Sample records for individual differences standardization

  1. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different

  2. Identical Individuals? Population Structure: How Individuals Differ

    E-print Network

    Caraco, Thomas

    aged individuals Individual life history: Age and net reproductive rate, R0 Population projection: Age structure and population projection #12;US Males #12;Survivorship (Ricklefs & Miller, 1999) FecundityIdentical Individuals? Population Structure: How Individuals Differ Significance for Population

  3. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on individual differences in learning. "Creek Women's Perceptions of Work: A Qualitative Study" (Barbara Bussell Kawulich, Carol D. Hansen), which is an ethnographic study, discusses differences between the value systems held by Creek women and those of the mainstream population. "Subordinates'…

  4. A cognitive neuroscience based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: Standardization and initial construct validation

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ruben C.; Richard, Jan; Hughett, Paul; Calkins, Monica E.; Macy, Larry; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen; Gur, Raquel E.

    2009-01-01

    There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1 hour and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individual differences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multisite genetic studies and clinical trials. PMID:19945485

  5. Individual differences in sentence processing

    E-print Network

    Troyer, Melissa L

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to elucidate shared mechanisms between retrieval in sentence processing and memory retrieval processes in nonlinguistic domains using an individual differences approach. Prior research in individual ...

  6. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  7. Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von

    1995-01-01

    Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

  8. Individual Differences in Outplacement Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harry J.; Lekan, Dennis F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although outplacement consulting and career transition services have become a standard management practice and are almost universally provided when terminating executives, these services have not been carefully evaluated and their benefits are not clearly understood. The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of individual

  9. Individual Differences in Virtual Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corina Sas

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of several studies of indi- vidual differences among users navigating in virtual environments.These differences relate to performance of navigational tasks, and the degree of sense of presence experienced by the users.The individual differences addressed in this paper refer primarily to personality and demographic factors.The possibility of improving the design of virtual environments for a better

  10. Individual Differences and Educational Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Riding

    2005-01-01

    The last quarter of a century has seen significant progress in the identification and assessment of individual difference variables and an increasing awareness of the importance of seeing variables in the context of others, both in their effect on one another and their interactive effect on educational performance. Several challenges must now be met in order to improve practical educational

  11. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  12. Individual Differences in Trauma Disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided. PMID:22080869

  13. Individual differences in musical taste.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between (usually a narrow set of) personality dimensions and liking for a small number of individual musical styles. To date there has been no attempt to investigate, within a single methodology, the extent to which personality factors correlate with liking for a very wide range of musical styles. To address this, 36,518 participants rated their liking for 104 musical styles, completed a short form of the Big 5 personality inventory, and provided other data about their favorite musical styles. Personality factors were related to both liking for the musical styles and participants' reasons for listening to this music. However, on the whole these latter variables were related more closely to participants' age, sex, and income than to Big 5 scores. Thus, personality is related to musical taste, but other individual differences are arguably related more closely. PMID:20518436

  14. Standards for Services for Developmentally Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Provided are standards for agencies and hospitals serving developmentally disabled persons with emphasis on planning and implementing individual programs. The introduction provides information on the establishment of the Accreditation Council for Services for Mentally Retarded and Other Developmentally Disabled Persons and the Joint Commission on…

  15. Individual differences in oral thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Suzanna; Zald, David H

    2006-07-30

    Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip. Thermal testing consisted of both cooling and warming threshold detection, and intensity ratings of warm and cool suprathreshold temperatures. Intensity ratings of different temperatures were highly correlated, especially for temperatures in the same class. Similarly, warming and cooling thresholds were highly correlated. In contrast, thermal detection abilities were largely dissociable from suprathreshold intensity ratings, especially in the cooling direction. Suprathreshold ratings of cooling on the tongue were also modestly associated with ratings of the taste intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, a similar association was observed for the lower lip, indicating that the effect does not reflect an isolated characteristic of lingual physiology. Unexpectedly, two subjects with no history of oral trauma demonstrated abnormally deficient (4 S.D. below the mean) cool threshold detection abilities for the tongue, suggesting that there may exist subjects in the population who have profoundly poor lingual temperature processing. PMID:16733061

  16. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily used to make inferences about the average causal effect of the experimental manipulation. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing experimental data in order to make inferences about individual differences in causal effects. Approaches to analyzing the data produced by a number of classical designs, and two more novel designs, are discussed. Simulations highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the data produced by each design with respect to internal validity. Results indicate that, although the data produced by standard designs can be used to produce accurate estimates of average causal effects of experimental manipulations, more elaborate designs are often necessary for accurate inferences with respect to individual differences in causal effects. The methods described here can be diversely applied by researchers interested in determining the extent to which individuals respond differentially to an experimental manipulation or treatment, and how differential responsiveness relates to individual participant characteristics. PMID:21744970

  17. Paired Comparisons with Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Erling B.

    1976-01-01

    A Bradley-Terry type model for paired comparisons is considered which allows for individual parameters and corresponding parameters for the choice-alternatives. Model is applied to data from a Danish investigation of blue collar attitudes towards alternative social gains. Model is compared to one suggested by Schonemann and Wang. (RC)

  18. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René V. Dawis

    1992-01-01

    Counseling psychology developed in the 1950s out of applied psychology, which at that time was the application of the psychology of individual differences. The present article traces this historical development, from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. The individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice is described, and the

  19. Adaptive individual differences within single populations

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Phenotypic differences can exist between species, between local populations of the same species and between individuals within single local populations. At all scales, phenotypic differences can be either adaptive or non-adaptive. Using natural selection to explain differences between closely related species was controversial during the 1940s but had become common by the 1960s. Similarly, the adaptive nature of differences between local populations was initially controversial but had become widely accepted by the 1980s. The interpretation of differences at the finest scale, between individuals within single populations, is still unresolved. This paper reviews studies of adaptive individual differences in resource use and response to risk. A general conceptual framework for thinking about adaptive individual differences within populations can unite subjects as seemingly different as speciation and personality psychology.

  20. Discourse Comprehension and Sources of Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Lesgold, Alan M.

    This paper discusses discourse comprehension with respect to individual differences. First, some general principles of discourse structure and the processing of discourse are presented. These principles emphasize the role of sentence and thematic structure. Second, possible sources of individual differences in discourse processing are discussed.…

  1. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  2. Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

  3. Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

  4. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

  5. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

  6. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

  8. Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Janelle K; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2011-05-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by variability in working memory capacity, modulate susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Participants watched a classic inattentional blindness video (Simons & Chabris, 1999) and were instructed to count passes among basketball players, wherein 58% noticed the unexpected: a person wearing a gorilla suit. When participants were accurate with their pass counts, individuals with higher working memory capacity were more likely to report seeing the gorilla (67%) than those with lesser working memory capacity (36%). These results suggest that variability in attentional control is a potential mechanism underlying the apparent modulation of inattentional blindness across individuals. PMID:21299325

  9. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  10. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  11. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  12. Individual differences in Internet usage motives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tel Amiel; Stephanie Lee Sargent

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the psychobiological model of personality types (psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) devised by Eysenck and Eysenck [Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach, Plenum Press, New York, 1985] and Internet use and usage motives was examined. A sample of 210 undergraduate students were asked to report on their motives for using the Internet and how often they

  13. Developmental and Individual Differences in Rapid Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Alex Cherry; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children 10 to 14 years of age tried to identify and remember words presented visually with a backward mask. On different tasks, children recalled freely or serially, recognized by making a rapid forced-choice response, or simply named words as they were presented. Results were interpreted as identifying two sources of developmental and individual

  14. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  15. Individual differences research in a postgenomic era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Plomin

    2002-01-01

    The 20th century began with the re-discovery of Mendel’s laws of heredity; the 21st century began with the Human Genome Project’s working draft of the human genome sequence. We are rapidly approaching a postgenomic era in which we will know the entire genome sequence and, most importantly to individual differences researchers, all the DNA variations in the genome sequence. These

  16. An individual difference perspective on student diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Geisler-Brenstein; R. R. Schmeck; J. Hetherington

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among various aspects of learning styles\\/strategies and personality dimensions to arrive at a “thicker” description of individual differences in functioning in general and in the school context in particular. An exploratory factor analysis of the subscales of the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised and the NEO-Personality Inventory provided evidence for convergent

  17. Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors. PMID:23525147

  18. Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and When to Use Each David L Streiner, PhD1 Many people confuse the standard deviation (SD) and the standard error of the findings. (Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:498­502) Key Words: statistics, standard deviation, standard error

  19. Individual differences in judging deception: accuracy and bias.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; Depaulo, Bella M

    2008-07-01

    The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although researchers have suggested that people differ in the ability to detect lies, psychometric analyses of 247 samples reveal that these ability differences are minute. In terms of the percentage of lies detected, measurement-corrected standard deviations in judge ability are less than 1%. In accuracy, judges range no more widely than would be expected by chance, and the best judges are no more accurate than a stochastic mechanism would produce. When judging deception, people differ less in ability than in the inclination to regard others' statements as truthful. People also differ from one another as lie- and truth-tellers. They vary in the detectability of their lies. Moreover, some people are more credible than others whether lying or truth-telling. Results reveal that the outcome of a deception judgment depends more on the liar's credibility than any other individual difference. PMID:18605814

  20. Individual Differences Reveal the Basis of Consonance

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Lehr, Andriana J.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Some combinations of musical notes are consonant (pleasant), while others are dissonant (unpleasant), a distinction central to music. Explanations of consonance in terms of acoustics, auditory neuroscience, and enculturation have been debated for centuries [1-12]. We utilized individual differences to distinguish the candidate theories. We measured preferences for musical chords as well as nonmusical sounds that isolated particular acoustic factors – specifically, the beating and the harmonic relationships between frequency components, two factors that have long been thought to potentially underlie consonance [2, 3, 10, 13-20]. Listeners preferred stimuli without beats and with harmonic spectra, but across over 250 subjects, only the preference for harmonic spectra was consistently correlated with preferences for consonant over dissonant chords. Harmonicity preferences were also correlated with the number of years subjects had spent playing a musical instrument, suggesting that exposure to music amplifies preferences for harmonic frequencies because of their musical importance. Harmonic spectra are prominent features of natural sounds, and our results indicate they also underlie the perception of consonance. PMID:20493704

  1. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution. PMID:22871043

  2. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  3. Individual differences before, during and after practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Hollingworth

    1914-01-01

    Tested the assumption that in the direct application of mental tests, the actual performance of an individual in one or a dozen trials at a given task is significant for that individual's final capacity of such work. 13 Ss, out of which four were women and nine men (18-39 yrs of age), went through 175 repetitions of seven familiar tests

  4. Neural correlates of individual differences related to appetite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Lowe; Jason van Steenburgh; Christopher Ochner; Maria Coletta

    2009-01-01

    Using neuroimaging technologies to compare normal weight and obese individuals can reveal much about the pathophysiological state of obesity but such comparisons tell us little about what makes some normal weight individuals susceptible to obesity or about important individual differences amongst obese individuals. The current review therefore reviews neuroimaging research on individual difference measures that can illuminate these important topics.

  5. Understanding correlates of change by modeling individual differences in growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Rogosa; John B. Willett

    1985-01-01

    The study of correlates of change is the investigation of systematic individual differences in growth. Our representation of systematic individual differences in growth is built up in two parts: (a) a model for individual growth and, (b) a model for the dependence of parameters in the individual growth models on individual characteristics. First, explicit representations of correlates of change are

  6. Emotional empathy and associated individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Mehrabian; Andrew L. Young; Sharon Sato

    1988-01-01

    Emotional empathic tendency is defined as an individual’s characteristic inclination to respond with emotions similar to those\\u000a of others who are present. Within a three-dimensional framework for describing temperament, more empathic persons were found\\u000a to be more arousable, and secondarily, more pleasant. Greater skin conductance and heart-rate responses of more empathic persons\\u000a to emotional stimuli confirmed their greater arousability. Also,

  7. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

  8. ARTICLES Individual differences influence collective behaviour in social caterpillars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. DUSSUTOUR; S. C. NICOLIS; E. DESPLAND; S. J. SIMPSON

    The expression of individual differences within a population often depends on environmental conditions. We investigated, first, whether there are differences between individual group-living forest tent caterpillars, Malacosoma disstria, that are expressed only in nutritionally unbalanced environments, and second, to what extent these individual behavioural differences influence the strategies used by the group to exploit food resources. We offered groups of

  9. Individual differences within and across attentional blink tasks revisited.

    PubMed

    Dale, Gillian; Dux, Paul E; Arnell, Karen M

    2013-04-01

    When the second of two targets (T2) is presented in close temporal proximity (within 200-500 ms) to the first (T1), the accuracy for reporting T2 is reduced relative to when the targets are separated by longer durations; this effect is known as the attentional blink (AB). Two recent studies have shown that individual differences in the magnitudes of the AB are stable both within a single testing session and over time. While one study found a large positive correlation between AB magnitudes when there was an attentional-set/task switch between T1 and T2 and when there was not, the other study found no relationship between the switch and no-switch paradigms. The present study was conducted to clarify this discrepancy by examining the reliability of, and relationships among, individual differences in AB performance on five different versions of the standard dual-target RSVP paradigm, three of which involved an attentional-set/task switch between T1 and T2, and two of which did not. Participants completed all five paradigms, and then returned 7-10 days later to again complete the same paradigms. The performance on all five versions was reliable both within and across testing sessions, demonstrating again that individual differences in AB performance are stable over time. In addition, all five AB versions were significantly intercorrelated, although the strengths of the relationships differed depending on the extent to which the T1 and T2 attentional sets/tasks overlapped. These findings provide evidence that multiple distinct dual-target RSVP tasks do share underlying variability, providing support for the use of different versions of the paradigm in the literature. PMID:23319149

  10. Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; Lüdtke, Rainer; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0?mm?=?no pain, 100?mm?=?worst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (?33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017. PMID:24288556

  11. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  12. Understanding Visual Metaphor: Developmental and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This monograph describes the development of the Metaphoric Triads Task (MTT), an instrument designed to assess metaphoric comprehension. Validity and reliability of the instrument are discussed and data for 12 samples of subjects are reported. Sex differences were negligible, but progressive improvement in MTT score with age was noted. Pictorial…

  13. Individual and Group Differences in Study Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, J. B.

    Existing research indicates that particular study strategies are deployed with differing success according to certain critical personality factors, most notably a syndrome of characteristics related to internal or external locus of control. Institutional factors that have an effect on study behaviour include Faculty membership (Arts/Science), mode…

  14. Dealing with Inter-Individual Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Fatigue and Performance

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Dealing with Inter-Individual Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Fatigue and Performance, DINGES DF. Dealing with inter- individual differences in the temporal dynamics of fatigue and per in the temporal dynamics of fatigue and performance. The standard two stage (STS), restricted maximum likelihood

  15. Measurement of Individual Differences in Sex-Role Stereotyping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Alphons J.; Hoyenga, Katharine I.

    It has been suggested that a procedure based on the logic of Bayesian probabilities would make it possible to assess individual differences in stereotyping. Given the possible advantages of using the McCauley and Stitt (1978) procedures to measure individual differences, three groups of college students were tested to see if they would use Bayes…

  16. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  17. Individual differences in navigational strategy: implications for display design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carryl L. Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    Three investigations that demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences when designing in-vehicle navigation systems are described. Drivers were categorised in terms of their spatial awareness and wayfinding strategies, based on brief self-report questionnaires. Experiment 1 revealed individual differences in route learning performance as a function of these categories and display modality (visual, auditory or both). Experiment 2 demonstrated that

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

  19. Interaction of Individual Differences with Visual and Verbal Elaboration Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Harold D.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of elaboration instructions and imagery characteristics of verbal material on learning of Malay--English word pairs were investigated, as well as the moderating effects of individual differences. Results reflect aptitude X treatment interactions and the importance of individual differences in planning instructional methods. (Author/JAC)

  20. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  1. What can individual differences reveal about face processing?

    PubMed Central

    Yovel, Galit; Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Faces are probably the most widely studied visual stimulus. Most research on face processing has used a group-mean approach that averages behavioral or neural responses to faces across individuals and treats variance between individuals as noise. However, individual differences in face processing can provide valuable information that complements and extends findings from group-mean studies. Here we demonstrate that studies employing an individual differences approach—examining associations and dissociations across individuals—can answer fundamental questions about the way face processing operates. In particular these studies allow us to associate and dissociate the mechanisms involved in face processing, tie behavioral face processing mechanisms to neural mechanisms, link face processing to broader capacities and quantify developmental influences on face processing. The individual differences approach we illustrate here is a powerful method that should be further explored within the domain of face processing as well as fruitfully applied across the cognitive sciences. PMID:25191241

  2. Predicting Internet Pornography Use and Arousal: The Role of Individual Difference Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryant Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and

  3. Individual and sex differences in learning abilities of ravens.

    PubMed

    Range, F; Bugnyar, T; Schlögl, C; Kotrschal, K

    2006-07-01

    Behavioral and physiological characteristics of individuals within the same species have been found to be stable across time and contexts. In this study, we investigated individual differences in learning abilities and object and social manipulation to test for consistency within individuals across different tasks. Individual ravens (Corvus corax) were tested in simple color and position discrimination tasks to establish their learning abilities. We found that males were significantly better in the acquisition of the first discrimination task and the object manipulation task, but not in any of the other tasks. Furthermore, faster learners engaged less often in manipulations of conspecifics and exploration of objects to get access to food. No relationship between object and social manipulation and reversal training were found. Our results suggest that individual differences in regard to the acquisition of new tasks may be related to personalities or at least object manipulation in ravens. PMID:16675158

  4. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Stein, Laura R; Bell, Alison M

    2012-02-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents. PMID:24729781

  5. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    PubMed Central

    STEIN, Laura R.; BELL, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents. PMID:24729781

  6. Healthy and Unhealthy Emotion Regulation: Personality Processes, Individual Differences,

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Healthy and Unhealthy Emotion Regulation: Personality Processes, Individual Differences, and Life ABSTRACT Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. Are some forms of emotion regulation healthier than others? We focus on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: reappraisal

  7. An Individual Differences Analysis of Double-Aspect Stimulus Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Huber, R. John

    Any theory of information processing must address both what is processed and how that processing takes place. Most studies investigating variables which alter physical dimension utilization have ignored the large individual differences in selective attention or cue utilization. A paradigm was developed using an individual focus on information…

  8. Individual differences in chess expertise: A psychometric investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland H. Grabner; Elsbeth Stern; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

    2007-01-01

    Starting from controversies over the role of general individual characteristics (especially intelligence) for the attainment of expert performance levels, a comprehensive psychometric investigation of individual differences in chess expertise is presented. A sample of 90 adult tournament chess players of varying playing strengths (1311–2387 ELO) was screened with tests on intelligence and personality variables; in addition, experience in chess play,

  9. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator...

  10. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator...

  11. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...individual drain system is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B...the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and...

  12. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...individual drain system is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B...the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and...

  13. Behavioral/Cognitive Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences

    E-print Network

    Behavioral/Cognitive Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability 06520, 6Department of Communication Disorders, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven that higher concentra- tions were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores

  14. Individual Differences and the Canalization of Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkheimer, Eric; Gottesman, Irving I.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that psychologists' interest in behavioral development concerns individual differences in behavior. Explores complexities of genetic and environmental determination of development, and of canalization. Intelligence is considered as an example of the canalization of human behavior. (BC)

  15. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  16. Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

  17. Reproductive Performance of Mice in Disposable and Standard Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403

  18. Individual differences in working memory capacity and attentional control.

    PubMed

    Hiebel, Nina; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory (WM) has a very limited online capacity making it considerably important to control the gating of encoding into WM. Recent studies have suggested that attention control is of importance in doing so, especially the time needed to disengage. However, the disengagement mechanism operates on a later stage of processing after the initial selection of information has already been initiated. We assume that individual differences in WM capacity are also driven by individual variations in the voluntary engagement of attention. In 2 experiments we investigated whether individuals with high- and low-WM capacity differ in the efficiency and speed of this attention control process. We realised different versions of the task in which different amounts of attention control were necessary, a more automatically triggered allocation of attention and a voluntary initiation of attention engagement, respectively. We further manipulated the time course to look for differences in the latency of attention control. The results revealed that participants with low-WM capacity were less effective to exhibit voluntary attention control processes and they were also slower in doing so compared with high-WM capacity individuals. However, this effect seems to be partly moderated by the ability to update the current task set. If the trial structure did not require task set updating smaller individual differences involving WM capacity could be found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25730638

  19. Individual differences in human annoyance response to noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R. G.; Hart, F. D.; Obrien, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Individual variations in annoyance and in susceptibility to noise were studied to establish a finer definition of the ingredients of the human annoyance response. The study involved interactions among a heterogeneous sample of human subjects, various noise stimuli, and different physical environments of exposure. Significant differences in annoyance ratings among the six noise stimuli, all equated for peak sound pressure level, were found.

  20. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the…

  1. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the…

  2. Individual Differences in Learning a Novel Discrete Motor Task

    PubMed Central

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2014-01-01

    Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

  3. Investigating inter-individual differences in short-term intra-individual variability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan (Peggy); Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this paper we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models inter-individual differences in intra-individual variability by separately considering both the amplitude of fluctuations and temporal dependency in the data. In the proposed model, temporal dependency and amplitude of fluctuations are both included as random effects. Parameter estimation is done with a multiple-step approach using maximum likelihood, or with a recommended one-step approach using a Bayesian method. The similarity and differences between the proposed method and some existing methods are discussed and investigated using diary study data from older adults. The results from empirical data analysis revealed that temporal dependency and amplitude of fluctuations have different predictability of health outcomes and thus should be modeled and considered separately. PMID:22924600

  4. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  5. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  6. Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. An Individual Differences Analysis of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Loveall, Susan J.; Moore, Marie S.; Hume, Laura E.; Maddox, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that children learn orthographic structure of words through the experience of phonologically recoding them. The current study is an individual differences analysis of the self-teaching hypothesis. A total of 40 children in Grades 2 and 3 (7-9 years of age) completed tests of phonological recoding, word…

  8. Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Llewellyn; Xavier Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesThe primary objective of the study was to challenge the notion that risk taking populations are homogenous, and that risk taking in sport necessarily reflects the expression of trait sensation seeking. A secondary objective was to examine the potential role of additional individual differences, such as self-efficacy and impulsivity, which have traditionally received limited attention.

