual's audiovisual integration of illusory stimuli. Our data provide strong evidence that the temporal processing of multiple sensory signals and the merging of multiple signals into a single, unified perception, are highly related. Specifically, the width of right side of an individuals' TBW, where the auditory stimulus follows the visual, is significantly correlated with the strength of illusory percepts, as indexed via both an increase in the strength of binding synchronous sensory signals and in an improvement in correctly dissociating asynchronous signals. These findings are discussed in terms of their possible neurobiological basis, relevance to the development of sensory integration, and possible importance for clinical conditions in which there is growing evidence that multisensory integration is compromised. PMID:22390292
Stevenson, Ryan A; Zemtsov, Raquel K; Wallace, Mark T
Ultra-long AlN nanowire arrays are prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and the photoconductive performances of individual nanowires are investigated in our self-built measurement system. Individual ultra-long AlN nanowire (UAN) exhibits a clear photoconductive effect under different excited lights. We attribute the positive photocurrent response of individual UAN to the dominant molecular sensitization effect. It is found that they have a much faster response speed (a rise and decay time of about 1 ms), higher photocurrent response (2.7×106), and more reproductive working performance (the photocurrent fluctuation is lower than 2%) in the air environment. Their better photoconductive performances are comparable to many nanostructures, which are suggested to be a candidate for building promising photosensitive nanodevices in the future.
Risky sexual behaviors, including the decision to have unprotected sex, result from interactions between individuals and their environment. The current study explored the use of Agent-Based Modeling (ABM)-a methodological approach in which computer-generated artificial societies simulate human sexual networks-to assess the influence of heterogeneity of sexual motivation on the risk of contracting HIV. The models successfully simulated some characteristics of human sexual systems, such as the relationship between individualdifferences in sexual motivation (sexual excitation and inhibition) and sexual risk, but failed to reproduce the scale-free distribution of number of partners observed in the real world. ABM has the potential to inform intervention strategies that target the interaction between an individual and his or her social environment. PMID:22042161
Nagoski, Emily; Janssen, Erick; Lohrmann, David; Nichols, Eric
SummaryWhen comparing a new method of measurement with a standard method, one of the things we want to know is whether the difference between the measurements by the two methods is related to the magnitude of the measurement. A plot of the difference against the standard measurement is sometimes suggested, but this will always appear to show a relation between
This study analyzes determinants and effects of differences between Domestic Accounting Standards (DAS) and International Accounting Standards (IAS). We use an extensive list of differences between DAS and IAS to create two indices, absence and divergence. Absence measures the extent to which the rules regarding certain accounting issues are missing in DAS but are covered in IAS. Divergence applies in
Yuan Ding; Ole-Kristian Hope; Thomas Jeanjean; Hervé Stolowy
Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individualdifferences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18-34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between- individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025
Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O'Connor, Kathleen A
1.?Animal migration has long intrigued scientists and wildlife managers alike, yet migratory species face increasing challenges because of habitat fragmentation, climate change and over-exploitation. Central to the understanding migratory species is the objective discrimination between migratory and nonmigratory individuals in a given population, quantifying the timing, duration and distance of migration and the ability to predict migratory movements. 2.?Here, we propose a uniform statistical framework to (i) separate migration from other movement behaviours, (ii) quantify migration parameters without the need for arbitrary cut-off criteria and (iii) test predictability across individuals, time and space. 3.?We first validated our novel approach by simulating data based on established theoretical movement patterns. We then formulated the expected shapes of squared displacement patterns as nonlinear models for a suite of movement behaviours to test the ability of our method to distinguish between migratory movement and other movement types. 4.?We then tested our approached empirically using 108 wild Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose Alces alces in Scandinavia as a study system because they exhibit a wide range of movement behaviours, including resident, migrating and dispersing individuals, within the same population. Applying our approach showed that 87% and 67% of our Swedish and Norwegian subpopulations, respectively, can be classified as migratory. 5.?Using nonlinear mixed effects models for all migratory individuals we showed that the distance, timing and duration of migration differed between the sexes and between years, with additional individualdifferences accounting for a large part of the variation in the distance of migration but not in the timing or duration. Overall, the model explained most of the variation (92%) and also had high predictive power for the same individuals over time (69%) as well as between study populations (74%). 6.?The high predictive ability of the approach suggests that it can help increase our understanding of the drivers of migration and could provide key quantitative information for understanding and managing a broad range of migratory species. PMID:21105872
Bunnefeld, Nils; Börger, Luca; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer M; Dettki, Holger; Solberg, Erling Johan; Ericsson, Göran
