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1

Technology and Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different

Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

1994-01-01

2

Individual Differences in Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

Haviland, Jeannette

3

Individual differences in sentence processing  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to elucidate shared mechanisms between retrieval in sentence processing and memory retrieval processes in nonlinguistic domains using an individual differences approach. Prior research in individual ...

Troyer, Melissa L

2012-01-01

4

Individual Differences in Adaptive Hypermedia  

E-print Network

Individual Differences in Adaptive Hypermedia Proceedings of the AH 2004 Workshop George D The Workshop on Individual Differences in Adaptive Hypermedia is part of the 3rd International Conference dimensions of individual differences into adaptive hypermedia, and investigates the impacts of individual

5

Individual differences in Pollyannaism.  

PubMed

The Pollyanna Principle states that people process pleasant information more accurately and efficiently than less pleasant information. This study examined whether different measures of Pollyanna tendencies are correlated with each other. Fourteen measures of Pollyannaism were derived for 133 students. The results showed that subjects who rated themselves as optimistic or happy also showed Pollyannaism on other measures of happiness, believed that the events in their lives were pleasant, gave themselves positive ratings on personality characteristics, recalled pleasant words more often than unpleasant words, supplied more free associations to pleasant stimuli than to unpleasant stimuli, listed pleasant items first, and judged that pleasant words were more frequent in the English language. PMID:16366974

Matlin, M W; Gawron, V J

1979-08-01

6

Individual Differences in Equity Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

Hofmans, Joeri

2012-01-01

7

Individual differences in pain responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of pain is characterized by tremendous inter-individual variability. Indeed, an identical noxious stimulus\\u000a can produce vastly different pain responses across individuals. Historically, scientists have regarded this vari-ability as\\u000a a nuisance; however, substantial data suggest that these individual differences may provide valuable informa-tion that can\\u000a be used to enhance clinical management of pain. This paper discusses several factors that

Roger B. Fillingim

2005-01-01

8

Individual differences in helping behavior  

E-print Network

UNDERGRADUATE RF SEARCH FEI. LOWS April 2000 Group: Psychology II INDIVIDI JAL DIFFERENCES IN HELPING BEHAVIOR A Senior Honors Thesis JENNIFER LEE TACKETT Submitted to the ONce ol'Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial... fulfillment of the requirements of the For the Designation of UNIVERSITY IJNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW Approved as to style and content by; William G. Graziano (Fellows Advisor) Edward A. Funkhouser (Executive Director) April 2000 Group: Psychology...

Tackett, Jennifer Lee

2013-02-22

9

Cultural Differences in Individualism? Just Artifact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has provided discrepant findings with regard to the presence or absence of a cultural difference in strength of individualistic motivation among Mexican American and Anglo American children. To test the hypothesis of a cultural difference, and to explore the nature of different individualism measures, two individualism measures were administered to 733 Anglo American, Mexican American, and black children.

Spencer Kagan; G. Lawrence Zahn

1983-01-01

10

Adaptive individual differences within single populations  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic differences can exist between species, between local populations of the same species and between individuals within single local populations. At all scales, phenotypic differences can be either adaptive or non-adaptive. Using natural selection to explain differences between closely related species was controversial during the 1940s but had become common by the 1960s. Similarly, the adaptive nature of differences between local populations was initially controversial but had become widely accepted by the 1980s. The interpretation of differences at the finest scale, between individuals within single populations, is still unresolved. This paper reviews studies of adaptive individual differences in resource use and response to risk. A general conceptual framework for thinking about adaptive individual differences within populations can unite subjects as seemingly different as speciation and personality psychology.

Wilson, D. S.

1998-01-01

11

Psychological Individualism: Gender Differences or Gender Neutrality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this article was to examine research findings pertaining to whether the genders express psychological individualism comparably. Gender comparisons of scores on four constructs deemed to reflect psychological individualism (personal identity, self-actualization, internal locus of control, and principled moral reasoning) provide no basis for concluding gender differences exist. The relationships of these variables to measures of effective

Sally L. Archer; Alan S. Waterman

1988-01-01

12

Individual differences in spatial mental imagery.  

PubMed

In this article, we report a new image-scanning paradigm that allowed us to measure objectively individual differences in spatial mental imagery--specifically, imagery for location. Participants were asked to determine whether an arrow was pointing at a dot using a visual mental image of an array of dots. The degree of precision required to discriminate "yes" from "no" trials was varied. In Experiment 1, the time to scan increasing distances, as well as the number of errors, increased when greater precision was required to make a judgement. The results in Experiment 2 replicated those results while controlling for possible biases. When greater precision is required, the accuracy of the spatial image becomes increasingly important--and hence the effect of precision in the task reflects the accuracy of the image. In Experiment 3, this measure was shown to be related to scores on the Paper Folding test, on the Paper Form Board test, and on the visuospatial items on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices--but not to scores on questionnaires measuring object-based mental imagery. Thus, we provide evidence that classical standardized spatial tests rely on spatial mental imagery but not object mental imagery. PMID:20521213

Borst, Grégoire; Kosslyn, Stephen M

2010-10-01

13

Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

2010-01-01

14

Meeting Individual Needs by Customizing Standard Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to customize standard computer-software programs for use with elementary school students. Explains language-arts projects, especially the use of word processing; discusses children's procedures and attitudes; and describes the use of a draw program to create customized learning processes, particularly with mathematics. (LRW)

Treadwell, Stephani

1999-01-01

15

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2011-07-01

16

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2010-07-01

17

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2013-07-01

18

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2012-07-01

19

Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

2003-01-01

20

Extent of Primary Breast Cancer Surgery: Standards and Individualized Concepts  

PubMed Central

Surgery is still a main therapeutic option in breast cancer treatment. Nowadays, methods of resection and reconstruction vary according to different tumors and patients. This review presents and discusses standards of care and arising questions on how radical primary breast cancer surgery should be according to different clinical situations. In most early breast cancer patients, breast conservation is the method of choice. The discussion on resection margins is still controversial as different studies show conflicting results. Modified radical mastectomy is the standard in locally advanced breast cancer patients, although there are different promising approaches to spare skin or even the nipple-areola complex. A sentinel node biopsy is the standard of care in clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer patients, whereas the significance of axillary lymphonodectomy seems to be questioned through a number of different findings. Although there are interesting findings to modify surgical approaches in very young or elderly breast cancer patients, it will always be an individualized approach if we do not adhere to current guidelines. Up to date, there are no special surgical procedures in BRCA mutation carriers or patients of high-risk families. PMID:24647774

Heil, Joerg; Fuchs, Valerie; Golatta, Michael; Schott, Sarah; Wallwiener, Markus; Domschke, Christoph; Sinn, Peter; Lux, Michael P.; Sohn, Christof; Schutz, Florian

2012-01-01

21

Extent of primary breast cancer surgery: standards and individualized concepts.  

PubMed

Surgery is still a main therapeutic option in breast cancer treatment. Nowadays, methods of resection and reconstruction vary according to different tumors and patients. This review presents and discusses standards of care and arising questions on how radical primary breast cancer surgery should be according to different clinical situations. In most early breast cancer patients, breast conservation is the method of choice. The discussion on resection margins is still controversial as different studies show conflicting results. Modified radical mastectomy is the standard in locally advanced breast cancer patients, although there are different promising approaches to spare skin or even the nipple-areola complex. A sentinel node biopsy is the standard of care in clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer patients, whereas the significance of axillary lymphonodectomy seems to be questioned through a number of different findings. Although there are interesting findings to modify surgical approaches in very young or elderly breast cancer patients, it will always be an individualized approach if we do not adhere to current guidelines. Up to date, there are no special surgical procedures in BRCA mutation carriers or patients of high-risk families. PMID:24647774

Heil, Joerg; Fuchs, Valerie; Golatta, Michael; Schott, Sarah; Wallwiener, Markus; Domschke, Christoph; Sinn, Peter; Lux, Michael P; Sohn, Christof; Schütz, Florian

2012-10-01

22

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN LEARNING--INTERFERENCE FACTOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED (1) TO DEVISE A NUMBER OF LABORATORY MEASURES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INTERFERENCE EFFECTS IN LEARNING AND (2) TO DETERMINE THEIR DIMENSIONALITY IN A VARIETY OF INTERFERENCE EFFECTS. SUBJECTS WERE 530 STUDENTS IN INTRODUCTORY COURSES IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,…

JENSEN, ARTHUR R.

23

Individual Differences in Rational Thinking Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual difference studies suggest that reasoners highest in cognitive capacity favor analytic, normative responses over fallacious, heuristic responses. The present study complemented reasoning accuracy with timing data to obtain an indication of the nature of the reasoning process underlying the response selection. A total of 199 participants were presented with a measure of working memory capacity and a syllogistic reasoning

Wim De Neys; Kristien Dieussaert

24

Origins of Individual Differences in Infant Shyness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full adoption design was used to investigate the etiology of individual differences in infant shyness. The sample included 152 adopted infants tested at ages 1 and 2, their biological and adoptive parents, and 120 matched nonadoptive families participating in the Colorado Adoption Project. In this first report of parent-offspring resemblance for shyness in infancy, we found that infant shyness

Denise Daniels; Robert Plomin

1985-01-01

25

Stress states, alertness and individual differences under 12-hour shiftwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined stress states experienced by thermoelectric operators at work under a fast rotating 12-hour shift system, time-on-shift effects in their manifestation and the manner in which these states may be moderated by individual differences in personality related to circadian typology and physical and mental health, as measured by the standard shiftwork index (SSI) scales. The observed stress states

V. M. Ognianova; D. L. Dalbokova; V. Stanchev

1998-01-01

26

Individual differences in response conflict adaptations  

PubMed Central

Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for conflicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive control to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modulation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity (WMC). Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, WMC showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict. PMID:24385971

Keye, Doris; Wilhelm, Oliver; Oberauer, Klaus; Sturmer, Birgit

2013-01-01

27

Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences  

PubMed Central

We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

2010-01-01

28

PRRT: Defining the Paradigm Shift to Achieve Standardization and Individualization.  

PubMed

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is a treatment for inoperable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. A key issue is the need to standardize the treatment and develop randomized controlled trials. Standardization would help define the characteristics of response, including progression-free survival; provide homogeneous phase II and III studies; delineate the position of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in the therapeutic algorithm for neuroendocrine tumors; and establish the basis for approval by the regulatory authorities. Standardization of treatments is the starting point to redefine the treatment paradigm from a one-size-fits-all to a personalized treatment. To delineate the treatment paradigm, treatments should be optimized for efficacy and minimization of long-term toxicity, through dosimetry, and adapted to each individual, including relevant patient characteristics. Although differences in therapy outcomes may be explained by the specific absorbed dose (or biologically effective dose), they may also be related to discrete tumor- and patient-specific features. In this respect, a particular area of investigation is the assessment of genetic elements regulating tumor cell proliferation, especially those involved in the response to cytotoxic therapies. PMID:25256058

Bodei, Lisa; Kidd, Mark; Baum, Richard P; Modlin, Irvin M

2014-11-01

29

Women's Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

2009-01-01

30

Subcortical Correlates of Individual Differences in Aptitude  

PubMed Central

The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N?=?107), healthy, young (age range ?=?16–29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math – higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary – higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding – higher right thalamus volume; Foresight – lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning – higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

Jung, Rex E.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A.

2014-01-01

31

Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors. PMID:23525147

Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

2012-01-01

32

Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.  

PubMed

The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range ?= 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

2014-01-01

33

Individual differences reveal the basis of consonance.  

PubMed

Some combinations of musical notes are consonant (pleasant), whereas others are dissonant (unpleasant), a distinction central to music. Explanations of consonance in terms of acoustics, auditory neuroscience, and enculturation have been debated for centuries. We utilized individual differences to distinguish the candidate theories. We measured preferences for musical chords as well as nonmusical sounds that isolated particular acoustic factors--specifically, the beating and the harmonic relationships between frequency components, two factors that have long been thought to potentially underlie consonance. Listeners preferred stimuli without beats and with harmonic spectra, but across more than 250 subjects, only the preference for harmonic spectra was consistently correlated with preferences for consonant over dissonant chords. Harmonicity preferences were also correlated with the number of years subjects had spent playing a musical instrument, suggesting that exposure to music amplifies preferences for harmonic frequencies because of their musical importance. Harmonic spectra are prominent features of natural sounds, and our results indicate that they also underlie the perception of consonance. PMID:20493704

McDermott, Josh H; Lehr, Andriana J; Oxenham, Andrew J

2010-06-01

34

Individual differences in judging deception: accuracy and bias.  

PubMed

The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although researchers have suggested that people differ in the ability to detect lies, psychometric analyses of 247 samples reveal that these ability differences are minute. In terms of the percentage of lies detected, measurement-corrected standard deviations in judge ability are less than 1%. In accuracy, judges range no more widely than would be expected by chance, and the best judges are no more accurate than a stochastic mechanism would produce. When judging deception, people differ less in ability than in the inclination to regard others' statements as truthful. People also differ from one another as lie- and truth-tellers. They vary in the detectability of their lies. Moreover, some people are more credible than others whether lying or truth-telling. Results reveal that the outcome of a deception judgment depends more on the liar's credibility than any other individual difference. PMID:18605814

Bond, Charles F; Depaulo, Bella M

2008-07-01

35

Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution. PMID:22871043

Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

2013-01-01

36

Emotional empathy and associated individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional empathic tendency is defined as an individual’s characteristic inclination to respond with emotions similar to those\\u000a of others who are present. Within a three-dimensional framework for describing temperament, more empathic persons were found\\u000a to be more arousable, and secondarily, more pleasant. Greater skin conductance and heart-rate responses of more empathic persons\\u000a to emotional stimuli confirmed their greater arousability. Also,

Albert Mehrabian; Andrew L. Young; Sharon Sato

1988-01-01

37

Neural correlates of individual differences related to appetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using neuroimaging technologies to compare normal weight and obese individuals can reveal much about the pathophysiological state of obesity but such comparisons tell us little about what makes some normal weight individuals susceptible to obesity or about important individual differences amongst obese individuals. The current review therefore reviews neuroimaging research on individual difference measures that can illuminate these important topics.

Michael R. Lowe; Jason van Steenburgh; Christopher Ochner; Maria Coletta

2009-01-01

38

Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several individual attributes covering prereading and oral language abilities, motor skills, personality, and home background were assessed. The best predictors of reading achievement were tasks tapping phonological processing skills, interdigital dexterity, and familiarity with the alphabetic code of English script. Peer ability was a strong…

Share, David L.; And Others

1984-01-01

39

Individual differences in mental rotation: what does gesture tell us?  

PubMed

Gestures are common when people convey spatial information, for example, when they give directions or describe motion in space. Here, we examine the gestures speakers produce when they explain how they solved mental rotation problems (Shepard and Meltzer in Science 171:701-703, 1971). We asked whether speakers gesture differently while describing their problems as a function of their spatial abilities. We found that low-spatial individuals (as assessed by a standard paper-and-pencil measure) gestured more to explain their solutions than high-spatial individuals. While this finding may seem surprising, finer-grained analyses showed that low-spatial participants used gestures more often than high-spatial participants to convey "static only" information but less often than high-spatial participants to convey dynamic information. Furthermore, the groups differed in the types of gestures used to convey static information: high-spatial individuals were more likely than low-spatial individuals to use gestures that captured the internal structure of the block forms. Our gesture findings thus suggest that encoding block structure may be as important as rotating the blocks in mental spatial transformation. PMID:23423638

Göksun, Tilbe; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Newcombe, Nora; Shipley, Thomas

2013-05-01

40

Individual differences in mental rotation: What does gesture tell us?  

PubMed Central

Gestures are common when people convey spatial information, for example, when they give directions or describe motion in space. Here we examine the gestures speakers produce when they explain how they solved mental rotation problems (Shepard & Meltzer, 1971). We asked whether speakers gesture differently while describing their problems as a function of their spatial abilities. We found that low-spatial individuals (as assessed by a standard paper-and-pencil measure) gestured more to explain their solutions than high-spatial individuals. While this finding may seem surprising, finer-grained analyses showed that low-spatial participants used gestures more often than high-spatial participants to convey “static only” information but less often than high-spatial participants to convey dynamic information. Furthermore, the groups differed in the types of gestures used to convey static information: high-spatial individuals were more likely than low-spatial individuals to use gestures that captured the internal structure of the block forms. Our gesture findings thus suggest that encoding block structure may be as important as rotating the blocks in mental spatial transformation. PMID:23423638

Goksun, Tilbe; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Newcombe, Nora; Shipley, Thomas

2013-01-01

41

Individual and sex differences in learning abilities of ravens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and physiological characteristics of individuals within the same species have been found to be stable across time and contexts. In this study, we investigated individual differences in learning abilities and object and social manipulation to test for consistency within individuals across different tasks. Individual ravens (Corvus corax) were tested in simple color and position discrimination tasks to establish their

F. Range; T. Bugnyar; C. Schlögl; K. Kotrschal

2006-01-01

42

Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences

Roberts, Leah

2012-01-01

43

Individual Differences in Virtual Environments--Introduction and Overview  

E-print Network

Individual Differences in Virtual Environments-- Introduction and Overview Chaomei Chen Department individual differences has been established across a number of fields of research. There is a re- newed interest in individual differences due to the ad- vances in virtual environments, especially through far

Chen, Chaomei

44

MSc/Dip in the Psychology of Individual Differences  

E-print Network

MSc/Dip in the Psychology of Individual Differences PROGRAMME HANDBOOK 2011-2012 Psychology The School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh #12;MSc in the Psychology of Individual Differences 2011/12 2 MSc/Dip in the Psychology of Individual Differences 2011-2012 Welcome

Edinburgh, University of

45

Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0?mm?=?no pain, 100?mm?=?worst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (?33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017. PMID:24288556

Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; Lüdtke, Rainer; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M.

2013-01-01

46

Individual differences in preference for environmental sounds.  

PubMed

25 typical environmental sounds were presented to 936 Japanese high school students in a written questionnaire to measure their preferences for these sounds. Sex-related, personality-related, and regional differences among preferences were observed for kind of sound. On the other hand, self-rated frequency of hearing each sound in daily life was related to the subjects' residential environment and sex. PMID:8451137

Kageyama, T

1993-02-01

47

Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

Damos, D. L.

1984-01-01

48

Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment  

E-print Network

Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment Chaomei Chen Department.chen@brunel.ac.uk This article presents two studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial on the recall scores with the textual interface. Individuals experienced in on-line search are more likely

Chen, Chaomei

49

A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Single Case Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Single case designs are a set of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by assigning different treatments to the same individual and measuring outcomes over time and are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single case designs have focused attention on…

Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

2012-01-01

50

Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although researchers have suggested that people differ in the ability to detect lies, psychometric analyses

Charles F. Bond; Bella M. DePaulo

2008-01-01

51

Matching effects on eating. Individual differences do make a difference!  

PubMed

Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two expressive individuals and moderately for dyads with one expressive participant. For dyads with two unexpressive participants, there was no evidence for matching behavior. Highly expressive people seem to be able to synchronize with others and thereby allow for close matching. This is the first study to show an influence of personality on matching consumption behavior. PMID:22182829

Brunner, Thomas A

2012-04-01

52

Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…

Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

2008-01-01

53

Research Report Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics  

E-print Network

Research Report Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics predict neural reward the personality trait extraversion both to differences in reward sensitivity and to dopamine functioning neural reward system. Here, we show that individual differences in extraversion and the presence of the A

Napp, Nils

54

Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that,

Viren Swami; Maria Hadji-Michael; Adrian Furnham

2008-01-01

55

Determinants of Individual Differences and Gender Differences in Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence

Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer

2001-01-01

56

Working memory and Stroop interference: An individual differences investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the claim that individual differences in working-memory capacity reflect limitations on the ability to inhibit\\u000a task-irrelevant information and\\/or to maintain activation in the face of distracting or interfering events. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether high- and low-capacity individuals differed in their susceptibility to interference on the Stroop\\u000a task and whether high-capacity individuals employed a strategy for minimizing Stroop interference.