  9. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  10. Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Day, Susan X.; McVay, Jason P.; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Using data from published sources, the authors investigated J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) theory of interest types as an integrative framework for organizing individual differences variables that are used in counseling psychology. Holland's interest types were used to specify 2- and 3-dimensional interest structures. In Study 1, measures of…

  11. Lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice: causes, solutions, and individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Hodson; Victoria M. Esses

    2005-01-01

    We assessed lay perceptions of the causes of and solutions to ethnic prejudice, and determined whether individual differences related to intergroup relations (social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism) and to cognitive style (personal need for structure, need for cognition) were predictive of these perceptions. Results revealed clear and coherent lay beliefs about the causes of and solutions to ethnic prejudice, and

  12. DYNAMICS OF FACIAL EXPRESSION: NORMATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

    E-print Network

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    expression. Within populations, we know that there are differences in smiling among men and women, suggesting that women are more expressive than men on average [4]. At the individual level, there may also be stable for even the most common facial expressions. Dynamic characteristics of 195 spontaneous smiles from 95

  13. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  14. Developmental and Individual Differences in Pure Numerical Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined developmental and individual differences in pure numerical estimation, the type of estimation that depends solely on knowledge of numbers. Children between kindergarten and 4th grade were asked to solve 4 types of numerical estimation problems: computational, numerosity, measurement, and number line. In Experiment 1,…

  15. Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

  16. Individual differences in epistemic style: A dual-process perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin E. Eigenberger; Christine Critchley; Karen A. Sealander

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of using a specially designed scaled questionnaire to investigate the dualistic properties of epistemic style. The scale is introduced as a measure of individual difference in epistemic style, conceptualized within the framework of dual-process notions of cognitive function. The study examined several psychometric components of the measure, including dimensional structure, distributional characteristics, and indications of

  17. Temperament and coping: Advantages of an individual differences perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS DERRYBERRY; MARJORIE A. REED

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages that arise from an individual differences approach to children's coping and vulnerabilities. It suggests that the basic motivational and attentional systems involved in temperament constitute relatively primitive coping mechanisms. With development, these primitive coping skills are aided by representational and other cortical functions, allowing the coping process to begin before a stressful event and thereby

  18. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Kidd

    2001-01-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify

  19. Individual Differences in Emotional Complexity: Their Psychological Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Mee Kang; Phillip R. Shaver

    2004-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature and psychological impli- cations of individual differences in emotional complexity, defined as hav- ing emotional experiences that are broad in range and well differentiated. Emotional complexity was predicted to be associated with private self- consciousness, openness to experience, empathic tendencies, cognitive complexity, ability to differentiate among named emotions, range of emotions experienced daily, and interpersonal

  20. Applied Individual Differences Research and Its Quantitative Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lubinski

    1996-01-01

    Applied individual differences research is one of the few branches of psychological science that have systematically amassed a coherent body of empirical knowledge withstanding the test of time. Furthermore, it has exemplified how practice can facilitate basic science. While examining relatively stable behavioral attributes (abilities, personality, vocational preferences), which form the bases of their longitudinal forecasts pertaining to broad behavioral

  1. Web searching by the “general public”: an individual differences perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Ford; Barry Eaglestone; Andrew Madden; Martin Whittle

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of a number of human individual differences on the web searching of a sample of the general public. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 91 members of the general public performed 195 controlled searches. Search activity and ratings of search difficulty and success were recorded and statistically analysed. The study

  2. Student Evaluation of Teaching: Individual Differences and Bias Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Verena Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of course type, instructor and student gender, and student individual differences (domain-specific vocational interests and confidence, personality, and gender role attitudes) on student evaluation of teaching (SET) scores. A sample of 610 college students (372 female) rated…

  3. Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

  4. Explaining Individual Differences In Scholastic Behaviour and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, K.V.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Frederickson, Norah; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: This paper presents results from the first wave of a longitudinal study examining the effects of various psychosocial variables on scholastic achievement and behaviour at school. Aims: The main aim is to investigate the nature and strength of the effects of major individual difference dimensions on important outcome variables at school…

  5. Computer-Managed Instruction: Individual Differences in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To determine whether individual differences in student achievement and learning rate are reduced or eliminated by mastery instruction, 166 Navy trainees who had completed a computer-managed course in basic electricity and electronics were cluster-analyzed into groups, using 24 measures of cognitive characteristics. Discriminant analyses were…

  6. Exploring individual differences in raybased selection: strategies and traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Wingrave; Ryan Tintner; Bruce N. Walker; Doug A. Bowman; Larry F. Hodges

    2005-01-01

    User-centered design is often performed without regard to individual user differences in aptitude and experience. The methodology of this study is an anthropological and observational approach observing users performing a selection task using common virtual environment raybased techniques and analyzes the interaction through psychology aptitude tests, questionnaires and observation. The results of this study show the approach yields useful information

  7. "Frame Size" and Individual Differences in Programmed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronqvist, Harry

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a study of the stimulus variable of "frame size" and a group of variables reflecting student ability and sex. Individual differences were studied by varying ability, as measured by school grades and a battery of seven "factor tests" of intelligence and varying "frame…

  8. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschoolers. Found that IC was strongly related to ToM, even after controlling for several important factors. Inhibitory tasks requiring a novel response in face of a conflicting prepotent response and those requiring delay of a…

  9. Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions of cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Xu; John C. Middlebrooks

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the direction-dependent filter characteristics of the external ears is useful for the study of spatial hearing in experimental animals. The present study examined individual differences in the directional components of external-ear transfer functions ~directional transfer functions, DTFs! among 24 anesthetized cats. Ears were fixed in a frontal position. Inter-cat differences in DTFs were quantified across a mid-frequency range

  10. Evolutionary personality psychology: Reconciling human nature and individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Michalski; Todd K. Shackelford

    2010-01-01

    Personality, from an evolutionary perspective, represents a meta-category of the output of a suite of species-typical, relatively domain-specific, evolved psychological mechanisms designed in response to the social adaptive problems recurrently faced by our ancestors. This conceptualization of human personality provides for novel and valuable reinterpretations of several areas of personality psychology including personality consistency, individual differences in personality, sex differences

  11. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  12. Individual Differences in Usability of Cell Phone SMS Menus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADEM KARAHOCA; DILEK KARAHOCA; ILKER YENGIN; BARIS YUCE; ILKER BERKMAN; SERKAN SIMSEK; CEREN DAGYAR; SENAY YALCIN

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays there are wide range and different cell phones but there are not any standardized produced cell phones. Menu systems of the cell phones create complications according to usability of the cell phone user interfaces. One of the main usability problems is encountered in SMS (short messaging services) sending procedure. In this study, we investigated usability issues of the SMS

  13. The use of standardized language in individualized healthcare plans.

    PubMed

    Denehy, J; Poulton, S

    1999-02-01

    The specialty of school nursing can benefit from the use of standardized language to communicate what school nurses do and to articulate their value during times of budget cuts and reduction of services. The use of a standardized language in IHPs is helpful in communicating with other health professionals and the educational team. The use of NANDA, NIC, and NOC assists school nurses in using a common language to describe what they do to meet student outcome goals. Linkages among NANDA, NIC, and NOC facilitate careful selection of appropriate interventions and outcomes. The diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes are coded and written in a manner that can be entered into computerized information systems--information needed for potential reimbursement. It also is essential that this information is entered into data bases that will tangibly demonstrate the contribution of school nurses to the health of the children they serve. PMID:10347448

  14. Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that, moderating for participants' sex, self-assessed attractiveness, educational qualifications, neuroticism, extraversion, and BMI were all significant predictors of body appreciation. In addition, higher media consumption and higher (male-stereotypic) instrumentality were associated with, but did not predict, higher body appreciation. These results are discussed in relation to the extant work on body image. PMID:18585107

  15. ERP and behavioral evidence of individual differences in metaphor comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kazmerski, Victoria A; Blasko, Dawn G; Dessalegn, Banchiamlack G

    2003-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined individual differences in metaphor processing. In Experiment 1, the subjects judged the literal truth of literal, metaphorical, and scrambled sentences. Overall, metaphors were more difficult to judge as false, in comparison with scrambled controls, suggesting that the metaphorical meaning was being processed automatically. However, there were individual differences in that high-IQ subjects showed more interference. These effects were reflected in ERP amplitude differences at the onset of N400 and after the response. In Experiment 2, the subjects completed IQ tests and a series of working memory tests and then rated and interpreted the same set of metaphors. The results showed that IQ was correlated with working memory capacity and that low-IQ subjects had similar ratings but poorer quality interpretations than did high-IQ subjects. The results were most consistent with a constraint satisfaction approach to metaphor comprehension. PMID:12956233

  16. Sex Differences in Cognition in Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Winicki, Jessica M.; Schretlen, David J.; Gower, Emily W.; Turano, Kathleen A.; Muñoz, Beatriz; Keay, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance have been attributed to factors, such as sex hormones or sexual dimorphisms in brain structure, that change with normal aging. The current study examined sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance in healthy elderly individuals. Cognitive test scores of 957 men and women (age 67–89), matched for overall level of cognitive test performance, age, education, and depression scale score, were compared. Men and women were indistinguishable on tests of auditory divided attention, category fluency, and executive functioning. In contrast, women performed better than men on tests of psychomotor speed and verbal learning and memory, whereas men outperformed women on tests of visuoconstruction and visual perception. Our finding that the pattern of sex differences in cognition observed in young adults is observed in old age has implications for future studies of both healthy elderly individuals and of those with cognitive disorders. PMID:22670852

  17. War of Attrition with Individual Differences on RHP.

    PubMed

    Kura; Kura

    1998-07-21

    The fact that there always exists various kinds of almost continuous mutations for any animal population implies that players in competitions can never be perfectly symmetric in any sense. To develop a model to fit this reality, we consider war of attrition games in which players have continuously different resource holding potential (RHP). The RHP of each opponent is not known in our settings. Pure ESS functions and Nash equilibria are obtained under sufficiently rotational conditions as unique solutions of certain differential equations among the class of Lebesgue measurable functions. They are normal in that a higher RHP induces a longer attrition time, which implies that a player with greater RHP always wins. This model includes as the limit the conclusions of Maynard Smith (1974, J. theor. Biol. 47, 209-221) and Norman et al. (1977, J. theor. Biol. 65, 571-578), which did not consider individual differences in RHP. Our results suggest that, by changing each player's qualitative differences to continuous quantitative differences, some of the mixed ESS solutions previously found in discrete games may degenerate into pure ESS functions. Moreover, we found that the smaller the individual differences of RHP, the smaller is the mean pay-off of most individuals as well as the total pay-off of the population.Copyright 1998 Academic Press PMID:9735263

  18. Modeling individual differences in ferret external ear transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Booth, John; King, Andrew J.

    2003-04-01

    Individual variations in head and outer ear size, as well as growth of these structures during development, can markedly alter the values of the binaural and monaural cues which form the basis for auditory localization. This study investigated individual differences in the directional component of the head-related transfer function of both adult and juvenile ferrets. In line with previous studies in humans and cats, intersubject spectral differences were found to be reduced by scaling one of the directional transfer functions on a log-frequency axis. The optimal scale factor correlated most highly with pinna cavity height. Optimal frequency scaling reduced interear spectral difference equally well for adult-juvenile comparisons as for comparisons between pairs of adult ears. This illustrates that the developmental changes in localization cue values should be at least partly predictable on the basis of the expected growth rate of the outer ear structures. Predictions of interaural time differences (ITDs) were also derived from the physical dimensions of the head. ITDs were found to be poorly fitted by the spherical head model, while much better predictions could be derived from a model based on von Mises spherical basis functions. Together, these findings show how more accurate estimates of spatial cue values can be made from knowledge of the dimensions of the head and outer ears, and may facilitate the generation of virtual acoustic space stimuli in the absence of acoustical measurements from individual subjects.

  19. Working memory and stroop interference: an individual differences investigation.

    PubMed

    Long, Debra L; Prat, Chantel S

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the claim that individual differences in working-memory capacity reflect limitations on the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information and/or to maintain activation in the face of distracting or interfering events. Specifically, we investigated whether high- and low-capacity individuals differed in their susceptibility to interference on the Stroop task and whether high-capacity individuals employed a strategy for minimizing Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, we found that high-capacity participants showed substantial interference when conflict trials were infrequent, but almost no interference when conflict trials were frequent. In contrast, low-capacity participants showed substantial interference irrespective of the proportion of conflict trials. In Experiment 2, we found that high-capacity participants experienced substantial negative priming, slow responses when the to-be-named color was the irrelevant word on the previous trial. We discuss these results and their implications for high-capacity individuals' ability to reduce Stroop interference in light of both inhibitory and noninhibitory accounts of negative priming. PMID:12035891

  20. Accounting for individual differences in human associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Nicola C.

    2013-01-01

    Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning. PMID:24027551

  1. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  2. Autonomy in Children's Learning: An Experimental and Individual Difference Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy S. Grolnick; Richard M. Ryan

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-one fifth-grade children participated in a study that assessed the effects of motivationally relevant conditions and individual differences on emotional experience and performance on a learning task. Two directed-learning conditions, one controlling and one noncontrolling, were contrasted with each other and with a third nondirected, spontaneous-learning context. Both directed sets resulted in greater rote learning compared with the nondirected-learning condition.

  3. Self-directed social learning: the role of individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svenja Tams

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to examine the influence of individual differences on self-directed social learning and self-efficacy. Inter-dependent self-construal, agreeableness, and extraversion were expected to predict five ways of self-directed social learning: relating, benchmarking, modeling, identifying, and distancing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The sample consisted of 356 responses from professionals to a questionnaire survey. Using step-wise regression analyses, the effect of

  4. Neural Mechanisms, Temporal Dynamics, and Individual Differences in Interference Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birte U. Forstmann; Wery P. M. Van Den Wildenberg; K. Richard Ridderinkhof

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods may help in understanding processes of response capture and response inhibition in conflict tasks, such as the Simon task. However, data-driven approaches thus far have not yielded consistent insights into these processes. Here, a theory-driven approach is introduced that capitalizes on individual differences in the processes of central interest. Based on the so-called activation-suppression

  5. Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua M. Smyth; Margit C. Ockenfels; Amy A. Gorin; Delwyn Catley; Laura S. Porter; Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Arthur A. Stone

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol and explored their relation to several psychosocial variables and to upper-respiratory symptoms. Cortisol and daily experience were assessed for 2 days in 109 healthy employed and unemployed community residents (mean age = 36.4 ± 12.1, 69% female); self-report upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms were assessed for an additional 10

  6. Individual Differences in Adult Decision-Making Competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Andrew M. Parker; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a set of 7 behavioral decision-making tasks, measuring different aspects of the decision-making process. The tasks were administered to individuals from diverse populations. Participants showed relatively consistent performance within and across the 7 tasks, which were then aggregated into an Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) index that showed good reliability. The validity of

  7. Individual differences in lateralisation of hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Girard; J. A. Cheyne

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences were investigated in the lateralisation of two general categories of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis: (1) Vestibular?motor (V?M) hallucinations; comprising sensations of floating, flying, illusory locomotion and postural adjustments, out?of?body experiences (OBE), and autoscopy; and (2) Intruder hallucinations; incorporating a sense of the presence, and visual and auditory hallucinations of external, alien agents. Left–right lateralisation

  8. Individual Differences and Behavioral Aspects Involved in Modeling Web Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ion Juvina; Herre Van Oostendorp

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents an empirical study aiming at investigating individual differences and behavioral aspects involved in modeling\\u000a web navigation. Factors that have an influence on web navigation behavior were identified with the aid of task analysis and\\u000a their relevance in predicting task outcomes (performance, satisfaction, disorientation) was tested with the aid of multiple\\u000a regression analysis. Several types of navigation metrics

  9. Structural and functional bases for individual differences in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Valentina; Jbabdi, Saad; Kincses, Zsigmond T; Bosnell, Rose; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Pozzilli, Carlo; Matthews, Paul M; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2011-03-01

    People vary in their ability to learn new motor skills. We hypothesize that between-subject variability in brain structure and function can explain differences in learning. We use brain functional and structural MRI methods to characterize such neural correlates of individual variations in motor learning. Healthy subjects applied isometric grip force of varying magnitudes with their right hands cued visually to generate smoothly-varying pressures following a regular pattern. We tested whether individual variations in motor learning were associated with anatomically colocalized variations in magnitude of functional MRI (fMRI) signal or in MRI differences related to white and grey matter microstructure. We found that individual motor learning was correlated with greater functional activation in the prefrontal, premotor, and parietal cortices, as well as in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Structural MRI correlates were found in the premotor cortex [for fractional anisotropy (FA)] and in the cerebellum [for both grey matter density and FA]. The cerebellar microstructural differences were anatomically colocalized with fMRI correlates of learning. This study thus suggests that variations across the population in the function and structure of specific brain regions for motor control explain some of the individual differences in skill learning. This strengthens the notion that brain structure determines some limits to cognitive function even in a healthy population. Along with evidence from pathology suggesting a role for these regions in spontaneous motor recovery, our results also highlight potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to maximize plasticity for recovery of similar visuomotor skills after brain injury. PMID:20533562

  10. Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms. PMID:24684315

  11. Individual differences in chess expertise: a psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Stern, Elsbeth; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2007-03-01

    Starting from controversies over the role of general individual characteristics (especially intelligence) for the attainment of expert performance levels, a comprehensive psychometric investigation of individual differences in chess expertise is presented. A sample of 90 adult tournament chess players of varying playing strengths (1311-2387 ELO) was screened with tests on intelligence and personality variables; in addition, experience in chess play, tournament participation, and practice activities were assessed. Correlation and regression analyses revealed a clear-cut moderate relationship between general (and in particular numerical) intelligence and the participants' playing strengths, suggesting that expert chess play does not stand in isolation from superior mental abilities. The strongest predictor of the attained expertise level, however, was the participants' chess experience which highlights the relevance of long-term engagement for the development of expertise. Among all analysed personality dimensions, only domain-specific performance motivation and emotion expression control incrementally contributed to the prediction of playing strength. In total, measures of chess experience, current tournament activity, intelligence, and personality accounted for about 55% of variance in chess expertise. The present results suggest that individual differences in chess expertise are multifaceted and cannot be reduced to differences in domain experience. PMID:16942740

  12. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Michael D.; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making task can be attributed to (1) differences in evidence accumulation rates, (2) differences in variability of evidence accumulation within trials, and (3) differences in non-decision times across individuals. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that these differences in cognitive variables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-locking of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to the signal and noise components of the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model) were obtained from accuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs) of SSVEPs with a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress the SSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correct evidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times), leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combination of cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiological processes to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample) participant's neural data can predict that participant's behavior more accurately than models without physiological data.

  13. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  14. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  15. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Ça?lar; Campbell, S. Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or ‘personality’ in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009–2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait ‘communicativeness’ and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of ‘under-signalling’. PMID:24307671

  16. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Caglar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2014-01-22

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009-2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait 'communicativeness' and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of 'under-signalling'. PMID:24307671

  17. Individual differences in situation awareness: validation of the situationism scale.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Klein, William M P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This article concerns the construct of lay situationism-an individual's belief in the importance of a behavior's context. Study 1 identified a 13-item Situationism Scale, which demonstrated good reliability and validity. In particular, higher situationism was associated with greater situation-control (strategies to manipulate the environment in order to avoid temptation). Subsequent laboratory studies indicated that people higher on the situationism subscales used greater situation-control by sitting farther from junk food (Study 2) and choosing to drink non-alcoholic beverages before a cognitive task (Study 3). Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric validity and predictive utility of the Situationism Scale and offer this individual difference construct as a means to expand self-regulation theory. PMID:25329242

  18. What is different about the Common Core Mathematics Standards?

    E-print Network

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    What is different about the Common Core Mathematics Standards? East Lansing Public Schools, MI June in this game. By 2014, the Common Core Mathematics Standards (CCMS) will be phased in. How will it impact

  19. [Clinical investigation of individual differences in evoked otoacoustic emission].

    PubMed

    Endo, Y

    1992-02-01

    Factors causing individual differences in evoked otoacoustic emission (e-OAE) were investigated in 223 ears of 159 persons with normal hearing. After recording e-OAE to click by using ILO88, the relation between the intensity of e-OAE and factors such as age, sex, small differences in hearing, volume of the external auditory canal, static compliance, developmental extent of the mastoid cavity and presence or absence of spontaneous otoacoustic emission (s-OAE) were studied. The volume of the external auditory canal and static compliance were estimated from a tympanogram measured by Teledyne TA-2C and the developmental extent of the mastoid cavity was measured with a Schüller X-ray film. A correlation was found between the intensity of e-OAE and two factors, the age and the s-OAE, but not between the intensity of e-OAE and other factors. From the fact that the percentage of s-OAE present declines with aging, the presence or absence and the characteristics of s-OAE were considered to be a factor causing individual differences in e-OAE. PMID:1560309

  20. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  1. Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

  2. Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25181327

  3. CAN INTERMITTENT VIDEO SAMPLING CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURALISTIC DRIVING?

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Schall, Mark; Anderson, Steven; Dawson, Jeffery; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Summary We examined the utility and validity of intermittent video samples from black box devices for capturing individual difference variability in real-world driving performance in an ongoing study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and community controls. Three types of video clips were coded for several dimensions of interest to driving research including safety, exposure, and driver state. The preliminary findings indicated that clip types successfully captured variability along targeted dimensions such as highway vs. city driving, driver state such as distraction and sleepiness, and safety. Sleepiness metrics were meaningfully associated with adherence to PAP (positive airway pressure) therapy. OSA patients who were PAP adherent showed less sleepiness and less non-driving related gaze movements than nonadherent patients. Simple differences in sleepiness did not readily translate to improvements in driver safety, consistent with epidemiologic evidence to date. PMID:24535569

  4. Explaining individual differences in cognitive processes underlying hindsight bias.

    PubMed

    Coolin, Alisha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Allen E; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2015-04-01

    After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contributing to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon. More recent applications of this model have revealed that, in comparison to younger adults, older adults are more susceptible to two underlying HB processes: recollection bias and reconstruction bias. However, the impact of cognitive functioning on these processes remains unclear. In this article, we extend the MPT model for HB by incorporating individual variation in cognitive functioning into the estimation of the model's core parameters in older and younger adults. In older adults, our findings revealed that (1) better episodic memory was associated with higher recollection ability in the absence of outcome knowledge, (2) better episodic memory and inhibitory control and higher working memory capacity were associated with higher recollection ability in the presence of outcome knowledge, and (3) better inhibitory control was associated with less reconstruction bias. Although the pattern of effects was similar in younger adults, the cognitive covariates did not significantly predict the underlying HB processes in this age group. In sum, we present a novel approach to modeling individual variability in MPT models. We applied this approach to the HB paradigm to identify the cognitive mechanisms contributing to the underlying HB processes. Our results show that working memory capacity and inhibitory control, respectively, drive individual differences in recollection bias and reconstruction bias, particularly in older adults. PMID:25147027

  5. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

  6. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  7. Individual differences in chemotherapy-induced anticipatory nausea.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marcial

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a severe side effect of chemotherapy that can lead cancer patients to discontinue their treatment. This kind of nausea is usually elicited by the re-exposure of the patients to the clinical context they need to attend to be treated. There has been considerable agreement that AN represents a paradigmatic example of Pavlovian conditioning, and within this framework, several behavioral interventions have been proposed in order to prevent this phenomenon. However, some studies have questioned the validity of the Pavlovian approach, suggesting that CS-US associations are neither necessary nor sufficient for AN to occur. The data and the alternative theories behind such criticisms are discussed. Additionally, it is suggested that animal models of AN could be enriched by taking into account rats' individual differences. PMID:23950751

  8. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  9. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-02-28

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  10. Individual differences in chemotherapy-induced anticipatory nausea

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marcial

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a severe side effect of chemotherapy that can lead cancer patients to discontinue their treatment. This kind of nausea is usually elicited by the re-exposure of the patients to the clinical context they need to attend to be treated. There has been considerable agreement that AN represents a paradigmatic example of Pavlovian conditioning, and within this framework, several behavioral interventions have been proposed in order to prevent this phenomenon. However, some studies have questioned the validity of the Pavlovian approach, suggesting that CS-US associations are neither necessary nor sufficient for AN to occur. The data and the alternative theories behind such criticisms are discussed. Additionally, it is suggested that animal models of AN could be enriched by taking into account rats' individual differences. PMID:23950751

  11. A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

    2014-02-01

    The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

  12. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods. PMID:25671708

  13. Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

  14. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: interactions and causes of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Kammersgaard, T S; Pedersen, L J; Jørgensen, E

    2011-07-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using 635 crossbred neonatal piglets, the aim of this study was to identify the links among different physiological and behavioral measures and their connections to the ability of piglets to overcome initial postnatal hypothermia, with rectal temperature at 2 h as the response variable. The data included birth weight, hypoxia at birth (viability score and lactate in umbilical cord blood), latency to first udder contact and first suckle, scans of individual piglet position during the first 2 h after birth, and rectal temperature at birth and 2 h postpartum. A graphical chain model was used to analyze data. The statistical variables were divided into blocks according to level (design and litter) and chronological order (prenatal, birth, perinatal, and thermoregulatory success at 2 h) before applying the graphical model to the data. Bayesian information criteria (BIC) was used for model selection. The BIC relates to maximum likelihood, but introduces an additional penalty term for the number of variables. The strength of an association between 2 variables is reported as the increase in BIC (BICinc) due to removing the link. Results indicate that at 2 h, 22.1% of the piglets had a rectal temperature below 37 °C. Out of the 16 variables included in the model, only 3 had direct links to the response variable of rectal temperature at 2 h. There was a positive relationship between rectal temperature at 2 h and birth weight (BICinc=26), and between being observed more often by the udder as opposed to alone during both the first (BICinc=8) and second hours (BICinc=19) after birth. Lighter piglets and piglets that had experienced hypoxia took longer to achieve first suckle, which in turn affected where the piglet positioned itself during the first and second hours after birth. Variables related to the birth process had no direct connection to thermoregulatory success, but were additive in the explanation of piglet behavior. The rectal temperature of individual piglets at 2 h depends largely on piglet birth weight and on piglet position in relation to sow and littermates. Birth weight is the most important single factor in successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia. PMID:21317343

  15. Individual differences and emotional inferences during reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Gillioz, Christelle; Gygax, Pascal; Tapiero, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated readers' representations of the main protagonist's emotional status in short narratives, as well as several mental factors that may affect these representations. General and visuospatial working memory, empathy, and simulation were investigated as potential individual differences in generating emotional inferences. Participants were confronted with narratives conveying information about the protagonist's emotional state. We manipulated each narrative's target sentence according to its content (emotional label vs. description of the behaviour associated to the emotion) and its congruence to the story (matching vs. mismatching). The results showed that globally the difference between reading times of congruent and incongruent target sentences was bigger in the behavioural than in the emotional condition. This pattern was accentuated for high visuospatial working memory participants when they were asked to simulate the stories. These results support the idea that mental models may be of a perceptual nature and may more likely include behavioural elements than emotion labels per se, as suggested earlier by Gygax et al. (2007). PMID:22774802

  16. Modeling individual differences in response time and accuracy in numeracy.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thompson, Clarissa A; McKoon, Gail

    2015-04-01

    In the study of numeracy, some hypotheses have been based on response time (RT) as a dependent variable and some on accuracy, and considerable controversy has arisen about the presence or absence of correlations between RT and accuracy, between RT or accuracy and individual differences like IQ and math ability, and between various numeracy tasks. In this article, we show that an integration of the two dependent variables is required, which we accomplish with a theory-based model of decision making. We report data from four tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, memory for two-digit numbers, and memory for three-digit numbers. Accuracy correlated across tasks, as did RTs. However, the negative correlations that might be expected between RT and accuracy were not obtained; if a subject was accurate, it did not mean that they were fast (and vice versa). When the diffusion decision-making model was applied to the data (Ratcliff, 1978), we found significant correlations across the tasks between the quality of the numeracy information (drift rate) driving the decision process and between the speed/accuracy criterion settings, suggesting that similar numeracy skills and similar speed-accuracy settings are involved in the four tasks. In the model, accuracy is related to drift rate and RT is related to speed-accuracy criteria, but drift rate and criteria are not related to each other across subjects. This provides a theoretical basis for understanding why negative correlations were not obtained between accuracy and RT. We also manipulated criteria by instructing subjects to maximize either speed or accuracy, but still found correlations between the criteria settings between and within tasks, suggesting that the settings may represent an individual trait that can be modulated but not equated across subjects. Our results demonstrate that a decision-making model may provide a way to reconcile inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results in numeracy research. PMID:25637690

  17. The measurement of individual differences in general English vocabularies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Seashore; L. D. Eckerson

    1940-01-01

    A list of words from Funk and Wagnalls' New Standard Dictionary was subdivided into 3 parts consisting of common basic words, rare basic words, and derivatives. Parts 1 and 2 have been standardized on various groups of college undergraduates. Standardization has been started with children in the first 8 grades of school. The average undergraduate in the groups used recognized

  18. 23 CFR 636.117 - What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team members for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals...General § 636.117 What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals...business practices and personal conflicts of interest will apply to the...