Individualdifferences in young children's social cognition were examined in 128 urban preschoolers from a wide range of backgrounds. comprehensive assessments were made of children's false-belief understanding, emotion understanding, language abilities, and family background information was collected via parent interview. Individualdifferences in children's understanding of false-belief and emotion were associated with differences in language ability and with certain aspects of family background, in particular, parental occupational class and mothers' education. The number of siblings that children had did not relate to their social cognition. Individualdifferences in false-belief and emotion understanding were correlated, but these domains did not contribute to each other independently of age, language ability, and family background. In fact, variance in family background only contributed uniquely to false-belief understanding. The results suggest that family background has a significant impact on the development of theory of mind. The findings also suggest that understanding of false-belief and understanding of emotion may be distinct aspects of social cognition in young children. PMID:10446724
Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individualdifferences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individualdifferences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individualdifferences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713
Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill
The mechanisms by which attentional control biases mnemonic representations have attracted much interest but remain poorly understood. As attention and memory develop gradually over childhood and variably across individuals, assessing how participants of different ages and ability attend to mnemonic contents can elucidate their interplay. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults were asked to report whether a probe item had been part of a previously presented four-item array. The initial array could either be uncued, be preceded ("precued"), or followed ("retrocued") by a spatial cue orienting attention to one of the potential item locations. Performance across groups was significantly improved by both cue types, and individualdifferences in children's retrospective attentional control predicted their visual short-term and working memory span, whereas their basic ability to remember in the absence of cues did not. Experiment 2 imposed a variable delay between the array and the subsequent orienting cue. Cueing benefits were greater in adults than in 10-year-olds, but they persisted even when cues followed the array by nearly 3 seconds, suggesting that orienting operated on durable short-term representations for both age groups. The findings indicate that there are substantial developmental and individualdifferences in the ability to control attention to memory and that in turn these differences constrain visual short-term memory capacity. PMID:20680889
According to recent studies on animal personalities, the level of behavioral plasticity, which can be viewed as the slope of the behavioral reaction norm, varies among individuals, populations, and species. Still, it is conceptually unclear how the interaction between environmental variation and variation in animal cognition affect the evolution of behavioral plasticity and expression of animal personalities. Here, we (1) use literature to review how environmental variation and individual variation in cognition explain population and individual level expression of behavioral plasticity and (2) draw together empirically yet nontested, conceptual framework to clarify how these factors affect the evolution and expression of individually consistent behavior in nature. The framework is based on simple principles: first, information acquisition requires cognition that is inherently costly to build and maintain. Second, individualdifferences in animal cognition affect the differences in behavioral flexibility, i.e. the variance around the mean of the behavioral reaction norm, which defines plasticity. Third, along the lines of the evolution of cognition, we predict that environments with moderate variation favor behavioral flexibility. This occurs since in those environments costs of cognition are covered by being able to recognize and use information effectively. Similarly, nonflexible, stereotypic behaviors may be favored in environments that are either invariable or highly variable, since in those environments cognition does not give any benefits to cover the costs or cognition is not able to keep up with environmental change, respectively. If behavioral plasticity develops in response to increasing environmental variability, plasticity should dominate in environments that are moderately variable, and expression of animal personalities and behavioral syndromes may differ between environments. We give suggestions how to test our hypothesis and propose improvements to current behavioral testing protocols in the field of animal personality.
Niemela, Petri T; Vainikka, Anssi; Forsman, Jukka T; Loukola, Olli J; Kortet, Raine
When an adult claims he cannot sleep without his teddy bear, people tend to react surprised. Language interpretation is, thus, influenced by social context, such as who the speaker is. The present study reveals inter-individualdifferences in brain reactivity to social aspects of language. Whereas women showed brain reactivity when stereotype-based inferences about a speaker conflicted with the content of the message, men did not. This sex difference in social information processing can be explained by a specific cognitive trait, one’s ability to empathize. Individuals who empathize to a greater degree revealed larger N400 effects (as well as a larger increase in ?-band power) to socially relevant information. These results indicate that individuals with high-empathizing skills are able to rapidly integrate information about the speaker with the content of the message, as they make use of voice-based inferences about the speaker to process language in a top-down manner. Alternatively, individuals with lower empathizing skills did not use information about social stereotypes in implicit sentence comprehension, but rather took a more bottom-up approach to the processing of these social pragmatic sentences.