Debra L. Long; Chantel S. Prat

2002-01-01

57

Individual Differences Science for Treatment Planning: Personality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolving ethical, legal, and financial demands require a plan before treatment begins. The authors argue that individual differences research requires the inclusion of personality trait assessment for the construction and implementation of any treatment plan that would lay claim to scientific status. A primer of personality individual differences for treatment planning is presented, including an introduction to constructive realism and

Allan R. Harkness; Scott O. Lilienfeld

1997-01-01

58

Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

2013-01-01

59

Individual differences in learning: Visual versus auditory presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the possible interaction of individual differences in learning with mode of presentation. Ss were college students; data analyses were replicated by conducting separate analyses for 2 groups of 77 and 83 Ss, respectively. Each S learned 4 test lists of 20 words each, 2 under auditory and 2 under visual presentation. The main analyses indicated that individual differences in

Carol J. DeBoth; Roger L. Dominowski

1978-01-01

60

Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

2006-01-01

61

Ethnicity and Individual Differences in Achievement Goals in Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of ethnicity on individual differences in achievement goals in a replication of the paradigm used by P. Smiley and C. Dweck (1994) to explore individual differences in achievement goals held by young children. The emphasis was on learning goals, which focus effort on mastering new tasks, and performance goals, which…

Billings, Barbara L.

62

Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

2012-01-01

63

Localizing Age-Related Individual Differences in a Hierarchical Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and…

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2004-01-01

64

40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect...

2012-07-01

65

40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect...

2010-07-01

66

Individual and sex differences in learning abilities of ravens.  

PubMed

Behavioral and physiological characteristics of individuals within the same species have been found to be stable across time and contexts. In this study, we investigated individual differences in learning abilities and object and social manipulation to test for consistency within individuals across different tasks. Individual ravens (Corvus corax) were tested in simple color and position discrimination tasks to establish their learning abilities. We found that males were significantly better in the acquisition of the first discrimination task and the object manipulation task, but not in any of the other tasks. Furthermore, faster learners engaged less often in manipulations of conspecifics and exploration of objects to get access to food. No relationship between object and social manipulation and reversal training were found. Our results suggest that individual differences in regard to the acquisition of new tasks may be related to personalities or at least object manipulation in ravens. PMID:16675158

Range, F; Bugnyar, T; Schlögl, C; Kotrschal, K

2006-07-01

67

Stable Individual Differences Across Images in Human Saccadic Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in eye movements during picture viewing were examined across image format, content, and foveal quality in 3 experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that an individual's fixation durations were strongly related across 3 types of scene formats and that saccade amplitudes followed the same pattern. In Experiment 2, a similar relationship was observed for fixation durations across faces and scenes,

Monica S. Castelhano; John M. Henderson

2008-01-01

68

Individual Differences in Spatial Navigation: The Influence of Cognitive Styles  

E-print Network

of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Lab website: psych.upenn.edu/stslab ·Hegarty, M., et al. (2002). Intelligence, 30 predicts labeling for pictures. 3.Visual cognitive style predicts imagery for words. Individual Differences

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

69

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression  

E-print Network

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

70

Personality, Individual Differences, and Preferences for the Sexual Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which personality and individual differences predict preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media was examined. Personality (e.g., intelligence, aggression) and individual difference factors (e.g., prior sexual experience) were assessed in 160 undergraduate men. These men also indicated their preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media (e.g., “erotic,” female insatiability, violent). As

Anthony F. Bogaert

2001-01-01

71

Individual differences in plasticity and sampling when playing behavioural games  

PubMed Central

When engaged in behavioural games, animals can adjust their use of alternative tactics until groups reach stable equilibria. Recent theory on behavioural plasticity in games predicts that individuals should differ in their plasticity or responsiveness and hence in their degree of behavioural adjustment. Moreover, individuals are predicted to be consistent in their plasticity within and across biological contexts. These predictions have yet to be tested empirically and so we examine the behavioural adjustment of individual nutmeg mannikins (Lonchura punctulata), gregarious ground-feeding passerines, when playing two different social foraging games: producer–scrounger (PS) and patch-choice (PC) games. We found: (i) significant individual differences in plasticity and sampling behaviour in each of the two games, (ii) individual differences in sampling behaviour were consistent over different test conditions within a game (PC) and over a six month period (PS), (iii) but neither individual plasticity nor sampling behaviour was correlated from one social foraging game to another. The rate at which birds sampled alternative tactics was positively associated with seed intake in PS trials but negatively associated in PC trials. These results suggest that games with frequency dependence of pay-offs can maintain differences in behavioural plasticity but that an important component of this plasticity is group- and/or context-specific. PMID:20943695

Morand-Ferron, Julie; Varennes, Elisabeth; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

2011-01-01

72

Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.  

PubMed

This study examined differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals on a range of personality and individual difference measures. A community sample of 540 individuals from the southern German-speaking area of central Europe completed a survey consisting of measures of the Big Five personality factors, Need for Uniqueness, Self-esteem, sensation seeking, Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Tattoos, tattoo possession, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that 22% of the total sample possessed at least one tattoo. Further analyses showed that, compared with non-tattooed (n = 420) individuals, tattooed participants (n = 120) had significantly higher scores on Extraversion, Experience Seeking, Need for Uniqueness, and held more positive Attitudes Toward Tattoos, although effect sizes of these group differences were generally small- to medium-sized. These results are considered in relation to the contemporary prevalence of tattoos in socioeconomically developed societies. PMID:23045851

Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Bertl, Bianca; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

2012-08-01

73

Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints. PMID:1058498

Barrows, E M; Bell, W J; Michener, C D

1975-01-01

74

Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.  

PubMed

Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures. PMID:23242798

Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

2013-06-01

75

Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in…

Barnett, Kylie J.; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E.; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P.; Newell, Fiona N.; Mitchell, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

76

Familial patterns and the origins of individual differences in synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in the subjective synaesthetic experience. An investigation

Kylie J. Barnett; Ciara Finucane; Julian E. Asher; Gary Bargary; Aiden P. Corvin; Fiona N. Newell; Kevin J. Mitchell

2008-01-01

77

High responders and low responders: factors associated with individual variation in response to standardized training.  

PubMed

The response to an exercise intervention is often described in general terms, with the assumption that the group average represents a typical response for most individuals. In reality, however, it is more common for individuals to show a wide range of responses to an intervention rather than a similar response. This phenomenon of 'high responders' and 'low responders' following a standardized training intervention may provide helpful insights into mechanisms of training adaptation and methods of training prescription. Therefore, the aim of this review was to discuss factors associated with inter-individual variation in response to standardized, endurance-type training. It is well-known that genetic influences make an important contribution to individual variation in certain training responses. The association between genotype and training response has often been supported using heritability estimates; however, recent studies have been able to link variation in some training responses to specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. It would appear that hereditary influences are often expressed through hereditary influences on the pre-training phenotype, with some parameters showing a hereditary influence in the pre-training phenotype but not in the subsequent training response. In most cases, the pre-training phenotype appears to predict only a small amount of variation in the subsequent training response of that phenotype. However, the relationship between pre-training autonomic activity and subsequent maximal oxygen uptake response appears to show relatively stronger predictive potential. Individual variation in response to standardized training that cannot be explained by genetic influences may be related to the characteristics of the training program or lifestyle factors. Although standardized programs usually involve training prescribed by relative intensity and duration, some methods of relative exercise intensity prescription may be more successful in creating an equivalent homeostatic stress between individuals than other methods. Individual variation in the homeostatic stress associated with each training session would result in individuals experiencing a different exercise 'stimulus' and contribute to individual variation in the adaptive responses incurred over the course of the training program. Furthermore, recovery between the sessions of a standardized training program may vary amongst individuals due to factors such as training status, sleep, psychological stress, and habitual physical activity. If there is an imbalance between overall stress and recovery, some individuals may develop fatigue and even maladaptation, contributing to variation in pre-post training responses. There is some evidence that training response can be modulated by the timing and composition of dietary intake, and hence nutritional factors could also potentially contribute to individual variation in training responses. Finally, a certain amount of individual variation in responses may also be attributed to measurement error, a factor that should be accounted for wherever possible in future studies. In conclusion, there are several factors that could contribute to individual variation in response to standardized training. However, more studies are required to help clarify and quantify the role of these factors. Future studies addressing such topics may aid in the early prediction of high or low training responses and provide further insight into the mechanisms of training adaptation. PMID:24807838

Mann, Theresa N; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

2014-08-01

78

Individual Differences in Learning a Novel Discrete Motor Task  

PubMed Central

Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

2014-01-01

79

Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

1987-01-01

80

Individual differences in individualism and collectivism predict ratings of virtual cities' liveability and environmental quality.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. The present research investigated individual differences in individualism and collectivism as predictors of people's reactions to cities. Psychology undergraduate students (N = 148) took virtual guided tours around historical cities. They then evaluated the cities' liveability and environmental quality and completed measures of individualism and collectivism. Mediation analyses showed that people who scored high in self-responsibility (individualism) rated the cities as more liveable because they perceived them to be richer and better resourced. In contrast, people who scored high in collectivism rated the cities as having a better environmental quality because they perceived them to (1) provide a greater potential for community and social life and (2) allow people to express themselves. These results indicate that people's evaluations of virtual cities are based on the degree to which certain aspects of the cities are perceived to be consistent with individualist and collectivist values. PMID:25302587

Rubin, Mark; Morrison, Tessa

2014-01-01

81

Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations  

PubMed Central

Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

2009-01-01

82

Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

2001-01-01

83

Individual differences in sensitivity to transient electrocutaneous stimulation  

SciTech Connect

124 subjects were tested in a procedure designed to measure sensitivity to transient currents applied cutaneously, and to assess individual characteristics accounting for sensitivity differences. College students (one male and one female group), female office workers, and male maintenance workers (electricians, carpenters, plumber, and sheet metal workers) were tested. Perception and annoyance thresholds were determined for capacitive discharged stimuli to the fingertip and forearm. Nonsensory data were taken for each individual in an attempt to account for individual sensitivity differences (occupation, sex, age, height, weight, skin temperature, finger and forearm diameter, skin hardness, customary physical activity level, and prior degree of experience with electric shock). Of these, body size was the only significant correlate of electrical sensitivity. Apparent correlations with sex and occupation were found to be artifacts of the body size relationship. A regression equation relating sensitivity to body weight is presented.

Larkin, W.D.; Reilly, J.P.; Kittler, L.B.

1986-05-01

84

Cognitive consequences of individual differences in arousal asymmetry.  

PubMed

Prior research has demonstrated that semantic organization in the right hemisphere (RH) is more diffuse and specialized for distant semantic associates than is semantic organization in the left hemisphere (LH). The present research explored individual differences in this regard. If the RH is more specialized for distant semantic associates, then individuals with a more active RH should display greater activation of distant semantic associations. Two experiments were conducted to examine this issue. In both studies a line bisection task was used to assess arousal asymmetry. In Experiment 1, greater RH activation was associated with the ability to generate remote associates to three word stimuli. In Experiment 2, relatively greater RH activation was associated with enhanced priming of distant semantic associates. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that arousal asymmetry is an individual difference variable that is related to variability in semantic organization and retrieval. PMID:23867738

Holtgraves, Thomas

2013-10-01

85

Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

86

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschoolers. Found that IC was strongly related to ToM, even after controlling for several important factors. Inhibitory tasks requiring a novel response in face of a conflicting prepotent response and those requiring delay of a…

Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.

2001-01-01

87

Lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice: causes, solutions, and individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed lay perceptions of the causes of and solutions to ethnic prejudice, and determined whether individual differences related to intergroup relations (social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism) and to cognitive style (personal need for structure, need for cognition) were predictive of these perceptions. Results revealed clear and coherent lay beliefs about the causes of and solutions to ethnic prejudice, and

Gordon Hodson; Victoria M. Esses

2005-01-01

88

The K-factor: Individual differences in life history strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, variations in life history strategy were studied exclusively at the species level. Although this domain of study has been extended to examine systematic differences in life history strategy among various human ethnic groupings, more recent evolutionary theories of human development and related behavioral genetic work imply substantial within-group individual variation in life history strategy. We constructed a latent

Aurelio José Figueredo; Geneva Vásquez; Barbara Hagenah Brumbach; Jon Adam Sefcek; Beth R. Kirsner; W. Jake Jacobs

2005-01-01

89

Exploring individual differences in raybased selection: strategies and traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design is often performed without regard to individual user differences in aptitude and experience. The methodology of this study is an anthropological and observational approach observing users performing a selection task using common virtual environment raybased techniques and analyzes the interaction through psychology aptitude tests, questionnaires and observation. The results of this study show the approach yields useful information

C. A. Wingrave; Ryan Tintner; Bruce N. Walker; Doug A. Bowman; Larry F. Hodges

2005-01-01

90

Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

2012-01-01

91

Exploring Individual Differences in Attitudes toward Audience Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in attitudes toward Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, the impact of gender, grade, subject area, computer comfort level, participation level, and type of use were examined in 659 students. Males had significantly more positive attitudes…

Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

2009-01-01

92

Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

2011-01-01

93

Adult individual differences as moderators of child effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimentally varying child behavior stimuli and then assessing the extent to which adult individual differences (especially in cognitions) moderate the effect of the child on the adult is a variation on the usual methods in child effects research. This method allows description of the role of child effects in more complex adult-child systems. Existing literature incorporating this approach is reviewed,

John E. Bates; Gregory S. Pettit

1981-01-01

94

Explaining individual differences in scholastic behaviour and achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This paper presents results from the first wave of a longitudinal study examining the effects of various psychosocial variables on scholastic achievement and behaviour at school. Aims. The main aim is to investigate the nature and strength of the effects of major individual difference dimensions on important outcome variables at school level, including academic performance, truancy, and antisocial behaviour.

K. V. Petrides; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Norah Frederickson; Adrian Furnham

2005-01-01

95

Short Communication Extraversion predicts individual differences in women's face preferences  

E-print Network

& Penton-Voak, 2002; Little, Burt, Penton-Voak, & Perrett, 2001). Indeed, women's self-rated attrac (Little et al., 2001) and voices (Vukovic et al., 2008). Furthermore, women with attractive faces and bodyShort Communication Extraversion predicts individual differences in women's face preferences Lisa L

Little, Tony

96

Explaining Individual Differences In Scholastic Behaviour and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper presents results from the first wave of a longitudinal study examining the effects of various psychosocial variables on scholastic achievement and behaviour at school. Aims: The main aim is to investigate the nature and strength of the effects of major individual difference dimensions on important outcome variables at school…

Petrides, K.V.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Frederickson, Norah; Furnham, Adrian

2005-01-01

97

Beyond Individual Differences: Exploring School Effects on SAT Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the complex, hierarchical relation among school characteristics, individual differences in academic achievement, extracurricular activities, and socioeconomic background on performance on the verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Using multilevel structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we…

Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

2004-01-01

98

Student Evaluation of Teaching: Individual Differences and Bias Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of course type, instructor and student gender, and student individual differences (domain-specific vocational interests and confidence, personality, and gender role attitudes) on student evaluation of teaching (SET) scores. A sample of 610 college students (372 female) rated…

Bonitz, Verena Sylvia

2011-01-01

99

Student evaluation of teaching: Individual differences and bias effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of course type, instructor and student gender, and student individual differences (domain-specific vocational interests and confidence, personality, and gender role attitudes) on student evaluation of teaching (SET) scores. A sample of 610 college students (372 female) rated hypothetical instructors described in a vignette on eight common dimensions of teaching

Verena Sylvia Bonitz

2011-01-01

100

Executive functions in decision making: An individual differences approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This individual differences study examined the relationships between three executive functions (updating, shifting, and inhibition), measured as latent variables, and performance on two cognitively demanding subtests of the Adult Decision Making Competence battery: Applying Decision Rules and Consistency in Risk Perception. Structural equation modelling showed that executive functions contribute differentially to performance in these two tasks, with Applying Decision Rules

Fabio Del Missier; Timo Mäntylä; Wändi Bruine de Bruin

2010-01-01

101

Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

2012-01-01

102

Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

2009-01-01

103

Behavioral/Cognitive Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Cognitive Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentra- tions were obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance

104

Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

Ackerman, Phillip L.

105

Some Aspects of Individual Differences in Mathematics Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article includes a general discussion of individual differences and a report of a study conducted as a part of the Frankfurt Project. The study indicated that, in primary school, reflective pupils seem to be better achievers in mathematics than impulsive students. (MK)

Radatz, Hendrik

1979-01-01

106

Towards a Pedagogy for Clinical Education: Beyond Individual Learning Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of teaching in higher education towards a more learner-orientated model has been supported by the literature on individual learning differences and on learning styles in particular. This has contributed to the evolution of university pedagogy away from a medieval transmission model than runs counter to contemporary understanding of…

Kinchin, Ian M.; Baysan, Aylin; Cabot, Lyndon Bruce

2008-01-01

107

Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility Randall C. O'Reilly  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility Randall C. O'Reilly I s it better to be flexible, or persistent? A colleague once said that the secret to success in science is perseveration (no of cognitive function are associated with extreme flexibility--the ability to juggle many things at once

O'Reilly, Randall C.

108

Individual differences in integrating information between and within sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments, with 64 undergraduates, demonstrated that individual differences in working memory capacity affected the probability of resolving apparent inconsistencies within sentences. Resolution was less likely for Ss with small working memories, as assessed by a reading span test that taxed both processing and storage functions. It is suggested that Ss with small spans devoted so many resources to reading

Meredyth Daneman; Patricia A. Carpenter

1983-01-01

109

Individual differences in posttraumatic stress symptomatology following childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of individual differences in outcome following childhood sexual abuse was evaluated in a clinical sample of thirty-six adolescents with a history of maltreatment. Variables including abuse factors, temperamental factors, information processing style, and the use of dissociation were examined in their relation to outcome symptom level. It was predicted that environmental and temperamental variables would relate to process

Margaret Eve Blaustein

1999-01-01

110

The origins of individual differences in adjective check list scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in Adjective Check List (ACL) scores were estimated in a study of 61 pairs of identical (MZ) and fraternal (DZ) twin girls of grade-school age. Comparisons of the intraclass correlation coefficients of MZ and DZ groups for each of the ACL scales showed genetic contributions to 9 scales and systematic environmental contributions to

Sandra Scarr

1966-01-01

111

Standardizing the intrinsic brain: Towards robust measurement of inter-individual variation in 1000 functional connectomes  

PubMed Central

As researchers increase their efforts to characterize variations in the functional connectome across studies and individuals, concerns about the many sources of nuisance variation present and their impact on resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures continue to grow. Although substantial within-site variation can exist, efforts to aggregate data across multiple sites such as the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI) datasets amplify these concerns. The present work draws upon standardization approaches commonly used in the microarray gene expression literature, and to a lesser extent recent imaging studies, and compares them with respect to their impact on relationships between common R-fMRI measures and nuisance variables (e.g., imaging site, motion), as well as phenotypic variables of interest (age, sex). Standardization approaches differed with regard to whether they were applied post-hoc vs. during pre-processing, and at the individual vs. group level; additionally they varied in whether they addressed additive effects vs. additive + multiplicative effects, and were parametric vs. non-parametric. While all standardization approaches were effective at reducing undesirable relationships with nuisance variables, post-hoc approaches were generally more effective than global signal regression (GSR). Across approaches, correction for additive effects (global mean) appeared to be more important than for multiplicative effects (global SD) for all R-fMRI measures, with the exception of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Group-level post-hoc standardizations for mean-centering and variance-standardization were found to be advantageous in their ability to avoid the introduction of artifactual relationships with standardization parameters; though results between individual and group-level post-hoc approaches were highly similar overall. While post-hoc standardization procedures drastically increased test–retest (TRT) reliability for ALFF, modest reductions were observed for other measures after post-hoc standardizations—a phenomena likely attributable to the separation of voxel-wise from global differences among subjects (global mean and SD demonstrated moderate TRT reliability for these measures). Finally, the present work calls into question previous observations of increased anatomical specificity for GSR over mean centering, and draws attention to the near equivalence of global and gray matter signal regression. PMID:23631983

Yan, Chao-Gan; Craddock, R. Cameron; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Milham, Michael P.