  19. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  20. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  1. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  2. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  3. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  4. Is the fluency of language outputs related to individual differences in intelligence and executive function?

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Nigg, Joel T.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the fluency of language production and individual differences variables, such as intelligence and executive function. In this study, we report data from 106 participants who completed a battery of standardized cognitive tasks and a sentence production task. For the sentence production task, participants were presented with two objects and a verb and their task was to formulate a sentence. Four types of disfluency were examined: filled pauses (e.g. uh, um), unfilled pauses, repetitions, and repairs. Repetitions occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then repeats the previous word/phrase, and repairs occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then starts over with a different word/phrase. Hierarchical structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between repair disfluencies and inhibition. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their role in models and theories of language production. PMID:24018099

  5. Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: a multidimensional view.

    PubMed

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, George

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety proposed by Endler (1997), state (cognitive-worry and autonomic-emotional) and trait (related to social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations, and daily routines) anxiety were assessed in this evaluation context. Results indicated that shifting and inhibition (negative priming) efficiency were negatively related to state (cognitive-worry) and trait (related to social evaluation) anxiety. However, there was a relative advantage of subjects higher in social evaluation apprehensions in their memory updating performance. The results are consistent with several predictions of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), and are relevant for research regarding the interaction of situational, personality, and cognitive functioning dimensions. PMID:22348375

  6. Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

  7. Individual differences in adult handwritten spelling-to-dictation

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production. PMID:23882229

  8. Individual differences in novelty-seeking and behavioral responses to nicotine: a review of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Redolat, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Asunción; Carrasco, M Carmen; Mesa, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in the behavioral responses to a novel environment have been proposed as a research tool to predict responsiveness to other behavioral tasks, response to certain events and individual vulnerability to nicotine addiction. In rats and mice, novelty seeking (defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations) is a complex behavior confirmed by a large body of neurochemical, endocrinological and behavioral data. We review the main standardized procedures employed to measure the novelty seeking trait in rodents and the ontogeny of this behavior throughout the life-span taking into account that novelty seeking can be permanently modified as a consequence of particular early experiences, maternal care, and environmental enrichment. Studies in animal models suggest that individual differences in the sensitivity to nicotine depend on different variables such as basal locomotor activity of the experimental subjects, their response to novel environments (open-field, hole-board) and level of impulsivity. It is concluded that these basic findings contribute to a better understanding of smoking behavior and to the establishment of improved pharmacological treatments if individual differences are borne in mind. PMID:20443770

  9. The Sunk Cost Fallacy and Individual Differences in Health Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Norma Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The Sunk Cost fallacy is a biased committed when individuals base their decisions to stop or continue a course of action solely on past irrecoverable invested costs (i.e., monetary or time-related). Individuals' susceptibility to the Sunk Cost fallacy has been justified as the need to try to avoid appearing wasteful, to avoid appearing…

  10. Individual differences and reproductive success in yellow-bellied marmots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Armitage; D. H. Van Vuren

    2003-01-01

    Mirror-image stimulation (MIS) was used to determine the individual behavioral phenotypes of 90 adult, 132 yearling, and 135 young yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Linear typal analysis (LTA) was used to group individuals based on similarities in their MIS scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the patterns of variation in behaviors and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used

  11. Sleepiness phenomics: modeling individual differences in subjective sleepiness profiles.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Olivier; De Valck, Elke; Quanten, Stijn; Neu, Daniel; Cortoos, Aisha; Pattyn, Nathalie; Theuns, Peter; Cluydts, Raymond; Hofmans, Joeri

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates individual differences in subjective sleepiness profiles during 36 h of sustained wakefulness in a modified constant routine protocol. Twenty-three volunteers (11 females), aged between 18 and 47 yrs (M age = 30.41, SD = 10.26) enrolled in the study. Subjective sleepiness ratings were collected every 2 h by means of visual analogue scales. Circadian rhythmicity was assessed by means of salivary cortisol. Subjective sleepiness data were analyzed using functional principal component analysis (fPCA). Our results show that approximately 80% of the variance is accounted for by three functional components. The first component explains 50.28% of the variance and is characterized by a profile of exclusively positive loadings, representing vertical shifts from the mean sleepiness profile. Scores on this component are positively related to self-reported habitual sleep times and mean slow wave activity (SWA) during wake. Positive scores on the second component (18.40% of the variance) are characterized by a higher than average peak-to-trough amplitude in subjective sleepiness profiles. Participants with higher than average scores on this component show a significantly higher amplitude in salivary cortisol profiles as opposed to participants with lower than average scores. Participants with positive scores on the third component (10.09% of the variance) show higher than average levels of subjective sleepiness during morning hours, a buildup of wake effort occurring later and more afternoon sleepiness after sleep deprivation than negative scorers. Peak levels of salivary cortisol occur significantly later in these participants. Taken together, our results suggest that component 1 represents tonic differences in sleepiness profiles primarily related to mechanisms of sleep homeostasis, component 2 to circadian amplitude differences and component 3 to diurnal preference. However, since the components are additions to a mean profile, each of the three components is likely to correspond to a mixture of multiple physiological parameters, rather than to a single process. The approach shows interesting potential for (1) revealing unidentified physiological processes, (2) testing existing assumptions about regulatory mechanisms at the basis of interindividual variability in sleepiness profiles and (3) the specification of sleepiness phenotypes on a quantitative basis. PMID:23566886

  12. Individual Differences in Alpha Frequency Drive Crossmodal Illusory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ?100 ms [1–5]. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ?100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived [2]. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ?100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120–60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex [6, 7]. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task [4] and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity [8] either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAF±2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF?2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions. PMID:25544613

  13. Individual differences in the relationship between pleasure and arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kuppens

    2008-01-01

    The two fundamental dimensions assumed to underlie emotional experience—pleasure and arousal—are considered to be independent across individuals. We present evidence from an experience sampling study demonstrating that this independence does not necessarily hold when considering the affective experiences of a single individual. Participants (N=80) reported how they were feeling in terms of pleasure and arousal nine times a day for

  14. Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy L. Mammen; Stephen Nowicki

    1981-01-01

    A detailed sound analysis of the Chick-adee call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was performed in order to determine a basis for individual recognition and for imitation within winter flocks. During the winter of 1978–1979 members of five free-living black-capped chickadee flocks were uniquely marked for individual identification, and their calls were recorded in the field. Nested analysis of

  15. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TRUNK ENDURANCE TESTING METHODS IN COLLEGE?AGED INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Krier, Amber D.; Nelson, Julie A.; Rogers, Michael A.; Stuke, Zachariah O.; Smith, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine the reliability of two different modified (MOD1 and MOD2) testing methods compared to a standard method (ST) for testing trunk flexion and extension endurance. Participants: Twenty?eight healthy individuals (age 26.4 ± 3.2 years, height 1.75 ± m, weight 71.8 ± 10.3 kg, body mass index 23.6 ± 3.4 m/kg2). Method: Trunk endurance time was measured in seconds for flexion and extension under the three different stabilization conditions. The MOD1 testing procedure utilized a female clinician (70.3 kg) and MOD2 utilized a male clinician (90.7 kg) to provide stabilization as opposed to the ST method of belt stabilization. Results: No significant differences occurred between flexion and extension times. Intraclass correlations (ICCs3,1) for the different testing conditions ranged from .79 to .95 (p <.000) and are found in Table 3. Concurrent validity using the ST flexion times as the gold standard coefficients were .95 for MOD1 and .90 for MOD2. For ST extension, coefficients were .91 and .80, for MOD1 and MOD2 respectively (p <.01). Conclusions: These methods proved to be a reliable substitute for previously accepted ST testing methods in normal college?aged individuals. These modified testing procedures can be implemented in athletic training rooms and weight rooms lacking appropriate tables for the ST testing. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:23091786

  16. Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; McGill, I. [Fischer and Paykel Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    1995-08-01

    This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

  17. Subgenual PFC Activity Predicts Individual Differences in HPA Activity Across Different Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Allison L.; Fox, Andrew S.; Abercrombie, Heather C.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activation is adaptive in response to stress, and HPA dysregulation occurs in stress-related psychopathology. It is important to understand the mechanisms that modulate HPA output; yet, few studies have addressed the neural circuitry associated with HPA regulation in primates and humans. Using high-resolution [F-18]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in rhesus monkeys, we assessed the relation between individual differences in brain activity and HPA function across multiple contexts that varied in stressfulness. Methods Using a logical AND conjunctions analysis, we assessed cortisol and brain metabolic activity with FDG-PET in 35 adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to two threat and two home-cage conditions. To test the robustness of our findings, we used similar methods in an archival data set. In this data set, brain metabolic activity and cortisol were assessed in 17 adolescent male rhesus monkeys that were exposed to three different stress-related contexts. Results Results from the two studies, revealed that subgenual PFC metabolism (Area 25/24) consistently predicted individual differences in plasma cortisol concentrations regardless of the context in which brain activity and cortisol were assessed. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation in subgenual PFC may be related to HPA output across a variety of contexts (including familiar settings and novel or threatening situations). Individuals prone to elevated subgenual PFC activity across multiple contexts may be individuals who consistently show heightened cortisol, and may be at risk for stress-related HPA dysregulation. PMID:19846063

  18. Pornography and Teenagers: The Importance of Individual Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Malamuth; Mark Huppin

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of exposure to pornography on teenagers, particularly males, concentrating on sexually aggressive outcomes and on the characteristics of the individual as crucial in determining whether pornography consumption may or may not lead to sexually aggressive outcomes. The term ''pornography'' refers to sexually explicit media that primarily is intended to arouse the viewer sexually. Pornography

  19. The Impact of Adapting Content for Students with Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Inan, Fethi A.; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

    2012-01-01

    Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by instructional theory and motivation models, an adaptable tutorial was designed and developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether the goals of an adaptable tutorial, which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e.…

  20. Individual Differences: Interplay of Learner Characteristics and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornyei, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    The notion of language as a complex adaptive system has been conceived within an agent-based framework, which highlights the significance of individual-level variation in the characteristics and contextual circumstances of the learner/speaker. Yet, in spite of this emphasis, currently we know relatively little about the interplay among language,…

  1. Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie; Arnon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players – under 14 years, 14–17, and over 17, playing different positions – goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14–17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer. PMID:25031689

  2. Individual Differences in Need for Cognition and Complex Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Unnikrishnan Nair; S. Ramnarayan

    2000-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study investigating the relation between Need for cognition of individuals and their effectiveness in solving complex problems. A complex, long-duration, computer-simulated, multifaceted cognitive task was presented to 45 managers from a very large Indian metal-processing unit. Problem-solving effectiveness was assessed on success, consistency, and crisis-free nature. Need for cognition was assessed using the 18-item, short-form

  3. Rules of social exchange: Game theory, individual differences and psychopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Wischniewski; Sabine Windmann; Georg Juckel; Martin Brüne

    2009-01-01

    Human social interaction is rarely guided by pure reason. Instead, in situation in which humans have the option to cooperate, to defect, or to punish non-cooperative behavior of another person, they quite uniformly tend to reciprocate “good” deeds, reject unfair proposals, and try to enforce obedience to social rules and norms in non-cooperative individuals (“free-riders”), even if the punishment incurs

  4. Motivation Towards Closure and Cognitive Resources: An Individual Differences Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma?gorzata Kossowska; Edward Orehek; Arie W. Kruglanski

    \\u000a Motivation and cognitive ability represent two basic determinants of information processing, influencing the ability to learn\\u000a new knowledge and to carry out judgment and decision making tasks. However, cognitive and motivational influences on the results\\u000a of information processing and performance are usually studied separately. On the one hand, numerous studies have investigated\\u000a the role of cognitive-intellectual abilities in predicting individual

  5. Sex, stress, and fear: Individual differences in conditioned learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Zorawski; Craig A. Cook; Cynthia M. Kuhn; Kevin S. LaBar

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that humans vary in their conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to individual variation\\u000a in emotional learning remain to be delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship among sex,\\u000a stress hormones, and fear conditioning in humans. Forty-five healthy adults (22 females) underwent differential delay conditioning,\\u000a using fear-relevant conditioned stimuli and

  6. Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies and express greater positive emotion and lesser negative emotion, whereas suppressors experience and express

  7. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: Individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  8. Individualism and collectivism: what differences between Portuguese and Romanian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Ciochin?, Laura; Faria, Luísa

    2009-11-01

    This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND/COL) cultural dimension. The IND/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by Ciochin? and Faria (2007), using studies of confirmatory factor analysis. The ICQ composed by 26 items, 15 evaluating the IND scale--with three subscales (Uniqueness, Competition and Responsibility)--, and 11 evaluating the COL scale--with two subscales (Harmony and Advice)--, was administered to 395 subjects, 200 Portuguese and 195 Romanian, 10th and 12th graders. On the whole, in the Portuguese and Romanian samples, the multivariate and univariate statistical analyses evidenced the existence of two independent variables--gender and cultural context--, with significant effects, main and of interaction, on the scales and subscales of the ICQ. The results were discussed taking into consideration the specificities of the educational systems in the two cultural contexts, which are inevitably shaped by socio-cultural factors characteristic of the two countries considered in the present study--Portugal and Romania. PMID:19899656

  9. Linking inter-individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect to spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Zhao, Guang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Congcong; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2014-04-15

    Conflict adaptation has been widely researched in normal and clinical populations. There are large individual differences in conflict adaptation, and it has been linked to the schizotypal trait. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in spontaneous brain activity are related to behavioral conflict adaptation (performance). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) is a promising tool to investigate this issue. The present study evaluated the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of RS-fMRI signals in order to explore the neural basis of individual differences in conflict adaptation across two independent samples comprising a total of 67 normal subjects. A partial correlation analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between ReHo and behavioral conflict adaptation, while controlling for reaction time, standard deviation and flanker interference effects. This analysis was conducted on 39 subjects' data (sample 1); the results showed significant positive correlations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We then conducted a test-validation procedure on the remaining 28 subjects' data (sample 2) to examine the reliability of the results. Regions of interest were defined based on the correlation results. Regression analysis showed that variability in ReHo values in the DLPFC accounted for 48% of the individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect in sample 2. The present findings provide further support for the importance of the DLPFC in the conflict adaptation process. More importantly, we demonstrated that ReHo of RS-fMRI signals in the DLPFC can predict behavioral performance in conflict adaptation, which provides potential biomarkers for the early detection of cognitive control deterioration. PMID:24398332

  10. October 28, 2009 Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    October 28, 2009 · Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism and treatment response Peter on the nature of individual differences and diagnostic subgroups in autism. His research findings help parents and professionals understand how executive functions and temperament contribute to individual differences in autism

  11. Are some negotiators better than others? Individual differences in bargaining outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jared R. Curhan; Noah Eisenkraft; Aiwa Shirako; Lucio Baccaro

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the long-standing mystery of stable individual differences in negotiation performance, on which intuition and conventional wisdom have clashed with inconsistent empirical findings. The present study used the Social Relations Model to examine individual differences directly via consistency in performance across multiple negotiations and to disentangle the roles of both parties within these inherently dyadic interactions. Individual differences

  12. THE INFLECTED ALARM CAW OF THE AMERICAN CROW: DIFFERENCES IN ACOUSTIC STRUCTURE AMONG INDIVIDUALS AND SEXES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Sandra L. Vehrencamp; Kevin J. McGowan; Anne B. Clark

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on individual differences in the acoustic structure of vocalizations and vocal recognition has largely focused on the contexts of parent-offspring interactions, territory defense, sexual interactions, and group cohesion. In contrast, few studies have examined individual differences in the acoustic structure of mobbing and alarm calls. The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in the acoustic

  13. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul G

    2012-06-23

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission-fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive 'chur' calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation-discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  14. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission–fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive ‘chur’ calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation–discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  15. Combining Standardized Mean Differences Using the Method of Maximum Likelihood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bushman, Brad J.

    2002-01-01

    Proposed a maximum likelihood procedure for combining the standardized mean differences based on a noncentral-t-distribution and developed an EM algorithm. Simulation results favor the proposed procedure over the existing normal theory maximum likelihood procedure and the commonly used generalized least squares procedure. (SLD)

  16. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

  17. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (P<0.01), regardless of the semen donor, with reduced percentages of motile and viable sperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (P<0.05) inter-boar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques. PMID:22554791

  18. Age Differences Among Homeless Individuals: Adolescence Through Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn J. Tompsett; Patrick J. Fowler; Paul A. Toro

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines differences between homeless adolescents, young adults, and older adults served by homeless shelters or food programs to inform service provision. Four homeless studies using the same sampling and measurement methods were pooled to permit comparisons across age groups. Results showed that homeless adolescents demonstrated greater resilience than younger and older adults. Adolescents reported the shortest duration

  19. Individual difference predictors of creativity in Art and Science students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham; Mark Batey; Tom W. Booth; Vikita Patel; Dariya Lozinskaya

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on two of the three measures. Regression analysis indicated that the educational

  20. Accommodating Individual Differences through an Adaptive User Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Benyon

    Computer systems vary in their structure, functionality, purpose, size and the way in which they represent their internal workings. Humans differ in background, sex, education, personality, cognitive skills and preferences, motivation, goals and mood. There is a social context to HCI which involves organizational and political factors, the user support which is available and the pressures of a situation. The

  1. Exploring the Role of Individual Differences in Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Conati, Cristina

    different visualizations for interpreting geographical data. One of the ways in which visualization methods are used within Geographical Information Systems (GISs) is to show how an area of interest will change over time. Georgia Basin Quest ( GB-Quest) and QuestVis, both developed at the University of British

  2. Individual differences reveal correlates of hidden hearing deficits.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2015-02-01

    Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of "normal hearing." PMID:25653371

  3. Individual and Sex Differences in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Harmon, Lenore W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined zone of acceptable alternatives construct from Gottfredson's theory of career aspiration. College students' (N=246) responses to Occupations List were coded with measurements of sex type and prestige, and indicators of zone of acceptable alternatives for subjects' were computed. Found changes over time and differences related to gender…

  4. Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

  5. Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

    1991-01-01

    A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

  6. Individual differences in the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Garavan; Robert Hester; Kevin Murphy; Catherine Fassbender; Clare Kelly

    2006-01-01

    We combined the data of five event-related fMRI studies of response inhibition. The re-analysis (n = 71) revealed response inhibition to be accomplished by a largely right hemisphere network of prefrontal, parietal, subcortical and midline regions, with converging evidence pointing to the particular importance of the right frontal operculum. Functional differences were observed between the sexes with greater activity in females in

  7. Individual differences in attitude structure: Variance in the chronic reliance on affective and cognitive information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. H. Huskinson; Geoffrey Haddock

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined the proclivity of individual differences in attitude structure. Study 1 found considerable variation across individuals in the degree to which their attitudes were correlated with the favorability of their affective and cognitive responses. Study 1 also revealed that such variation was associated with individual differences in the Need for Affect (Maio & Esses, 2001) and the Need

  8. Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children’s computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills. PMID:21170171

  9. A novel standard food model to analyze the individual parameters of human mastication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Slavicek; M. Soykher; H. Gruber; P. Siegl; M. Oxtoby

    2009-01-01

    Summary  INTRODUCTION: The aim of this project was to develop a standard food model, which can be used not only in experimental settings,\\u000a but also in clinical diagnosis. On the basis of the findings of a systematic literature search, an elastic food model was\\u000a created with the aim of standardizing the size and the elastic properties. Three different eatable jellied products

  10. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  11. Individual differences in reading aloud: a mega-study, item effects, and some models.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G; Marquis, Suzanne J; Estes, Zachary

    2014-02-01

    Normal individual differences are rarely considered in the modelling of visual word recognition--with item response time effects and neuropsychological disorders being given more emphasis--but such individual differences can inform and test accounts of the processes of reading. We thus had 100 participants read aloud words selected to assess theoretically important item response time effects on an individual basis. Using two major models of reading aloud--DRC and CDP+--we estimated numerical parameters to best model each individual's response times to see if this would allow the models to capture the effects, individual differences in them and the correlations among these individual differences. It did not. We therefore created an alternative model, the DRC-FC, which successfully captured more of the correlations among individual differences, by modifying the locus of the frequency effect. Overall, our analyses indicate that (i) even after accounting for individual differences in general speed, several other individual difference in reading remain significant; and (ii) these individual differences provide critical tests of models of reading aloud. The database thus offers a set of important constraints for future modelling of visual word recognition, and is a step towards integrating such models with other knowledge about individual differences in reading. PMID:24300850

  12. Assaying individual differences in cognition with molecular genetics: theory and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raja Parasuraman

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework is outlined for assaying individual differences in human performance, based on identifying normal variations in neurotransmitter genes linked to brain networks involved in different aspects of cognitive function. The approach is exemplified by experiments showing that different variants of genes can be associated with individual differences in basic cognitive functions, such as selective attention, working memory and

  13. Individual differences in the motivation to comply across cultures: the impact of social obligation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Barrett; Wilhelmina Wosinska; Jonathan Butner; Petia Petrova; Malgorzata Gornik-Durose; Robert B. Cialdini

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that similar behavior in different cultures may mask individual differences in the reasons for that behavior. Most previous research on culture and behavior has examined culture-based differences in overt behavior. In contrast, the present research focused on cultural variation in reasons for identical behavior (that is, individual differences in motivation), rather than cultural variation in

  14. Age differences among homeless individuals: adolescence through adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Fowler, Patrick J; Toro, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines differences between homeless adolescents, young adults, and older adults served by homeless shelters or food programs to inform service provision. Four homeless studies using the same sampling and measurement methods were pooled to permit comparisons across age groups. Results showed that homeless adolescents demonstrated greater resilience than younger and older adults. Adolescents reported the shortest duration of homelessness, lowest number of life stressors, fewest physical symptoms, largest social networks, and fewest clinically significant mental health problems. Adolescents also received fewer alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses than younger and older adults. Younger adults reported less time homeless and fewer physical symptoms than older adults, but more life stressors. Younger adults also endorsed higher levels of hostile and paranoid psychological symptoms. Implications for service provision and policy are discussed. PMID:19363770

  15. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  16. Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Anticipatory Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

  17. Different attentional blink tasks reflect distinct information processing limitations: an individual differences approach.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ashleigh J; Dux, Paul E

    2011-12-01

    To study the temporal dynamics and capacity-limits of attentional selection and encoding, researchers often employ the attentional blink (AB) phenomenon: subjects' impaired ability to report the second of two targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream that appear within 200-500 ms of one another. The AB has now been the subject of hundreds of scientific investigations, and a variety of different dual-target RSVP paradigms have been employed to study this failure of consciousness. The three most common are those where targets are defined categorically from distractors; those where target definition is based on featural information; and those where there is a set switch between T1 and T2, with the first target typically being featurally defined and T2 requiring a detection or discrimination judgment (probe task). An almost universally held assumption across all AB theories is that these three tasks measure the same deficit; however here, using an individual differences approach, we demonstrate that AB magnitude is only related across categorical and featural tasks. Thus, these paradigms appear to reflect a distinct cognitive limitation from that observed under set-switch conditions. PMID:22004195

  18. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals. PMID:23983983

  19. Individual Differences in Infant Oculomotor Behavior During the Viewing of Complex Naturalistic Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V; Smith, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Little research hitherto has examined how individual differences in attention, as assessed using standard experimental paradigms, relate to individual differences in how attention is spontaneously allocated in more naturalistic contexts. Here, we analyzed the time intervals between refoveating eye movements (fixation durations) while typically developing 11-month-old infants viewed a 90-min battery ranging from complex dynamic to noncomplex static materials. The same infants also completed experimental assessments of cognitive control, psychomotor reaction times (RT), processing speed (indexed via peak look during habituation), and arousal (indexed via tonic pupil size). High test–retest reliability was found for fixation duration, across testing sessions and across types of viewing material. Increased cognitive control and increased arousal were associated with reduced variability in fixation duration. For fixations to dynamic stimuli, in which a large proportion of saccades may be exogenously cued, we found that psychomotor RT measures were most predictive of mean fixation duration; for fixations to static stimuli, in contrast, in which there is less exogenous attentional capture, we found that psychomotor RT did not predict performance, but that measures of cognitive control and arousal did. The implications of these findings for understanding the development of attentional control in naturalistic settings are discussed. PMID:25635173

  20. Individual differences and age-related changes in divergent thinking in toddlers and preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children as young as 2 years. The Unusual Box test is a nonverbal and nonimitative test in which children play individually with a novel toy and novel objects. Divergent thinking is scored as the number of different actions performed. Study 1 shows that the Unusual Box test is a valid measure of divergent thinking as it correlates with standard measures of divergent thinking in 3- and 4-year-olds. Study 2 indicates that the test can be used with 2-year-olds, as it shows high test-retest reliability, demonstrating that 2-year-olds can think divergently. Across both studies, individual differences and age-related changes were found, indicating that some children are better at divergent thinking than others and that children's divergent thinking increases with age. This test will allow researchers to gain insight into the early emergence of divergent thinking. PMID:24588519

  1. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity. PMID:24796268

  2. Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

  3. Evolutionary biology and personality psychology: Toward a conception of human nature and individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Buss

    1984-01-01

    Although personality psychology sub- sumes the study of both individual differences and species-typical characteristics, the field has not yet resolved several key concerns: (a) what are the most important species-typical characteristics; (b) what are the most important ways in which individuals differ; and (c) how can species-typical characteristics and individual differences be reconciled within a general theory of personality. Evolutionary

  4. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

  5. Attentional guidance by working memory differs by paradigm: An individual-differences approach.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Emma Wu; Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2015-04-01

    The contents of working memory (WM) have been repeatedly found to guide the allocation of visual attention; in a dual-task paradigm that combines WM and visual search, actively holding an item in WM biases visual attention towards memory-matching items during search (e.g., Soto et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(2), 248-261, 2005). A key debate is whether such memory-based attentional guidance is automatic or under strategic control. Generally, two distinct task paradigms have been employed to assess memory-based guidance, one demonstrating that attention is involuntarily captured by memory-matching stimuli even at a cost to search performance (Soto et al., 2005), and one demonstrating that participants can strategically avoid memory-matching distractors to facilitate search performance (Woodman & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(2), 363-377, 2007). The current study utilized an individual-differences approach to examine why the different paradigms-which presumably tap into the same attentional construct-might support contrasting interpretations. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks, including two types of attentional guidance paradigms (see Soto et al., 2005; Woodman & Luck, 2007), a visual WM task, and an operation span task, as well as attention-related self-report assessments. Performance on the two attentional guidance paradigms did not correlate. Subsequent exploratory regression analyses revealed that memory-based guidance in each task was differentially predicted by visual WM capacity for one paradigm, and by attention-related assessment scores for the other paradigm. The current results suggest that these two paradigms-which have previously produced contrasting patterns of performance-may probe distinct aspects of attentional guidance. PMID:25737257

  6. Curious Eyes: Individual Differences in Personality Predict Eye Movement Behavior in Scene-Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Anderson, Nicola C.; Lanthier, Sophie; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Visual exploration is driven by two main factors--the stimuli in our environment, and our own individual interests and intentions. Research investigating these two aspects of attentional guidance has focused almost exclusively on factors common across individuals. The present study took a different tack, and examined the role played by individual

  7. Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition of Japanese Particles "WA" and "GA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Sachiho

    2008-01-01

    Although the L2 acquisition studies of Japanese particles "WA" and "GA" were investigated by many researchers (Sakamoto, 2000), they completely ignored learners' individual differences. Indeed, learners' individualities are important factors for the L2 learning (Lightbrown & Spada, 1999). Thus, this research explored whether learners' individual

  8. 77 FR 75259 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...CORPORATION Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal...differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the agencies. The...S. Senate Regarding Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the...