Van Berkum, Jos J.A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C.M.; Tesink, Cathelijne M.J.Y.; Kos, Miriam; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hagoort, Peter
Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individualdifferences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve.
Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.
MUCH attention has been focused recently on the detection and physical characterization of individual molecules1-11. Using such methods to study the chemical properties, such as reactivity, of single molecules offers the potential to investigate how these might vary from molecule to molecule, and for individual molecules as a function of time. The complex structures of biomolecules such as enzymes make them particularly attractive targets for studying how subtle changes or differences at the molecular level might influence chemical reactivity. We have shown previously12,13 that very small (zeptomole) amounts of enzymes can be studied using a fluorescence microassay; single enzyme molecules have also been detected in oil-dispersed droplets by fluorescence microscopy14,15. Here we report the observation of reactions of individual molecules of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-1), which produces NADH from lactate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). When they are present at very low concentrations in a narrow capillary, each enzyme molecule produces a discrete zone of NADH; these can be manipulated electrophoretically and monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. We find that the activity of individual electrophoretically pure enzyme molecules can vary by up to a factor of four, and that these activities remain unchanged over a two-hour period. We suggest that the origin of the activity differences may lie in the presence of several stable forms of the enzyme.
Research employing aversive conditioning paradigms has elucidated the neurocircuitry involved in acquiring and diminishing fear responses. However, the factors underlying individualdifferences in fear acquisition and inhibition are not presently well understood. In this study, we explored whether the magnitude of individuals' acquired fear responses and the modulation of these responses via 2 fear reduction methods were correlated with structural differences in brain regions involved in affective processing. Physiological and structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from experiments exploring extinction retention and intentional cognitive regulation. Our results identified 2 regions in which individual variation in brain structure correlated with subjects' fear-related arousal. Confirming previous results, increased thickness in ventromedial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the degree of extinction retention. Additionally, subjects with greater thickness in the posterior insula exhibited larger conditioned responses during acquisition. The data suggest a trend toward a negative correlation between amygdala volume and fear acquisition magnitude. There was no significant correlation between fear reduction via cognitive regulation and thickness in our prefrontal regions of interest. Acquisition and regulation measures were uncorrelated, suggesting that while certain individuals may have a propensity toward increased expression of conditioned fear, these responses can be diminished via both extinction and cognitive regulation.
The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements.
Males often produce elaborate displays that increase their attractiveness to females, and some species extend their displays to include structures or objects that are not part of their body. Such “extended phenotypes” may communicate information that cannot be transmitted by bodily signals or may provide a more reliable signal than bodily signals. However, it is unclear whether these signals are individually distinct and whether they are consistent over long periods of time. Male bowerbirds construct and decorate bowers that function in mate choice. Bower display courts constructed by male great bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) induce a visual illusion known as forced perspective for the female viewing the male’s display over the court, and the quality of illusion is associated with mating success. We improved the quality of the forced perspective to determine whether males maintained it at the new higher level, decreased the perspective quality back to its original value, or allowed it to decay at random over time. We found that the original perspective quality was actively recovered to individual original values within 3 d. We measured forced perspective over the course of one breeding season and compared the forced perspective of individual males between two successive breeding seasons. We found that differences in the quality of visual illusion among males were consistent within and between two breeding seasons. This suggests that forced perspective is actively and strongly maintained at a different level by each individual male.
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxin porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease called endemic nephropathy. In this paper OA levels in the human serum samples collected from healthy individuals and individuals suffering from different urinary disorders in Isparta-Turkey are presented. OA was measured
The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individualdifferences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individualdifferences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli. PMID:24009767
The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individualdifferences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individualdifferences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli.
Management programs have become a popular method to develop future leaders. There is, however, a lack of controlled studies assessing the long-term effects of such programs on participants' career development, organizational influence, and mental and physical well-being. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to assess the possible impact from 3 different structured management development programs on the individual and organizational well-being of female physicians. One year after the end of the 1-year intervention program, the intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in ratings of organizational influence, management feed back, perception of the organizational leadership, contact with one's immediate supervisor, and personal skills development as compared with the reference group. There were no statistically significant differences, however, between the groups with regard to individual health and well-being or career development. These results give rise to many questions, both concerning the effects of these 3 management programs and the career possibilities for female physicians.
von Vultee, Pia Jansson; Axelsson, Runo; Arnetz, Bengt