2014-01-01

112

Odorant quality perception: A metric individual differences approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptual spaces, in which similar stimuli are located close to each other and dissimilar stimuli are located far apart,\\u000a have aided in the understanding of the physiological and psychological bases for sensory quality coding. Differences in perception\\u000a between individuals should be reflected by differences in the spatial relationships between stimuli. If the dimensionality\\u000a of the perceptual space is small (e.g.,

Daniel B. Kurtz; Paul R. Sheehe; Paul F. Kent; Theresa L. White; David E. Hornung; Herbert N. Wright

2000-01-01

113

Evolutionary personality psychology: Reconciling human nature and individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality, from an evolutionary perspective, represents a meta-category of the output of a suite of species-typical, relatively domain-specific, evolved psychological mechanisms designed in response to the social adaptive problems recurrently faced by our ancestors. This conceptualization of human personality provides for novel and valuable reinterpretations of several areas of personality psychology including personality consistency, individual differences in personality, sex differences

Richard L. Michalski; Todd K. Shackelford

2010-01-01

114

Individual Differences in Usability of Cell Phone SMS Menus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays there are wide range and different cell phones but there are not any standardized produced cell phones. Menu systems of the cell phones create complications according to usability of the cell phone user interfaces. One of the main usability problems is encountered in SMS (short messaging services) sending procedure. In this study, we investigated usability issues of the SMS

ADEM KARAHOCA; DILEK KARAHOCA; ILKER YENGIN; BARIS YUCE; ILKER BERKMAN; SERKAN SIMSEK; CEREN DAGYAR; SENAY YALCIN

2006-01-01

115

Individual differences in transcranial electrical stimulation current density  

PubMed Central

Transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) is effective in treating many conditions, but it has not been possible to accurately forecast current density within the complex anatomy of a given subject's head. We sought to predict and verify TCES current densities and determine the variability of these current distributions in patient-specific models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment estimated conductivity from MRIs and compared the current density results against actual measurements from the scalp surface of 3 subjects. In the second experiment, virtual electrodes were placed on the scalps of 18 subjects to model simulated current densities with 2 mA of virtually applied stimulation. This procedure was repeated for 4 electrode locations. Current densities were then calculated for 75 brain regions. Comparison of modeled and measured external current in experiment 1 yielded a correlation of r = .93. In experiment 2, modeled individual differences were greatest near the electrodes (ten-fold differences were common), but simulated current was found in all regions of the brain. Sites that were distant from the electrodes (e.g. hypothalamus) typically showed two-fold individual differences. MRI-based modeling can effectively predict current densities in individual brains. Significant variation occurs between subjects with the same applied electrode configuration. Individualized MRI-based modeling should be considered in place of the 10-20 system when accurate TCES is needed. PMID:24285948

Russell, Michael J; Goodman, Theodore; Pierson, Ronald; Shepherd, Shane; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Wiley, David F

2013-01-01

116

Conceptions of Prose Coherence: Individual Differences in Epistemological Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and their conceptions of prose coherence was examined. Sequencing and unity were categorized as mature conceptions. Students with context-oriented beliefs about the nature of knowledge were more likely to report mature coherence conceptions than students with fact-oriented…

Ryan, Michael P.

1984-01-01

117

Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.  

PubMed

The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. PMID:23025924

Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

2013-07-01

118

Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: personality and individual difference predictors.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individual difference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that the predictor variables explained a large proportion of the variance in ACSS factors (Adj. R(2) ranging between .31 and .60). In addition, structural equation modelling revealed that distal factors (sex and age) were generally associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery through the mediate influence of more proximate variables (in the first instance, the Big Five personality factors, followed by self-esteem and conformity, and finally self-assessed attractiveness). These results allow for the presentation of a preliminary model integrating personality and individual differences in predicting acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:19041287

Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Bridges, Stacey; Furnham, Adrian

2009-01-01

119

Accounting for individual differences in human associative learning  

PubMed Central

Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning. PMID:24027551

Byrom, Nicola C.

2013-01-01

120

Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

1991-01-01

121

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC; a central compo- nent of executive functioning) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschool-age children. Across two sessions, 3- and 4-year-old children ( N ? 107) were given multitask batteries measuring IC and ToM. Inhibi- tory control was strongly related to ToM, r ? .66, p ? .001. This

Stephanie M. Carlson; Louis J. Moses

2001-01-01

122

Autonomy in Children's Learning: An Experimental and Individual Difference Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one fifth-grade children participated in a study that assessed the effects of motivationally relevant conditions and individual differences on emotional experience and performance on a learning task. Two directed-learning conditions, one controlling and one noncontrolling, were contrasted with each other and with a third nondirected, spontaneous-learning context. Both directed sets resulted in greater rote learning compared with the nondirected-learning condition.

Wendy S. Grolnick; Richard M. Ryan

1987-01-01

123

Use of strategies and individual differences in children's memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined interrelations among measures of memory to determine whether individual differences in children's performance on learning and memory tasks may be attributable to a general strategic factor. Correlations were computed among 3 strategy-based measures of memory and 3 strategy-free measures of memory for 108 8- and 11-yr-olds. Factor analyses of these correlation matrices revealed that only for 11-yr-olds did the

Robert V. Kail

1979-01-01

124

Individual Differences in Adult Decision-Making Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a set of 7 behavioral decision-making tasks, measuring different aspects of the decision-making process. The tasks were administered to individuals from diverse populations. Participants showed relatively consistent performance within and across the 7 tasks, which were then aggregated into an Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) index that showed good reliability. The validity of

Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Andrew M. Parker; Baruch Fischhoff

2007-01-01

125

Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.  

PubMed

Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms. PMID:24684315

Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

2014-06-01

126

Exploring the Neural Dynamics Underpinning Individual Differences in Sentence Comprehension  

PubMed Central

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate individual differences in the neural underpinnings of sentence comprehension, with a focus on neural adaptability (dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing task demands). Twenty-seven undergraduates, with varying working memory capacities and vocabularies, read sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex under conditions of varying extrinsic working memory demands (sentences alone or preceded by to-be-remembered words or nonwords). All readers showed greater neural adaptability when extrinsic working memory demands were low, suggesting that adaptability is related to resource availability. Higher capacity readers showed greater neural adaptability (greater increase in activation with increasing syntactic complexity) across conditions than did lower capacity readers. Higher capacity readers also showed better maintenance of or increase in synchronization of activation between brain regions as tasks became more demanding. Larger vocabulary was associated with more efficient use of cortical resources (reduced activation in frontal regions) in all conditions but was not associated with greater neural adaptability or synchronization. The distinct characterizations of verbal working memory capacity and vocabulary suggest that dynamic facets of brain function such as adaptability and synchronization may underlie individual differences in more general information processing abilities, whereas neural efficiency may more specifically reflect individual differences in language experience. PMID:21148612

Just, Marcel Adam

2011-01-01

127

Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird.  

PubMed

Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009-2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait 'communicativeness' and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of 'under-signalling'. PMID:24307671

Akçay, Caglar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

2014-01-22

128

Religion as attachment: normative processes and individual differences.  

PubMed

The authors review findings from the psychology of religion showing that believers' perceived relationships with God meet the definitional criteria for attachment relationships. They also review evidence for associations between aspects of religion and individual differences in interpersonal attachment security and insecurity. They focus on two developmental pathways to religion. The first is a "compensation" pathway involving distress regulation in the context of insecure attachment and past experiences of insensitive caregiving. Research suggests that religion as compensation might set in motion an "earned security" process for individuals who are insecure with respect to attachment. The second is a "correspondence" pathway based on secure attachment and past experiences with sensitive caregivers who were religious. The authors also discuss conceptual limitations of a narrow religion-as-attachment model and propose a more inclusive framework that accommodates concepts such as mindfulness and "nonattachment" from nontheistic religions such as Buddhism and New Age spirituality. PMID:20023208

Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

2010-02-01

129

Oscillation Encoding of Individual Differences in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in second language (L2) phoneme perception (within the normal population) have been related to speech perception abilities, also observed in the native language, in studies assessing the electrophysiological response mismatch negativity (MMN). Here, we investigate the brain oscillatory dynamics in the theta band, the spectral correlate of the MMN, that underpin success in phoneme learning. Using previous data obtained in an MMN paradigm, the dynamics of cortical oscillations while perceiving native and unknown phonemes and nonlinguistic stimuli were studied in two groups of participants classified as good and poor perceivers (GPs and PPs), according to their L2 phoneme discrimination abilities. The results showed that for GPs, as compared to PPs, processing of a native phoneme change produced a significant increase in theta power. Stimulus time-locked analysis event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) showed differences for the theta band within the MMN time window (between 70 and 240 ms) for the native deviant phoneme. No other significant difference between the two groups was observed for the other phoneme or nonlinguistic stimuli. The dynamic patterns in the theta-band may reflect early automatic change detection for familiar speech sounds in the brain. The behavioral differences between the two groups may reflect individual variations in activating brain circuits at a perceptual level. PMID:24992269

Colomer, Marc; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

2014-01-01

130

Individual differences of action orientation for risktaking in sports.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing Prospective Action Orientation and State Orientation in Success, Failure, and Planning Situations as action-oriented or state-oriented decision makers. The results of the experiment show that action-oriented players shoot faster and more often to the basket and that state-oriented players prefer to pass to a playmaker more often. Four versions of a computational model of decision making, Decision Field Theory, were compared to evaluate whether behavioral differences depend on the focus of attention, the initial preferences, threshold values, or an approach-avoidance interpretation of the task. Different starting preferences explained individual choices and decision times most accurately. Risk taking in basketball shooting behavior can be best explained by different preferences for starting values for risky and safe options caused by different levels of action orientation. PMID:15487295

Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G

2004-09-01

131

Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI  

PubMed Central

Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

132

A Determination of Neurological Differences Between Individuals as Related to their Psychological/Motivational Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine if neurological differences between individuals - as measured by brain wave characteristics - are related to their psychological/motivational profiles. The hypothesis was that voltage levels produced by brain wave act...

W. A. Woods

1975-01-01

133

Autobiographical remembering and individual differences in emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

The relationship between individual differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) and self-reported arousal from remembering an autobiographical emotional or neutral event was examined. Participants (N = 235; 75 men; M age = 18.7 yr., SD = 0.9, range = 18-22) were required to complete the Japanese version of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire to assess EI. Participants were then asked to recall personal episodes from autobiographical memory, and then completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ). A group with high EI-rated, emotionally neutral episodes higher than did a group with low EI on several MCQ subscales: sound, participants, overall memory, and doubt/certainty. However, differences in ratings between the two groups were not observed for emotionally positive episodes. These results suggest that high EI is related to more effective use of weak retrieval cues when recalling neutral autobiographical memories. PMID:24175447

Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Toyota, Hiroshi

2013-06-01

134

Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect  

PubMed Central

Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

2008-01-01

135

Individual differences in sign language abilities in deaf children.  

PubMed

The study attempted to identify characteristics of individual differences in sign language abilities among deaf children. Connections between sign language skills and rapid serial naming, hand motor skills, and early fluency were investigated. The sample consisted of 85 Finnish deaf children. Their first language was sign language. Simple correlations and multiple linear-regression analysis demonstrated the effect of early language development and serial hand movements on sign language abilities. Other significant factors were serial fingertapping and serial naming. Heterogeneity in poor sign language users was noted. Although identifying learning disorders in deaf children is complicated, developmental difficulties can be discovered by appropriate measurements. The study confirmed the results of earlier research demonstrating that the features of deaf and hearing children's learning resemble each other. Disorders in signed and spoken languages may have similar bases despite their different modalities. PMID:18488537

Meronen, Auli; Ahonen, Timo

2008-01-01

136

CAN INTERMITTENT VIDEO SAMPLING CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURALISTIC DRIVING?  

PubMed Central

Summary We examined the utility and validity of intermittent video samples from black box devices for capturing individual difference variability in real-world driving performance in an ongoing study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and community controls. Three types of video clips were coded for several dimensions of interest to driving research including safety, exposure, and driver state. The preliminary findings indicated that clip types successfully captured variability along targeted dimensions such as highway vs. city driving, driver state such as distraction and sleepiness, and safety. Sleepiness metrics were meaningfully associated with adherence to PAP (positive airway pressure) therapy. OSA patients who were PAP adherent showed less sleepiness and less non-driving related gaze movements than nonadherent patients. Simple differences in sleepiness did not readily translate to improvements in driver safety, consistent with epidemiologic evidence to date. PMID:24535569

Aksan, Nazan; Schall, Mark; Anderson, Steven; Dawson, Jeffery; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

2014-01-01

137

A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

2014-10-01

138

Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences.  

PubMed

Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18-79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m(2). We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

Bieniek, Magdalena M; Frei, Luisa S; Rousselet, Guillaume A

2013-01-01

139

Effects of Individualized and Standardized Interventions on Middle School Students With Reading Disabilities  

PubMed Central

This study reports the effectiveness of a year-long, small-group, tertiary (Tier 3) intervention that examined 2 empirically derived but conceptually different treatments and a comparison condition. The researchers had randomly assigned all students to treatment or comparison conditions. The participants were seventh- and eighth-grade students from the previous year who received an intervention and did not meet exit criteria. The researchers assigned them to one of two treatments: standardized (n = 69) or individualized (n = 71) for 50 min a day, in group sizes of 5, for the entire school year. Comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention (n = 42). The researchers used multigroup modeling with nested comparisons to evaluate the statistical significance of Time 3 estimates. Students in both treatments outperformed the comparison students on assessments of decoding, fluency, and comprehension. Intervention type did not moderate the pattern of effects, although students in the standardized treatment had a small advantage over individualized students on word attack. This study provides a framework from which to refine further interventions for older students with reading disabilities. PMID:23125463

VAUGHN, SHARON; WEXLER, JADE; ROBERTS, GREG; BARTH, AMY A.; CIRINO, PAUL T.; ROMAIN, MELISSA A.; FRANCIS, DAVID; FLETCHER, JACK; DENTON, CAROLYN A.

2011-01-01

140

The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals  

PubMed Central

The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

2012-01-01

141

Systematic genome sequence differences among leaf cells within individual trees  

PubMed Central

Background Even in the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS), it has been unclear whether or not cells within a single organism have systematically distinctive genomes. Resolving this question, one of the most basic biological problems associated with DNA mutation rates, can assist efforts to elucidate essential mechanisms of cancer. Results Using genome profiling (GP), we detected considerable systematic variation in genome sequences among cells in individual woody plants. The degree of genome sequence difference (genomic distance) varied systematically from the bottom to the top of the plant, such that the greatest divergence was observed between leaf genomes from uppermost branches and the remainder of the tree. This systematic variation was observed within both Yoshino cherry and Japanese beech trees. Conclusions As measured by GP, the genomic distance between two cells within an individual organism was non-negligible, and was correlated with physical distance (i.e., branch-to-branch distance). This phenomenon was assumed to be the result of accumulation of mutations from each cell division, implying that the degree of divergence is proportional to the number of generations separating the two cells. PMID:24548431

2014-01-01

142

Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure.  

PubMed

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called 'theory of mind' or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

Cullen, Harriet; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

2014-09-01

143

Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

Corbett, Michael J.

2010-01-01

144

Sampling Capacity Underlies Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning  

PubMed Central

Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limited generalization between distinct stimulus compounds and their constituent elements. In Experiment 2, participants pretrained to adopt global processing similarly showed strong negative patterning discrimination. These results demonstrate considerable individual difference in capacity to engage in negative patterning discrimination and suggest that the tendency toward global processing may be one factor explaining this variability. The need for models of learning to account for this variability in learning is discussed. PMID:24446699

2014-01-01

145

A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.  

PubMed

The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

2014-02-01

146

Individual differences in reappraisal effectiveness: the role of affective flexibility.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relation between a specific type of executive control and cognitive emotion regulation. The authors propose that successful reappraisal is related to "affective flexibility": The ability to flexibly attend to and disengage from emotional aspects of a situation or a stimulus. A new affective task-switching paradigm that required participants to shift between categorizing positive and negative affective pictures according to emotional or nonemotional features was used to assess individual differences in affective flexibility. The results showed that greater affective flexibility (less switch costs) predicted the ability to use reappraisal to down-regulate emotions in response to a sad film clip. In particular, more efficient shifts toward the neutral aspects of negative pictures and toward the emotional aspects of positive pictures were found to predict reappraisal ability. The results imply that executive control of emotional material is a capacity that is closely associated with effective reappraisal. PMID:23163706

Malooly, Ashley M; Genet, Jessica J; Siemer, Matthias

2013-04-01

147

Individual differences in chemotherapy-induced anticipatory nausea  

PubMed Central

Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a severe side effect of chemotherapy that can lead cancer patients to discontinue their treatment. This kind of nausea is usually elicited by the re-exposure of the patients to the clinical context they need to attend to be treated. There has been considerable agreement that AN represents a paradigmatic example of Pavlovian conditioning, and within this framework, several behavioral interventions have been proposed in order to prevent this phenomenon. However, some studies have questioned the validity of the Pavlovian approach, suggesting that CS-US associations are neither necessary nor sufficient for AN to occur. The data and the alternative theories behind such criticisms are discussed. Additionally, it is suggested that animal models of AN could be enriched by taking into account rats' individual differences. PMID:23950751

Rodríguez, Marcial

2013-01-01

148

Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: cognitive factors.  

PubMed

This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with measures of intelligence (measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), perception (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Change Blindness, and Tone Discrimination), memory (Wechsler Memory Scales and 2-back Working Memory tasks), and face judgement (Face Recognition and Facial Expression Recognition). These findings suggest that people with relatively low intelligence and poor perceptual abilities might be more susceptible to the misinformation effect. PMID:20623420

Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Li, He; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi

2010-07-01

149

Individual but not fragile: individual differences in task control predict Stroop facilitation.  

PubMed

The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a "fragile effect". Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individual differences in control over the task conflict (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading in the Stroop task). We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect-participants with low inhibitory control (i.e., long SSRT) had no facilitation effect or even a reversed one. These results shed new light on the "fragile" facilitation effect and highlight the necessity of awareness of task conflict, especially in the Stroop task. PMID:23416541

Kalanthroff, E; Henik, A

2013-06-01

150

Smoking among Individuals with Schizophrenia in Korea: Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status. Method An anonymous self-report survey was conducted with psychiatric inpatients. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to be current smokers (p < 0.001) and more likely to be former smokers (p < 0.01). Females were also less likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001). Having more years of education (p < 0.05) and higher nicotine dependence scores (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased odds of intending to quit smoking, whereas having more previous quit attempts (p < 0.01) was associated with increased odds. These findings were significant even after adjusting for gender. Smokers were more likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001) than their non-smoking counterparts. Conclusion Nurses in Korea should play an active role in tobacco control for patients with schizophrenia by providing cessation counseling and educating the effect of caffeine use on cigarette consumption, while tailoring the service to gender differences found in this study. PMID:24070993

Kim, Sun S.; Chung, Sangkeun; Park, Jong-Il; Jung, Ae-Ja; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

151

What is different about the Common Core Mathematics Standards?  

E-print Network

What is different about the Common Core Mathematics Standards? East Lansing Public Schools, MI June in this game. By 2014, the Common Core Mathematics Standards (CCMS) will be phased in. How will it impact and national math standards have come and gone in the past twenty years. I imagine you are all veterans

Wu, Hung-Hsi

152

Characteristics of target-reaching in cats. I. Individual differences and intra-individual constancy.  

PubMed

Trajectory formation of unrestrained forelimb target-reaching was investigated in six cats. A Selspot-like recording system was used for three-dimensional recording of the position of the wrist every 3 ms with the aid of two cameras detecting infrared light emitted from diodes taped to the wrist. These measurements allowed reconstruction of movement paths in the horizontal and sagittal planes and velocity profiles in the direction of the cartesian x, y and z co-ordinates. Horizontal movement paths were smoothly curved, segmented or almost linear. Sagittal movement paths were sigmoid. The net velocity profile was usually bell-shaped with longer deceleration than acceleration, but for some slow movements the velocity profile had a plateau. When the net velocity profile was bell-shaped, the averaged sagittal movement paths and normalized x (protraction) and z (lifting) velocity profiles were virtually superimposable for fast and slow movements: thus, movement speed was changed by parallel scaling of protraction and lifting. Comparison of movement paths and velocity profiles amongst the different cats revealed considerable differences. The x profile was unimodal in one cat and double peaked in five cats: the second component was pronounced in two cats and small in the other three. The z profile was unimodal and, except for one cat, it had later onset and summit than the first component of the x profile. In contrast to the interindividual differences, there was a high degree of intraindividual constancy over 6-12 months. It is postulated that the interindividual variability depends on chance differences established early during learning of the task and that the imprinted pattern remains, resulting in intra-individual constancy. PMID:8359245

Alstermark, B; Lundberg, A; Pettersson, L G; Tantisira, B; Walkowska, M

1993-01-01

153

The measurement of individual differences in general English vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A list of words from Funk and Wagnalls' New Standard Dictionary was subdivided into 3 parts consisting of common basic words, rare basic words, and derivatives. Parts 1 and 2 have been standardized on various groups of college undergraduates. Standardization has been started with children in the first 8 grades of school. The average undergraduate in the groups used recognized

R. H. Seashore; L. D. Eckerson

1940-01-01

154

Individual differences in lateralisation of hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis.  