  9. 75 FR 47900 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...OTS-2010-0006] Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal...differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the agencies. The...States Senate Regarding Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the...

  10. Strong personalities, not social niches, drive individual differences in social behaviours in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for consistent individual differences in behaviour is a recent challenge for behavioural ecology. Although theory is rapidly developing in this area, there are few empirical tests. There are at least two hypotheses to explain why individuals behave differently from one another in a dynamic social environment. The social niche specialization hypothesis proposes that repeated social interactions generate consistent individual differences in social behaviour. The behavioural type hypothesis proposes that an individual’s social behaviour reflects its behavioural type. We tested these two hypotheses by manipulating the opportunity for repeated social interactions in groups of three spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and by measuring the behavioural types of the same individuals in three contexts: when in a novel environment, when presented with an opportunity to associate with conspecifics and when confronted by an intruder. We found no evidence that repeated social interactions increased between-individual variation in social foraging behaviour. Instead, individuals’ social foraging behaviour was related to their behavioural type, specifically their shoaling behaviour. In addition, the behavioural types of the members of a group strongly influenced a group’s average foraging behaviour. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that social dynamics within groups generates individual differences in behaviour. Instead, they suggest the reverse: individual differences in behaviour drive group-level dynamics. PMID:25076789

  11. Individual Differences in Mediators and Reactions to a Personal Safety Threat Message

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michèle M. Schlehofer; Suzanne C. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in processing information about a personal threat message about bisphenol A (BPA) risk were examined using the threat orientation model (Thompson & Schlehofer, 2008). Adults (N = 448) read a risk message concerning BPA in plastics. Threat orientations, intentions to protect oneself from BPA risk, and emotional and cognitive reactions to the message were measured. Individuals with different approaches to

  12. Using individual differences to build a common core dataset for aviation security studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin G. Drury; Karen Holness; Kimberly M. Ghylin; Brian D. Green

    2009-01-01

    In security tasks, there is much interest in individual differences as managers have a belief that ‘choosing the right person for the job’ can have a substantial effect on system performance. This programme was aimed at finding a common set of variables to characterise individual differences in performance of security inspection tasks. As part of this effort, an Access™ database

  13. Individual differences in TQM change compliance : A study of service organizations in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Osayawe Ehigie; Regina Clement Akpan; Sylvester Aide Okhakhume

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The present paper seeks to identify what individual differences exist among employees in compliance with a management change; to examine the case of total quality management (TQM), and more precisely, to examine personality factors like extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and locus of control as variables of individual differences in the study. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary source of data collection is

  14. Factors influencing organizational change efforts : An integrative investigation of change content, context, process and individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jack Walker; Achilles A. Armenakis; Jeremy B. Bernerth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the integrative influence of content, context, process, and individual differences on organizational change efforts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from employees involved in a recent de-merger. Using structural equation modeling, a hypothesized model that integrated individual differences with change content, context, and process factors was tested. Findings – Results led

  15. Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Gross; Oliver P. John

    2003-01-01

    Five studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression, and these individual differences have implications for affect, well- being, and social relationships. Study 1 presents new measures of the habitual use of reappraisal and suppression. Study 2 examines convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 shows that reappraisers experience and

  16. Multiple Determinants of Parenting: Predicting Individual Differences in Maternal Parenting Behavior with Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Objective. A comprehensive understanding of individual differences in maternal parenting behaviors cannot be realized without consideration of multiple determinants of parenting within the same study. The goal of the present study was to examine the association of 3 categories of determinants of parenting (i.e., parent personality, contextual sources of stress and support, and child effects) to individual differences in maternal

  17. Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTINE COLEMAN; DAVID SLOAN WILSON

    1998-01-01

    Natural selection often promotes a mix of behavioural phenotypes in a population. Adaptive variation in the propensity to take risks might explain individual differences in shyness and boldness in humans and other species. It is often implicitly assumed that shyness and boldness are general personality traits expressed across many situations. From the evolutionary standpoint, however, individual differences that are adaptive

  18. Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

  19. Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It…

  20. Sex Differences in Managerial Style: From Individual Leadership to Organisational Labour Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Melero Martín

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with sex differences in managerial behaviour, by testing the extent to which such differences match those expected from gender stereotypes. Unlike previous research on the topic, always based on opinions about individual managers, this investigation uses firm-level evidence from the British 1998 Workplace Employment Relationship Survey (WERS 98). This means that some problems usually present in individual-level

  1. A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

  2. Origins of Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: From Nature to Nurture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Jaffee, Sara R.; Happ, Francesca; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    In this study of the origins of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM), the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study sample of 1,116 sixty-month-old twin pairs completed a comprehensive battery of ToM tasks. Individual differences in ToM were striking and strongly associated with verbal ability. Behavioral genetic models of the…

  3. Computer Learning Environments and the Study of Individual Differences in Self-Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandinach, Ellen B.

    Computers provide particularly powerful environments in which to examine individual differences in cognitive processing and learning outcomes. The computer's capacity to collect and record response protocols facilitates detailed process analysis. Such analyses contribute to increased understanding of how individuals differ in their ability to…

  4. Are food safety standards different from other food standards? A political economy perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan F. M. Swinnen; Thijs Vandemoortele

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a political economy model which integrates risk to analyse whether the nature of public food standards [food safety standards, food quality standards, and social and environmental standards] affects the politically optimal level of the standard and the likelihood of trade conflicts. In general, public food safety standards are set at higher levels because stronger consumption effects translate

  5. Individual Differences in Arousal and Their Relationship to Short- and Long-Term Retention. Report From the Project on Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.; Farley, Frank H.

    In two separate paired-associate learning experiments each employing 40 university students as subjects, the contribution of individual differences (IDs) in arousal to short- and long-term retention was investigated using IDs in salivary response to lemon juice stimulation as an index of arousal. Experimental subjects were pre-selected out of 184…

  6. The effects of individual differences and task difficulty on inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Simons, Daniel J; Jensen, Melinda S

    2009-04-01

    Most studies of inattentional blindness-the failure to notice an unexpected object when attention is focused elsewhere-have focused on one critical trial. For that trial, noticing the unexpected object might be a result of random variability, so that any given individual would be equally likely to notice the unexpected object. On the other hand, individual differences in the ability to perform the primary task might make noticing more likely for some individuals than for others. Increasing the difficulty of the primary task has been shown to decrease noticing rates for both brief static displays (Cartwright-Finch & Lavie, 2007) and dynamic monitoring tasks (Simons & Chabris, 1999). However, those studies did not explore whether individual differences in noticing arise from differences in the ability to perform the primary task. For our Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to equate primary task performance across individuals in a dynamic inattentional blindness task and found that the demands of the primary task affected noticing rates when individual differences in accuracy were minimized. In Experiment 2, we found that individual differences in primary task performance did not predict noticing of an unexpected object. Together, these findings suggest that although the demands of the primary task do affect inattentional blindness rates, individual differences in the ability to meet those demands do not. PMID:19293113

  7. Mathematical skill in individuals with Williams syndrome: evidence from a standardized mathematics battery.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which measures a wide range of skills. We administered the TEMA-2 to 14 individuals with WS and 14 children matched individually for mental-age on the matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. There were no differences between groups on the overall scores on the TEMA-2. However, an item-by-item analysis revealed group differences. Participants with WS performed more poorly than controls when reporting which of two numbers was closest to a target number, a task thought to utilize a mental number line subserved by the parietal lobe, consistent with previous evidence showing parietal abnormalities in people with WS. In contrast, people with WS performed better than the control group at reading numbers, suggesting that verbal math skills may be comparatively strong in WS. These findings add to evidence that components of mathematical knowledge may be differentially damaged in developmental disorders. PMID:17482333

  8. Individual differences and workload effects on strategy adoption in a dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jungaa; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R

    2013-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of individual differences and workload on strategy adaptivity in a complex, dynamic task called the Space Fortress game (Donchin, 1989). Participants learned to use a strategy of flying a ship in circles around the fortress in a standard game environment. Once they mastered the strategy, they were assigned to different workload conditions and transferred to a nonstandard environment in which a strong wind was introduced that made it more difficult to achieve a circular orbit. About half of the participants continued with their prior circular strategy while the rest adopted a novel strategy that achieved comparable performance with less effort. With this novel strategy, rather than trying to complete orbits they flew into the wind and then allowed the wind to blow them back to achieve a pendulum-like path. Participants without a working-memory load were more likely to adopt the new strategy. Participants were also more likely to adopt the new strategy if their pattern of behavior exposed them more often to the potential of drifting with the wind. The results indicate that spontaneous changes in strategy occur when people are exposed to the potential of a new strategy and have the cognitive resources to understand its potential. PMID:23831665

  9. Cross-Cultural Differences: Individual-Level vs. Culture-Level Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok Leung

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches to the interpretation of and theorizing about cross-cultural differences are identified. In the individual-level approach, cultural differences are assumed to be consistent with individual differences within each of the cultures included in the cross-cultural comparison. The use of antecedent variables to eliminate alternative explanations based on biases is reviewed and some problems noted. It is suggested that explicit

  10. Do individuals with autism spectrum disorder process own- and other-race faces differently?

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Feng, Cong; Li, Jiao; Ding, Haiyan; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process human faces in atypical ways according to previous literature. We investigated whether individuals with ASD can process face race information and respond to own- and other-race faces differentially. Chinese individuals with ASD (n=24), typically developing (TD) individuals (n=28), and individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, n=26) were asked to recognize Chinese and Caucasian faces in an old-new face paradigm using eye tracking. In terms of recognition, the ASD and ID groups did not perform differently and displayed superior own-race recognition compared with other-race faces; TD participants displayed similar recognition of the two types of faces. In terms of eye tracking, the TD, ASD, and ID groups displayed more looking on the eyes and less looking on the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces relative to Chinese faces. Overall, individuals with ASD manifested a behavioral other-race effect and displayed the same type of cross-racial differentiation in face scanning observed in TD individuals. The findings suggest that as is the case with TD individuals, face processing of individuals with ASD is influenced by differences in visual experience with different face categories. PMID:25542277

  11. Experimental Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Corticosterone Reaction Norms with No Oxidative Costs

    PubMed Central

    Schoenle, Laura A.; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F.; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2014-01-01

    Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

  12. Individual and Developmental Differences in Reading Monitoring: When and How Do Children Evaluate Their Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Puustinen, Minna; Coutelet, Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines evaluation in reading. Evaluation refers to the processes by which readers monitor their ongoing text comprehension to assess performance and task difficulties. Monitoring is assumed to explain a large proportion of individual differences in text comprehension, in that individuals need to be aware of their objectives and…

  13. Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Cacioppo; Richard E. Petty; Jeffrey A. Feinstein; W. Blair G. Jarvis

    1996-01-01

    Need for cognition in contemporary literature refers to an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive endeavors. Individual differences in need for cognition have been the focus of investigation in over 100 empirical studies. This literature is reviewed, covering the theory and history of this variable, measures of interindividual variations in it, and empirical relationships between it and

  14. The Reliability and Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everett Waters

    1978-01-01

    50 infants were seen twice in the Ainsworth and Wittig Strange Situation to assess individual differences in the quality of infant-mother attachment at 12 and at 18 months of age. Evidence for the stability of individual dif- ferences was clearly a function of the level of analysis. The reliability of discrete-behavior variables was typi- cally very low, and there was

  15. Individual differences in children's developing theory of mind and implications for metacognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Bartsch; David Estes

    1996-01-01

    For readers interested in metacognition broadly, this review article introduces some of the recent research and theory concerning children's developing understanding of mental states, focusing particularly on attempts to understand individual differences in development. We contend that the conceptual developments investigated by “theory of mind” researchers constitute a foundation for later metacognition. We examine studies that have focused on individual

  16. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…

  17. Animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius R. Pawlak; Ying-Jui Ho; Rainer K. W. Schwarting

    2008-01-01

    The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on

  18. Feelings Change: Accounting for Individual Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Affect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kuppens; Zita Oravecz; Francis Tuerlinckx

    2010-01-01

    People display a remarkable variability in the patterns and trajectories with which their feelings change over time. In this article, we present a theoretical account for the dynamics of affect (DynAffect) that identifies the major processes underlying individual differences in the temporal dynamics of affective experiences. It is hypothesized that individuals are characterized by an affective home base, a baseline

  19. Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords

    PubMed Central

    Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  20. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  1. Unique and Persistent Individual Patterns of Brain Activity Across Different Memory Retrieval Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael B.; Donovan, Christa-Lynn; Van Horn, John D.; German, Elaine; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Wolford, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen subjects were scanned in two fMRI sessions separated by several months. During each session, subjects performed an episodic retrieval task, a semantic retrieval task, and a working memory task. We found that 1) despite extensive intersubject variability in the pattern of activity across the whole brain, individual activity patterns were stable over time, 2) activity patterns of the same individual performing different tasks were more similar than activity patterns of different individuals performing the same task, and 3) that individual differences in decision criterion on a recognition test predicted the degree of similarity between any two individuals’ patterns of brain activity, but individual differences in memory accuracy or similarity in structural anatomy did not. These results imply that the exclusive use of group maps may be ineffective in profiling the pattern of activations for a given task. This may be particularly true for a task like episodic retrieval, which is relatively strategic and can involve widely-distributed specialized processes that are peripheral to the actual retrieval of stored information. Further, these processes may be differentially engaged depending on individual differences in cognitive processing and/or physiology. PMID:19540922

  2. Genotypic differences in behavioural entropy: unpredictable genotypes are composed of unpredictable individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Judy A.; Saltz, Julia B.; Krishnan, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-genotypic variability (IGV) occurs when individuals with the same genotype, raised in the same environment and then tested under the same conditions, express different trait values. Game theoretical and bet-hedging models have suggested two ways that a single genotype might generate variable behaviour when behavioural variation is discrete rather than continuous: behavioural polyphenism (a genotype produces different types of individuals, each of which consistently expresses a different type of behaviour) or stochastic variability (a genotype produces one type of individual who randomly expresses different types of behaviour over time). We first demonstrated significant differences across 14 natural genotypes of male Drosophila melanogaster in the variability (as measured by entropy) of their microhabitat choice, in an experiment in which each fly was allowed free access to four different types of habitat. We then tested four hypotheses about ways that within-individual variability might contribute to differences across genotypes in the variability of microhabitat choice. There was no empirical support for three hypotheses (behavioural polymorphism, consistent choice, or time-based choice), nor could our results be attributed to genotypic differences in activity levels. The stochastic variability hypothesis accurately predicted the slope and the intercept of the relationship across genotypes between entropy at the individual level and entropy at the genotype level. However, our initial version of the stochastic model slightly but significantly overestimated the values of individual entropy for each genotype, pointing to specific assumptions of this model that might need to be adjusted in future studies of the IGV of microhabitat choice. This is among a handful of recent studies to document genotypic differences in behavioural IGV, and the first to explore ways that genotypic differences in within-individual variability might contribute to differences among genotypes in the predictability of their behaviour. PMID:24098058

  3. Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David W DeGroot (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology)

    2006-12-01

    Journal article "Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects", from the Journal of Applied Physiology, by David W. Degroot, W. Larry Kenny, and George Havenith.

  4. Inquiry into the nature and causes of individual differences in economics 

    E-print Network

    Brocklebank, Sean

    2012-06-26

    The thesis contains four chapters on the structure and predictability of individual differences Chapter 1. Re-analyses data from Holt and Laury's (2002) risk aversion experiments. Shows that big-stakes hypothetical ...

  5. Quantification of Hordeins by ELISA: The Correct Standard Makes a Magnitude of Difference

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Gregory J.; Blundell, Malcolm J.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Howitt, Crispin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coeliacs require a life-long gluten-free diet supported by accurate measurement of gluten (hordein) in gluten-free food. The gluten-free food industry, with a value in excess of $6 billion in 2011, currently depends on two ELISA protocols calibrated against standards that may not be representative of the sample being assayed. Aim The factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA analysis of hordeins in beer were examined. Results A simple alcohol-dithiothreitol extraction protocol successfully extracts the majority of hordeins from barley flour and malt. Primary hordein standards were purified by FPLC. ELISA detected different classes of purified hordeins with vastly different sensitivity. The dissociation constant (Kd) for a given ELISA reaction with different hordeins varied by three orders of magnitude. The Kd of the same hordein determined by ELISA using different antibodies varied by up to two orders of magnitude. The choice of either ELISA kit or hordein standard may bias the results and confound interpretation. Conclusions Accurate determination of hordein requires that the hordein standard used to calibrate the ELISA reaction be identical in composition to the hordeins present in the test substance. In practice it is not feasible to isolate a representative hordein standard from each test food. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes which may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. PMID:23509607

  6. Regional Brain Changes in Aging Healthy Adults: General Trends, Individual Differences and Modifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naftali Raz; Ulman Lindenberger; Karen M. Rodrigue; Kristen M. Kennedy; Denise Head; Adrienne Williamson; Cheryl Dahle; Denis Gerstorf; James D. Acker

    2005-01-01

    Brain aging research relies mostly on cross-sectional studies, which infer true changes from age differences. We present longitudinal measures of five-year change in the regional brain volumes in healthy adults. Average and individual differences in volume changes and the effects of age, sex and hypertension were assessed with latent difference score modeling. The caudate, the cerebellum, the hippocampus and the

  7. The influence of sex differences and individual task performance on brain activation during planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Unterrainer; C. C. Ruff; B. Rahm; C. P. Kaller; J. Spreer; R. Schwarzwald; U. Halsband

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to identify the neuronal basis of sex differences in cognition. However, group differences in cognitive ability rather than genuine neurocognitive differences between the sexes may account for their results. Here, we compare with functional magnetic resonance imaging the relation between gender, individual task performance, and planning-related brain activation. Men and women preselected to display identical performance

  8. Individual differences and models of memory span: A role for memory search rate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Puckett; Donald H. Kausler

    1984-01-01

    Individual differences in controlled memory search rate may partially account for individual differences in memory span, scanning rate, and verbal intelligence test performance. A within-Ss experiment is reported in which memory spans and scan rates were assessed for 3 familiar and 3 unfamiliar material types. 20 undergraduates served as Ss. 10 of 20 within-S span–scan correlations were significant, as was

  9. Universal Design for Learning: meeting the challenge of individual learning differences through a neurocognitive perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Rose; Nicole Strangman

    2007-01-01

    The traditional “one-size-fits-all” approach to curriculum denies the vast individual differences in learning strengths, challenges,\\u000a and interests. The focus of this article is a novel approach, called Universal Design for Learning, to addressing the challenge\\u000a of individual learner differences. Cognitive science research suggests the joint action of three broad sets of neural networks\\u000a in cognition and learning: one that recognizes

  10. Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Reyna L; Shivers, Carolyn M; Wieland, Elizabeth A; Kotz, Sonja A; Yoder, Paul J; Devin McAuley, J

    2014-09-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness, morpho-syntactic competence, and non-verbal cognitive ability. Rhythm perception accounted for 48% of the variance in morpho-syntactic competence after controlling for non-verbal IQ, socioeconomic status, and prior musical activities. Children with higher phonological awareness scores were better able to discriminate complex rhythms than children with lower scores, but not after controlling for IQ. This study is the first to show a relation between rhythm perception skills and morpho-syntactic production in children with typical language development. These findings extend the literature showing substantial overlap of neurocognitive resources for processing music and language. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://youtu.be/_lO692qHDNg. PMID:25195623

  11. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are...

  12. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are...

  13. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are...

  14. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are...