PubMed

Individual differences were investigated in the lateralisation of two general categories of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations associated with sleep paralysis: (1) Vestibular-motor (V-M) hallucinations; comprising sensations of floating, flying, illusory locomotion and postural adjustments, out-of-body experiences (OBE), and autoscopy; and (2) Intruder hallucinations; incorporating a sense of the presence, and visual and auditory hallucinations of external, alien agents. Left-right lateralisation of such hallucinations, as well as handedness and footedness, were assessed in a diverse, nonclinical sample of 201 subjects participating in a web-based survey of sleep paralysis experiences. V-M hallucinations, but not Intruder hallucinations were predicted, based on the hypothesised distinctive neural sources of the different hallucinations, to be positively associated with handedness and footedness. Specifically, the predictions were based on the hypothesis that the activation of components of a vestibular, motor, and kinaesthetic bodily-self neuromatrix underlies V-M hallucinations, whereas a threat-activated vigilance system is responsible for Intruder hallucinations. As predicted, limb preferences were consistently found to be significantly and positively associated with a side bias of V-M, but not Intruder, hallucinations. PMID:15382733

Girard, T A; Cheyne, J A

2004-01-01

155

Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity  

PubMed Central

Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625

Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D.; Williams, Justin H. G.

2012-01-01

156

Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias  

PubMed Central

The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

2011-01-01

157

Individual differences in pain sensitivity: genetic and environmental contributions.  

PubMed

Large individual differences in pain sensitivity present a challenge for medical diagnosis and may be of importance for the development of chronic pain. Variance in pain sensitivity is partially mediated by genetic factors, but the extent of this contribution is uncertain. We examined cold-pressor pain and contact heat pain in 53 identical (MZ) and 39 fraternal (DZ) twin pairs, and 4 single twins to determine the heritability of the two phenotypes, and the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors affect both pain modalities. An estimated 60% of the variance in cold-pressor pain and 26% of the variance in heat pain was genetically mediated. Genetic and environmental factors were only moderately correlated across pain modalities. Genetic factors common to both modalities explained 7% of the variance in cold-pressor and 3% of the variance in heat pain. Environmental factors common to both modalities explained 5% of variance in cold-pressor and 8% of the variance in heat pain. The remaining variance was due to factors that were specific to each pain modality. These findings demonstrate that cold-pressor pain and contact heat pain are mainly distinct phenomena from both a genetic and an environmental standpoint. This may partly explain disparate results in genetic association studies and argues for caution in generalizing genetic findings from one pain modality to another. It also indicates that differences in pain scale usage account for a minor portion of the variance, providing strong support for the validity of subjective pain ratings as measures of experienced pain. PMID:17692462

Nielsen, Christopher S; Stubhaug, Audun; Price, Donald D; Vassend, Olav; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Harris, Jennifer R

2008-05-01

158

Individual differences and reproductive success in yellow-bellied marmots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mirror-image stimulation (MIS) was used to determine the individual behavioral phenotypes of 90 adult, 132 yearling, and 135 young yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Linear typal analysis (LTA) was used to group individuals based on similarities in their MIS scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the patterns of variation in behaviors and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used

K. B. Armitage; D. H. Van Vuren

2003-01-01

159

Is the fluency of language outputs related to individual differences in intelligence and executive function?  

PubMed Central

There has been little research on the fluency of language production and individual differences variables, such as intelligence and executive function. In this study, we report data from 106 participants who completed a battery of standardized cognitive tasks and a sentence production task. For the sentence production task, participants were presented with two objects and a verb and their task was to formulate a sentence. Four types of disfluency were examined: filled pauses (e.g. uh, um), unfilled pauses, repetitions, and repairs. Repetitions occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then repeats the previous word/phrase, and repairs occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then starts over with a different word/phrase. Hierarchical structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between repair disfluencies and inhibition. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their role in models and theories of language production. PMID:24018099

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Nigg, Joel T.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2013-01-01

160

Individual Differences in Spatial Navigation: The Influence of Cognitive Styles  

E-print Network

of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Lab website: psych.upenn.edu/stslab ·!Hegarty, M., et al. (2002). Intelligence, 30 predicts labeling for pictures. 3.!Visual cognitive style predicts imagery for words. Individual

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

161

Individualism and Collectivism: What Differences between Portuguese and Romanian Adolescents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND\\/COL) cultural dimension. The IND\\/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by

Luísa Faria

162

Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed sound analysis of the Chick-adee call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was performed in order to determine a basis for individual recognition and for imitation within winter flocks. During the winter of 1978–1979 members of five free-living black-capped chickadee flocks were uniquely marked for individual identification, and their calls were recorded in the field. Nested analysis of

Dorothy L. Mammen; Stephen Nowicki

1981-01-01

163

Maintaining Standards: Differences between the Standard Deviation and Standard Error, and  

E-print Network

of the findings. (Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:498­502) Key Words: statistics, standard deviation, standard error 1996. This article is the eleventh in the series on Research Methods in Psychiatry. For previous articles please see Can J Psychiatry 1990;35:616­20, 1991; 36:357­62, 1993;38:9­13, 1993;38:140­8, 1994

California at Santa Cruz, University of

164

Exercise and working memory: an individual differences investigation.  

PubMed

In the current work we asked whether executive function, as measured by tests of working memory capacity, might benefit from an acute bout of exercise and, more specifically, whether individuals who are lower or higher in working memory to begin with would be more or less affected by an exercise manipulation. Healthy adults completed working memory measures in a nonexercise (baseline) session and immediately following a 30-min self-paced bout of exercise on a treadmill (exercise session). Sessions were conducted 1 week apart and session order was counterbalanced across participants. A significant Session x Working Memory interaction was obtained such that only those individuals lowest in working memory benefited from the exercise manipulation. This work suggests that acute bouts of exercise may be most beneficial for healthy adults whose cognitive performance is generally the lowest, and it demonstrates that the impact of exercise on cognition is not uniform across all individuals. PMID:18089904

Sibley, Benjamin A; Beilock, Sian L

2007-12-01

165

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

2014-07-01

166

Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…

DeKeyser, Robert

2012-01-01

167

The Impact of Adapting Content for Students with Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by instructional theory and motivation models, an adaptable tutorial was designed and developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether the goals of an adaptable tutorial, which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e.…

Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Inan, Fethi A.; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

2012-01-01

168

Pornography and Teenagers: The Importance of Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the effects of exposure to pornography on teenagers, particularly males, concentrating on sexually aggressive outcomes and on the characteristics of the individual as crucial in determining whether pornography consumption may or may not lead to sexually aggressive outcomes. The term ''pornography'' refers to sexually explicit media that primarily is intended to arouse the viewer sexually. Pornography

Neil Malamuth; Mark Huppin

2005-01-01

169

Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced

Lisa DeMarni Cromer; Rachel E. Goldsmith

2010-01-01

170

Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

2004-01-01

171

Individual Differences in Learning from an Intelligent Discovery World: Smithtown.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Smithtown" is an intelligent computer program designed to enhance an individual's scientific inquiry skills as well as to provide an environment for learning principles of basic microeconomics. It was hypothesized that intelligent computer instruction on applying effective interrogative skills (e.g., changing one variable at a time while holding…

Shute, Valerie J.

172

Fifth Graders' Achievement Orientations and Beliefs: Individual and Classroom Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty classes of 5th graders (10-year-olds) were surveyed to see if children's criteria for success (motivational orientations), beliefs about the causes of success, and perceptions of teachers' expectations involved the coordination of personal values and contextual norms. Classes as well as individuals have distinct motivational personalities: For both levels of analysis, Task Orientation was associated with beliefs that Interest and

Theresa A. Thorkildsen; John G. Nicholls

1998-01-01

173

Studies on the expression of intestinal lactase in different individuals.  

PubMed Central

Sixty one duodenal biopsy specimens were examined for the expression of lactase at the level of enzyme activity, protein, and messenger RNA. Of the 51 samples with normal villous architecture, 39 were lactase persistent, 11 were nonpersistent (adult type hypolactasia), and one was of indeterminate status. All the lactase persistent individuals showed high mRNA and a high level of the lactase protein as detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All the 11 non-persistent individuals tested showed a low level of lactase protein. Nine of the 10 samples tested showed low mRNA and one high mRNA. These results suggest that the lactase persistence polymorphism is controlled at the level of the expression of the lactase gene, though there may be some heterogeneity of the lactase non-persistence phenotype. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7890232

Harvey, C B; Wang, Y; Hughes, L A; Swallow, D M; Thurrell, W P; Sams, V R; Barton, R; Lanzon-Miller, S; Sarner, M

1995-01-01

174

Sex, stress, and fear: Individual differences in conditioned learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognized that humans vary in their conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to individual variation\\u000a in emotional learning remain to be delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship among sex,\\u000a stress hormones, and fear conditioning in humans. Forty-five healthy adults (22 females) underwent differential delay conditioning,\\u000a using fear-relevant conditioned stimuli and

Michael Zorawski; Craig A. Cook; Cynthia M. Kuhn; Kevin S. LaBar

2005-01-01

175

Gender differences in stress reactivity among cocaine-dependent individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Recent investigations suggest that stress reactivity may play an important role in the rela- tionship between stress and substance use. Important gen- der differences, such as reasons for using substances, have been well documented, and it is likely that men and women also differ in their stress response. Objectives: In this study, gender differences in stress reactivity to two

Sudie E. Back; Kathleen T. Brady; Joan L. Jackson; Seoka Salstrom; Heidi Zinzow

2005-01-01

176

Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players – under 14 years, 14–17, and over 17, playing different positions – goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14–17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer. PMID:25031689

Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie; Arnon, Michal

2014-01-01

177

Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards  

SciTech Connect

This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; McGill, I. [Fischer and Paykel Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

1995-08-01

178

Individual Differences in Reading Skill and Language Lateralization: A Cluster Analysis  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralization were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments, divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behavior correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, et al., 2009a,b; Welcome, et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioral classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individual differences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralization profiles. These findings generalized to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard subject variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. Seventeen participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioral profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterize such individuals. PMID:22385144

Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.

2011-01-01

179

Child sexual abuse myths: attitudes, beliefs, and individual differences.  

PubMed

Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced 119 child sexual abuse myths, some with overlapping themes. Coders grouped myths into four categories: (a) minimizations or exaggerations of the extent of harm child sexual abuse poses, (b) denials of the extent of child sexual abuse, (c) diffusions of perpetrator blame, and (d) perpetrator stereotypes. This review provides available data regarding the prevalence for these myths, empirical research that refutes or confirms myth categories, and considerations of cultural contexts and implications. PMID:21113832

Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E

2010-11-01

180

Resting-state functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis: an examination of group differences and individual differences.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, resulting in physical and cognitive disturbances. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between network integrity and composite measures of cognition and disease severity in individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), relative to healthy controls. All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data was collected. Independent component analysis and dual regression were employed to examine network integrity in individuals with MS, relative to healthy controls. The MS sample exhibited less connectivity in the motor and visual networks, relative to healthy controls, after controlling for group differences in gray matter volume. However, no alterations were observed in the frontoparietal, executive control, or default-mode networks, despite previous evidence of altered neuronal patterns during tasks of exogenous processing. Whole-brain, voxel-wise regression analyses with disease severity and processing speed composites were also performed to elucidate the brain-behavior relationship with neuronal network integrity. Individuals with higher levels of disease severity demonstrated reduced intra-network connectivity of the motor network, and the executive control network, while higher disease burden was associated with greater inter-network connectivity between the medial visual network and areas involved in visuomotor learning. Our findings underscore the importance of examining resting-state oscillations in this population, both as a biomarker of disease progression and a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23973635

Janssen, Alisha L; Boster, Aaron; Patterson, Beth A; Abduljalil, Amir; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

2013-11-01

181

Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals  

PubMed Central

Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission–fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive ‘chur’ calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation–discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

McDonald, Paul G.

2012-01-01

182

The bizarreness effect and individual differences in imaging ability.  

PubMed

The bizarreness effect refers to the superior performance in recall of bizarre sentences as compared to common sentences. The subjects studied each target word and in Exp. 1 rated its congruity with its sentence frame. In Exp. 2 they rated the vividness of the image for each sentence frame in which it was included. Four types of sentence frames were provided: bizarre image sentences, bizarre nonimage sentences, common image sentences, and common nonimage sentences. Good imagers and poor imagers were assessed on the Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery. Both experiments showed that good imagers recalled target words in bizarre image sentences better than target words in common image sentences. A difference between the two sentence types was not observed for poor imagers. The differences between bizarre nonimage sentences and common nonimage sentences were not found for both type of imagers. The results were interpreted as showing that a difference in imaging ability was critical for the occurrence of a bizarreness effect. PMID:12027349

Toyota, Hiroshi

2002-04-01

183

Reexamining individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.  

PubMed

A growing number of investigators explore evolutionary psychological hypotheses concerning the avoidance of rape using self-report measures of behavior. Among the most recent and most ambitious, is the work of McKibbin et al. (2011). McKibbin et al. presented evidence supporting their predictions that such behaviors would vary according to the individual's physical attractiveness, relationship status, and proximity to kin. In addition, McKibbin et al. predicted, but failed to find evidence, that age would exercise a similar influence. We question McKibbin et al.'s position on both theoretical and empirical grounds, arguing that (1) two of their predictions do not rule out alternative explanations, and (2) their key supporting findings may well be artifacts of their measurement instrument, the Rape Avoidance Inventory (RAI). Employing new empirical evidence derived from a broader sample of U.S. women, we simultaneously tested McKibbin et al.'s predictions and compared the RAI to alternative dependent measures. We found that McKibbin et al.'s substantive predictions were not supported, and suggest that there may be limits to the utility of the RAI beyond one specific demographic category. PMID:22722957

Snyder, Jeffrey K; Fessler, Daniel M T

2013-05-01

184

Individual difference predictors of creativity in Art and Science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on two of the three measures. Regression analysis indicated that the educational

Adrian Furnham; Mark Batey; Tom W. Booth; Vikita Patel; Dariya Lozinskaya

2011-01-01

185

Sex Differences in Cortical Thickness Mapped in 176 Healthy Individuals  

E-print Network

conducted in the adult subjects where gender differences were evaluated using height as a covariate, gender, gray matter, MRI, parietal lobes, temporal lobes Introduction On average, men have larger brains advantage has been noted for verbal abilities such as verbal fluency and verbal memory (Sommer and others

186

PROGRAMS FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE FLINT COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO THE EDUCATION OF ALL YOUNGSTERS ACCORDING TO THEIR NEEDS IS A UNIQUE FEATURE OF THE FLINT COMMUNITY SCHOOLS' INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. FOUR DIFFERENT PLANS COMPRISE A SPECIAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR ALL GRADE LEVELS. THE FIRST THREE GRADES ARE INVOLVED IN THE PRIMARY CYCLE WHICH REPLACES THE TRADITIONAL FIRST, SECOND,…

Flint Board of Education, MI.

187

Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on…

Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

2011-01-01

188

Are some negotiators better than others? Individual differences in bargaining outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors address the long-standing mystery of stable individual differences in negotiation performance, on which intuition and conventional wisdom have clashed with inconsistent empirical findings. The present study used the Social Relations Model to examine individual differences directly via consistency in performance across multiple negotiations and to disentangle the roles of both parties within these inherently dyadic interactions. Individual differences

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jared R. Curhan; Noah Eisenkraft; Aiwa Shirako; Lucio Baccaro

2008-01-01

189

October 28, 2009 Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism  

E-print Network

October 28, 2009 · Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism and treatment response Peter on the nature of individual differences and diagnostic subgroups in autism. His research findings help parents and professionals understand how executive functions and temperament contribute to individual differences in autism

California at Davis, University of

190

THE INFLECTED ALARM CAW OF THE AMERICAN CROW: DIFFERENCES IN ACOUSTIC STRUCTURE AMONG INDIVIDUALS AND SEXES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on individual differences in the acoustic structure of vocalizations and vocal recognition has largely focused on the contexts of parent-offspring interactions, territory defense, sexual interactions, and group cohesion. In contrast, few studies have examined individual differences in the acoustic structure of mobbing and alarm calls. The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in the acoustic

Jessica L. Yorzinski; Sandra L. Vehrencamp; Kevin J. McGowan; Anne B. Clark

2006-01-01

191

Individual differences in political ideology are effects of adaptive error management.  

PubMed

We apply error management theory to the analysis of individual differences in the negativity bias and political ideology. Using principles from evolutionary psychology, we propose a coherent theoretical framework for understanding (1) why individuals differ in their political ideology and (2) the conditions under which these individual differences influence and fail to influence the political choices people make. PMID:24970447

Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

2014-06-01

192

Adaptation to capsaicin burn: effects of concentration and individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human subjects rated the time course of the burn produced by three concentrations of capsaicin applied to the tongue via filter papers. Data were fit to a dynamic model composed of a level detector, a change detector, and a double integrator. These three processes responded differently to concentration. 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil (PROP) taster status correlated positively with the integrator process. Although a

Donald H McBurney; Carey D Balaban; Justin R Popp; Jeremy E Rosenkranz

2001-01-01

193

Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

194

Adaptation to capsaicin burn: effects of concentration and individual differences.  

PubMed

Human subjects rated the time course of the burn produced by three concentrations of capsaicin applied to the tongue via filter papers. Data were fit to a dynamic model composed of a level detector, a change detector, and a double integrator. These three processes responded differently to concentration. 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil (PROP) taster status correlated positively with the integrator process. Although a minority of subjects showed evidence of the integrator process, any subject with an integrator process at a given concentration also showed it at any higher concentration. PMID:11239999

McBurney, D H; Balaban, C D; Popp, J R; Rosenkranz, J E

2001-01-01

195

Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills  

PubMed Central

Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children’s computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills. PMID:21170171

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

196

Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

2011-01-01

197

Combining Standardized Mean Differences Using the Method of Maximum Likelihood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed a maximum likelihood procedure for combining the standardized mean differences based on a noncentral-t-distribution and developed an EM algorithm. Simulation results favor the proposed procedure over the existing normal theory maximum likelihood procedure and the commonly used generalized least squares procedure. (SLD)

Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bushman, Brad J.

2002-01-01

198

Bowel function measurements of individuals with different eating patterns.  

PubMed

Bowel function was assessed in 51 subjects: 10 women and seven men who habitually consumed an omnivorous, vegetarian, or vegan diet. The subjects on these diets had a mean intake of fibre of 23 g, 37 g, and 47 g respectively. Mean transit times were variable and not significantly different between the groups. Vegans, however, had a greater frequency of defecation and passed softer stools. All measurements of bowel function were significantly correlated with total dietary fibre. As dietary fibre increased mean transit time decreased, stool frequency increased and the stools became softer. Men produced a greater quantity of softer, less formed faeces than women. During the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle women excreted harder stools and had a significantly longer mean transit time. The finding that mean transit time was more highly correlated with faecal form than any of the other bowel function measurements could be of practical importance. PMID:3005140

Davies, G J; Crowder, M; Reid, B; Dickerson, J W

1986-02-01

199

Caputo Standard $?$-Family of Maps: Fractional Difference vs. Fractional  

E-print Network

In this paper the author compares behaviors of systems which can be described by fractional differential and fractional difference equations using the fractional and fractional difference Caputo Standard $\\alpha$-Families of Maps as examples. The author shows that properties of fractional difference maps (systems with falling factorial-law memory) are similar to the properties of fractional maps (systems with power-law memory). The similarities (types of attractors, power-law convergence of trajectories, existence of cascade of bifurcations and intermittent cascade of bifurcations type trajectories, and dependence of properties on the memory parameter $\\alpha$) and differences in properties of falling factorial- and power-law memory maps are investigated.

Mark Edelman

2014-06-16

200

Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Anticipatory Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefevre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

2011-01-01

201

Individual Differences in Visual Perception and Memory O.D.L. Colizoli  

E-print Network

Individual Differences in Visual Perception and Memory O.D.L. Colizoli #12;Summary PhD Thesis: Individual Differences in Visual Memory and Perception Olympia Colizoli Brain and Cognition Department of research: There is substantial variation in perception and memory in humans. There are individuals who

van Rooij, Robert

202

Individual differences in the relationship transition context: links to physiological outcomes.  

PubMed

The identification of relationship-relevant individual differences is central to elucidating how relationship experiences differentially impact individuals' health. To this end, we highlight the utility of studying the influence of individual differences on physiological outcomes (e.g., cortisol reactivity and recovery) in the context of normative relationship transitions. We argue that relationship transitions, such as falling in love and the process of committing to marry one's partner, amplify the influence of individual differences on relationship processes and, by extension, on physiological outcomes. Two such individual differences are highlighted-namely, relationship-focused processing and dependence-and suggestions for future work are provided. PMID:23855928

Keneski, Elizabeth; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J

2014-12-01

203

Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

Damos, D. L.

1984-01-01

204

Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals. PMID:23983983

2012-01-01

205

Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals.  

PubMed

Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals. PMID:23983983

Atakan, Zerrin

2012-12-01

206

Individual differences and age-related changes in divergent thinking in toddlers and preschoolers.  

PubMed

Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children as young as 2 years. The Unusual Box test is a nonverbal and nonimitative test in which children play individually with a novel toy and novel objects. Divergent thinking is scored as the number of different actions performed. Study 1 shows that the Unusual Box test is a valid measure of divergent thinking as it correlates with standard measures of divergent thinking in 3- and 4-year-olds. Study 2 indicates that the test can be used with 2-year-olds, as it shows high test-retest reliability, demonstrating that 2-year-olds can think divergently. Across both studies, individual differences and age-related changes were found, indicating that some children are better at divergent thinking than others and that children's divergent thinking increases with age. This test will allow researchers to gain insight into the early emergence of divergent thinking. PMID:24588519

Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

2014-06-01

207

Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: Partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.  

PubMed

In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity. PMID:24796268

Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

2014-11-01

208

Theory of Mind, Emotion Understanding, Language, and Family Background: Individual Differences and Interrelations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined individual differences in social cognition among 128 urban preschoolers. Found that individual differences in understanding of false-belief and emotion were associated with differences in language ability, parental occupation, and mothers' education. Variance in family background only contributed uniquely to false-belief understanding.…

Cutting, Alexandra L.; Dunn, Judy

1999-01-01

209

Individual differences in reactions towards color in simulated healthcare environments: The role of stimulus screening ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that the physical healthcare environment can affect our mood and behavior is well established. Despite this, individual differences in sensitivity to environmental stimuli have not received much attention. With the current research showing the importance of individual differences in sensitivity towards color, these may explain the contradictory effects found in color research. Two experiments focused on differences in

K. Dijkstra; M. E. Pieterse; A. Th. H. Pruyn

2008-01-01

210

Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry  

E-print Network

Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action-5697, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Judgment Decision making Theory-of-mind Knobe effect Individual unintentional. In a series of two experiments, we examined the largely uninvestigated roles of individual

Knobe, Joshua

211

Finding a common ordination for several data sets by individual differences scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences scaling is a multidimensional scaling method for finding a common ordination for several data sets. An individual ordination for each data set can then be derived from the common ordination by adjusting the axis lengths so as to maximize the correlations between observed proximities and individual ordination distances. The importance of the various axes for each data set

Jari Oksanen; Pertti Huttunen

1989-01-01

212

Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition of Japanese Particles "WA" and "GA"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the L2 acquisition studies of Japanese particles "WA" and "GA" were investigated by many researchers (Sakamoto, 2000), they completely ignored learners' individual differences. Indeed, learners' individualities are important factors for the L2 learning (Lightbrown & Spada, 1999). Thus, this research explored whether learners' individual

Mori, Sachiho

2008-01-01

213

Curious Eyes: Individual Differences in Personality Predict Eye Movement Behavior in Scene-Viewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual exploration is driven by two main factors--the stimuli in our environment, and our own individual interests and intentions. Research investigating these two aspects of attentional guidance has focused almost exclusively on factors common across individuals. The present study took a different tack, and examined the role played by individual

Risko, Evan F.; Anderson, Nicola C.; Lanthier, Sophie; Kingstone, Alan

2012-01-01

214

Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.  

PubMed

In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

2013-11-01

215

Estimating the Percentage of the Population With Abnormally Low Scores (or Abnormally Large Score Differences) on Standardized  

E-print Network

differences) is fundamental in interpreting the results of a neuropsychological assessment (Crawford, 2004 Differences) on Standardized Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A Generic Method With Applications John R of Aberdeen Information on the rarity or abnormality of an individual's test scores (or test score differences

Crawford, John R.

216

Strong personalities, not social niches, drive individual differences in social behaviours in sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms responsible for consistent individual differences in behaviour is a recent challenge for behavioural ecology. Although theory is rapidly developing in this area, there are few empirical tests. There are at least two hypotheses to explain why individuals behave differently from one another in a dynamic social environment. The social niche specialization hypothesis proposes that repeated social interactions generate consistent individual differences in social behaviour. The behavioural type hypothesis proposes that an individual’s social behaviour reflects its behavioural type. We tested these two hypotheses by manipulating the opportunity for repeated social interactions in groups of three spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and by measuring the behavioural types of the same individuals in three contexts: when in a novel environment, when presented with an opportunity to associate with conspecifics and when confronted by an intruder. We found no evidence that repeated social interactions increased between-individual variation in social foraging behaviour. Instead, individuals’ social foraging behaviour was related to their behavioural type, specifically their shoaling behaviour. In addition, the behavioural types of the members of a group strongly influenced a group’s average foraging behaviour. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that social dynamics within groups generates individual differences in behaviour. Instead, they suggest the reverse: individual differences in behaviour drive group-level dynamics. PMID:25076789

Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

217

77 FR 75259 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CORPORATION Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal...differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the agencies. The...S. Senate Regarding Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the...

2012-12-19

218

45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.840 By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and...

2013-10-01

219

45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.840 By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and...

2012-10-01

220

45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.840 By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and...

2011-10-01

221

Steps Toward an Evolutionary Personality Psychology: Individual Differences in the Social Rank Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evolutionary personality psychology can be developed by identifying individual differences within each of the evolved systems that regulate social behaviour. We developed a questionnaire measure of social rank style, defined as individual differences in preferred strategies for pursuing, defending, and, when necessary, relinquishing social rank. The 17-item Rank Style with Peers Questionnaire (RSPQ) comprises three nearly independent scales:

DAVID C. ZUROFF; MARC A. FOURNIER; ERIKA A. PATALL; MICHELLE J. LEYBMAN

2010-01-01

222

Using individual differences to build a common core dataset for aviation security studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In security tasks, there is much interest in individual differences as managers have a belief that ‘choosing the right person for the job’ can have a substantial effect on system performance. This programme was aimed at finding a common set of variables to characterise individual differences in performance of security inspection tasks. As part of this effort, an Access™ database

Colin G. Drury; Karen Holness; Kimberly M. Ghylin; Brian D. Green

2009-01-01

223

Individual Differences, Parasites, and the Costs of Reproduction for Bighorn Ewes (Ovis canadensis)  

E-print Network

Individual Differences, Parasites, and the Costs of Reproduction for Bighorn Ewes (Ovis canadensis-795 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, PARASITES, AND THE COSTSOF REPRODUCTIONFOR BIGHORN EWES (OVIS CANADENSIS) BY MARCO marked bighorn ewes (Ovis canadensis)were examined over 8 years in south-western Alberta, Canada. (2

Lazzaro, Brian

224

Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

2008-01-01

225

Individual differences in category learning: Sometimes less working memory capacity is better than more  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether individual differences in working memory influence the facility with which individuals learn new categories. Participants learned two different types of category structures: rule-based and information-integration. Successful learning of the former category structure is thought to be based on explicit hypothesis testing that relies heavily on working memory. Successful learning of the latter category structure is believed to

Marci S. DeCaro; Robin D. Thomas; Sian L. Beilock

2008-01-01

226

CLASSI: A Classification Model for the Study of Sequential Processes and Individual Differences Therein  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In psychological research, one often aims at explaining individual differences in S-R profiles, that is, individual differences in the responses (R) with which people react to specific stimuli (S). To this end, researchers often postulate an underlying sequential process, which boils down to the specification of a set of mediating variables (M)…

Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

2008-01-01

227

Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It…

Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

228

A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

2012-01-01

229

The functional fidelity of individual differences research: the case for context-matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying basic research on individual differences in performance requires a kind of ‘functional fidelity’. That is, the laboratory environment must elicit individual differences in cognition and emotion similar to those seen in the operational setting. Studies of conventional personality traits and performance often lack this functional fidelity. Four research directions for enhancing functional fidelity are proposed. First, a greater focus

Gerald Matthews; Joel S. Warm; Lauren E. Reinerman-Jones; Lisa K. Langheim; Svyatoslav Guznov; Tyler H. Shaw; Victor S. Finomore

2011-01-01

230

Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression, and these individual differences have implications for affect, well- being, and social relationships. Study 1 presents new measures of the habitual use of reappraisal and suppression. Study 2 examines convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 shows that reappraisers experience and

James J. Gross; Oliver P. John

2003-01-01

231

Individual Differences in Category Learning: Sometimes Less Working Memory Capacity Is Better than More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether individual differences in working memory influence the facility with which individuals learn new categories. Participants learned two different types of category structures: "rule-based" and "information-integration." Successful learning of the former category structure is thought to be based on explicit hypothesis testing that…

DeCaro, Mari S.; Thomas, Robin D.; Beilock, Sian L.

2008-01-01

232

Medial temporal lobe BOLD activity at rest predicts individual differences in memory ability in healthy  

E-print Network

Medial temporal lobe BOLD activity at rest predicts individual differences in memory ability in healthy young adults Gagan S. Wiga,1,2 , Scott T. Graftona,3 , Kathryn E. Demosa , George L. Wolforda and retrieve lasting long-term memories. To explore the source of these individual differences, we used

Kelley, William M.

233

Time Dependent Calibration of Marine Beaufort Estimates Using Individual Pressure Differences  

E-print Network

253 Time Dependent Calibration of Marine Beaufort Estimates Using Individual Pressure Differences this question, Beaufort estimates from COADS are compared to individual pressure differences between two ships. In this way the geostrophic wind component perpendicular to the function line of the ships is obtained

Lindau, Ralf

234

Individual Differences in Mediators and Reactions to a Personal Safety Threat Message  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in processing information about a personal threat message about bisphenol A (BPA) risk were examined using the threat orientation model (Thompson & Schlehofer, 2008). Adults (N = 448) read a risk message concerning BPA in plastics. Threat orientations, intentions to protect oneself from BPA risk, and emotional and cognitive reactions to the message were measured. Individuals with different approaches to

Michèle M. Schlehofer; Suzanne C. Thompson

2011-01-01

235

The dependence of instructional outcomes on individual differences: An example from DC circuits  

E-print Network

," which could refer to school achievement, socio-economic sta- tus, gender, etc. In the term's most commonThe dependence of instructional outcomes on individual differences: An example from DC circuits;The Dependence of Instructional Outcomes on Individual Differences: An Example from DC Circuits Thomas

Heckler, Andrew F.

236

Individual Differences in Personal Task Management: A Field Study in an Academic Setting  

E-print Network

in managing everyday tasks. Based on the similarities and differences in individuals' PTM behaviors, we their homework, and extends to adults who often need support to manage both work-related and personal tasksIndividual Differences in Personal Task Management: A Field Study in an Academic Setting Mona

McGrenere, Joanna

237

Mathematical skill in individuals with Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a standardized mathematics battery  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which measures a wide range of skills. We administered the TEMA-2 to 14 individuals with WS and 14 children matched individually for mental age on the matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. There were no differences between groups on the overall scores on the TEMA-2. However, an item-by-item analysis revealed group differences. Participants with WS performed more poorly than controls when reporting which of two numbers was closest to a target number, a task thought to utilize a mental number line subserved by the parietal lobe, consistent with previous evidence showing parietal abnormalities in people with WS. In contrast, people with WS performed better than the control group at reading numbers, suggesting that verbal math skills may be comparatively strong in WS. These findings add to evidence that components of mathematical knowledge may be differentially damaged in developmental disorders. PMID:17482333

O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

2007-01-01

238

Competition avoidance drives individual differences in response to a changing food resource in sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Within the same population, individuals often differ in how they respond to changes in their environment. A recent series of models predicts that competition in a heterogeneous environment might promote between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity. We tested groups of sticklebacks in patchy foraging environments that differed in the level of competition. We also tested the same individuals across two different social groups and while alone to determine the social environment’s influence on behavioural plasticity. In support of model predictions, individuals consistently differed in behavioural plasticity when the presence of conspecifics influenced the potential payoffs of a foraging opportunity. Whether individuals maintained their level of behavioural plasticity when placed in a new social group depended on the environmental heterogeneity. By explicitly testing predictions of recent theoretical models, we provide evidence for the types of ecological conditions under which we would expect, and not expect, variation in behavioural plasticity to be favoured. PMID:23489482

Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

239

A comparison of computerized dynamic posturography therapy to standard balance physical therapy in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Postural instability is a common impairment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). People with PD are prone to balance and walking difficulties. This study analyzed the feasibility of a prospective investigation of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) and standard Physical Therapy (PT) treatments in individuals with mild-moderate PD. Treatment took place at two sites: 1) CDP therapy at the Southeast Parkinson's Disease Research Education and Clinical Center (PADRECC) within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and 2) standard physical therapy at a community outpatient rehabilitation center. Final analysis compared 15 patients randomly assigned for therapy to either the CDP or PT treatments. Therapy time was eight weeks (four weeks of CPD or PT followed by home therapy for four weeks). The CDP therapy included gradually intensified closed chain and mobility training. Standard PT consisted of upright, mat, and theraball exercises and gait training. The home exercise phase was identical for both groups. The pilot data demonstrated treatment was tolerated by 68 percent of the sample despite the occurrence of a progressive neurological condition and medical comorbidities. While results failed to reveal any differences between treatment groups, both groups demonstrated improvement on selected outcome measures. An expanded prospective study with methodological improvements appears warranted. PMID:17971615

Qutubuddin, Abu A; Cifu, David X; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Carne, William; McGuirk, Theresa E; Baron, Mark S

2007-01-01

240

Cultural differences in how individuals explain their lying and truth-telling tendencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how cultural differences between Korea and the United States in attitudinal and normative components affect individuals’ explanation of their intentions to lie or tell the truth. Study 1 examined individuals’ intentions to base their lying or truth-telling tendencies on attitude-related reasons (i.e., attitudinal reasons) and subjective norm-related reasons (i.e., normative reasons). Study 2 examined individuals’ evaluation of

Hye Jeong Choi; Hee Sun Park; Ju Yeon Oh

241

Individual Differences in Anterior Cingulate\\/Paracingulate Morphology Are Related to Executive Functions in Healthy Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuropsychological correlates of inter-individual variations in cortical folding are poorly understood. Anterior cingulate (AC) cortex is one region characterized by considerable variability, particularly with respect to the paracingulate sulcus (PCS), which is present in only 30-60% of individuals and more commonly found in the left cerebral hemisphere. To investigate whether inter-individual differ- ences in this PCS asymmetry are related

Alexander Fornito; Murat Yücel; Stephen Wood; Geoffrey W. Stuart; Jo-Anne Buchanan; Tina Proffitt; Vicki Anderson; Dennis Velakoulis; Christos Pantelis

2004-01-01

242

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

2013-07-01

243

Individualism: a valid and important dimension of cultural differences between nations.  

PubMed

Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) meta-analysis suggested problems in the measurement of individualism and collectivism. Studies using Hofstede's individualism scores show little convergent validity with more recent measures of individualism and collectivism. We propose that the lack of convergent validity is due to national differences in response styles. Whereas Hofstede statistically controlled for response styles, Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis relied on uncorrected ratings. Data from an international student survey demonstrated convergent validity between Hofstede's individualism dimension and horizontal individualism when response styles were statistically controlled, whereas uncorrected scores correlated highly with the individualism scores in Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis. Uncorrected horizontal individualism scores and meta-analytic individualism scores did not correlate significantly with nations' development, whereas corrected horizontal individualism scores and Hofstede's individualism dimension were significantly correlated with development. This pattern of results suggests that individualism is a valid construct for cross-cultural comparisons, but that the measurement of this construct needs improvement. PMID:15745862

Schimmack, Ulrich; Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed

2005-01-01

244

Individual differences underlying susceptibility to addiction: Role for the endogenous oxytocin system.  

PubMed

Recent research shows that the effects of oxytocin are more diverse than initially thought and that in some cases oxytocin can directly influence the response to drugs and alcohol. Large individual differences in basal oxytocin levels and reactivity of the oxytocin system exist. This paper will review the literature to explore how individual differences in the oxytocin system arise and examine the hypothesis that this may mediate some of the individual differences in susceptibility to addiction and relapse. Differences in the oxytocin system can be based on individual factors, e.g. genetic variation especially in the oxytocin receptor, age or gender, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma. The paper addresses the factors that cause individual differences in the oxytocin system and the environmental factors that have been identified to induce long-term changes in the developing oxytocin system during different life phases. Individual differences in the oxytocin system can influence effects of drugs and alcohol directly or indirectly. The oxytocin system has bidirectional interactions with the stress-axis, autonomic nervous system, neurotransmitter systems (e.g. dopamine, serotonin and GABA/glutamate) and the immune system. These systems are all important, even vital, in different phases of addiction. It is suggested that early life adversity can change the development of the oxytocin system and the way it modulates other systems. This in turn could minimise the negative feedback loops that would normally exist. Individuals may show only minor differences in behaviour and function unless subsequent stressors or drug use challenges the system. It is postulated that at that time individual differences in oxytocin levels, reactivity of the system or interactions with other systems can influence general resilience, drug effects and the susceptibility to develop problematic drug and alcohol use. PMID:24056025

Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T A; Sumracki, Nicole M; Gordon, Jake J; Hull, Philip R; Carter, C Sue; Tops, Mattie

2014-04-01

245

Individual Differences in Learning and Memory: A Unitary Information Processing Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in the area of individual differences in learning and memory is reviewed from a cognitive perspective. Using the two-state model of memory as a framework, individual variations in attentional, short-term store, and long-term store processes are discussed. (Editor)

MacLeod, Colin M.

1979-01-01

246

Individual Differences with Respect to the Sneezing Reflex: An Inherited Physiological Trait in Man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences with respect to the sneezing reflex are described. Visual exposure to strong light may induce a sneezing reaction in about 20% of the individuals in the Swedish population. Preliminary data indicate that the ‘sneezer trait’ may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The eventual selective advantage of ST is discussed.Copyright © 1983 S. Karger AG, Basel

L. Beckman; I. Nordenson

1983-01-01

247

Experimental Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Corticosterone Reaction Norms with No Oxidative Costs  

PubMed Central

Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

Schoenle, Laura A.; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F.; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T.

2014-01-01

248

Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…

Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.