  15. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease: international standard and regional differences.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-03-15

    Moyamoya disease is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology characterized by bilateral steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. These diagnostic criteria of the moyamoya disease, stated by the Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis (moyamoya disease) in Japan, are well established and generally accepted as the definition of this rare entity. On the contrary to the diagnosis of definitive moyamoya disease, there is some confusion in the terminology and understanding of quasi-moyamoya disease; moyamoya disease in association with various disease entities, such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, etc. Although the clinical management is not affected by these semantic distinctions, terminological confusion may interfere with the international collaboration of the clinical investigation of these rare conditions. In this article, we sought to review the international standard and regional differences in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease and quasi-moyamoya disease. PMID:25739428

  16. Different standards for healthy screenees than patients in routine clinics?

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Geir

    2013-01-01

    Less than 5% of colorectal adenomas will become malignant, but we do not have sufficient knowledge about their natural course to target removal of these 5% only. Thus, 95% of polypectomies are a waste of time exposing patients to a small risk of complications. Recently, a new type of polyps, sessile serrated polyps, has attracted attention. Previously considered innocuous, they are now found to have molecular similarities to cancer and some guidelines recommend to have them removed. These lesions are often flat, covered by mucous, not easily seen and situated in the proximal colon where the bowel wall is thinner. Thus, polypectomy carries a higher risk of perforation than predominantly left-sided, stalked adenomas - and we do not know what is gained in terms of cancer prevention. Screening is a neat balance between harms and benefit for presumptively healthy participants not interested in risk exposure to obtain confirmation of being healthy. The situation is quite different for patient worried about symptom. Thus, the standards set for evidence-based practice may be higher for screening than for routine clinics - a mechanism which may benefit patients in the long run. PMID:24379569

  17. Different standards for healthy screenees than patients in routine clinics?

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2013-12-14

    Less than 5% of colorectal adenomas will become malignant, but we do not have sufficient knowledge about their natural course to target removal of these 5% only. Thus, 95% of polypectomies are a waste of time exposing patients to a small risk of complications. Recently, a new type of polyps, sessile serrated polyps, has attracted attention. Previously considered innocuous, they are now found to have molecular similarities to cancer and some guidelines recommend to have them removed. These lesions are often flat, covered by mucous, not easily seen and situated in the proximal colon where the bowel wall is thinner. Thus, polypectomy carries a higher risk of perforation than predominantly left-sided, stalked adenomas - and we do not know what is gained in terms of cancer prevention. Screening is a neat balance between harms and benefit for presumptively healthy participants not interested in risk exposure to obtain confirmation of being healthy. The situation is quite different for patient worried about symptom. Thus, the standards set for evidence-based practice may be higher for screening than for routine clinics - a mechanism which may benefit patients in the long run. PMID:24379569

  18. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    PubMed

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  19. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  20. Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

    2010-01-01

    Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

  1. Optimal life-history strategy differs between philopatric and dispersing individuals in a metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Cotto, Olivier; Kubisch, Alexander; Ronce, Ophélie

    2014-03-01

    Abundant empirical evidence for dispersal syndromes contrasts with the rarity of theoretical predictions about the evolution of life-history divergence between dispersing and philopatric individuals. We use an evolutionary model to predict optimal differences in age-specific reproductive effort between dispersing and philopatric individuals inhabiting the same metapopulation. In our model, only young individuals disperse, and their lifelong reproductive decisions are potentially affected by this initial event. Juvenile survival declines as density of adults and other juveniles increases. We assume a trade-off between reproduction and survival, so that different patterns of age-specific reproductive effort lead to different patterns of aging. We find that young immigrant mothers should allocate more resources to reproduction than young philopatric mothers, but these life-history differences vanish as immigrant and philopatric individuals get older. However, whether the higher early reproductive effort of immigrants results in higher fecundity depends on the postimmigration cost on fecundity. Dispersing individuals have consequently a shorter life span. Ultimately, these life-history differences are due to the fact that young dispersing individuals most often live in recently founded populations, where competition is relaxed and juvenile survival higher, favoring larger investment in offspring production at the expense of survival. PMID:24561601

  2. Standardization Versus Adaptation in Global Markets: Is Channel Strategy Different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boryana Dimitrova; Bert Rosenbloom

    2010-01-01

    The argument over standardization versus adaptation of marketing strategy in international markets has raged for several decades. This argument has generally taken place at the aggregate level to include all four strategic areas of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place) taken together. This article disaggregates the standardization-versus-adaptation argument by focusing on just one strategic area of the marketing

  3. 25 CFR 900.39 - What is the difference between a standard and a system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... General § 900.39 What is the difference between a standard and a system? (a) Standards are the minimum baseline requirements for the performance of an activity. Standards establish the “what” that an activity should...

  4. Linking Neurogenetics and Individual Differences in Language Learning: The Dopamine Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals’ genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between dopamine-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

  5. Linking neurogenetics and individual differences in language learning: the dopamine hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2012-10-01

    Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals' genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine (DA)-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between DA-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

  6. Individual differences in radial maze performance and locomotor activity in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Teskey, G C; Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M; Innis, N K; Boon, F H

    1998-12-01

    Individual differences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the maze without any consistent or definable pattern); and 3) nonrunners (i.e., nonperformers of the task who remained relatively immobile in the arms of the maze). The algorithmic and nonalgorithmic voles further differed in their responses to an interference manipulation of the radial maze task. Algorithmic individuals displayed a marked performance deficit, while the nonalgorithmic individuals showed minimal disruption to a 1-min delay interruption of the maze task. Measurements of several aspects of locomotor activity using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system revealed that the algorithmic individuals also displayed significantly greater levels of activity than the nonalgorithmic or nonrunners, with no significant difference in activity between the latter two groups. These findings suggest that the algorithmic voles were relatively inflexible in their behavior, while the nonalgorithmic individuals were more flexible in their maze performance and likely in their use of spatial and nonspatial information. These individual differences in laboratory measures of learning behavior and locomotor activity in meadow voles are consistent with the polymorphism that is proposed to occur in the wild. PMID:9877423

  7. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  8. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind. PMID:15250813

  9. Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

    2013-01-01

    Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

  10. Journal of Comparative Psychology Evidence for Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    , Rattus norvegicus Becca Franks, E. Tory Higgins, and Frances A. Champagne Online First Publication, March 5). Evidence for Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus in Rats, Rattus norvegicus. Journal Differences in Regulatory Focus in Rats, Rattus norvegicus Becca Franks, E. Tory Higgins, and Frances A

  11. 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd differences in the conception sex ratio related to individual pheno-

    E-print Network

    Potsdam, Universität

    © 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd differences in the conception sex ratio related to individual pheno- typic variation may require favourable environmental conditions, whereas differences birth sex ratios. In the Rum red deer population, the action of one mechanism swamped the other within

  12. Individual Differences in the Onset of Tense Marking: A Growth-Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at…

  13. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  14. A personalized robot companion? - The role of individual differences on spatial preferences in HRI scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dag Sverre Syrdal; Kheng Lee Koay; Mick L. Walters; Kerstin Dautenhahn

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between individual differences and proxemic behaviour in an HRI setting involving a robot approaching a person. In total 33 participants took part in three different scenarios; verbal interaction, physical interaction and no interaction. Participant control over the robot, and approach direction was also varied. Measurements of the preferred robot approach distance was obtained, and analysed

  15. Individual differences in situation-behavior profiles: A triple typology model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristof Vansteelandt; Iven Van Mechelen

    1998-01-01

    A model is proposed to represent individual differences in situation-behavior profiles. The model consists of 3 components: (a) q'ypologies of person, situation, and behavior classes; (b) hierarchical relations between the classes of each typology; and (c) a characterization of the person types in terms of different sets of if (situation class) then (behavior class) rules by which the 3 typologies

  16. The Development of Children's Moral Sensibility: Individual Differences and Emotion Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developmental changes and individual differences in children's conceptions of transgression were studied in 46 children from preschool through 1st grade. Differences in response to moral transgressions in kindergarten were related to mothers' control management and to siblings' friendly behavior in the preschool period, early understanding of…

  17. From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade's research on gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Deaux

    1984-01-01

    Performed an analysis of recent research on sex and gender in terms of 3 major approaches: (a) sex as an S variable; (b) individual differences in masculinity, femininity, and androgyny; and (c) sex as a social category. The variance accounted for by main effect differences of S sex was found to be small in most cases. The unique contribution of

  18. Patterns of individual differences in the perception of missing-fundamental tones.

    PubMed

    Ladd, D Robert; Turnbull, Rory; Browne, Charlotte; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Ganushchak, Lesya; Swoboda, Kate; Woodfield, Verity; Dediu, Dan

    2013-10-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest stable individual differences in the perception of auditory stimuli lacking energy at the fundamental frequency (F0), here called missing fundamental (MF) tones. Specifically, some individuals readily identify the pitch of such tones with the missing F0 ("F0 listeners"), and some base their judgment on the frequency of the partials that make up the tones ("spectral listeners"). However, the diversity of goals and methods in recent research makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about individual differences. The first purpose of this article is to discuss the influence of methodological choices on listeners' responses. The second goal is to report findings on individual differences in our own studies of the MF phenomenon. In several experiments, participants judged the direction of pitch change in stimuli composed of two MF tones, constructed so as to reveal whether the pitch percept was based on the MF or the partials. The reported difference between F0 listeners and spectral listeners was replicated, but other stable patterns of responses were also observed. Test-retest reliability is high. We conclude that there are genuine, stable individual differences underlying the diverse findings, but also that there are more than two general types of listeners, and that stimulus variables strongly affect some listeners' responses. This suggests that it is generally misleading to classify individuals as "F0 listeners" or "spectral listeners." It may be more accurate to speak of two modes of perception ("F0 listening" and "spectral listening"), both of which are available to many listeners. The individual differences lie in what conditions the choice between the two modes. PMID:23398251

  19. An investigation of the effect of individual differences and situational factors on performance rating ability

    E-print Network

    Yeager, Richard John

    1985-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ~ OF INDIVIDUAL DI~CES AND SITUATIONAL FACTORS ON PERFORMANCE RATING ABILITY A Thesis by RICHARD JOHN YEAGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of HASTER OF SCIENCE December l985 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND SITUATIONAL FACTORS ON PERFORMANCE RATING ABILITY A Thesis by RICHARD JOHN YEAGER Approved as to style...

  20. Adolescent individuation in relation to parents and friends: Age and gender differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melita Puklek Levpuš?ek

    2006-01-01

    The general aim of the study was to examine age and gender differences in various aspects of dependency needs and autonomy strivings of Slovene adolescents in relations to parents and friends. Another research question was whether the components of separation – individuation in relation to parents were related to four aspects of adolescent – friends relationships which resemble some aspects of separation – individuation (i.e., support

  1. Consensual and behavioral validity of a measure of adaptive individual differences dimensions in human motivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry C. Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Data from three sources—an initial self sample (N = 108) and a friend sample (N = 103) and relative sample (N = 103) recruited by self sample participants—were used to test the consensual and behavioral validity of new individual differences\\u000a measures of 15 dimensions of motivation represented in the assessment of individual motives-questionnaire (AIM-Q). AIM-Q scores\\u000a for all three samples converged and hypotheses of their predicted

  2. Routine cognitive errors: A trait-like predictor of individual differences in anxiety and distress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam K. Fetterman; Michael D. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Five studies (N=361) sought to model a class of errors—namely, those in routine tasks—that several literatures have suggested may predispose individuals to higher levels of emotional distress. Individual differences in error frequency were assessed in choice reaction-time tasks of a routine cognitive type. In Study 1, it was found that tendencies toward error in such tasks exhibit trait-like stability over

  3. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  4. Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Mjølstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological–hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs’ specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients’ own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent. PMID:24054352

  5. Camouflage and Individual Variation in Shore Crabs (Carcinus maenas) from Different Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Wood, Louisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this. PMID:25551233

  6. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321...

  7. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321...

  8. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321...

  9. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321...

  10. Individual Differences in the Real-Time Comprehension of Children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Venker, Courtney E.; Eernisse, Elizabeth R.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Lay Abstract Spoken language processing is related to language and cognitive skills in typically developing children, but very little is known about how children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprehend words in real time. Studying this area is important because it may help us understand why many children with autism have delayed language comprehension. Thirty-four children with ASD (3–6 years old) participated in this study. They took part in a language comprehension task that involved looking at pictures on a screen and listening to questions about familiar nouns (e.g., Where’s the shoe?). Children as a group understood the familiar words, but accuracy and processing speed varied considerably across children. The children who were more accurate were also faster to process the familiar words. Children’s language processing accuracy was related to processing speed and language comprehension on a standardized test; nonverbal cognition did not explain additional information after accounting for these factors. Additionally, lexical processing accuracy at age 5½ was related to children’s vocabulary comprehension three years earlier, at age 2½. Autism severity and years of maternal education were unrelated to language processing. Words typically acquired earlier in life were processed more quickly than words acquired later. These findings point to similarities in patterns of language development in typically developing children and children with ASD. Studying real-time comprehension in children with ASD may help us better understand mechanisms of language comprehension in this population. Future work may help explain why some children with ASD develop age-appropriate language skills, whereas others experience lasting deficits. Scientific Abstract Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate deficits in language comprehension, but little is known about how they process spoken language as it unfolds. Real-time lexical comprehension is associated with language and cognition in children without ASD, suggesting that this may also be the case for children with ASD. This study adopted an individual differences approach to characterizing real-time comprehension of familiar words in a group of 34 three- to six-year-olds with ASD. The looking-while-listening paradigm was employed; it measures online accuracy and latency through language-mediated eye movements and has limited task demands. On average, children demonstrated comprehension of the familiar words, but considerable variability emerged. Children with better accuracy were faster to process the familiar words. In combination, processing speed and comprehension on a standardized language assessment explained 63% of the variance in online accuracy. Online accuracy was not correlated with autism severity or maternal education, and nonverbal cognition did not explain unique variance. Notably, online accuracy at age 5½ was related to vocabulary comprehension three years earlier. The words typically learned earliest in life were processed most quickly. Consistent with a dimensional view of language abilities, these findings point to similarities in patterns of language acquisition in typically developing children and those with ASD. Overall, our results emphasize the value of examining individual differences in real-time language comprehension in this population. We propose that the looking-while-listening paradigm is a sensitive and valuable methodological tool that can be applied across many areas of autism research. PMID:23696214

  11. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation. PMID:25862996

  12. Individual differences in expertise development over decades in a complex intellectual domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert w. Howard

    2009-01-01

    Learners acquire expertise at different rates and reach different peak performance levels. Key questions arise regarding what\\u000a patterns of individual differences in expertise development occur and whether innate talent affects such development. International\\u000a chess is a good test domain for both issues, because it has objective performance measures, actual practice measures (number\\u000a of games), longitudinal population data, and minimal gatekeeper

  13. Individual Differences in Foraging Strategies of Parasitic Sabre-Tooth Blennies

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host–parasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp.) regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes. PMID:23029356

  14. Individual differences in the exploration of a redundant space-time motor task.

    PubMed

    King, Adam C; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Newell, Karl M

    2012-11-01

    Individual differences in learning a motor task are rarely assessed even though they can potentially contribute to our understanding of the problem of motor redundancy-i.e., how individuals can exploit multiple different strategies to realize the task goal. This study examined individual variations in the preferred movement strategy of a redundant motor task. Thirty-two participants performed a star tracing task on a digitizing tablet with the goal of minimizing a performance score that was given as feedback. The performance score was a weighted combination of spatial error and movement time, meaning that multiple strategies could yield the same score. A cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of individuals based on their initial movement strategy preferences. These groups were not only different on their initial performance, but also exhibited differences in both local (trial-to-trial change) and global (average change) search strategies that were reflected through differential modification of spatial and temporal components. Overall, the results in this space-time task reveal that the intrinsic dynamics of the individual channel the initial exploratory solutions to learning a redundant motor task. PMID:22914583

  15. Individual differences and the neural representations of reward expectation and reward prediction error

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Reward expectation and reward prediction errors are thought to be critical for dynamic adjustments in decision-making and reward-seeking behavior, but little is known about their representation in the brain during uncertainty and risk-taking. Furthermore, little is known about what role individual differences might play in such reinforcement processes. In this study, it is shown behavioral and neural responses during a decision-making task can be characterized by a computational reinforcement learning model and that individual differences in learning parameters in the model are critical for elucidating these processes. In the fMRI experiment, subjects chose between high- and low-risk rewards. A computational reinforcement learning model computed expected values and prediction errors that each subject might experience on each trial. These outputs predicted subjects’ trial-to-trial choice strategies and neural activity in several limbic and prefrontal regions during the task. Individual differences in estimated reinforcement learning parameters proved critical for characterizing these processes, because models that incorporated individual learning parameters explained significantly more variance in the fMRI data than did a model using fixed learning parameters. These findings suggest that the brain engages a reinforcement learning process during risk-taking and that individual differences play a crucial role in modeling this process. PMID:17710118

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Maximum Bite Force in Dentulous and Edentulous Individuals with Different Facial Forms

    PubMed Central

    A.A., Ponnanna; Rajwadha, Nishant; Chhaparia, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhishek; Anant, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mean maximum bite force in dentulous and edentulous individuals with Angle’s class-I occlusion and to assess the effect of different facial forms such as Square, Square-tapering, tapering and ovoid on the biting force. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 160 subjects in total. Out of these 160, 80 were dentulous subjects and remaining 80 were edentulous subjects who had received treatment for his/her missing teeth by fabrication of a complete denture. The mean maximum voluntary bite force for every subject was measured using bite force measuring device,(Process indicator 3016). Face form was divided under square, tapering, square-tapering or oval types. The shape of the face was determined using digital photographs. The effect of edentulism, gender and face form on bite force was statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Scheffe and Sample t-tests. Result: Mean maximum bite force and standard deviation (S.D.) in the dentulous sample population was 41.3(13.9) kilograms (kg) which when compared with the edentulous sample population provided highly significant statistical result. The mean maximum biting force in edentulous sample population was 4.43 (2.4) kg (p<0.001). In both dentulous and edentulous categories, the mean maximum bite force was statistically higher in male patients than female patients. Mean maximum bite force was significantly higher in patients with square facial form than in subjects with other facial forms. Conclusion: Square face form contributes to higher bite force values by obtaining higher Mechanical advantage from muscles of mastication. Result also proved that patients with complete denture with any facial form have much lower mean maximum bite force when compared to dentate subjects. PMID:25386519

  17. Inter-individual differences in empathy are reflected in human brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Banissy, Michael J.; Kanai, Ryota; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individual differences in grey matter volume and individual differences in empathy traits. We found that individual differences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy. PMID:22683384

  18. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  19. Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction Strength Can Explain Different Collective Feeding Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Delcourt, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics. PMID:24130748

  20. Individual differences in the preferred neck-resting position of Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A; O'Brien, Edward H

    2009-01-01

    When resting, flamingos often lay their heads along their backs. While in this position they must curve their necks to either the right or left of their midline. Observations of captive Caribbean flamingos at the Philadelphia Zoo (Philadelphia, PA, USA) were conducted in order to determine if individual birds would display consistent preferences in neck-resting position over multiple observations. While individual birds were shown to vary greatly in regards to the strength and direction of their preferences, a significant flock-level preference towards neck resting to the right was obtained. Analysis of individual flamingos revealed that 5 out of 17 birds displayed preferences that significantly differed from chance, with each of these birds preferring to rest their necks to the right. From the present data we can conclude that flamingos display behavioural laterality of neck-resting position at both the level of the group and that of the individual. PMID:18629741

  1. The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter.

    PubMed

    Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-01-01

    IN A SEMINAL PAPER WRITTEN FIVE DECADES AGO, CRONBACH DISCUSSED THE TWO HIGHLY DISTINCT APPROACHES TO SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between "causation" and "causes of variation" (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its "associability" provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this "new" light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals' performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

  2. The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter

    PubMed Central

    Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between “causation” and “causes of variation” (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its “associability” provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this “new” light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

  3. Using eye tracking to test for individual differences in attention to attractive faces

    PubMed Central

    Valuch, Christian; Pflüger, Lena S.; Wallner, Bernard; Laeng, Bruno; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We assessed individual differences in visual attention toward faces in relation to their attractiveness via saccadic reaction times. Motivated by the aim to understand individual differences in attention to faces, we tested three hypotheses: (a) Attractive faces hold or capture attention more effectively than less attractive faces; (b) men show a stronger bias toward attractive opposite-sex faces than women; and (c) blue-eyed men show a stronger bias toward blue-eyed than brown-eyed feminine faces. The latter test was included because prior research suggested a high effect size. Our data supported hypotheses (a) and (b) but not (c). By conducting separate tests for disengagement of attention and attention capture, we found that individual differences exist at distinct stages of attentional processing but these differences are of varying robustness and importance. In our conclusion, we also advocate the use of linear mixed effects models as the most appropriate statistical approach for studying inter-individual differences in visual attention with naturalistic stimuli. PMID:25698993

  4. Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Human Effort-Based Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Treadway, Michael T.; Buckholtz, Joshua W.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Woodward, Neil D.; Li, Rui; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Schwartzman, Ashley N.; Kessler, Robert M.; Zald, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Preferences for different combinations of costs and benefits are a key source of variability in economic decision-making. However, the neurochemical basis of individual differences in these preferences is poorly understood. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that direct manipulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) significantly impacts cost/benefit decision-making, but less is known about how naturally occurring variation in DA systems may relate to individual differences in economic behavior. In the present study, 25 healthy volunteers completed a dual-scan PET imaging protocol with [18F]fallypride and d-amphetamine to measure DA responsivity, and separately completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making in humans. We found that individual differences in DA function in the left striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex were correlated with a willingness to expend greater effort for larger rewards, particularly when probability of reward receipt was low. Additionally, variability in DA responses in the bilateral insula was negatively correlated with willingness to expend effort for rewards, consistent with evidence implicating this region in the processing of response costs. These findings highlight the role of DA signaling in striatal, prefrontal and insular regions as key neurochemical mechanisms underlying individual differences in cost/benefit decision-making. PMID:22553023

  5. Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern?Pin; Yeo, Sing?Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian?Guang; Tan, Luuan?Chin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S.; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait?like, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic?Chinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22–30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10?min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between?subject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67–0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait?like. PMID:25263200

  6. Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer

    PubMed Central

    Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality. PMID:18522909

  7. Individual differences in working memory moderate the relationship between prosaccade latency and antisaccade error rate.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, David J; Chi, Lingxi; Krafft, Cynthia E; Li, Qingyang; Schwarz, Nicolette F; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive control is required for flexible responses in changing environments and can be assessed by measuring antisaccade error rate. Considerable variance in antisaccade error rate is observed in healthy participants, which motivated the current study to explore the cognitive factors affecting antisaccade performance. Relationships exist between prosaccade latency and antisaccade error rate, with faster prosaccade latencies linked to more antisaccade errors. Individual differences in working memory also impact saccadic performance. The current study tested the relationships among prosaccade latency, antisaccade error rate, and working memory in 153 healthy participants. Correlation and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prosaccade latency predicted antisaccade error rate, and working memory moderated this relationship. These results may help elucidate individual differences in cognitive control among healthy individuals. PMID:25382828

  8. The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.

    PubMed

    Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

  9. Beyond individual differences: are working memory and inhibition informative specifiers within ASD?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde M

    2014-09-01

    Findings on working memory (WM) and inhibition in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are contradictory and earlier studies largely ignored individual differences. As WM and inhibition seem to be related, children who experience WM deficits might also experience inhibition deficits. Moreover, these children possibly form a distinct subgroup, differing on other variables, such as cognitive functioning, symptom severity, behavior, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) characteristics. We studied a large sample of children with and without ASD (8-12 years, IQ > 80) with classic experimental tasks (n-back task, ASD n = 77, control n = 45; stop task, ASD n = 74, control n = 43), and explored individual differences. The ASD group made more errors on the n-back task with increasing WM load, and had longer stop signal reaction times on the stop task when compared with controls. However, only 6 % of the ASD group showed both WM and inhibition deficits, and 71 % showed no deficits. Parents of children with WM and/or inhibition deficits tended to report more conduct problems on the disruptive behavior disorder rating scale. ADHD characteristics did not influence performance. Some children used medication during testing, which seemingly influenced stop task performance, but excluding these data did not change the main findings. Large individual differences in cognitive functioning are present, even within children with ASD with average or above average intelligence. However, whether individual differences in specific cognitive domains, such as WM and inhibition are as informative as individual differences in diagnosis, comorbidity, and general cognitive functioning, calls for future research. PMID:24796318

  10. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoE?4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  11. Resting-state networks predict individual differences in common and specific aspects of executive function.

    PubMed

    Reineberg, Andrew E; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Depue, Brendan E; Friedman, Naomi P; Banich, Marie T

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between individual differences in resting state functional connectivity as ascertained by fMRI (rs-fcMRI) and performance on tasks of executive function (EF), broadly defined as the ability to regulate thoughts and actions. Unlike most previous research that focused on the relationship between rs-fcMRI and a single behavioral measure of EF, in the current study we examined the relationship of rs-fcMRI with individual differences in subcomponents of EF. Ninety-one adults completed a resting state fMRI scan and three separate EF tasks outside the magnet: inhibition of prepotent responses, task set shifting, and working memory updating. From these three measures, we derived estimates of common aspects of EF, as well as abilities specific to working memory updating and task shifting. Using Independent Components Analysis (ICA), we identified across the group of participants several networks of regions (Resting State Networks, RSNs) with temporally correlated time courses. We then used dual regression to explore how these RSNs covaried with individual differences in EF. Dual regression revealed that increased higher common EF was associated with connectivity of a) frontal pole with an attentional RSN, and b) Crus I and II of the cerebellum with the right frontoparietal RSN. Moreover, higher shifting-specific abilities were associated with increased connectivity of angular gyrus with a ventral attention RSN. The results of the current study suggest that the organization of the brain at rest may have important implications for individual differences in EF, and that individuals higher in EF may have expanded resting state networks as compared to individuals with lower EF. PMID:25281800

  12. Affective forecasting and individual differences: accuracy for relational events and anxious attachment.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Jennifer M; Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Aron, Arthur

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether accuracy of affective forecasting for significant life events was moderated by a theoretically relevant individual difference (anxious attachment), with different expected relations to predicted and actual happiness. In 3 studies (2 cross-sectional, 1 longitudinal), participants predicted what their happiness would be after entering or ending a romantic relationship. Consistent with previous research, people were generally inaccurate forecasters. However, inaccuracy for entering a relationship was significantly moderated by anxious attachment. Predictions were largely unrelated to anxious attachment, but actual happiness was negatively related to attachment anxiety. Moderation for breaking up showed a similar but less consistent pattern. These results suggest a failure to account for one's degree of anxious attachment when making affective forecasts and show how affective forecasting accuracy in important life domains may be moderated by a focally relevant individual difference, with systematically different associations between predicted and actual happiness. PMID:20515233

  13. Testing the temporal stability of individual differences in the acquisition and generalization of fear.

    PubMed

    Torrents-Rodas, David; Fullana, Miquel A; Bonillo, Albert; Andión, Oscar; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Caseras, Xavier; Torrubia, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    We studied the temporal stability of individual differences in the acquisition and generalization of fear. Seventy-one participants were tested in two almost identical fear-acquisition and fear-generalization sessions (separated by 8 months). Acquisition and generalization were measured by the fear-potentiated startle, the skin conductance response, and online expectancies of the unconditioned stimulus. To control for the effects of previous experience, different stimuli were used for half of the participants in Session 2. Acquisition and generalization did not differ across sessions or as a function of the stimuli used in Session 2, and a significant proportion of individual differences in these processes was stable over time (generalizability coefficients ranged from 0.17 to 0.38). When the same stimuli were used, acquisition measures showed compromised stability. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications. PMID:24673651

  14. Implications of Individual Differences in Subjective Happiness for Perceiving, Interpreting, and Thinking About Life Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Lyubomirsky; Kari L. Tucker

    1998-01-01

    Both anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that characteristically happy and unhappy individuals seem to differ in the ways in which they respond to life events and daily situations. This paper reports two questionnaire studies and a laboratory study testing the hypothesis that happy people perceive, interpret, and think about the same events in more positive ways than do unhappy ones.

  15. Tears of sorrow, tears of joy: An individual differences approach to crying in Dutch females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Rottenberg; Lauren M. Bylsma; Vanessa Wolvin; Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets

    2008-01-01

    Many people report that crying relieves distress and is soothing; however, others report no change in mood after crying, and a minority of people even report worsened mood. What accounts for individual differences in the sequelae of crying? To examine this question, 196 adult Dutch women completed personality and clinical functioning measures, which were used to predict mood change after

  16. Goal orientation and organizational commitment : Individual difference predictors of job performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia F. Lee; James A. Tan; Rajeshekhar Javalgi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to paper examine goal orientation and organizational commitment in relation to employees' job attitudes and performance in a hospital. Specifically, it investigates the effects of mastery and performance goals on different facets of organizational commitment and how these effects impact individuals' job outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilized an online survey to

  17. Variations in metabolism of the soy isoflavonoid daidzein by human intestinal microfloras from different individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh Rafii; Christy Davis; Thomas M. Heinze; Richard D. Beger

    2003-01-01

    Isoflavonoids found in legumes, such as soybeans, are converted by intestinal bacteria to metabolites that might have increased or decreased estrogenic activity. Variation in the effects of dietary isoflavonoids among individuals has been attributed to differences in their metabolism by intestinal bacteria. To investigate this variation, the metabolism of the isoflavonoid daidzein by bacteria from ten fecal samples, provided at

  18. User analysis in HCI - the historical lessons from individual differences research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Dillon; Charles Watson

    1996-01-01

    User analysis is a crucial aspect of user-centered systems design, yet Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has yet to formulate reliable and valid characterizations of users beyond gross distinctions based on task and experience. Individual differences research from mainstream psychology has identified a stable set of characteristics that would appear to offer potential application in the HCI arena. Furthermore, in its evolution

  19. On the organization of individual differences in sexual behavior. by David Crews

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    of individual differences in sociosexual behaviors involves more than just sex steroid hormones. © COPYRIGHT on the sexual differentiation of mating behavior has impeded progress in our understanding of the proximate from genetic contributions. Just as there are two levels of organization of sex, so, too, are there two

  20. The impacts of individual plant species on rhizosphere microbial communities in soils of different fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Innes; Philip J. Hobbs; Richard D. Bardgett

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of individual plant species on microbial community properties in soils of differing fertility, a microcosm experiment was carried out using plant species representative of the dominant flora in semi-fertile temperate grasslands of northern England. Soil microbial biomass and activity were found to be significantly greater in the more fertile, agriculturally improved soil than in the less

  1. Different Effects of Individual Identification Systems on Chicken Well-Being

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual identification is a common method used in animal research. This study was designed to examine if various common identification systems, i.e., leg bands (LB), wing bands (WB), neck tags (ST), and livestock marker (LM), have different effects on hens' behavioral and physiological homeostas...

  2. Different Effects of Individual Identification Systems on Chicken Well-Being

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual identification is a common method used in animal research. This study was designed to examine if commonly used identification systems, i.e., leg bands, wing bands, neck tags, and livestock marker, have different effects on hens' behavioral and physiological homeostasis. At 18 wks of age, ...

  3. Individual Differences in Sensitivity to the Odor of 4,16-Androstadien-3-one

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Lundstrom; Thomas Hummel; Mats J. Olsson

    2003-01-01

    Individual differences in sensitivity to the putative human pheromone androstadienone were investigated in three experiments. In experiment 1, the absolute detection threshold for androstadienone was determined to be 211 µM using the method of constant stimuli. Detection for the related compound estratetraenol was also investigated but a threshold could not be deter- mined. In experiment 2, using an adaptive threshold

  4. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  5. Women, Individual Rights and Cultural Relativity: Power and Difference in Human Rights Debates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Nagengast

    1998-01-01

    When talking about human rights, anthropologists often find it difficult to reconcile an apparent conflict between individual and collective rights, and cultural relativity and universalism. The argument in this paper mediates these dichotomies, especially with respect to women's rights. It concludes that the concept of cultural relativity, developed by anthropologists to induce respect for difference, is appropriated, simplified and deployed

  6. Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

    2008-01-01

    Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

  7. The Role of Some Individual Differences in Understanding Chemical Changes: A Study in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypraios, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of chemical changes was investigated in relation to four individual differences, related to logical thinking, field dependence/independence, convergence and divergence thinking. The study took place in Greece with the participation of students (n = 374) from three grades (8th, 10th and 12th grades) of…

  8. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  9. Attitude Change and Need for Cognition: Individual Differences in Perceptions of Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremiah Daniel Ford

    2007-01-01

    It was hypothesized that attitudes will become most polarized when individuals have an opportunity for thought about a group for which they “tune in” a well-developed schema that is consistent with initial information. This process should be greater for low need than high need for cognition thinkers. Participants were given different opportunities for thought about either freedom fighters or rebel

  10. Comparison of two different statistical models considering individual races or racetracks for evaluation of German trotters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-E. Bugislaus; R. Roehe; E. Kalm

    2005-01-01

    Two different statistical models considering racetrack or individual race as fixed effect were compared, regarding genetic parameters and by using cross validation. Data for variance component estimation consisted of 48,942 performance observations from 4249 trotters. Variance components for the traits square root of rank at finish, racing time per km, and log of earnings per race were estimated by REML

  11. Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementary…

  12. Extensive Individual Differences in Brain Activations Associated with Episodic Retrieval are Reliable Over Time

    E-print Network

    Inati, Souheil

    are Reliable Over Time Michael B. Miller1,2 , John Darrell Van Horn2 , George L. Wolford2 , Todd C. Handy2 & The localization of brain functions using neuroimaging techniques is commonly dependent on statistical analyses to cyctoarchitectonic differences or spatial normalization. We quantify this individual variability by cross-correlating

  13. Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

  14. Systematic individual differences in sleep homeostatic and circadian rhythm contributions to neurobehavioral impairment

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    to neurobehavioral impairment during sleep deprivation Hans P.A. Van Dongena,*, Amy M. Bendera, and David F. Dingesb Individual differences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation

  15. Language Learning Disability and Individual Differences: Can We See between the Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Elaine R.

    2010-01-01

    In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individual differences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of learning…

  16. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Hambrick, David Z.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether…

  17. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

  18. Structural covariance networks of the dorsal anterior insula predict females' individual differences in empathic responding.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have shown key roles of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) in empathy for the suffering of others. The current study mapped structural covariance networks of these regions and assessed the relationship between networks and individual differences in empathic responding in 94 females. Individual differences in empathy were assessed through average state measures in response to a video task showing others' suffering, and through questionnaire-based trait measures of empathic concern. Overall, covariance patterns indicated that dAI and aMCC are principal hubs within prefrontal, temporolimbic, and midline structural covariance networks. Importantly, participants with high empathy state ratings showed increased covariance of dAI, but not aMCC, to prefrontal and limbic brain regions. This relationship was specific for empathy and could not be explained by individual differences in negative affect ratings. Regarding questionnaire-based empathic trait measures, we observed a similar, albeit weaker modulation of dAI covariance, confirming the robustness of our findings. Our analysis, thus, provides novel evidence for a specific contribution of frontolimbic structural covariance networks to individual differences in social emotions beyond negative affect. PMID:23535178

  19. Racemization in enamel among different types of teeth from the same individual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Ohtani; Rei Ito; Szilvia Arany; Toshiharu Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    We measured the quantity of D-aspartic acid (degree of racemization of aspartic acid) in the enamel of different types of teeth from the same individual. We studied the correlation between the degree of racemization and the time of formation of each particular tooth, as well as the applicability of the degree of racemization to estimation of chronological age. If the

  20. The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this model.…

  1. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Mikulincer; Phillip R. Shaver; Neta Avihou-Kanza

    2011-01-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found

  2. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Reply to O'Sullivan (2008) and Pigott and Wu (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individual differences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…

  3. Plasma catecholamines during endurance exercise of different intensities as related to the individual anaerobic threshold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Urhausen; B. Weiler; B. Coen; W. Kindermann

    1994-01-01

    The study investigated the concentrations of free plasma catecholamines (CAT), adrenaline and noradrenaline, in comparison to heart rate and lactic acid concentrations during endurance exercises (EE) of different intensities related to the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). A group of 14 endurance trained male athletes took part in the tests on a treadmill. After an exhausting incremental graded test (increasing 0.5

  4. A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

  5. The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents,

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    -Chalfant,3 Nazan Aksan,4 Richard J. Davidson1 and H. Hill Goldsmith1 1. Department of Psychology, University, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes Rebecca J. Brooker,1 Kristin A. Buss,2 Kathryn Lemery are understudied given widespread belief Address for correspondence: H. Hill Goldsmith, 328 Brogden Hall, 1202 West

  6. Complex Trait-Treatment-Interaction analysis: A powerful approach for analysing individual differences in experimental designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlev Leutner; Thomas Rammsayer

    1995-01-01

    Complex Trait-Treatment-Interaction (CTTI) analysis is introduced as a new and highly efficient statistical approach for analysing individual differences in experimental designs. CTTI analysis enables the researcher to investigate the combined effects of several personality traits and several treatments on a dependent variable. Thus, the hypothesis can be tested that a specific relationship between some aspect of human behavior and some

  7. Researching Task Difficulty from an Individual Differences Perspective: The Case of Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maad, Mohamed Ridha Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which highlighted goal orientation as an approachable individual difference (ID) variable which may further our understanding of foreign/second language learning experience. The study sought to (i) gauge the extent of goal orientation in foreign language learners' profile and (ii) examine how goal orientation affects…

  8. Individual Differences in Schema Utilization during Discourse Processing. Technical Report No. 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rand J.; Tirre, William C.

    One hundred twelve college students participated in a study designed to determine whether students differ in their relative employment of knowledge-based processes in discourse processing and whether individuals tend to be more "text-bound" and less able to use preexisting knowledge schemata when they are more "stimulus-bound" in a task with…

  9. Individual differences in behavioral and physiological responsiveness of primiparous dairy cows to machine milking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reenen van C. G; Werf van der J. T. N; R. M. Bruckmaier; H. Hopster; B. Engel; J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen; H. J. Blokhuis

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was performed in primiparous dairy cows (n = 23) to examine consistency of individual differences in reactivity to milking, and correlations between measures of behavior, physiology, and milk ejection. Responsiveness to milking was monitored during the first machine milking, on d 2 of lactation, and during milkings on d 4 and 130 of lactation. Measurements included kicking and

  10. Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: A cluster analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Chiarello; Suzanne E. Welcome; Christiana M. Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain–behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009;

  11. Individual differences in multimodal integration patterns: what are they and why do they exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon L. Oviatt; Rebecca Lunsford; Rachel Coulston

    2005-01-01

    Techniques for information fusion are at the heart of multimodal system design. To develop new user-adaptive approaches for multimodal fusion, the present research investigated the stability and underlying cause of major individual differences that have been documented between users in their multimodal integration pattern. Longitudinal data were collected from 25 adults as they interacted with a map system over six

  12. Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: A cluster analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Chiarello; Suzanne E. Welcome; Christiana M. Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain–behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009;

  13. Individual differences in spatial text processing: High spatial ability can compensate for spatial working memory interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Meneghetti; Valérie Gyselinck; Francesca Pazzaglia; Rossana De Beni

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task. To understand how individuals who differ

  14. The personality triad in balance: Multidimensional individual differences in situation-behavior profilesq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristof Vansteelandt; Iven Van Mechelen

    A new methodology is proposed to study the full personality triad including persons, sit- uations, and responses. It is based on a model of the structural mechanism underlying behav- ioral data in terms of eliciting power of situations, response thresholds, as well as quantitative and\\/or qualitative individual differences. The model is aimed at conceptually clarifying the personality triad and makes

  15. Prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in exploration and exploitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley B Doll; Jen Oas-Terpstra; Francisco Moreno; Michael J Frank

    2009-01-01

    The basal ganglia support learning to exploit decisions that have yielded positive outcomes in the past. In contrast, limited evidence implicates the prefrontal cortex in the process of making strategic exploratory decisions when the magnitude of potential outcomes is unknown. Here we examine neurogenetic contributions to individual differences in these distinct aspects of motivated human behavior, using a temporal decision-making

  16. Individual differences in positive affect moderate age-related declines in episodic long-term memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Allen; Kevin Kaut; Elsa Baena; Mei-Ching Lien; Eric Ruthruff

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have attributed declining episodic memory in increased adult age to less efficient contextual markers that are typically associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex function (e.g., Allen et al., 2005). However, this previous research found the link only for negative affect. Ashby, Isen, and Turken (1999) predicted that individual differences in positive affect should also have an impact on cognitive

  17. Individual Differences in Core Affect Variability and Their Relationship to Personality and Psychological Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kuppens; Iven Van Mechelen; John B. Nezlek; Dorien Dossche; Tinneke Timmermans

    2007-01-01

    How people's feelings change across time can be represented as trajectories in a core affect space defined by the dimensions of valence and activation. In this article, the authors analyzed individual differences in within-person affective variability defined as characteristics of core affect trajectories, introducing new ways to conceptualize affective variability. In 2 studies, participants provided multiple reports across time describing

  18. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  19. The Effect of Executive Function on Biological Reasoning in Young Children: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitchik, Deborah; Iqbal, Yeshim; Carey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial variance in the age at which children construct and deploy their first explicit theory of biology. This study tests the hypothesis that this variance is due, at least in part, to individual differences in their executive function (EF) abilities. A group of 79 boys and girls aged 5-7 years (with a mean age of 6½ years) were…

  20. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  1. Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2005-01-01

    Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

  2. Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  3. PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    , perceived support, close relationships I have heard of reasons manifold Why Love needs be blindPERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things such as relationships--make these positive outcomes more likely? In a longitudinal study of dating couples, the authors

  4. Developing effective teacher beliefs about learners: the role of sensitizing teachers to individual learning differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melodie Rosenfeld; Sherman Rosenfeld

    2008-01-01

    Effective teacher beliefs about students are an integral part of effective teaching. Teachers with interventionist beliefs about students (‘I can intervene to help a learner with difficulties’) show more effective practice than teachers with pathognomonic beliefs (‘I blame the learner for his difficulties’). A professional development (PD) course sensitized teachers (N = 234) to individual learning differences (ILDs), using five

  5. The Influence of Individual Differences on Diagrammatic Communication and Problem Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the user and customizing the interface to augment cognition and usability are goals of human computer interaction research and design. Yet, little is known about the influence of individual visual-verbal information presentation preferences on visual navigation and screen element usage. If consistent differences in visual navigation…

  6. Individual and Sex Differences in the Consequences of Victimization: Moderation by Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to…

  7. Evolution, Convolution, Dissolution: The Rise of Individual Differences in Human Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickman, David L.

    Although it is difficult to ascertain precisely the time at which the study of individual differences became recognized as a specialty within the psychological sciences, there appears to be much agreement among historians that its development was fostered primarily within the United States during the late 19th century. This paper examines the…

  8. Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

  9. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  10. Multimedia Learning: Cognitive Individual Differences and Display Design Techniques Predict Transfer Learning with Multimedia Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individual differences and display design manipulations on…

  11. Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted, if the following guidelines are followed: 1. Where permitted, owners/ users of space heaters are responsible

  12. Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis formation are associated with individual differences in behavior of inbred Lewis rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enikö Sajti; Annemieke Kavelaars; Nico van Meeteren; Marc Teunis; Willem Hendrik Gispen; Cobi Heijnen

    2004-01-01

    There are large individual differences in cancer progression and it has been suggested that behavioral and psychological characteristics of cancer patients may contribute to the course of the disease. To get more insight in the contribution of behavioral characteristics to cancer progression, we investigated in rats, whether a stable behavioral trait characteristic is associated with NK cell activity, tumor angiogenesis,

  13. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students' postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than…

  14. Individual Differences in Cognitive Characteristics and Computer-Managed Mastery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in student achievement and learning rate are reduced or eliminated by mastery instruction, 166 navy trainees who completed a computer-managed course in basic electricity and electronics were cluster analyzed using 24 measures of cognitive characteristics. Discriminant analyses were computed between two…

  15. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

  16. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  17. Individual Differences in the Relationship between Satisfaction with Job Rewards and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri; De Gieter, Sara; Pepermans, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research often showed a positive relationship between pay satisfaction and job satisfaction, we dispute the universality of this finding. Cluster-wise regression analyses on three samples consistently show that two types of individuals can be distinguished, each with a different job reward-job satisfaction relationship. For the…

  18. Lexical Precision in Skilled Readers: Individual Differences in Masked Neighbor Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Hersch, Jolyn

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship between masked form priming and individual differences in reading and spelling proficiency among university students. Experiment 1 assessed neighbor priming for 4-letter word targets from high- and low-density neighborhoods in 97 university students. The overall results replicated previous evidence of…

  19. Individual Differences in the Centrality of Visual Product Aesthetics: Concept and Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    This research conceptualizes and develops a scale to measure individual differences in the centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA), defined as the level of significance that visual aesthetics hold for a particular consumer in his\\/her relationship with products. Three related dimensions of product aesthetics centrality emerged from the research: value, acumen, and response intensity. A series of eight studies provided

  20. Individual Differences in Mathematical Competence Modulate Brain Responses to Arithmetic Errors: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individual differences in mathematical…

  1. Variation in Cognitive Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation of Everyday Attention and Memory Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday cognitive failures assessed by diaries. A large sample of participants completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory. Furthermore, a subset of these participants also recorded everyday cognitive failures (attention, retrospective memory, and prospective memory failures)…

  2. Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

  3. Neural Basis of Individual Differences in Impulsivity: Contributions of Corticolimbic Circuits for Behavioral Arousal and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah M. Brown; Stephen B. Manuck; Janine D. Flory; Ahmad R. Hariri

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the neural correlates of behavioral arousal and inhibitory control as they relate to individual differences in impulsivity via well-established functional MRI amygdala reactivity and prefrontal inhibitory control paradigms in healthy adult subjects. Impulsivity correlated positively with activity of the bilateral ventral amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32), and

  4. Understanding Teachers with Extreme Individual Learning Differences: Developing More Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2008-01-01

    Three teachers, who held extreme preferences for the ways they learn, participated in a year-long professional development course, designed to sensitize teachers to their own and colleagues' individual learning differences (ILDs). The case study focuses on their extreme learning preferences and discusses the impact of these preferences on their…

  5. Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

  6. Individual Differences in Time Estimation Related to Cognitive Ability, Speed of Information Processing and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, A.; Neubauer, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    In experimental time estimation research, it has consistently been found that the more a person is engaged in some kind of demanding cognitive activity within a given period of time, the more experienced duration of this time interval decreases. However, the role of individual differences has been largely ignored in this field of research. In a…

  7. Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in…

  8. Understanding Individual Differences in Spatial Ability within Females: A Nature\\/Nurture Interactionist Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Beth Casey

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews a program of research, conducted in collaboration with several of my colleagues, which examines individual differences in spatial ability from a biological\\/environmental interaction perspective. Our research strategy has been to identify the females who provide the exceptions to the male advantage in mental rotation ability. We tested a “bent twig” model, identifying a subgroup of females predicted

  9. PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative Affectivity: Relations at the

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative and negative affectivity. A 3rd study (N 878 twin pairs) replicated this pattern and examined genetic of the self. Much of current research on the self in personality and social psychology examines two components

  10. Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

  11. Individual differences in gameplay and learning: a narrative-centered learning perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Rowe; Lucy R. Shores; Bradford W. Mott; James C. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Narrative-centered learning environments are an important class of educational games that situate learning within rich story contexts. The work presented in this paper investigates individual differences in gameplay and learning during student interactions with a narrative-centered learning environment, Crystal Island. Findings reveal striking differences between high- and low-achieving science students in problem-solving effectiveness, attention to particular gameplay elements, learning gains

  12. Inter-individual differences in the human circadian system: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Kerkhof

    1985-01-01

    Reviews studies that have dealt with interindividual differences revealed by measurements of physiological, biochemical, and psychological variables at 2 or more times of day in terms of the morningness-eveningness, personality (introversion-extraversion [I-E]), age, or sex of their Ss. Studies of individual differences in the response of the circadian system to disturbance (e.g., shift work) are also discussed. The most reliable

  13. Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (?Cramer?=?.02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  14. Personality traits and individual differences predict threat-induced changes in postural control.

    PubMed

    Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L

    2015-04-01

    This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary. PMID:25687665

  15. Characterizing individual differences in functional connectivity using dual-regression and seed-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Smith, David V; Utevsky, Amanda V; Bland, Amy R; Clement, Nathan; Clithero, John A; Harsch, Anne E W; McKell Carter, R; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-07-15

    A central challenge for neuroscience lies in relating inter-individual variability to the functional properties of specific brain regions. Yet, considerable variability exists in the connectivity patterns between different brain areas, potentially producing reliable group differences. Using sex differences as a motivating example, we examined two separate resting-state datasets comprising a total of 188 human participants. Both datasets were decomposed into resting-state networks (RSNs) using a probabilistic spatial independent component analysis (ICA). We estimated voxel-wise functional connectivity with these networks using a dual-regression analysis, which characterizes the participant-level spatiotemporal dynamics of each network while controlling for (via multiple regression) the influence of other networks and sources of variability. We found that males and females exhibit distinct patterns of connectivity with multiple RSNs, including both visual and auditory networks and the right frontal-parietal network. These results replicated across both datasets and were not explained by differences in head motion, data quality, brain volume, cortisol levels, or testosterone levels. Importantly, we also demonstrate that dual-regression functional connectivity is better at detecting inter-individual variability than traditional seed-based functional connectivity approaches. Our findings characterize robust-yet frequently ignored-neural differences between males and females, pointing to the necessity of controlling for sex in neuroscience studies of individual differences. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of employing network-based models to study variability in functional connectivity. PMID:24662574

  16. Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.