2007-01-01

249

Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each of the 3 ex-Gaussian parameters and for 3 parameters central to the diffusion model

Florian Schmiedek; Klaus Oberauer; Oliver Wilhelm; Heinz-Martin Sü?; Werner W. Wittmann

2007-01-01

250

Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Need for cognition in contemporary literature refers to an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive endeavors. Individual differences in need for cognition have been the focus of investigation in over 100 empirical studies. This literature is reviewed, covering the theory and history of this variable, measures of interindividual variations in it, and empirical relationships between it and

John T. Cacioppo; Richard E. Petty; Jeffrey A. Feinstein; W. Blair G. Jarvis

1996-01-01

251

Simultaneous Study of Individual Differences and Relationship Effects in Social Behavior in Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite clinical and theoretical assertions of the importance of both individual differences and relationships in understanding social behavior, there have been few empirical attempts to study them simultaneously. Simultaneous studies of attraction have demonstrated consistent relations effects, but simultaneous studies of social behavior have produced inconsistent support for relationship effects. Studies of social behavior in groups have produced consistent individual

Thomas L. Wright; Loring J. Ingraham

1985-01-01

252

The Reliability and Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

50 infants were seen twice in the Ainsworth and Wittig Strange Situation to assess individual differences in the quality of infant-mother attachment at 12 and at 18 months of age. Evidence for the stability of individual dif- ferences was clearly a function of the level of analysis. The reliability of discrete-behavior variables was typi- cally very low, and there was

Everett Waters

1978-01-01

253

Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

Xu, Xu

2011-01-01

254

New Era: The Sacrifice of Individual Differences to the False Claim of "Scientifically Based Instruction"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By making the general curriculum the reference point for all considerations, The New Era proposals set forth by the President's Commission are devoid of all considerations of individual differences. Rather than tailoring IEP's to the particular learning characteristics of individual children, it is suggested that one kind of good, scientifically…

Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam

2003-01-01

255

Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension  

E-print Network

Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension Kara: Aging Language comprehension Language production Prediction Category exemplar generation Event States b Department of Cognitive Science and Neurosciences, Center for Research in Language

Kutas, Marta

256

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES What Breaks a Leader: The Curvilinear Relation Between Assertiveness  

E-print Network

between leadership and assertiveness is not meaningful, is extremely situation specific, or, perhaps Between Assertiveness and Leadership Daniel R. Ames and Francis J. Flynn Columbia University The authors, leadership, interpersonal relations, individual differences, curvilinear effects The study of lives

Qian, Ning

257

Neuroscientific Approaches to the Study of Individual Differences in Cognition and Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the particular field of the psychology of individual differences, the one that deals with cognitive performance probably\\u000a has the longest and maybe the most comprehensive research tradition. Individual differences in cognitive ability, viz. intelligence,\\u000a now span more than 100 years of research tradition, if we start from Francis Galton’s (1883) notion of intelligence as an\\u000a inherited feature of an

Aljoscha C. Neubauer; Andreas Fink

258

Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria  

E-print Network

female), collecting tissues from 15 body sites in men and 18 body sites in women (including three vaginal population differences both between areas in each body and between similar areas in different bodies. EachHuman Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria When

Howitt, Ivan

259

Individual Differences and Instructional Film Repetitions. I: Exploration of Aptitude-Learning Correlations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elusive phenomenon of individual learning differences was probed via the concepts of transfer and practice at different stages of the learning process. Order of presentation of two films covering different subjects provided the transfer task. Practice was introduced by five repetitions of the films, interspersed among six repetitions of an…

Snow, Richard E.; And Others

260

Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics predict neural reward responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists have linked the personality trait extraversion both to differences in reward sensitivity and to dopamine functioning, but little is known about how these differences are reflected in the functioning of the brain's dopaminergic neural reward system. Here, we show that individual differences in extraversion and the presence of the A1 allele on the dopamine D2 receptor gene predict activation

Michael X. Cohen; Jennifer Young; Jong-Min Baek; Christopher Kessler; Charan Ranganath

2005-01-01

261

Individual Differences in Social, Cognitive, and Morphological Aspects of Infant Pointing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the origins of the pointing gesture. We sought to gain insight into its emergence by investigating individual differences in the pointing of 12-month-old infants in two ways. First, we looked at differences in the communicative and interactional uses of pointing and asked how different hand shapes relate to point frequency,…

Liszkowski, Ulf; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

262

Prevalence of long face pattern in Brazilian individuals of different ethnic backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Objective: The long face pattern is a facial deformity with increased anterior total facial height due to vertical excess of the lower facial third. Individuals with long face may present different degrees of severity in vertical excess, as well as malocclusions that are difficult to manage. The categorization of vertical excess is useful to determine the treatment prognosis. This survey assessed the distribution of ethnically different individuals with vertical excess according to three levels of severity and determined the prevalence of long face pattern. Material and Methods: The survey was comprised of 5,020 individuals of Brazilian ethnicity (2,480 females and 2,540 males) enrolled in middle schools in Bauru-SP, Brazil. The criterion for inclusion of individuals with vertically impaired facial relationships was based on lip incompetence, evaluated under natural light, in standing natural head position with the lips at rest. Once identified, the individuals were classified into three subtypes according to the severity: mild, moderate, and severe. Then the pooled sample was distributed according to ethnical background as White (Caucasoid), Black (African descent), Brown (mixed descent), Yellow (Asian descent) and Brazilian Indian (Brazilian native descent). The Chi-square (?2) test was used (p<0.05) to compare the frequency ratios of individuals with vertically impaired facial relationships in the total sample and among different ethnicities, according to the three levels of severity. Results: The severe subtype was rare, except in Black individuals (7.32%), who also presented the highest relative frequency (45.53%) of moderate subtype, followed by Brown individuals (43.40%). In the mild subtype, Yellow (68.08%) and White individuals (62.21%) showed similar and higher relative frequency values. Conclusions: Black individuals had greater prevalence of long face pattern, followed by Brown, White and Yellow individuals. The prevalence of long face pattern was 14.06% in which 13.39% and 0.68% belonged to moderate and severe subtypes, respectively. PMID:23739865

CARDOSO, Mauricio de Almeida; de CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; LI AN, Tien; NORMANDO, David; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; CAPELOZZA FILHO, Leopoldino

2013-01-01

263

Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations  

PubMed Central

Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

2013-01-01

264

Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.  

PubMed

Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

2010-01-01

265

In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?  

PubMed Central

Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Saaksvuori, Lauri

2014-01-01

266

In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?  

PubMed

Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

2014-01-01

267

Examining the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis to Explain Individual Differences in Foreign Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes that foreign-language learning problems result from difficulties with native-language learning. Research evidence is summarized showing that good and poor foreign-language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native-language skill and phonological processing ability. Potential challenges to this hypothesis are…

Sparks, Richard L.

1995-01-01

268

Profiling individual differences in student motivation: A longitudinal cluster-analytic study in different academic contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether distinct student profiles emerged from measures of interest, mastery goals, task value, and self-efficacy in samples of Norwegian student nurses and business administration students. Additionally, profile differences in self-reported strategy use and epistemological beliefs were examined, as well as changes in student profiles over one academic year. Distinct groups of participants were identified in both samples,

Ivar Bråten; Bodil S. Olaussen

2005-01-01

269

Individual differences in the forced swimming test and the effect of environmental enrichment: searching for an interaction.  

PubMed

Animals with low and high immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) differ in a number of neurobehavioral factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that the exposure to enriched environments mediates a number of changes in the brain. Therefore, we studied if animals' individuality can somehow modulate the response to environmental stimuli. Male rats were classified according to their immobility time scores in the FST test session as animals with low, medium or high immobility. Then, rats from groups with low and high immobility were randomly distributed in two groups to be reared in different housing conditions (i.e., enriched and standard conditions) during 8weeks. Animals were subjected to the open field test (OFT) before and 6weeks after the start of housing protocol. Rats with high immobility in the FST also showed high ambulation and high rearing time in the first OFT. Such findings were not observed in the second OFT. Conversely, an effect of environmental enrichment was found in the second OFT where enriched animals showed lower ambulation and higher grooming time than the standard control group. Rats were sacrificed after the housing protocol and neurochemical content and/or gene expression were studied in three different brain regions: the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens. Rats with low immobility showed significantly higher accumbal 5-HT levels than animals with high immobility, whereas no neurochemical differences were observed between enriched and standard animals. Regarding expression data, however, an effect of enrichment on accumbal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptor 1 (CRFR1) levels was observed, and such effect depended on immobility levels. Thus, our results not only allowed us to identify a number of differences between animals with low and high immobility or animals housed in standard and enriched conditions, but also suggested that animals' individuality modulated in some way the response to environmental stimuli. PMID:24508814

Sequeira-Cordero, A; Mora-Gallegos, A; Cuenca-Berger, P; Fornaguera-Trías, J

2014-04-18

270

Quantification of Hordeins by ELISA: The Correct Standard Makes a Magnitude of Difference  

PubMed Central

Background Coeliacs require a life-long gluten-free diet supported by accurate measurement of gluten (hordein) in gluten-free food. The gluten-free food industry, with a value in excess of $6 billion in 2011, currently depends on two ELISA protocols calibrated against standards that may not be representative of the sample being assayed. Aim The factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA analysis of hordeins in beer were examined. Results A simple alcohol-dithiothreitol extraction protocol successfully extracts the majority of hordeins from barley flour and malt. Primary hordein standards were purified by FPLC. ELISA detected different classes of purified hordeins with vastly different sensitivity. The dissociation constant (Kd) for a given ELISA reaction with different hordeins varied by three orders of magnitude. The Kd of the same hordein determined by ELISA using different antibodies varied by up to two orders of magnitude. The choice of either ELISA kit or hordein standard may bias the results and confound interpretation. Conclusions Accurate determination of hordein requires that the hordein standard used to calibrate the ELISA reaction be identical in composition to the hordeins present in the test substance. In practice it is not feasible to isolate a representative hordein standard from each test food. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes which may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. PMID:23509607

Tanner, Gregory J.; Blundell, Malcolm J.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Howitt, Crispin A.

2013-01-01

271

Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological–hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs’ specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients’ own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent. PMID:24054352

Mj?lstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

2013-01-01

272

Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance  

PubMed Central

Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9–12, 20–25, and 65–78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity. PMID:22615692

Lovden, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

2012-01-01

273

Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance.  

PubMed

Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9-12, 20-25, and 65-78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity. PMID:22615692

Lövdén, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

2012-01-01

274

Individual differences in moral development: the relation of sex, gender, and personality to morality.  

PubMed

Individual differences in moral development are examined, with a particular emphasis on sex and gender differences. This examination includes an extensive review of the empirical and theoretical literature in psychology on morality. Based on this review, it is concluded that sex differences occur with less frequency and with a less systematic favoring of males than is predicted by several theories of moral development. In addition, a study is presented which considers the relation of sex, gender, and personality to morality. Two age cohort samples, college sophomores (n = 169) and adults (n = 151), were assessed with the moral judgment scale of the cognitive-developmental model (Kohlberg, 1984) and a newly developed moral character template of the personological model (Lifton, in press). Participants also completed the CPI and MMPI personality inventories. Results of the study indicate (1) the absence of sex differences for either model, (2) the presence of gender differences favoring masculine persons for the cognitive-developmental but not personological model, and (3) that individual differences in moral development parallel individual differences in personality development. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to Gilligan's (1982) claim that men and women differ in their moral orientations. Finally, it is argued that an individual difference approach, particularly one that emphasizes personality, would prove useful for future research on moral development. PMID:4045680

Lifton, P D

1985-06-01

275

Individual differences in radial maze performance and locomotor activity in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

Individual differences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the maze without any consistent or definable pattern); and 3) nonrunners (i.e., nonperformers of the task who remained relatively immobile in the arms of the maze). The algorithmic and nonalgorithmic voles further differed in their responses to an interference manipulation of the radial maze task. Algorithmic individuals displayed a marked performance deficit, while the nonalgorithmic individuals showed minimal disruption to a 1-min delay interruption of the maze task. Measurements of several aspects of locomotor activity using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system revealed that the algorithmic individuals also displayed significantly greater levels of activity than the nonalgorithmic or nonrunners, with no significant difference in activity between the latter two groups. These findings suggest that the algorithmic voles were relatively inflexible in their behavior, while the nonalgorithmic individuals were more flexible in their maze performance and likely in their use of spatial and nonspatial information. These individual differences in laboratory measures of learning behavior and locomotor activity in meadow voles are consistent with the polymorphism that is proposed to occur in the wild. PMID:9877423

Teskey, G C; Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M; Innis, N K; Boon, F H

1998-12-01

276

Linking Neurogenetics and Individual Differences in Language Learning: The Dopamine Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals’ genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between dopamine-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2014-01-01

277

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind  

PubMed Central

Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind. PMID:15250813

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

2005-01-01

278

Examining the linguistic coding differences hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning.  

PubMed

In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed. PMID:24234194

Sparks, R L

1995-01-01

279

Differences in Social Vulnerability among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although individuals with disabilities are at increased risk of victimization, few studies examine persons with different disability conditions to determine whether distinctive cognitive-behavioral profiles are associated with different levels of social vulnerability. To determine the differences in social vulnerability and experiences of victimization, caregiver responses to a Social Vulnerability Questionnaire were examined for 103 caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and Down syndrome (DS). Although all three groups experienced similar rates and types of victimization, the specific correlates of social vulnerability differed by disability. Individuals with ASD displayed less risk awareness and had less social protection; those with WS were rated higher on risk factors related to perceived vulnerability and parental independence; and those with DS had less risk awareness and were perceived to be more vulnerable. Safety interventions should be tailored to address each group's specific correlates of social vulnerability. PMID:23745132

Fisher, Marisa H; Moskowitz, Andrew L; Hodapp, Robert M

2013-08-01

280

From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade's research on gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performed an analysis of recent research on sex and gender in terms of 3 major approaches: (a) sex as an S variable; (b) individual differences in masculinity, femininity, and androgyny; and (c) sex as a social category. The variance accounted for by main effect differences of S sex was found to be small in most cases. The unique contribution of

Kay Deaux

1984-01-01

281

Individual Differences in the Onset of Tense Marking: A Growth-Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at…

Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K.

2006-01-01

282

Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional sensitivity  

E-print Network

Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional. A measure of emotional sensitivity mediated the gender difference in emotional recall suggesting that memory in the relation between gender and memory. A number of studies demonstrate that men and women's memories

Johnson, Marcia K.

283

Self-rated attractiveness predicts individual differences in women's preferences for masculine men's voices  

E-print Network

differences in women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces (Little et al., 2001; Little & Mannion, 2006; Pen- ton-Voak et al., 2003). For example, Little et al. (2001) found that women who rated their ownSelf-rated attractiveness predicts individual differences in women's preferences for masculine men

Little, Tony

284

Etiology of individual differences in reading performance: A test of sex limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that the etiology of individual differences in reading performance differs in males and females, reading performance data from twin pairs tested in the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center were fitted to structural equation models of sex limitation. The sample included 513 pairs of twins in which at least one member of each pair has a positive

Maricela Alarcón; J. C. DeFries; D. W. Fulker

1995-01-01

285

Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

2013-01-01

286

Individual Differences in Early Adolescents' Beliefs in the Legitimacy of Parental Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents differ in the extent to which they believe that parents have legitimate authority to impose rules restricting adolescents' behavior. The purpose of the current study was to test predictors of individual differences in legitimacy beliefs during the middle school years. Annually, during the summers following Grades 5, 6, and 7, early…

Kuhn, Emily S.; Laird, Robert D.

2011-01-01

287

Patterns of individual differences in the perception of missing-fundamental tones.  

PubMed

Recent experimental findings suggest stable individual differences in the perception of auditory stimuli lacking energy at the fundamental frequency (F0), here called missing fundamental (MF) tones. Specifically, some individuals readily identify the pitch of such tones with the missing F0 ("F0 listeners"), and some base their judgment on the frequency of the partials that make up the tones ("spectral listeners"). However, the diversity of goals and methods in recent research makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about individual differences. The first purpose of this article is to discuss the influence of methodological choices on listeners' responses. The second goal is to report findings on individual differences in our own studies of the MF phenomenon. In several experiments, participants judged the direction of pitch change in stimuli composed of two MF tones, constructed so as to reveal whether the pitch percept was based on the MF or the partials. The reported difference between F0 listeners and spectral listeners was replicated, but other stable patterns of responses were also observed. Test-retest reliability is high. We conclude that there are genuine, stable individual differences underlying the diverse findings, but also that there are more than two general types of listeners, and that stimulus variables strongly affect some listeners' responses. This suggests that it is generally misleading to classify individuals as "F0 listeners" or "spectral listeners." It may be more accurate to speak of two modes of perception ("F0 listening" and "spectral listening"), both of which are available to many listeners. The individual differences lie in what conditions the choice between the two modes. PMID:23398251

Ladd, D Robert; Turnbull, Rory; Browne, Charlotte; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Ganushchak, Lesya; Swoboda, Kate; Woodfield, Verity; Dediu, Dan

2013-10-01

288

Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Under Acute Stress: The Role of Trait Perceived Stress  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731

Lempert, Karolina M.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

289

Individual differences in current events knowledge: Contributions of ability, personality, and interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

What accounts for individual differences in the sort of knowledge that people may draw on in everyday cognitive tasks, such\\u000a as deciding whom to vote for in a presidential election, how to invest money in the stock market, or what team to bet on in\\u000a a friendly wager? In a large sample of undergraduate students, we investigated correlates of individual

David Z. Hambrick; Elizabeth J. Meinz; Frederick L. Oswald

2007-01-01

290

Impact of different individual GNSS receiver antenna calibration models on geodetic positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since April 2011, the igs08.atx antenna calibration model is used in the routine IGS (International GNSS Service) data analysis. The model includes mean robot calibrations to correct for the offset and phase center variations of the GNSS receiver antennas. These so-called "type" calibrations are means of the individual calibrations available for a specific antenna/radome combination. The GNSS data analysis performed within the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) aims at being as consistent as possible with the IGS analysis. This also applies to the receiver antenna calibrations. However, when available, individual antenna calibrations are used within the EPN analysis instead of the "type" calibration. When these individual calibrations are unavailable, then the EPN analysis falls back to (type) calibrations identical as the ones used within the IGS (igs08.atx). The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of the offset caused by using different receiver antenna calibration models on the station position. Using the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) technique, we first investigate the differences in positioning obtained when switching between individual antenna calibrations and type calibrations. We analyze the observations of the 43 EPN stations equipped with receiver antenna individually calibrated over the period covering from 2003 to 2010 and we show that these differences can reach up to 4 mm in horizontal and 10 mm in vertical. Secondly, we study the accuracy of the individual calibrations models and we evaluate the effect of different sets of individual calibrations on the positioning. For that purpose, we use the data from 6 GNSS stations equipped with an antenna which has been individually calibrated at two calibration facilities recognized by the IGS: GEO++ and Bonn institute.

Baire, Q.; Pottiaux, E.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Aerts, W.; Legrand, J.; Bergeot, N.; Chevalier, J. M.

2012-04-01

291

Morphology of Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Individual Differences in Fixation Duration during Text Reading.  

PubMed

In skilled reading, fixations are brief periods of time in which the eyes settle on words. E-Z Reader, a computational model of dynamic reading, posits that fixation durations are under real-time control of lexical processing. Lexical processing, in turn, requires efficient visual encoding. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in fixation durations are related to individual differences in the efficiency of early visual encoding. To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' eye movements during reading. We then examined individual differences in fixation duration distributions as a function of individual differences in the morphology of primary visual cortex measured from MRI scans. The results showed that greater gray matter surface area and volume in visual cortex predicted shorter and less variable fixation durations in reading. These results suggest that individual differences in eye movements during skilled reading are related to initial visual encoding, consistent with models such as E-Z Reader that emphasize lexical control over fixation time. PMID:24893738

Henderson, John M; Choi, Wonil; Luke, Steven G

2014-12-01

292

An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

2012-01-01

293

Reliabilities of Mental Rotation Tasks: Limits to the Assessment of Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

Mental rotation tasks with objects and body parts as targets are widely used in cognitive neuropsychology. Even though these tasks are well established to study between-groups differences, the reliability on an individual level is largely unknown. We present a systematic study on the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of individual differences in mental rotation tasks comparing different target types and orders of presentations. In total n = 99 participants (n = 63 for the retest) completed the mental rotation tasks with hands, feet, faces, and cars as targets. Different target types were presented in either randomly mixed blocks or blocks of homogeneous targets. Across all target types, the consistency (split-half reliability) and stability (test-retest reliabilities) were good or acceptable both for intercepts and slopes. At the level of individual targets, only intercepts showed acceptable reliabilities. Blocked presentations resulted in significantly faster and numerically more consistent and stable responses. Mental rotation tasks—especially in blocked variants—can be used to reliably assess individual differences in global processing speed. However, the assessment of the theoretically important slope parameter for individual targets requires further adaptations to mental rotation tests. PMID:24195068

Thielsch, Meinald T.

2013-01-01

294

Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.  

PubMed

Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. PMID:24106333

Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

2014-11-01

295

Comparative Evaluation of Maximum Bite Force in Dentulous and Edentulous Individuals with Different Facial Forms  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mean maximum bite force in dentulous and edentulous individuals with Angle’s class-I occlusion and to assess the effect of different facial forms such as Square, Square-tapering, tapering and ovoid on the biting force. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 160 subjects in total. Out of these 160, 80 were dentulous subjects and remaining 80 were edentulous subjects who had received treatment for his/her missing teeth by fabrication of a complete denture. The mean maximum voluntary bite force for every subject was measured using bite force measuring device,(Process indicator 3016). Face form was divided under square, tapering, square-tapering or oval types. The shape of the face was determined using digital photographs. The effect of edentulism, gender and face form on bite force was statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Scheffe and Sample t-tests. Result: Mean maximum bite force and standard deviation (S.D.) in the dentulous sample population was 41.3(13.9) kilograms (kg) which when compared with the edentulous sample population provided highly significant statistical result. The mean maximum biting force in edentulous sample population was 4.43 (2.4) kg (p<0.001). In both dentulous and edentulous categories, the mean maximum bite force was statistically higher in male patients than female patients. Mean maximum bite force was significantly higher in patients with square facial form than in subjects with other facial forms. Conclusion: Square face form contributes to higher bite force values by obtaining higher Mechanical advantage from muscles of mastication. Result also proved that patients with complete denture with any facial form have much lower mean maximum bite force when compared to dentate subjects. PMID:25386519

A.A., Ponnanna; Rajwadha, Nishant; Chhaparia, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhishek; Anant, Mahendra

2014-01-01

296

The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  

PubMed

Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

2012-01-01

297

Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific.  

PubMed

Natural selection often promotes a mix of behavioural phenotypes in a population. Adaptive variation in the propensity to take risks might explain individual differences in shyness and boldness in humans and other species. It is often implicitly assumed that shyness and boldness are general personality traits expressed across many situations. From the evolutionary standpoint, however, individual differences that are adaptive in one context (e.g. predator defence) may not be adaptive in other contexts (e.g. exploration of the physical environment or intraspecific social interactions). We measured the context specificity of shyness and boldness in a natural population of juvenile pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus, by exposing the fish to a potentially threatening stimulus (a red-tipped metrestick extended towards the individual) and a nonthreatening stimulus (a novel food source). We also related these measures of shyness and boldness to behaviours observed during focal observations, both before and after the introduction of a predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides). Consistent individual differences were found within both contexts, but individual differences did not correlate across contexts. Furthermore, fish that were scored as intermediate in their response to the metrestick behaved most boldly as foragers and in response to the bass predators. These results suggest that shyness and boldness are context-specific and may not exist as a one-dimensional behavioural continuum even within a single context. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790704

Coleman; Wilson

1998-10-01

298

Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction Strength Can Explain Different Collective Feeding Behaviours  

PubMed Central

Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics. PMID:24130748

Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Delcourt, Johann

2013-01-01

299

Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.  