    PubMed

    Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p < 0.01, strong positive correlations were observed between extraversion and resting brain perfusion in the right caudate, brain stem, and cingulate gyrus. Significant negative correlations between neuroticism and regional cerebral perfusion were identified in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, ACC, and orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity. PMID:23771644

  17. Some Interactions Between Individual Differences and Modes of Instruction. Final Report, January 1964-March 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Wilma Jo; And Others

    The relationship between patterns of learning ability and the amount learned under different instructional conditions was studied. Scores for each of 44 Air Force trainees were obtained on several standardized tests of achievement and ability. Each subject then participated and was tested in five learning situations: (1) listening to taped…

  18. Inter and intra-individual differences in steering wheel hand positions during a simulated driving task.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Jessica; Loslever, Pierre; Gabrielli, François; Pudlo, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experimental study focusing onto the way drivers use the steering wheel while performing a 2D tracking task. The stimulus during this task was a steering wheel angle signal recorded in real situations involving turns and straight lines performed at about 30 km/h. The hand positions of 20 volunteers were recorded in 6 steering scenarios involving 7 road geometries using a 3D motion capture system. The hand movement data were analysed via a descriptive/inferential procedure: each hand was considered using nine indicators - eight membership value averages linked to eight fuzzy angle windows and a frequency value related to the off steering wheel position - while the indicators were investigated using multiple correspondence analysis and non-parametric global and post-hoc tests. Results showed that inter-individual differences were larger than intra-individual differences. Considering 2 × 9 = 18 windows, the inter-individual differences mainly appeared during two main kinds of steering hand strategies: with versus without crossing hands, the latter being the most often used (17 among 20 participants). The intra-individual data showed that some drivers maintained a nearly identical strategy for all road geometries, while other drivers changed their hand position with the direction and/or maximum angle value of the turn. PMID:25403474

  19. The Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Phenylthiocarbamide and Propylthiouracil Bitterness Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bufe, Bernd; Breslin, Paul A. S.; Kuhn, Christina; Reed, Danielle R.; Tharp, Christopher D.; Slack, Jay P.; Kim, Un-Kyung; Drayna, Dennis; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Summary Individual differences in perception are ubiquitous within the chemical senses: taste, smell, and chemical somesthesis [1–4]. A hypothesis of this fact states that polymorphisms in human sensory receptor genes could alter perception by coding for functionally distinct receptor types [1, 5–8]. We have previously reported evidence that sequence variants in a presumptive bitter receptor gene (hTAS2R38) correlate with differences in bitterness recognition of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) [9–11]. Here, we map individual psychogenomic pathways for bitter taste by testing people with a variety of psychophysical tasks and linking their individual perceptions of the compounds PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP) to the in vitro responses of their TAS2R38 receptor variants. Functional expression studies demonstrate that five different haplotypes from the hTAS2R38 gene code for operatively distinct receptors. The responses of the three haplotypes we also tested in vivo correlate strongly with individuals’ psychophysical bitter sensitivities to a family of compounds. These data provide a direct molecular link between heritable variability in bitter taste perception to functional variations of a single G protein coupled receptor that responds to compounds such as PTC and PROP that contain the N-C?S moiety. The molecular mechanisms of perceived bitterness variability have therapeutic implications, such as helping patients to consume beneficial bitter-tasting compounds—for example, pharmaceuticals and selected phytochemicals. PMID:15723792

  20. Function in the Human Connectome: Task-fMRI and Individual Differences in Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Harms, Michael P.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Glasser, Matthew F.; Curtiss, Sandra; Dixit, Sachin; Feldt, Cindy; Nolan, Dan; Bryant, Edward; Hartley, Tucker; Footer, Owen; Bjork, James M.; Poldrack, Russ; Smith, Steve; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to delineate the typical patterns of structural and functional connectivity in the healthy adult human brain. However, we know that there are important individual differences in such patterns of connectivity, with evidence that this variability is associated with alterations in important cognitive and behavioral variables that affect real world function. The HCP data will be a critical stepping-off point for future studies that will examine how variation in human structural and functional connectivity play a role in adult and pediatric neurological and psychiatric disorders that account for a huge amount of public health resources. Thus, the HCP is collecting behavioral measures of a range of motor, sensory, cognitive and emotional processes that will delineate a core set of functions relevant to understanding the relationship between brain connectivity and human behavior. In addition, the HCP is using task-fMRI (tfMRI) to help delineate the relationships between individual differences in the neurobiological substrates of mental processing and both functional and structural connectivity, as well as to help characterize and validate the connectivity analyses to be conducted on the structural and functional connectivity data. This paper describes the logic and rationale behind the development of the behavioral, individual difference, and tfMRI batteries and provides preliminary data on the patterns of activation associated with each of the fMRI tasks, at both a group and individual level. PMID:23684877

  1. Interference of Different Types of Mastication on Static Balance in Individuals without Temporomandibular Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Politti, Fabiano; El Hage, Yasmin; de Sousa, Dowglas Fernando Magalhães; Amorin, Cesar Ferreira; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to determine whether non-habitual (isotonic) bilateral and unilateral mastication with eyes open and eyes closed exerts an influence on static balance in individuals without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Method: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 volunteers aged 20 to 40 years without temporomandibular disorder. Static balance was assessed with the individuals in a quiet standing position on a force plate performing different types of mastication under six separate conditions. Results: Significant differences (p < .05) were found in the area of oscillation during bilateral mastication (eyes open) and the right unilateral mastication, significant differences were only found for oscillation area with eyes open and mediolateral center of pressure with eyes closed (p < .05). Conclusions: The findings of the present study reveal that the stomatognathic system (bilateral and unilateral mastication) promote changes in some variables of static balance.

  2. Differences Between Individual ZSM-5 Crystals in Forming Hollow Single Crystals and Mesopores During Base Leaching.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Daniel; Krumeich, Frank; Hauert, Roland; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2015-04-13

    After base treatment of ZSM-5 crystals below 100?nm in size, TEM shows hollow single crystals with a 10?nm shell. SEM images confirm that the shell is well- preserved even after prolonged treatment. Determination of the Si/Al ratios with AAS and XPS in combination with argon sputtering reveals aluminum zoning of the parent zeolite, and the total pore volume increases in the first two hours of base treatment. In corresponding TEM images, the amount of hollow crystals are observed to increase during the first two hours of base treatment, and intact crystals are visible even after 10?h of leaching; these observations indicate different dissolution rates between individual crystals. TEM of large, commercially available ZSM-5 crystals shows inhomogeneous distribution of mesopores among different crystals, which points to the existence of structural differences between individual crystals. Only tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum is detected with (27) Al MAS NMR after the base leaching of nano-sized ZSM-5. PMID:25720305

  3. Activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala underlies individual differences in prosocial and individualistic economic choices.

    PubMed

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kimura, Minoru; Frith, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Much decision-making requires balancing benefits to the self with benefits to the group. There are marked individual differences in this balance such that individualists tend to favor themselves whereas prosocials tend to favor the group. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this difference has important implications for society and its institutions. Using behavioral and fMRI data collected during the performance of the ultimatum game, we show that individual differences in social preferences for resource allocation, so-called "social value orientation," is linked with activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala elicited by inequity, rather than activity in insula, ACC, and dorsolateral pFC. Importantly, the presence of cognitive load made prosocials behave more prosocially and individualists more individualistically, suggesting that social value orientation is driven more by intuition than reflection. In parallel, activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in response to inequity, tracked this behavioral pattern of prosocials and individualists. In addition, we conducted an impunity game experiment with different participants where they could not punish unfair behavior and found that the inequity-correlated activity seen in prosocials during the ultimatum game disappeared. This result suggests that the accumbens and amygdala activity of prosocials encodes "outcome-oriented emotion" designed to change situations (i.e., achieve equity or punish). Together, our results suggest a pivotal contribution of the nucleus accumbens and amygdala to individual differences in sociality. PMID:24564471

  4. Learning a novel phonological contrast depends on interactions between individual differences and training paradigm design

    PubMed Central

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Lee, Jiyeon; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies evaluating phonological contrast learning typically investigate either the predictiveness of specific pretraining aptitude measures or the efficacy of different instructional paradigms. However, little research considers how these factors interact—whether different students learn better from different types of instruction—and what the psychological basis for any interaction might be. The present study demonstrates that successfully learning a foreign-language phonological contrast for pitch depends on an interaction between individual differences in perceptual abilities and the design of the training paradigm. Training from stimuli with high acoustic-phonetic variability is generally thought to improve learning; however, we found high-variability training enhanced learning only for individuals with strong perceptual abilities. Learners with weaker perceptual abilities were actually impaired by high-variability training relative to a low-variability condition. A second experiment assessing variations on the high-variability training design determined that the property of this learning environment most detrimental to perceptually weak learners is the amount of trial-by-trial variability. Learners’ perceptual limitations can thus override the benefits of high-variability training where trial-by-trial variability in other irrelevant acoustic-phonetic features obfuscates access to the target feature. These results demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences in pretraining aptitudes when evaluating the efficacy of any speech training paradigm. PMID:21786912

  5. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  6. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  7. Toward Understanding Body Image Importance: Individual Differences in a Canadian Sample of Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) andperfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed. PMID:23421695

  8. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  9. On mathematicians' different standards when evaluating elementary proofs.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Weber, Keith; Alcock, Lara

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we report a study in which 109 research-active mathematicians were asked to judge the validity of a purported proof in undergraduate calculus. Significant results from our study were as follows: (a) there was substantial disagreement among mathematicians regarding whether the argument was a valid proof, (b) applied mathematicians were more likely than pure mathematicians to judge the argument valid, (c) participants who judged the argument invalid were more confident in their judgments than those who judged it valid, and (d) participants who judged the argument valid usually did not change their judgment when presented with a reason raised by other mathematicians for why the proof should be judged invalid. These findings suggest that, contrary to some claims in the literature, there is not a single standard of validity among contemporary mathematicians. PMID:23580451

  10. Individual differences in memory and executive function abilities during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Mejia, S; Pineda, D; Alvarez, L M; Ardila, A

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of some individual variables on memory and executive function test performance in normal aging individuals. Sixty subjects (21 males and 39 females), with a mean age of 69.66 (SD = 7.09) were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were administered: Associative Learning and Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945), Associative Memory with Semantic Enhancement Test (AMSET) (Pineda, Galeano and Giraldo, 1991), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT) (Heaton, 1981), and Verbal Fluency (phonologic and semantic). The effects of demographic (age, education, and sex) and some individual variables (academic history, working history, physical activity, and leisure activities) were measured. Age and education effects on test scores were observed, but no sex effect was found. Working history and leisure activities established significant differences in some test scores. A multiple regression analysis was performed. Not only demographic variables, but also individual variables were associated with memory, and albeit at a lesser extend, with executive function test scores. It was emphasized that not only demographic factors, but also individual variables have a significant effect on cognitive changes observed during normal aging. PMID:9777444

  11. Individual differences in reproductive costs examined using multi-state methods.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Kelly; Morgan, Byron; Morris, Alison; Morris, Sean; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Coulson, Tim

    2011-03-01

    1.?Trade-offs among life-history traits are common because individuals have to partition limited resources between multiple traits. Reproductive costs are generally assumed to be high, resulting in reduced survival and fecundity in the following year. However, it is common to find positive rather than negative correlations between life-history traits. 2.?Here, we use a data set from the individual-based study of red deer on the Isle of Rum to examine how these costs vary between individuals and at different ages, using multi-state mark-recapture methodology. 3.?Females that had reproduced frequently in the past incurred lower costs of reproduction in terms of survival in the following year and were more likely to reproduce in two consecutive years. Older individuals and those that had not reproduced frequently exhibited higher costs. 4.?These results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity and individual quality when examining trade-offs and demonstrate the effectiveness of using detailed long-term data sets to explore life-history strategies using multi-state mark-recapture models. PMID:21182522

  12. Individual Differences and Social Influences on the Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Abused Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, J. L.; Kelly, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of drugs with biologic targets is a critical area of research, particularly for the development of medications to treat substance use disorders. In addition to understanding these drug-target interactions, however, there is a need to understand more fully the psychosocial influences that moderate these interactions. The first section of this review introduces some examples from human behavioral pharmacology that illustrate the clinical importance of this research. The second section covers preclinical evidence to characterize some of the key individual differences that alter drug sensitivity and abuse vulnerability, related primarily to differences in response to novelty and impulsivity. Evidence is presented to indicate that critical neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with these individual differences involve integrated neurocircuits underlying stress, reward, and behavioral inhibitory processes. The third section covers social influences on drug abuse vulnerability, including effects experienced during infancy, adolescence, and young adulthood, such as maternal separation, housing conditions, and social interactions (defeat, play, and social rank). Some of the same neurocircuits involved in individual differences also are altered by social influences, although the precise neurochemical and cellular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated fully. Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. PMID:23343975

  13. Individual Differences in Prefrontal Cortex Function and the Transition from Drug Use to Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    George, Olivier; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Several neuropsychological hypotheses have been formulated to explain the transition to addiction, including hedonic allostasis, incentive salience, and the development of habits. A key feature of addiction that remains to be explored is the important individual variability observed in the propensity to self-administer drugs, the sensitivity to drug-associated cues, the severity of the withdrawal state, and the ability to quit. In this review, we suggest that the concept of self-regulation, combined with the concept of modularity of cognitive function, may aid in the understanding of the neural basis of individual differences in the vulnerability to drugs and the transition to addiction. The thesis of this review is that drug addiction involves a failure of the different subcomponents of the executive systems controlling key cognitive modules that process reward, pain, stress, emotion, habits, and decision-making. A subhypothesis is that the different patterns of drug addiction and individual differences in the transition to addiction may emerge from differential vulnerability in one or more of the subcomponents. PMID:20493211

  14. Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It consists of 19 probability estimation items plus 4 "M-Scale" items that distinguish simple pattern matching from “base rate respect.” Cronbach's Alpha was consistently above 0.90. Validity is suggested by significant correlations between FPPI scores and three other measurers: "Rule Based" Process Dissociation Procedure scores; the number of conjunction fallacies in joint probability estimation; and logic index scores on syllogistic reasoning. Replicating norms collected in a university study with a web-based study produced negligible differences in FPPI scores, indicating robustness. The predicted relationships between individual differences in base rate respect and both conjunction fallacies and syllogistic reasoning were partially replicated in two web-based studies. PMID:23935255

  15. A neural trait approach to exploring individual differences in social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kyle; Gianotti, Lorena R. R.; Knoch, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates that social preferences are characterized by significant individual differences. An important question, often overlooked, is from where do these individual differences originate? And what are the processes that underlie such differences? In this paper, we outline the neural trait approach to uncovering sources of individual differences in social preferences, particularly as evidenced in economic games. We focus on two primary methods—resting-state electroencephalography and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—used by researchers to quantify task-independent, brain-based characteristics that are stable over time. We review research that has employed these methods to investigate social preferences with an emphasis on a key psychological process in social decision-making; namely, self-control. We then highlight future opportunities for the neural trait approach in cutting-edge decision-making research. Finally, we explore the debate about self-control in social decision-making and the potential role neural trait research could play in this issue. PMID:25642176

  16. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at six months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

  17. The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-11-01

    Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

  18. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

  19. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

  20. Empathy matters: ERP evidence for inter-individual differences in social language processing.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Daniëlle; Van Berkum, Jos J A; Bastiaansen, Marcel C M; Tesink, Cathelijne M J Y; Kos, Miriam; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-02-01

    When an adult claims he cannot sleep without his teddy bear, people tend to react surprised. Language interpretation is, thus, influenced by social context, such as who the speaker is. The present study reveals inter-individual differences in brain reactivity to social aspects of language. Whereas women showed brain reactivity when stereotype-based inferences about a speaker conflicted with the content of the message, men did not. This sex difference in social information processing can be explained by a specific cognitive trait, one's ability to empathize. Individuals who empathize to a greater degree revealed larger N400 effects (as well as a larger increase in ?-band power) to socially relevant information. These results indicate that individuals with high-empathizing skills are able to rapidly integrate information about the speaker with the content of the message, as they make use of voice-based inferences about the speaker to process language in a top-down manner. Alternatively, individuals with lower empathizing skills did not use information about social stereotypes in implicit sentence comprehension, but rather took a more bottom-up approach to the processing of these social pragmatic sentences. PMID:21148175

  1. Does Individualism Help Explain Differences in Employers' Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Disability Across Chinese and American Cities?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. PMID:21171794

  2. Individual differences in recognising involuntary autobiographical memories: Impact on the reporting of abstract cues.

    PubMed

    Mace, John H; Bernas, Ronan S; Clevinger, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    This study examined individual differences in the ability to recognise involuntary autobiographical memories. We hypothesised that individuals may not always recognise involuntary memories which are cued by abstract experiences (e.g., thoughts or language), while they are better able to recognise those which are cued by concrete sensory/perpetual experiences. We hypothesised that individuals without formal training in psychology would be more prone to these recognition failures than individuals with training in psychology. We tested the hypothesis by comparing the results of general first-year undergraduate students, graduate students in psychology and graduates students in other disciplines after each had participated in a two-week diary study of their naturally occurring involuntary memories. The results showed undergraduate participants and non-psychology graduate participants reporting fewer involuntary memories being triggered by abstract cues than the graduate psychology participants, while the groups did not differ in the report of memories triggered by sensory/perpetual cues. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24649968

  3. Amygdala volume predicts inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli. PMID:24009767

  4. Frontolimbic neural circuitry at 6 months predicts individual differences in joint attention at 9 months.

    PubMed

    Elison, Jed T; Wolff, Jason J; Heimer, Debra C; Paterson, Sarah J; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6-month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems. PMID:23432829

  5. Origins of individual differences in theory of mind: from nature to nurture?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claire; Jaffee, Sara R; Happé, Francesca; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2005-01-01

    In this study of the origins of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM), the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study sample of 1,116 sixty-month-old twin pairs completed a comprehensive battery of ToM tasks. Individual differences in ToM were striking and strongly associated with verbal ability. Behavioral genetic models of the data showed that environmental factors explained the majority of the variance in ToM performance in this sample. Shared environmental influences on verbal ability had a common impact on ToM and explained more than half the phenotypic correlation between these two skills. Possible underlying proximal mechanisms are discussed, including maternal speech and mind-mindedness, sibling interactions, and peer influences. PMID:15784087

  6. Who Sees Human? The Stability and Importance of Individual Differences in Anthropomorphism.

    PubMed

    Waytz, Adam; Cacioppo, John; Epley, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Anthropomorphism is a far-reaching phenomenon that incorporates ideas from social psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and the neurosciences. Although commonly considered to be a relatively universal phenomenon with only limited importance in modern industrialized societies-more cute than critical-our research suggests precisely the opposite. In particular, we provide a measure of stable individual differences in anthropomorphism that predicts three important consequences for everyday life. This research demonstrates that individual differences in anthropomorphism predict the degree of moral care and concern afforded to an agent, the amount of responsibility and trust placed on an agent, and the extent to which an agent serves as a source of social influence on the self. These consequences have implications for disciplines outside of psychology including human-computer interaction, business (marketing and finance), and law. Concluding discussion addresses how understanding anthropomorphism not only informs the burgeoning study of nonpersons, but how it informs classic issues underlying person perception as well. PMID:24839457

  7. Feature Extraction for Mental Fatigue and Relaxation States Based on Systematic Evaluation Considering Individual Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lanlan; Sugi, Takenao; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Feature extraction for mental fatigue and relaxation states is helpful to understand the mechanisms of mental fatigue and search effective relaxation technique in sustained work environments. Experiment data of human states are often affected by external and internal factors, which increase the difficulties to extract common features. The aim of this study is to explore appropriate methods to eliminate individual difference and enhance common features. Mental fatigue and relaxation experiments are executed on 12 subjects. An integrated and evaluation system is proposed, which consists of subjective evaluation (visual analogue scale), calculation performance and neurophysiological signals especially EEG signals. With consideration of individual difference, the common features of multi-estimators testify the effectiveness of relaxation in sustained mental work. Relaxation technique can be practically applied to prevent accumulation of mental fatigue and keep mental health. The proposed feature extraction methods are widely applicable to obtain common features and release the restriction for subjection selection and experiment design.

  8. Who Sees Human? The Stability and Importance of Individual Differences in Anthropomorphism

    PubMed Central

    Waytz, Adam; Cacioppo, John; Epley, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is a far-reaching phenomenon that incorporates ideas from social psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and the neurosciences. Although commonly considered to be a relatively universal phenomenon with only limited importance in modern industrialized societies—more cute than critical—our research suggests precisely the opposite. In particular, we provide a measure of stable individual differences in anthropomorphism that predicts three important consequences for everyday life. This research demonstrates that individual differences in anthropomorphism predict the degree of moral care and concern afforded to an agent, the amount of responsibility and trust placed on an agent, and the extent to which an agent serves as a source of social influence on the self. These consequences have implications for disciplines outside of psychology including human–computer interaction, business (marketing and finance), and law. Concluding discussion addresses how understanding anthropomorphism not only informs the burgeoning study of nonpersons, but how it informs classic issues underlying person perception as well. PMID:24839457

  9. Ecological rationality or nested sets? Individual differences in cognitive processing predict Bayesian reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie; Hagmayer, York

    2014-02-01

    The presentation of a Bayesian inference problem in terms of natural frequencies rather than probabilities has been shown to enhance performance. The effect of individual differences in cognitive processing on Bayesian reasoning has rarely been studied, despite enabling us to test process-oriented variants of the two main accounts of the facilitative effect of natural frequencies: The ecological rationality account (ERA), which postulates an evolutionarily shaped ease of natural frequency automatic processing, and the nested sets account (NSA), which posits analytical processing of nested sets. In two experiments, we found that cognitive reflection abilities predicted normative performance equally well in tasks featuring whole and arbitrarily parsed objects (Experiment 1) and that cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions (analytical vs. intuitive) predicted performance with single-event probabilities, as well as natural frequencies (Experiment 2). Since these individual differences indicate that analytical processing improves Bayesian reasoning, our findings provide stronger support for the NSA than for the ERA. PMID:23794254

  10. Children's skepticism: developmental and individual differences in children's ability to detect and explain distorted claims.

    PubMed

    Mills, Candice M; Elashi, Fadwa B

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined some key developmental and individual differences in how elementary school-aged children evaluate sources of information. A sample of 130 children ages 6 to 9 years participated in a task designed to measure children's understanding of ways that claims can be distorted (i.e., biased decisions, skewed self-reports, and misleading persuasive claims). Children also completed several individual difference measures, including a brief intelligence task and an advanced social cognition measure (interpretive theory of mind). Overall, older children were less trusting and better than younger children at explaining the reasons to doubt sources that might provide distorted claims. Crucially, the results also suggest that beyond age, both general intelligence and advanced social cognitive skills play roles in children's ability to understand when and why they must doubt sources of distortion. PMID:24727295

  11. Modeling the Etiology of Individual Differences in Early Reading Development: Evidence for Strong Genetic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the etiology of individual differences in reading development from post-kindergarten to post-4th grade by analyzing data from 487 twin pairs tested in Colorado. Data from three reading measures and one spelling measure were fit to biometric latent growth curve models, allowing us to extend previous behavioral genetic studies of the etiology of early reading development at specific time points. We found primarily genetic influences on individual differences at post-1st grade for all measures. Genetic influences on variance in growth rates were also found, with evidence of small, nonsignificant, shared environmental influences for two measures. We discuss our results, including their implications for educational policy. PMID:24489459

  12. Goals, Standards, and the Self: Reference Values Serving Different Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Boldero; Jill Francis

    2002-01-01

    whereas the goal function occurs when a reference value represents a desired state for the self in the future. We argue that different factors influence the emotional, motiva-tional, and behavioral outcomes of these functions. The magnitude of any discrepancy with a \\

  13. Individual Differences in Intuitive–Experiential and Analytical–Rational Thinking Styles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seymour Epstein; Rosemary Pacini; Veronika Denes-Raj; Harriet Heier

    1996-01-01

    Two studies provide evidence for the reliability and validity of a new self-report measure of individual differences in intuitive–experiential and analytical–rational thinking based on cognitive–experiential self-theory (CEST). The Rational–Experiential Inventory (REI) was constructed to measure the 2 independent processing modes with a modified Need for Cognition Scale (NFC, J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty, 1982) and a new scale,

  14. Working-Memory Capacity as Long-Term Memory Activation: An Individual-Differences Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Cantor; Randall W. Engle

    1993-01-01

    One explanation of the correlation often observed between working-memory span scores and reading comprehension is that individuals differ in level of activation available for long-term memory units. Two experiments used the fan manipulation to test this idea. In Experiment 1, high- and low-working-memory Ss learned a set of unrelated sentences varying in the number of shared concepts (fan) and then

  15. Individual differences in distinguishing licit from illicit ways of discharging the burden of proof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Ricco

    Within argumentation theory, the burden of proof (BoP) refers to an incurred obligation to provide evidence or justification in support of one's position in an argument. The nature of BoP rules in conversational arguments and the basis of lay individual's sensitivity to such rules were explored across two studies. College students were presented with hypothetical two-person arguments featuring four different

  16. Individual differences in feelings of difficulty: The case of school mathematics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Efklides; Maria Papadaki; Georgia Papantoniou; Gregoris Kiosseoglou

    1998-01-01

    Feelings of difficulty, or subjective estimation of task difficulty, are on-line metacognitive experiences, which arise as\\u000a response to the difficulty of the tasks processed by the person. They are related to performance, but little is known about\\u000a their nature and the factors that influence them. This study aimed to delimit the possible individual differences effects\\u000a on feelings of difficulty experienced

  17. Perceived organizational support as a mediator of the relations between individual differences and psychological contract breach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Suazo; William H. Turnley

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine relations between five individual differences variables (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, reciprocation wariness, equity sensitivity, and Protestant work ethic) and the perception of psychological contract breach (PCB), and whether those relations are mediated by perceived organizational support (POS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was administered to 234 professional (i.e. white-collar) employees in

  18. Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward T. Cokely; Adam Feltz

    2009-01-01

    When the side effect of an action involves moral considerations (e.g. when a chairman’s pursuit of profits harms the environment) it tends to influence theory-of-mind judgments. On average, bad side effects are judged intentional whereas good side effects are judged unintentional. In a series of two experiments, we examined the largely uninvestigated roles of individual differences in this judgment asymmetry.

  19. Culture, individual differences, and situation: Influence on coping in French and Chinese table tennis players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Laborde; Min You; Fabrice Dosseville; Agnès Salinas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of culture, individual differences (i.e. trait emotional intelligence), and given situations on coping behaviours. The trait emotional intelligence of table tennis players (French, n=58; Chinese, n=53) was evaluated using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, while their use of coping strategies [task-oriented coping (TOC) and disengagement-oriented coping (DOC)] was assessed

  20. Culture, individual differences, and situation: Influence on coping in French and Chinese table tennis players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Laborde; Min You; Fabrice Dosseville; Agnès Salinas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of culture, individual differences (i.e. trait emotional intelligence), and given situations on coping behaviours. The trait emotional intelligence of table tennis players (French, n=58; Chinese, n=53) was evaluated using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, while their use of coping strategies [task-oriented coping (TOC) and disengagement-oriented coping (DOC)] was assessed

  1. Effortful Control Among Low-Income Preschoolers in Three Cities: Stability, Change, and Individual Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine P. Li-Grining

    2007-01-01

    Existing developmental models of effortful control focus more on the roles of child characteristics and parenting and focus less on the contributions of poverty-related stressors to individual differences in children's self-regulatory competence. Using a representative sample of low-income, predominantly African American and Latino children (n = 439), the author examined effortful control at ages 2–4 and again 16 months later.

  2. Conclusion: The State of the Art in Research on Individual Differences in Executive Control and Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Matthews; Aleksandra Gruszka; B?a?ej Szymura

    \\u000a The chapters in this book illustrate the richness and diversity of research on individual differences (IDs) in executive control.\\u000a Our aim in this summary chapter is to identify some of the major themes in this research area, and to discuss how the various\\u000a chapters address these themes. This chapter is not intended to provide a general synthesis of the field,

  3. Notice of Proposed Rule Making for Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    On November 3, 1999 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published the first-ever set of proposed national standards to protect personal health information. According to the HHS, "the Administration standards will apply to health information created by health care providers, hospitals, health plans and health care clearinghouses that is either transmitted or maintained electronically." Users can read the 150 pages of proposed rules by chapter or section in either HTML or .pdf format. A link is provided for users who wish to submit comments electronically until February 17, 2000.

  4. Developing Standards-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon; Adams, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Many special education professionals perceive a dilemma created by what seems to be conflicting mandates of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2002. Teachers and IEP (Individualized Education Program) teams serving students with significant disabilities are confronted with the challenge of designing programs that assure access to the general curriculum while at…

  5. Fitting heteroscedastic regression models to individual pharmacokinetic data using standard statistical software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Giltinan; David Ruppert

    1989-01-01

    In the analysis of individual pharmacokinetic data by nonlinear regression it is important to allow for possible heterogeneity of variance in the response. Two common methods of doing this are weighted least squares with appropriate weights or data transformation using a suitable transform. With either approach it is appealing to let the data determine the appropriate choice of weighting scheme

  6. Mathematical Skill in Individuals with Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a Standardized Mathematics Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which…

  7. Controllably moving individual living cell in an array by modulating signal phase difference based on dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports a novel dielectrophoresis (DEP) based method for manipulating individual living cells by modulating phase difference of electrical signals applied on DEP electrodes. A novel microchip with an array structure is also proposed, consisting of a plurality of quadrupole-electrode units patterned into array on a glass substrate with a pair of center electrodes locating at the center of each quadrupole-electrode unit. Living cells can be trapped and positioned at the center of each quadrupole-electrode unit by using negative DEP (nDEP) manipulation and form an array. The trapped cells in the array can be controllably moved from one position to another and even from one of quadrupole-electrode units to adjacent unit by changing the phase difference of the signals applied on the two pairs of opposite electrodes in each quadrupole-electrode unit. The microchip allows an efficient and flexible manipulation of individual living cells that can be applied to study single cells. The experiments are performed to verify that different types of cells (MCF-7 cell and HeLa cell) can be effectively distinguished between each other using the method without label and fluorometric measurements. An identification of individual living cell from dead cells is also well demonstrated. PMID:25638795

  8. Individual differences in resting heart rate variability and cognitive control in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gillie, Brandon L.; Thayer, Julian F.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly cognitive control. Moreover, these deficits are thought to play a critical role in the etiology and maintenance of core PTSD symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and memories. However, the psychophysiological concomitants of cognitive control remain largely unexamined. In this article, we suggest that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological index of self-regulatory capacity, may underlie the association between cognitive control ability and intrusive cognitions in PTSD. We review evidence showing that individual differences in HRV at rest are related to prefrontal cortical activity and performance on a broad range of cognitive control tasks. We highlight the importance of inhibition as a mechanism by which HRV promotes successful cognitive control. In addition, we summarize recent research linking individual differences in HRV to performance on laboratory tasks that assess the ability to control unwanted memories and intrusive thoughts. We conclude by suggesting that future studies should examine the role of low HRV as a risk factor for developing PTSD. PMID:25076929

  9. Connectivity strength of dissociable striatal tracts predict individual differences in temporal discounting.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A; Schweitzer, Julie B; McClure, Samuel M

    2014-07-30

    Large individual differences exist in the ability to delay gratification for the sake of satisfying longer-term goals. These individual differences are commonly assayed by studying intertemporal preferences, as revealed by choices between immediate and delayed rewards. In the brain, reward-based and goal-oriented decisions are believed to rely on the striatum and its interactions with other cortical and subcortical networks. However, it remains unknown which specific cortical-striatal tracts are involved in intertemporal decision making. We use connectivity analyses in both structural and functional MRI to further our understanding of the relationship between distinct corticostriatal networks and intertemporal preferences in humans. Our results revealed distinct striatal pathways that are differentially related to delay discounting. Structural and functional connectivity between striatum and lateral prefrontal cortex was associated with increased patience, whereas connectivity between subcortical areas and striatum was associated with increased impulsivity. These findings provide novel insights into how the anatomy and functioning of striatal circuits mediate individual differences in intertemporal choice. PMID:25080591

  10. The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.

    PubMed

    Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

    2014-12-01

    Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness. PMID:23799900

  11. Reduced Neural Integration of Letters and Speech Sounds in Dyslexic Children Scales with Individual Differences in Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Žari?, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bonte, Milene

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n?=?20), dysfluent (n?=?18) and severely dysfluent (n?=?18) dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter ‘a’ was presented either simultaneously (AV0), or 200 ms before (AV200) vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN) and late negativity (LN) responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200) led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers. PMID:25329388

  12. The emergence of leaders and followers in foraging pairs when the qualities of individuals differ

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Foraging in groups offers animals a number of advantages, such as increasing their likelihood of finding food or detecting and avoiding predators. In order for a group to remain together, there has to be some degree of coordination of behaviour and movement between its members (which may in some cases be initiated by a decision-making leader, and in other cases may emerge as an underlying property of the group). For example, behavioural synchronisation is a phenomenon where animals within a group initiate and then continue to conduct identical behaviours, and has been characterised for a wide range of species. We examine how a pair of animals should behave using a state-dependent approach, and ask what conditions are likely to lead to behavioural synchronisation occurring, and whether one of the individuals is more likely to act as a leader. Results The model we describe considers how the energetic gain, metabolic requirements and predation risks faced by the individuals affect measures of their energetic state and behaviour (such as the degree of behavioural synchronisation seen within the pair, and the value to an individual of knowing the energetic state of its colleague). We explore how predictable changes in these measures are in response to changes in physiological requirements and predation risk. We also consider how these measures should change when the members of the pair are not identical in their metabolic requirements or their susceptibility to predation. We find that many of the changes seen in these measures are complex, especially when asymmetries exist between the members of the pair. Conclusion Analyses are presented that demonstrate that, although these general patterns are robust, care needs to be taken when considering the effects of individual differences, as the relationship between individual differences and the resulting qualitative changes in behaviour may be complex. We discuss how these results are related to experimental observations, and how the model and its predictions could be extended. PMID:18282297

  13. The effect of development and individual differences in pointing comprehension of dogs.

    PubMed

    Gácsi, Márta; Kara, Edina; Belényi, Bea; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-05-01

    In spite of the rather different procedures actually used in comparative studies to test the ability of different species to rely on the human pointing gesture, there is no debate on the high performance of dogs in such tasks. Very little is known, however, on the course through which they acquire this ability or the probable factors influencing the process. Important developmental questions have remained unsolved and also some methodological concerns should be addressed before we can convincingly argue for one interpretation or another. In this study we tested 180 dogs of different age (from 2 months to adults) to investigate their performance in the human distal momentary pointing gesture. The results, analyzed at both the group and the individual levels, showed no difference in the performance according to age, indicating that in dogs the comprehension of the human pointing may require only very limited and rapid early learning to fully develop. Interestingly, neither the keeping conditions nor the time spent in active interaction with the owner, and not even some special (agility) training for using human visual cues, had significant effect on the success and explained individual differences. The performance of the dogs was rather stable over time: during the 20 trials within a session and even when subsamples of different age were repeatedly tested. Considering that in spite of the general success at the group level, more than half of the dogs were not successful at the individual level, we revealed alternative "decision-making rules" other than following the pointing gesture of the experimenter. PMID:19130102

  14. Secular changes in standards of bodily attractiveness in American women: different masculine and feminine ideals.

    PubMed

    Barber, N

    1998-01-01

    Silverstein, Peterson, and Perdue (1986) studied changes in curvaceousness of the models in Vogue magazine over time and found that curvaceousness was inversely correlated with American women's participation in higher education and the professions. In the present study, it was predicted that the male standard for women's bodily attractiveness would differ from the female standard and would change differently over time, based on evolutionary theory. Published data on the bodily curvaceousness of models in Playboy and Vogue and on Miss America winners were used to test this hypothesis. Although they did not differ on average, the male and female standards changed differently over time. There was less variation in the male standard, represented by Playboy and by Miss America winners, than in the female standard, represented by Vogue. Results suggest that cultural standards of attractiveness are influenced by an evolved psychology of mate selection that has implications for understanding changes in the standard of attractiveness and its relation to eating disorders. PMID:9447727

  15. Attachment-related individual differences in the consistency of relationship behavior interpretation.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael J; Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    The consistency with which people interpret relationship-based information has important implications for attachment theory and research. Our objective is to determine whether there are attachment-related individual differences in the manner and the consistency with which individuals interpret hypothetical relationship behaviors. In two studies (N?=?629, 79% female, 63% American, M(age) ?=?29; N?=?820, 78% female, 65% American, M(age) ?=?29), we assessed participants' ability and consistency in relationship behavior interpretation across two blocks and estimated how they would have performed had they interpreted information perfectly consistently. Secure participants were generally more consistent in their interpretations relative to insecure participants. Estimates of perfectly consistent interpretation revealed that improvements to both systematic factors related to behavior interpretation (e.g., working models) and consistency would have led to a more secure interpretation style for participants of all attachment styles. Results imply that both secure and insecure individuals process relationship-based information according to secure scripts, but insecure individuals do so inconsistently. Our results imply that, due to the inconsistent behavioral responses that may occur as a result of inconsistent information processing, the consistency with which people process relationship-related information will be related to relationship satisfaction. Further directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23750636

  16. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227

  17. Individual differences in road crossing ability in young children and adults.

    PubMed

    Pitcairn, T K; Edlmann, T

    2000-08-01

    Young children are more at risk of traffic pedestrian accidents than adults. Previous experiments have failed to show large differences between adults and children in crossing behaviour. The reasons for this are not clear, but it could be that some children are more at risk than others, because of individual differences. These differences have been difficult to investigate in the past. This paper examines a double video technique developed to solve the problems. Two groups of participants, children and adults (mean age 7 years 2 months and 20 years 6 months respectively), were presented with the video and asked to indicate by pressing a button when they would choose to cross the road. Variables measured included the total number of crossings made and the percentage of those that were safe, number of missed opportunities and unsafe gaps chosen, the mean starting delay and gap size chosen, and the correlation between the delay and the gap chosen for each individual. Results showed that, although there were large and significant differences between adults and children on total crossings, percentage safe crossings, mean starting delay and gap size chosen, the structure of the road crossing behaviour was very similar. Children make decisions in the same way as adults, but are less good at it. There were large individual differences, suggesting that some children were more at risk than others, with possible factors being impulsivity and fine motor coordination. It is suggested that the video technique may, with some refinements, make a useful tool to screen children at risk and to use in remedial training. PMID:10958581

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227

  19. A “Crossomics” Study Analysing Variability of Different Components in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Caucasoid Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Ana; Blejec, Andrej; Albrecht, Tanja; Selbig, Joachim; Bauer, Chris; Schuchardt, Johannes; Or-Guil, Michal; Zupan?i?, Klemen; Švajger, Urban; Štabuc, Borut; Ihan, Alojz; Kopitar, Andreja Nataša; Ravnikar, Maja; Kneževi?, Miomir; Rožman, Primož; Jeras, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Background Different immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases are being developed and tested in clinical studies worldwide. Their resulting complex experimental data should be properly evaluated, therefore reliable normal healthy control baseline values are indispensable. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess intra- and inter-individual variability of various biomarkers, peripheral blood of 16 age and gender equilibrated healthy volunteers was sampled on 3 different days within a period of one month. Complex “crossomics” analyses of plasma metabolite profiles, antibody concentrations and lymphocyte subset counts as well as whole genome expression profiling in CD4+T and NK cells were performed. Some of the observed age, gender and BMI dependences are in agreement with the existing knowledge, like negative correlation between sex hormone levels and age or BMI related increase in lipids and soluble sugars. Thus we can assume that the distribution of all 39.743 analysed markers is well representing the normal Caucasoid population. All lymphocyte subsets, 20% of metabolites and less than 10% of genes, were identified as highly variable in our dataset. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that the intra-individual variability was at least two-fold lower compared to the inter-individual one at all investigated levels, showing the importance of personalised medicine approach from yet another perspective. PMID:22253695

  20. The Big Picture of Individual Differences in Physical Activity Behavior Change: A Transdisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Renea; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Magnan, Renee E.; Marcus, Bess H.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. PMID:21278837

  1. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  2. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  3. Individual differences in cue weights are stable across time: The case of Japanese stop lengthsa

    PubMed Central

    Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L.; Seltman, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Speech categories are defined by multiple acoustic dimensions, and listeners give differential weighting to dimensions in phonetic categorization. The informativeness (predictive strength) of dimensions for categorization is considered an important factor in determining perceptual weighting. However, it is unknown how the perceptual system weighs acoustic dimensions with similar informativeness. This study investigates perceptual weighting of two acoustic dimensions with similar informativeness, exploiting the absolute and relative durations that are nearly equivalent in signaling Japanese singleton and geminate stop categories. In the perception experiments, listeners showed strong individual differences in their perceptual weighting of absolute and relative durations. Furthermore, these individual patterns were stable over repeated testing across as long as 2 months and were resistant to perturbation through short-term manipulation of speech input. Listeners own speech productions were not predictive of how they weighted relative and absolute duration. Despite the theoretical advantage of relative (as opposed to absolute) duration cues across contexts, relative cues are not utilized by all listeners. Moreover, examination of individual differences in cue weighting is a useful tool in exposing the complex relationship between perceptual cue weighting and language regularities. PMID:23231125

  4. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

  5. Intergenerational transfer of individual differences in hereditary monarchs: genetic, role-modeling, cohort, or sociocultural effects?

    PubMed

    Simonton, D K

    1983-02-01

    Individual differences may be transferred across generations through either genetic inheritance, identification with role models, cohort effects, or sociocultural influences. Each of these four possible mechanisms makes different predictions regarding what traits display intergenerational continuities, the pattern of relationships between an individual and his or her relatives, as well as the relative impact of same-sex and cross-sex relationships. A sample of 342 hereditary monarchs was drawn from 14 European nations. These rulers, along with their parents, grandparents, and predecessors, were then assessed on the variables of intelligence, morality, eminence, leadership, life span, and reign span. Theoretically significant interaction effects were also operationalized using such moderator variables as genetic relationship, years of overlap in lives, age difference, difference in reign midpoints, and sex. The intergenerational transfer of intelligence and life span appears to be best explained by genetics, whereas the transfer of morality and eminence seems to be governed by role-modeling processes. The remaining variables were either transferred by more complex mechanisms (viz. leadership) or not transferred at all from one generation to the next (viz. reign span). The results contradict both Woods's (1906) belief that morality is genetically inherited and Galton's (1869) argument that eminence can served as a nearly equivalent proxy variable for intellectual genius. PMID:6834239

  6. Individual differences in activation of the parental care motivational system: Assessment, prediction, and implications.

    PubMed

    Buckels, Erin E; Beall, Alec T; Hofer, Marlise K; Lin, Eden Y; Zhou, Zenan; Schaller, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We report on the development, validation, and utility of a measure assessing individual differences in activation of the parental care motivational system: The Parental Care and Tenderness (PCAT) questionnaire. Results from 1,608 adults (including parents and nonparents) show that the 25-item PCAT measure has high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high construct validity, and unique predictive utility. Among parents, it predicted self-child identity overlap and caring child-rearing attitudes; among nonparents, it predicted desire to have children. PCAT scores predicted the intensity of tender emotions aroused by infants, and also predicted the amount of time individuals chose look at infant (but not adult) faces. PCAT scores uniquely predicted additional outcomes in the realm of social perception, including mate preferences, moral judgments, and trait inferences about baby-faced adults. Practical and conceptual implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25559194

  7. Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports. PMID:19929909

  8. Verbal working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual differences.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G

    2014-08-01

    Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571

  9. Measuring Provider Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice: Consideration of Organizational Context and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of innovation in general, and toward evidence-based practice (EBP) in particular, are important in considering how best to disseminate and implement EBPs. This article first explores the role of attitudes in acceptance of innovation and proposes a model of organizational and individual factors that may affect or be affected by attitudes toward adoption of EBP. Next, a recently developed measure of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of EBP is presented along with a summary of preliminary reliability and validity findings. Attitudes toward adoption of EBP are then discussed in regard to provider individual differences and the context of mental health services. Finally, potential applications of attitude research to adoption of EBP are discussed. PMID:15694785

  10. Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-d trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. These patterns are very similar to those reported by Gander and Graeber (1987) and by Gander et al. (1988), using high-fidelity sleep and activity monitoring equipment. Examination of the impact of two personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.

  11. Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul fight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, T. R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-d trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. These patterns are very similar to those reported by Gander and Graeber and by Gander et al. using high-fidelity sleep and activity monitoring equipment. Examination of the impact of two personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.

  12. Rigidity, chaos and integration: hemispheric interaction and individual differences in metaphor comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Miriam; Kenett, Yoed N.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotypical individuals cope flexibly with the full range of semantic relations expressed in human language, including metaphoric relations. This impressive semantic ability may be associated with distinct and flexible patterns of hemispheric interaction, including higher right hemisphere (RH) involvement for processing novel metaphors. However, this ability may be impaired in specific clinical conditions, such as Asperger syndrome (AS) and schizophrenia. The impaired semantic processing is accompanied by different patterns of hemispheric interaction during semantic processing, showing either reduced (in Asperger syndrome) or excessive (in schizophrenia) RH involvement. This paper interprets these individual differences using the terms Rigidity, Chaos and Integration, which describe patterns of semantic memory network states that either lead to semantic well-being or are disruptive of it. We argue that these semantic network states lie on a rigidity-chaos semantic continuum. We define these terms via network science terminology and provide network, cognitive and neural evidence to support our claim. This continuum includes left hemisphere (LH) hyper-rigid semantic memory state on one end (e.g., in persons with AS), and RH chaotic and over-flexible semantic memory state on the other end (e.g., in persons with schizophrenia). In between these two extremes lie different states of semantic memory structure which are related to individual differences in semantic creativity. We suggest that efficient semantic processing is achieved by semantic integration, a balance between semantic rigidity and semantic chaos. Such integration is achieved via intra-hemispheric communication. However, impairments to this well-balanced and integrated pattern of hemispheric interaction, e.g., when one hemisphere dominates the other, may lead to either semantic rigidity or semantic chaos, moving away from semantic integration and thus impairing the processing of metaphoric language. PMID:25071534

  13. Individual Variation in Cone Photoreceptor Density in House Sparrows: Implications for Between-Individual Differences in Visual Resolution and Chromatic Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Amanda L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation has been documented in a wide variety of taxa, especially for behavioral characteristics; however, intra-population variation in sensory systems has not received similar attention in wild animals. We measured a key trait of the visual system, the density of retinal cone photoreceptors, in a wild population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We tested whether individuals differed from each other in cone densities given within-individual variation across the retina and across eyes. We further tested whether the existing variation could lead to individual differences in two aspects of perception: visual resolution and chromatic contrast. We found consistent between-individual variation in the densities of all five types of avian cones, involved in chromatic and achromatic vision. Using perceptual modeling, we found that this degree of variation translated into significant between-individual differences in visual resolution and the chromatic contrast of a plumage signal that has been associated with mate choice and agonistic interactions. However, there was no evidence for a relationship between individual visual resolution and chromatic contrast. The implication is that some birds may have the sensory potential to perform “better” in certain visual tasks, but not necessarily in both resolution and contrast simultaneously. Overall, our findings (a) highlight the need to consider multiple individuals when characterizing sensory traits of a species, and (b) provide some mechanistic basis for between-individual variation in different behaviors (i.e., animal personalities) and for testing the predictions of several widely accepted hypotheses (e.g., honest signaling). PMID:25372039

  14. The Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Individual Differences in Early Reading Growth in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    This first cross-country twin study of individual differences in reading growth from post-kindergarten to post-2nd grade analyzed data from 487 twin pairs from the United States, 267 pairs from Australia, and 280 pairs from Scandinavia. Data from two reading measures were fit to biometric latent growth models. Individual differences for the reading measures at post-kindergarten in the U.S. and Australia were due primarily to genetic influences, and to both genetic and shared environmental influences in Scandinavia. In contrast, individual differences in growth generally had large genetic influences in all countries. These results suggest that genetic influences are largely responsible for individual differences in early reading development. In addition, the timing of the start of formal literacy instruction may affect the etiology of individual differences in early reading development, but have only limited influence on the etiology of individual differences in growth. PMID:23665180

  15. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ATTRIBUTION OF INCENTIVE SALIENCE TO REWARD-RELATED CUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    FLAGEL, SHELLY B.; AKIL, HUDA; ROBINSON, TERRY E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Drugs of abuse acquire different degrees of control over thoughts and actions based not only on the effects of drugs themselves, but also on predispositions of the individual. Those individuals who become addicted are unable to shift their thoughts and actions away from drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Thus in addicts, exposure to places or things (cues) that have been previously associated with drug-taking often instigates renewed drug-taking. We and others have postulated that drug-associated cues acquire the ability to maintain and instigate drug-taking behavior in part because they acquire incentive motivational properties through Pavlovian (stimulus-stimulus) learning. In the case of compulsive behavioral disorders, including addiction, such cues may be attributed with pathological incentive value (“incentive salience”). For this reason, we have recently begun to explore individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues that predict rewards. When discrete cues are associated with the non-contingent delivery of food or drug rewards some animals come to quickly approach and engage the cue even if it is located at a distance from where the reward will be delivered. In these animals the reward-predictive cue itself becomes attractive, eliciting approach towards it, presumably because it is attributed with incentive salience. Animals that develop this type of conditional response are called “sign-trackers”. Other animals, “goal-trackers”, do not approach the reward-predictive cue, but upon cue presentation they immediately go to the location where food will be delivered (the “goal”). For goal-trackers the reward-predictive cue is not attractive, presumably because it is not attributed with incentive salience. We review here preliminary data suggesting that these individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues predictive of reward may confer vulnerability or resistance to compulsive behavioral disorders, including addiction. It will be important, therefore, to study how environmental, neurobiological and genetic interactions determine the extent to which individuals attribute incentive value to reward-predictive stimuli. PMID:18619474

  16. Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Young, Allison J.

    This study examines individual and classroom-level differences in motivation and strategy usage in sixth- and seventh-grade middle school science. Results suggest that students who experience academic difficulties differ from both high achieving and special education students on measures of self-efficacy, goal orientation, expectancy, value, and self-concept of ability in science, with students who experience academic difficulties occasionally demonstrating less adaptive patterns of motivation and cognition than special education students in science. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine between-classroom differences in learning-focused goal orientation. Findings indicate that students who have science teachers that use ability-focused instructional practices (e.g., pointing out the best students as an example to others) are less learning focused, and exhibit a diminished relation between self-concept of ability and being learning focused in science. Implications for science education reform are discussed.Received: 13 September 1993; Revised: 28 March 1994;

  17. Effects of Individual Differences on the Perceived Job Relatedness of a Cognitive Ability Test and a Multimedia Situational Judgment Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janneke K. Oostrom; Marise Ph. Born; Alec W. Serlie; Henk T. Van Der Molen

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing number of publications concerning applicant reactions to different selection instruments, the relationships between individual differences and applicant reactions have largely remained unexplored. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of several testing?related and general individual differences (anxiety, self?evaluations, and personality) on the most commonly studied dimension of applicant reactions, namely the

  18. Individual differences affecting caffeine intake. Analysis of consumption behaviours for different times of day and caffeine sources.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Natale, Vincenzo; Leone, Luigi; Russo, Paolo Maria

    2012-06-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the individual variables contributing to determine the high variability in the consumption behaviours of caffeine, a psychoactive substance which is still poorly investigated in comparison with other drugs. The effects of a large set of specific personality traits (i.e., Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Anxiety, Reward Sensitivity and Circadian Preference) were compared along with some relevant socio-demographic variables (i.e., gender and age) and cigarette smoking behaviour. Analyses revealed that daily caffeine intake was significantly higher for males, older people, participants smoking more cigarettes and showing higher scores on Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and a facet of Reward Sensitivity. However, more detailed analyses showed that different patterns of individual variables predicted caffeine consumption when the times of day and the caffeine sources were considered. The present results suggest that such detailed analyses are required to detect the critical predictive variables that could be obscured when only total caffeine intake during the entire day is considered. PMID:22326679

  19. Neural activity tied to reading predicts individual differences in extended-text comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400–500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID:24223540

  20. Neural activity tied to reading predicts individual differences in extended-text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400-500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID:24223540