PubMed

Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

2014-09-01

300

Individual differences in cognitive plasticity: an investigation of training curves in younger and older adults.  

PubMed

To date, cognitive intervention research has provided mixed but nevertheless promising evidence with respect to the effects of cognitive training on untrained tasks (transfer). However, the mechanisms behind learning, training effects and their predictors are not fully understood. Moreover, individual differences, which may constitute an important factor impacting training outcome, are usually neglected. We suggest investigating individual training performance across training sessions in order to gain finer-grained knowledge of training gains, on the one hand, and assessing the potential impact of predictors such as age and fluid intelligence on learning rate, on the other hand. To this aim, we propose to model individual learning curves to examine the intra-individual change in training as well as inter-individual differences in intra-individual change. We recommend introducing a latent growth curve model (LGCM) analysis, a method frequently applied to learning data but rarely used in cognitive training research. Such advanced analyses of the training phase allow identifying factors to be respected when designing effective tailor-made training interventions. To illustrate the proposed approach, a LGCM analysis using data of a 10-day working memory training study in younger and older adults is reported. PMID:24652343

Bürki, Céline N; Ludwig, Catherine; Chicherio, Christian; de Ribaupierre, Anik

2014-11-01

301

The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter  

PubMed Central

In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between “causation” and “causes of variation” (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its “associability” provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this “new” light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D.

2013-01-01

302

A Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Standard Versus Enhanced Risk Reduction and Adherence Counseling for Individuals Receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Following Sexual Exposures to HIV  

PubMed Central

Background.?The National HIV/AIDS Strategy proposes to scale-up post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Intensive risk reduction and adherence counseling appear to be effective but are resource intensive. Identifying simpler interventions that maximize the HIV prevention potential of PEP is critical. Methods.?A randomized noninferiority study comparing 2 (standard) or 5 (enhanced) risk reduction counseling sessions was performed. Adherence counseling was provided in the enhanced arm. We measured changes in unprotected sexual intercourse acts at 12 months, compared with baseline; HIV acquisition; and PEP adherence. Outcomes were stratified by degree of baseline risk. Results.?We enrolled 457 individuals reporting unprotected intercourse within 72 h with an HIV-infected or at-risk partner. Participants were 96% male and 71% white. There were 1.8 and 2.3 fewer unprotected sex acts in the standard and enhanced groups. The maximum potential risk difference, reflected by the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval, was 3.9 acts. The difference in the riskier subset may have been as many as 19.6 acts. The incidence of HIV seroconversion was 2.9% and 2.6% among persons randomized to standard and enhanced counseling, respectively, with a maximum potential difference of 3.4%. The absolute and maximal HIV seroconversion incidence was 9.9% and 20.4% greater in the riskier group randomized to standard, compared with enhanced, counseling. Adherence outcomes were similar, with noninferiority in the lower risk group and concerning differences among the higher-risk group. Conclusions.?Risk assessment is critical at PEP initiation. Standard counseling is only noninferior for individuals with lower baseline risk; thus, enhanced counseling should be targeted to individuals at higher risk. PMID:21653307

Neilands, Torsten B.; Krone, Melissa R.; Coates, Thomas J.; Franses, Karena; Chesney, Margaret A.; Kahn, James S.; Martin, Jeffrey N.

2011-01-01

303

Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Human Effort-Based Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Preferences for different combinations of costs and benefits are a key source of variability in economic decision-making. However, the neurochemical basis of individual differences in these preferences is poorly understood. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that direct manipulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) significantly impacts cost/benefit decision-making, but less is known about how naturally occurring variation in DA systems may relate to individual differences in economic behavior. In the present study, 25 healthy volunteers completed a dual-scan PET imaging protocol with [18F]fallypride and d-amphetamine to measure DA responsivity, and separately completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making in humans. We found that individual differences in DA function in the left striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex were correlated with a willingness to expend greater effort for larger rewards, particularly when probability of reward receipt was low. Additionally, variability in DA responses in the bilateral insula was negatively correlated with willingness to expend effort for rewards, consistent with evidence implicating this region in the processing of response costs. These findings highlight the role of DA signaling in striatal, prefrontal and insular regions as key neurochemical mechanisms underlying individual differences in cost/benefit decision-making. PMID:22553023

Treadway, Michael T.; Buckholtz, Joshua W.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Woodward, Neil D.; Li, Rui; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Schwartzman, Ashley N.; Kessler, Robert M.; Zald, David H.

2012-01-01

304

Dopaminergic mechanisms of individual differences in human effort-based decision-making.  

PubMed

Preferences for different combinations of costs and benefits are a key source of variability in economic decision-making. However, the neurochemical basis of individual differences in these preferences is poorly understood. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that direct manipulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) significantly impacts cost/benefit decision-making, but less is known about how naturally occurring variation in DA systems may relate to individual differences in economic behavior. In the present study, 25 healthy volunteers completed a dual-scan PET imaging protocol with [(18)F]fallypride and d-amphetamine to measure DA responsivity and separately completed the effort expenditure for rewards task, a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making in humans. We found that individual differences in DA function in the left striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex were correlated with a willingness to expend greater effort for larger rewards, particularly when probability of reward receipt was low. Additionally, variability in DA responses in the bilateral insula was negatively correlated with willingness to expend effort for rewards, consistent with evidence implicating this region in the processing of response costs. These findings highlight the role of DA signaling in striatal, prefrontal, and insular regions as key neurochemical mechanisms underlying individual differences in cost/benefit decision-making. PMID:22553023

Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Cowan, Ronald L; Woodward, Neil D; Li, Rui; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Schwartzman, Ashley N; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

2012-05-01

305

Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer.  

PubMed

Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality. PMID:18522909

Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

2008-09-22

306

Computational modeling of individual differences in behavioral estimates of cochlear nonlinearities.  

PubMed

Temporal masking curves (TMCs) are often used to estimate cochlear compression in individuals with normal and impaired hearing. These estimates may yield a wide range of individual differences, even among subjects with similar quiet thresholds. This study used an auditory model to assess potential sources of variance in TMCs from 51 listeners in Poling et al. [J Assoc Res Otolaryngol, 13:91-108 (2012)]. These sources included threshold elevation, the contribution of outer and inner hair cell dysfunction to threshold elevation, compression of the off-frequency linear reference, and detection efficiency. Simulations suggest that detection efficiency is a primary factor contributing to individual differences in TMCs measured in normal-hearing subjects, while threshold elevation and the contribution of outer and inner hair cell dysfunction are primary factors in hearing-impaired subjects. Approximating the most compressive growth rate of the cochlear response from TMCs was achieved only in subjects with the highest detection efficiency. Simulations included off-frequency nonlinearity in basilar membrane and inner hair cell processing; however, this nonlinearity did not improve predictions, suggesting that other sources, such as the decay of masking and the strength of the medial olivocochlear reflex, may mimic off-frequency nonlinearity. Findings from this study suggest that sources of individual differences can play a strong role in behavioral estimates of compression, and these sources should be considered when using forward masking to study cochlear function in individual listeners or across groups of listeners. PMID:25266264

Jennings, Skyler G; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R

2014-12-01

307

Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer  

PubMed Central

Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality. PMID:18522909

Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

2008-01-01

308

Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait-like, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic-Chinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22-30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between-subject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67-0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait-like. PMID:25263200

Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J

2014-09-01

309

12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate minimum capital ratios for an individual bank...that higher minimum capital ratios are appropriate or necessary...s); (d) The bank's liquidity, capital, risk asset and other ratios compared to the ratios of...

2010-01-01

310

10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

2010-01-01

311

Testing the temporal stability of individual differences in the acquisition and generalization of fear.  

PubMed

We studied the temporal stability of individual differences in the acquisition and generalization of fear. Seventy-one participants were tested in two almost identical fear-acquisition and fear-generalization sessions (separated by 8 months). Acquisition and generalization were measured by the fear-potentiated startle, the skin conductance response, and online expectancies of the unconditioned stimulus. To control for the effects of previous experience, different stimuli were used for half of the participants in Session 2. Acquisition and generalization did not differ across sessions or as a function of the stimuli used in Session 2, and a significant proportion of individual differences in these processes was stable over time (generalizability coefficients ranged from 0.17 to 0.38). When the same stimuli were used, acquisition measures showed compromised stability. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications. PMID:24673651

Torrents-Rodas, David; Fullana, Miquel A; Bonillo, Albert; Andión, Oscar; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Caseras, Xavier; Torrubia, Rafael

2014-07-01

312

Using individual differences to predict job performance: correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences, indicated by personality (FFM) and general mental ability (GMA), and job performance applying two different methods of correction for range restriction. The results, derived by analyzing meta-analytic correlations, show that the more accurate method of correcting for indirect range restriction increased the operational validity of individual differences in predicting job performance and that this increase primarily was due to general mental ability being a stronger predictor than any of the personality traits. The estimates for single traits can be applied in practice to maximize prediction of job performance. Further, differences in the relative importance of general mental ability in relation to overall personality assessment methods was substantive and the estimates provided enables practitioners to perform a correct utility analysis of their overall selection procedure. PMID:22612634

Sjöberg, Sofia; Sjöberg, Anders; Näswall, Katharina; Sverke, Magnus

2012-08-01

313

What Is the Primary Cause of Individual Differences in Contrast Sensitivity?  

PubMed Central

One of the primary objectives of early visual processing is the detection of luminance variations, often termed image contrast. Normal observers can differ in this ability by at least a factor of 4, yet this variation is typically overlooked, and has never been convincingly explained. This study uses two techniques to investigate the main source of individual variations in contrast sensitivity. First, a noise masking experiment assessed whether differences were due to the observer’s internal noise, or the efficiency with which they extracted information from the stimulus. Second, contrast discrimination functions from 18 previous studies were compared (pairwise, within studies) using a computational model to determine whether differences were due to internal noise or the low level gain properties of contrast transduction. Taken together, the evidence points to differences in contrast gain as being responsible for the majority of individual variation across the normal population. This result is compared with related findings in attention and amblyopia. PMID:23922732

Baker, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

314

Impact of individual differences upon emotion-induced memory trade-offs  

E-print Network

Impact of individual differences upon emotion-induced memory trade-offs Jill D. Waring Boston School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Daniel L. Schacter Harvard University containing an emotional component (e.g., a snake in a forest) people often demonstrate a ``trade

Schacter, Daniel

315

Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

2011-01-01

316

Structural Model of Employee Involvement in Skill Development Activity: The Role of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…

Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.

2008-01-01

317

Understanding Individual Differences in Spatial Ability within Females: A Nature\\/Nurture Interactionist Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a program of research, conducted in collaboration with several of my colleagues, which examines individual differences in spatial ability from a biological\\/environmental interaction perspective. Our research strategy has been to identify the females who provide the exceptions to the male advantage in mental rotation ability. We tested a “bent twig” model, identifying a subgroup of females predicted

M. Beth Casey

1996-01-01

318

Goal orientation and organizational commitment : Individual difference predictors of job performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to paper examine goal orientation and organizational commitment in relation to employees' job attitudes and performance in a hospital. Specifically, it investigates the effects of mastery and performance goals on different facets of organizational commitment and how these effects impact individuals' job outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilized an online survey to

Olivia F. Lee; James A. Tan; Rajeshekhar Javalgi

2010-01-01

319

Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

2012-01-01

320

The Effect of Executive Function on Biological Reasoning in Young Children: An Individual Differences Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is substantial variance in the age at which children construct and deploy their first explicit theory of biology. This study tests the hypothesis that this variance is due, at least in part, to individual differences in their executive function (EF) abilities. A group of 79 boys and girls aged 5-7 years (with a mean age of 6½ years) were…

Zaitchik, Deborah; Iqbal, Yeshim; Carey, Susan

2014-01-01

321

The Influence of Individual Differences on Diagrammatic Communication and Problem Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the user and customizing the interface to augment cognition and usability are goals of human computer interaction research and design. Yet, little is known about the influence of individual visual-verbal information presentation preferences on visual navigation and screen element usage. If consistent differences in visual navigation…

King, Laurel A.

2009-01-01

322

Symbol-Digit Substitution and Individual Differences in Visual Search Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substitution tests have a long history in psychology because of their simplicity of administration and their sensitivity to individual differences related to complex cognitive performance. Despite their widespread use there is no agreement on what the substitution test measures. The present study approached this question by applying a method of…

Gilmore, Grover C.; Royer, Fred L.; Gruhn, Joseph J.; Esson, Michael J.

2004-01-01

323

Capacity Reconsidered: Interindividual Differences in Language Comprehension and Individual Alpha Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of interindividual differences in cognitive mechanisms on language comprehension remains controversial not only due to conflicting experimental findings, but also in view of the difficulty associated with determining which measure should be used in participant classification. Here, we address the latter problem by proposing that an electrophysiological measure, individual alpha frequency (IAF), may be a suitable means of

Ina D. Bornkessel; Christian J. Fiebach; Angela D. Friederici; Matthias Schlesewsky

2004-01-01

324

Implications of Individual Differences in Subjective Happiness for Perceiving, Interpreting, and Thinking About Life Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that characteristically happy and unhappy individuals seem to differ in the ways in which they respond to life events and daily situations. This paper reports two questionnaire studies and a laboratory study testing the hypothesis that happy people perceive, interpret, and think about the same events in more positive ways than do unhappy ones.

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Kari L. Tucker

1998-01-01

325

Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Self-Regulation and Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-regulation, or the ability to control one's actions and responses, is essential for healthy development across varied contexts. Self-regulation comes in several forms, including emotional, behavioral, and cognitive. The present study sought to examine whether individual differences in one form of self-regulation was related to children's…

Jahromi, Laudan B.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

2008-01-01

326

Research on Individual Differences within a Sociocultural Perspective: Co-Regulation and Adaptive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Research is presented on teacher-centered instruction and individual differences among students within a sociocultural perspective specifically, within a co-regulation model. Purpose of Study: To determine the utility of a co-regulation model for understanding teacher and student adaptation to the press of cultural and social…

McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg

2011-01-01

327

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Hambrick, David Z.

2012-01-01

328

The role of working memory capacity in autobiographical retrieval: Individual differences in strategic search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remembering previous experiences from one's personal past is a principal component of psychological well-being, personality, sense of self, decision making, and planning for the future. In the current study the ability to search for autobiographical information in memory was examined by having college students recall their Facebook friends. Individual differences in working memory capacity manifested itself in the search of

Nash Unsworth; Gregory J. Spillers; Gene A. Brewer

2012-01-01

329

Perceptual Paths to Accurate Production of L2 Vowels: The Role of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether individual differences in learners' age of arrival (AOA) and length of residence (LOR) in a country where a second language (L2) is spoken determine the relationship between L2 perception and production. In the first experiment, 40 Korean learners of English and 10 native English speakers participated in vowel…

Baker, Wendy; Trofimovich, Pavel

2006-01-01

330

Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

2010-01-01

331

Individual differences and implicit language: personality, parts-of-speech and pervasiveness  

E-print Network

impact than Extraversion. Personality and language Individuals differ in the way they speak and write, such as personality traits, like Extraversion and Neuroti- cism. Extraversion is a trait strongly related suggests that, at least for Extraversion, there are real effects to be found in spoken language

Edinburgh, University of

332

Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

2012-01-01

333

Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

2014-01-01

334

Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

2005-01-01

335

Neural Basis of Individual Differences in Impulsivity: Contributions of Corticolimbic Circuits for Behavioral Arousal and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to analyze the neural correlates of behavioral arousal and inhibitory control as they relate to individual differences in impulsivity via well-established functional MRI amygdala reactivity and prefrontal inhibitory control paradigms in healthy adult subjects. Impulsivity correlated positively with activity of the bilateral ventral amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32), and

Sarah M. Brown; Stephen B. Manuck; Janine D. Flory; Ahmad R. Hariri

2006-01-01

336

Genetic basis of individual differences in the response to small-molecule drugs in yeast  

E-print Network

Genetic basis of individual differences in the response to small-molecule drugs in yeast Ethan O response to small-molecule drugs is variable; a drug that provides a cure for some may confer of 100 diverse small molecules. We used linkage analysis to identify 124 distinct linkages between

Kruglyak, Leonid

337

Autobiographical memory and recovered memory therapy: Integrating cognitive, clinical, and individual difference perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes an integration of contemporary cognitive work on autobiograpical memory with a more clinical research orientation that also acknowledges the importance of individual difference factors. A rationale for this integration is provided by first discussing the inherent ties between autobiographical memory and clinical psychology concerns, with a special emphasis being placed on the accuracy issues surrounding recovered memory

Lisa M. Destun; Nicholas A. Kuiper

1996-01-01

338

Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

2011-01-01

339

Individual Differences in Time Estimation Related to Cognitive Ability, Speed of Information Processing and Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In experimental time estimation research, it has consistently been found that the more a person is engaged in some kind of demanding cognitive activity within a given period of time, the more experienced duration of this time interval decreases. However, the role of individual differences has been largely ignored in this field of research. In a…

Fink, A.; Neubauer, A. C.

2005-01-01

340

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative Affectivity: Relations at the  

E-print Network

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Executive Self, Self-Esteem, and Negative among executive self, self-esteem, and negative affectivity. A cross-sectional (N 4,242) and a longitudinal (N 158) study established that self-esteem mediated the relation between executive self

Reber, Paul J.

341

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis  

PubMed Central

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

2014-01-01

342

The Role of Individual Differences in a Study Abroad Experience: The Case of Erasmus Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the extent to which a study abroad (SA) experience has an effect on the L2 written and oral performance of a group of Spanish undergraduates, studying English as a second language (L2) in a university in the UK. This article also examines the role that individual differences, such as the participants' motivation, attitudes,…

Llanes, Angels; Tragant, Elsa; Serrano, Raquel

2012-01-01

343

The impacts of individual plant species on rhizosphere microbial communities in soils of different fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of individual plant species on microbial community properties in soils of differing fertility, a microcosm experiment was carried out using plant species representative of the dominant flora in semi-fertile temperate grasslands of northern England. Soil microbial biomass and activity were found to be significantly greater in the more fertile, agriculturally improved soil than in the less

Louise Innes; Philip J. Hobbs; Richard D. Bardgett

2004-01-01

344

Prefrontal Cortical Mechanisms Underlying Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility and Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pFC is critical for cognitive flexibility, that is, our ability to flexibly adjust behavior to changing environmental demands, but also for cognitive stability, i.e., our ability to follow behavioral plans in the face of distraction. Behavioral research suggests that individuals differ in their cognitive flexibility and stability, and neurocomputational theories of working memory relate this variability to the concept

Diana J. N. Armbruster; Kai Ueltzhöffer; Ulrike Basten; Christian J. Fiebach

345

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

2008-01-01

346

Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

2012-01-01

347

Not All Skilled Readers Have Cracked the Code: Individual Differences in Masked Form Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated whether individual differences in written language proficiency among university students predict the early stages of lexical retrieval tapped by the masked form priming lexical decision task. To separate the contributions of sublexical facilitation and lexical competition to masked form priming, the effects of prime lexicality were directly compared for both transposed-letter (TL) primes (e.g., sung SNUG; salb

Sally Andrews; Steson Lo

2012-01-01

348

Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

349

Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in…

Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

2010-01-01

350

Working memory and mathematics: A review of developmental, individual difference, and cognitive approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in mathematical skills, the nature of this relationship is not well-understood. This paper reviews four approaches that address

Kimberly P. Raghubar; Marcia A. Barnes; Steven A. Hecht

2010-01-01

351

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis.  

PubMed

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African-American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B; Flagler, Michael J; Davis, Michael G; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Rice, Robert H

2014-01-01

352

Individual Differences in Core Affect Variability and Their Relationship to Personality and Psychological Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

How people's feelings change across time can be represented as trajectories in a core affect space defined by the dimensions of valence and activation. In this article, the authors analyzed individual differences in within-person affective variability defined as characteristics of core affect trajectories, introducing new ways to conceptualize affective variability. In 2 studies, participants provided multiple reports across time describing

Peter Kuppens; Iven Van Mechelen; John B. Nezlek; Dorien Dossche; Tinneke Timmermans

2007-01-01

353

Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

2008-01-01

354

Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

Ackerman, Phillip L.

355

Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxiety Kevin N. Ochsner a,  

E-print Network

Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxiety Kevin N. Ochsner a. Mackey c a Department of Psychology, Columbia University, Schermerhorn Hall, 1190 Amsterdam Avenue, New Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY, USA c Division of Pain Management, Department of Anesthesia, Stanford

Ochsner, Kevin

356

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

2014-01-01

357

Psychology in Outerspace: Personality, Individual Difference, and Demographic Predictors of Beliefs About Extraterrestrial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that is important to consider the disjunction between paranormal and nonparanormal beliefs about extraterrestrial life. The current study examined the association between both such beliefs and individual difference and demographic variables. A total of 555 British participants completed the Extraterrestrial Beliefs Scale, as well as measures of their Big Five personality scores, social conformity, sensation seeking,

Viren Swami; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Manal Shafi

2010-01-01

358

Individual Differences and Early School Adjustment: Teacher Appraisals of Young Children with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in temperament and personality influence children's development of self-regulation, social relationships, and adaptation within varied contexts. For young children with disabilities and/or family poverty, early school experiences provide both significant challenges and opportunities. In this study, teachers rated the…

Reed-Victor, Evelyn

2004-01-01

359

Individual Differences in Executive Processing Predict Susceptibility to Interference in Verbal Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories have suggested that resistance to interference is a unifying principle of executive function and that individual differences in interference may be explained by executive function (M. J. Kane & R. W. Engle, 2002). Measures of executive function, memory, and perceptual speed were obtained from 121 older adults (ages 63–82). We used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships

Trey Hedden; Carolyn Yoon

2006-01-01

360

Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

2014-01-01

361

Task Complexity, Focus on L2 Constructions, and Individual Differences: A Classroom-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by cognitive-interactionist frameworks for task-based learning, this study explores whether task complexity affects the extent to which learners focus on form-meaning connections during task-based work in a classroom setting, and whether this relationship is modulated by 3 individual difference factors--linguistic self-confidence,…

Revesz, Andrea

2011-01-01

362

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Printed Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in printed word recognition and related skills in identical and fraternal twin 8- to 18-year-olds. Found evidence for moderate genetic influences common between IQ, phoneme awareness, and word-reading skills and for stronger IQ-independent genetic influences that were common…

Gayan, Javier; Olson, Richard K.

2003-01-01

363

Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

2003-01-01

364

Individual Differences in Social Comparison: Development of a Scale of Social Comparison Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and validation of a measure of individual differences in social comparison orientation (the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure [INCOM]) are described. Assuming that the tendency toward social comparison is universal, the scale was constructed so as to be appropriate to and comparable in 2 cultures: American and Dutch. It was then administered to several thousand people in each country. Analyses

Frederick X. Gibbons; Bram P. Buunk

1999-01-01

365

Individual differences in social comparison: Development of a scale of social comparison orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and validation of a measure of individual differences in social comparison orientation (the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure (INCOM)) are described. Assuming that the ten- dency toward social comparison is universal, the scale was constructed so as to be appropriate to and comparable in 2 cultures: American and Dutch. It was then administered to several thousand people in each country.

Frederick X. Gibbons; Bram P. Buunk

1999-01-01

366

The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

2009-01-01

367

Age-Related Changes in Reading Comprehension: An Individual-Differences Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors show that Hannon and Daneman's (2001, Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 103–128) component processes task can be used to investigate individual differences in older readers' comprehension performance, and to determine which components of comprehension are most susceptible to declines with normal aging. Results revealed that the ability to remember new text information, to make inferences

Brenda Hannon; Meredyth Daneman

2009-01-01

368

Exploring interactive effects of genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is established that reading and reading-related processes are heritable; genes thus play an important role in the foundation of individual differences in reading. In this article, we focus on one facet of reading-comprehension. Comprehension is a higher order cognitive skill that requires many other cognitive processes for it to unfold completely and successfully. One such process is executive functioning,

Elena L. Grigorenko; Colin G. Deyoung; Marya Getchell; Gerald J. Haeffel; Britt A. F. Klinteberg; Roman A. Koposov; Lars Oreland; Andrew J. Pakstis; Vladislav V. Ruchkin; CAROLYN M. YRIGOLLENa

2007-01-01

369

Individual differences in preschoolers' physiological and verbal responses to videotaped angry interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in selection of intensity of angry interactions and physiological and self-reported responses to interadult anger were examined in preschoolers (N=34). Children watched two videotaped angry interactions between adults, while their heart rates and skin conductance responses and levels were monitored; then they were interviewed. Before the second argument, children were given the perceived choice of watching an intense

Mona El-Sheikh; Mary Ballard; E. Mark Cummings

1994-01-01

370

Dealing with Inter-Individual Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Fatigue and Performance  

E-print Network

here using data from a chronic partial sleep deprivation experiment. Mixed-effects modeling can prediction. Keywords: sleep deprivation, performance, inter-individual differences, between-subject variance multiple days of total sleep deprivation, increases in fatigue and decre- ments in performance occur

Pennsylvania, University of

371

Systematic individual differences in sleep homeostatic and circadian rhythm contributions to neurobehavioral impairment  

E-print Network

to neurobehavioral impairment during sleep deprivation Hans P.A. Van Dongena,*, Amy M. Bendera, and David F. Dingesb Individual differences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation

Pennsylvania, University of

372

Genes in ContextGene–Environment Interplay and the Origins of Individual Differences in Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between genes and the environment are a critical feature of development. Insights into the dynamic interplay between these factors have come from laboratory studies exploring experience-dependent changes in gene function, which illustrate the importance of environmental factors in determining activity of the genome. These studies have implications for our understanding of the origins of individual differences in behavior and

Frances A. Champagne; Rahia Mashoodh

2009-01-01

373

A Longitudinal Field Investigation of Gender Differences in Individual Technology Adoption Decision-Making Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated gender differences in the overlooked context of individual adoption and sustained usage of technology in the workplace using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). User reactions and technology usage behavior were studied over a 5-month period among 355 workers being introduced to a new software technology application. When compared to women's decisions, the decisions of men were

Viswanath Venkatesh; Michael G. Morris; Phillip L. Ackerman

2000-01-01

374

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with  

E-print Network

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted, if the following guidelines are followed: 1. Where permitted, owners/ users of space heaters are responsible

de Lijser, Peter

375

Case Studies in Diversity: Individual Differences in Abilities and Traits of Young Gifted Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documented how individual differences in personal experiences, cultures, learning styles, and interests affect the demonstrated abilities of children who are gifted, based on qualitative case study research with five children from early childhood classes at the University of Denver's Ricks Center for Gifted Children. Information was…

Hafenstein, Norma Lu; Tucker, Brooke

376

Aspergers - Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (?Cramer?=?.02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

2014-01-01

377

Individual Differences in Preschoolers’ Self-Regulation and Theory of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-regulation, or the ability to control one’s actions and responses, is essential for healthy development across varied contexts. Self-regulation comes in several forms, including emotional, behavioral, and cognitive. The present study sought to examine whether individual differences in one form of self-regulation was related to children’s regulation in another domain. In addition, we explored whether different forms of self-regulation were

Laudan B. Jahromi; Cynthia A. Stifter

2008-01-01

378

The behavioural ecology of personality: consistent individual differences from an adaptive perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual humans, and members of diverse other species, show consistent differences in aggressiveness, shyness, sociability and activity. Such intraspecific differences in behaviour have been widely assumed to be non-adaptive variation surrounding (possibly) adaptive population-average behaviour. Nevertheless, in keeping with recent calls to apply Darwinian reasoning to ever-finer scales of biological variation, we sketch the fundamentals of an adaptive theory of

Sasha R. X. Dall; Alasdair I. Houston; John M. McNamara

2004-01-01

379

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

380

Analysis of the intra-individual differences of the joint surfaces of the calcaneus.  

PubMed

Patients with calcaneus fractures experience considerable interferences with daily living activities. The quality of anatomical reconstruction is important because of its influence on functional outcome. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic algorithm based on computer tomographic (CT) images to quantify the integrity of calcaneal joint surfaces. Validation of this algorithm was done by assessing intra-individual variations of characteristic joint parameters. Bilateral hind foot CT data of 12 subjects were manually segmented, and 3D models from the calcaneus, talus and cuboid were generated. These models were implemented in a custom-made software to analyse the area, 3D orientations and bone distance of the joint surfaces of the calcaneus. Three joints were detected, and the calculated parameters were compared between right and left hind foot by the evaluation of the directional asymmetry (%DA). The results were statistically analysed with a paired t-test. The median of area (5-7 %DA) of the joint surfaces and the distance between two articulating surfaces (8-9 %DA) showed the greatest intra-individual differences. Median differences in 3D orientation were comparatively low (1-2 %DA). None of these differences was statistically significant. Inter-individual variations among subjects were several magnitudes larger than intra-individual differences. The presented computational tool provides 3D joint-specific parameters of the calcaneus, which enable to describe their respective joint integrity. The results show that only small intra-individual differences within the anatomy exist. Surgical treatment should take place with the aid of CT data from the contralateral side. Thus, a good restoration of the anatomy may be reached. The computational tool assesses the quality of reduction, and may be helpful to evaluate the outcome and quality of operative treatment based on the calculated joint-specific parameters of joint reconstructions in the hind foot. PMID:23406018

Stephan, Daniel; Panzer, Stephanie; Göttlinger, Michael; Augat, Peter

2014-11-01

381

Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.  

PubMed

Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p < 0.01, strong positive correlations were observed between extraversion and resting brain perfusion in the right caudate, brain stem, and cingulate gyrus. Significant negative correlations between neuroticism and regional cerebral perfusion were identified in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, ACC, and orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity. PMID:23771644

Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

2014-09-01

382

Function in the Human Connectome: Task-fMRI and Individual Differences in Behavior  

PubMed Central

The primary goal of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to delineate the typical patterns of structural and functional connectivity in the healthy adult human brain. However, we know that there are important individual differences in such patterns of connectivity, with evidence that this variability is associated with alterations in important cognitive and behavioral variables that affect real world function. The HCP data will be a critical stepping-off point for future studies that will examine how variation in human structural and functional connectivity play a role in adult and pediatric neurological and psychiatric disorders that account for a huge amount of public health resources. Thus, the HCP is collecting behavioral measures of a range of motor, sensory, cognitive and emotional processes that will delineate a core set of functions relevant to understanding the relationship between brain connectivity and human behavior. In addition, the HCP is using task-fMRI (tfMRI) to help delineate the relationships between individual differences in the neurobiological substrates of mental processing and both functional and structural connectivity, as well as to help characterize and validate the connectivity analyses to be conducted on the structural and functional connectivity data. This paper describes the logic and rationale behind the development of the behavioral, individual difference, and tfMRI batteries and provides preliminary data on the patterns of activation associated with each of the fMRI tasks, at both a group and individual level. PMID:23684877

Barch, Deanna M.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Harms, Michael P.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Glasser, Matthew F.; Curtiss, Sandra; Dixit, Sachin; Feldt, Cindy; Nolan, Dan; Bryant, Edward; Hartley, Tucker; Footer, Owen; Bjork, James M.; Poldrack, Russ; Smith, Steve; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.

2014-01-01

383

Evidence for individual differences in regulatory focus in rats, Rattus norvegicus  

PubMed Central

Regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) builds on the classic approach-avoidance distinction by identifying two important approach orientations: the promotion focus (approaching gains and attainment) and the prevention focus (approaching non-losses and safety). Though individual differences in regulatory focus have been widely studied in human psychology, it is unknown if such differences exist in other species. To explore this possibility, we designed a series of tests for laboratory rats, paralleling human regulatory focus research on risk-taking. In homecage tests, rats (N=23) were given an opportunity to prevent a loss by burying a noxious novel object. In solitary tests in a novel enclosure, the same rats had the opportunity to pursue gains (food rewards) and/or safety (darkness). Rats demonstrated stable individual differences on both tests (p’s < .001). Complementing the human research, duration with the noxious novel object was predicted by an individual’s tendency to pursue safety (p < .01) and not by its tendency to pursue gains (p > .8). Some aspects of these results were compatible with alternative approaches, such as the bold-shy axis and “if-then” personality profiles (Mischel & Shoda, 1995). Regulatory focus theory, however, was uniquely able to predict the overall pattern, which may be an indication that it could contribute to future research in animal personality, motivation, and welfare. PMID:22390620

Franks, Becca; Higgins, E. Tory; Champagne, Frances A.

2012-01-01

384

Notice of Proposed Rule Making for Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 3, 1999 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published the first-ever set of proposed national standards to protect personal health information. According to the HHS, "the Administration standards will apply to health information created by health care providers, hospitals, health plans and health care clearinghouses that is either transmitted or maintained electronically." Users can read the 150 pages of proposed rules by chapter or section in either HTML or .pdf format. A link is provided for users who wish to submit comments electronically until February 17, 2000.

1999-01-01

385

Learning a novel phonological contrast depends on interactions between individual differences and training paradigm design  

PubMed Central

Studies evaluating phonological contrast learning typically investigate either the predictiveness of specific pretraining aptitude measures or the efficacy of different instructional paradigms. However, little research considers how these factors interact—whether different students learn better from different types of instruction—and what the psychological basis for any interaction might be. The present study demonstrates that successfully learning a foreign-language phonological contrast for pitch depends on an interaction between individual differences in perceptual abilities and the design of the training paradigm. Training from stimuli with high acoustic-phonetic variability is generally thought to improve learning; however, we found high-variability training enhanced learning only for individuals with strong perceptual abilities. Learners with weaker perceptual abilities were actually impaired by high-variability training relative to a low-variability condition. A second experiment assessing variations on the high-variability training design determined that the property of this learning environment most detrimental to perceptually weak learners is the amount of trial-by-trial variability. Learners’ perceptual limitations can thus override the benefits of high-variability training where trial-by-trial variability in other irrelevant acoustic-phonetic features obfuscates access to the target feature. These results demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences in pretraining aptitudes when evaluating the efficacy of any speech training paradigm. PMID:21786912

Perrachione, Tyler K.; Lee, Jiyeon; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

2011-01-01

386

Investigation on the photoconductive behaviors of an individual AlN nanowire under different excited lights  

PubMed Central

Ultra-long AlN nanowire arrays are prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and the photoconductive performances of individual nanowires are investigated in our self-built measurement system. Individual ultra-long AlN nanowire (UAN) exhibits a clear photoconductive effect under different excited lights. We attribute the positive photocurrent response of individual UAN to the dominant molecular sensitization effect. It is found that they have a much faster response speed (a rise and decay time of about 1 ms), higher photocurrent response (2.7×106), and more reproductive working performance (the photocurrent fluctuation is lower than 2%) in the air environment. Their better photoconductive performances are comparable to many nanostructures, which are suggested to be a candidate for building promising photosensitive nanodevices in the future. PMID:22883472

2012-01-01

387

Fitting heteroscedastic regression models to individual pharmacokinetic data using standard statistical software  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of individual pharmacokinetic data by nonlinear regression it is important to allow for possible heterogeneity of variance in the response. Two common methods of doing this are weighted least squares with appropriate weights or data transformation using a suitable transform. With either approach it is appealing to let the data determine the appropriate choice of weighting scheme

David M. Giltinan; David Ruppert

1989-01-01

388

The role of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertisements and individual differences in getting people to talk to physicians.  

PubMed

In this study, 384 respondents provided quantitative and descriptive information about direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements and factors related to message reception and drug adoption. The authors applied M. Booth-Butterfield's ( 2008 ) Standard Model to explain how DTC advertising is used in getting individuals to talk to their doctors about pharmaceutical drugs. The researchers predicted that individuals who talked with their physicians about a pharmaceutical drug (referred to as talkers) would differ from those who did not talk with their physicians (referred to as nontalkers) in a number of meaningful ways. Findings from this data set indicate that individuals who talked with their physician about a specific medication were more likely to be female, older, higher in need for cognition, and reported higher physician satisfaction. Total number of channels (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet) was negatively associated with talking to a physician about a specific medication, as was exposure to DTC advertisement on television. The authors offer explanations for these findings along with descriptive accounts of how talkers and nontalkers differed in their recall of DTC advertisement information. PMID:21512934

Krezmien, Elyse; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

2011-09-01

389

ACCOMMODATING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES DURING EXTERNALLY PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 3--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATE APPROACHES TOWARD INDIVIDUALIZATION OF FIXED-PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WAS ASSESSED. THIS REPRESENTED THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 199, ED 003 200, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS…

GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERALD C., JR.

390

A model-driven approach to quantify migration patterns: individual, regional and yearly differences.  

PubMed

1.?Animal migration has long intrigued scientists and wildlife managers alike, yet migratory species face increasing challenges because of habitat fragmentation, climate change and over-exploitation. Central to the understanding migratory species is the objective discrimination between migratory and nonmigratory individuals in a given population, quantifying the timing, duration and distance of migration and the ability to predict migratory movements. 2.?Here, we propose a uniform statistical framework to (i) separate migration from other movement behaviours, (ii) quantify migration parameters without the need for arbitrary cut-off criteria and (iii) test predictability across individuals, time and space. 3.?We first validated our novel approach by simulating data based on established theoretical movement patterns. We then formulated the expected shapes of squared displacement patterns as nonlinear models for a suite of movement behaviours to test the ability of our method to distinguish between migratory movement and other movement types. 4.?We then tested our approached empirically using 108 wild Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose Alces alces in Scandinavia as a study system because they exhibit a wide range of movement behaviours, including resident, migrating and dispersing individuals, within the same population. Applying our approach showed that 87% and 67% of our Swedish and Norwegian subpopulations, respectively, can be classified as migratory. 5.?Using nonlinear mixed effects models for all migratory individuals we showed that the distance, timing and duration of migration differed between the sexes and between years, with additional individual differences accounting for a large part of the variation in the distance of migration but not in the timing or duration. Overall, the model explained most of the variation (92%) and also had high predictive power for the same individuals over time (69%) as well as between study populations (74%). 6.?The high predictive ability of the approach suggests that it can help increase our understanding of the drivers of migration and could provide key quantitative information for understanding and managing a broad range of migratory species. PMID:21105872

Bunnefeld, Nils; Börger, Luca; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer M; Dettki, Holger; Solberg, Erling Johan; Ericsson, Göran

2011-03-01

391

Toward Understanding Body Image Importance: Individual Differences in a Canadian Sample of Undergraduate Students  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) andperfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed. PMID:23421695

Delaney, Mary E.

2013-01-01

392

Individual differences in reproductive costs examined using multi-state methods.  

PubMed

1.?Trade-offs among life-history traits are common because individuals have to partition limited resources between multiple traits. Reproductive costs are generally assumed to be high, resulting in reduced survival and fecundity in the following year. However, it is common to find positive rather than negative correlations between life-history traits. 2.?Here, we use a data set from the individual-based study of red deer on the Isle of Rum to examine how these costs vary between individuals and at different ages, using multi-state mark-recapture methodology. 3.?Females that had reproduced frequently in the past incurred lower costs of reproduction in terms of survival in the following year and were more likely to reproduce in two consecutive years. Older individuals and those that had not reproduced frequently exhibited higher costs. 4.?These results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity and individual quality when examining trade-offs and demonstrate the effectiveness of using detailed long-term data sets to explore life-history strategies using multi-state mark-recapture models. PMID:21182522

Moyes, Kelly; Morgan, Byron; Morris, Alison; Morris, Sean; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Coulson, Tim

2011-03-01

393

Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload  

PubMed Central

Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct “slots” in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

394

Standardization of Rates To Adjust for Differences in Enrollment Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges must often analyze and report rates for outcomes, such as transfer to four-year colleges. A single, summary rate may be an invalid measure of its achievement in the transfer goal if the summary rate ignores the real difference in enrollment composition at different institutions. California's community colleges embody a very…

Hom, Willard

395

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at six months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2014-01-01

396

Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index  

PubMed Central

Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It consists of 19 probability estimation items plus 4 "M-Scale" items that distinguish simple pattern matching from “base rate respect.” Cronbach's Alpha was consistently above 0.90. Validity is suggested by significant correlations between FPPI scores and three other measurers: "Rule Based" Process Dissociation Procedure scores; the number of conjunction fallacies in joint probability estimation; and logic index scores on syllogistic reasoning. Replicating norms collected in a university study with a web-based study produced negligible differences in FPPI scores, indicating robustness. The predicted relationships between individual differences in base rate respect and both conjunction fallacies and syllogistic reasoning were partially replicated in two web-based studies. PMID:23935255

Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

397

Attentional control constrains visual short-term memory: Insights from developmental and individual differences  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which attentional control biases mnemonic representations have attracted much interest but remain poorly understood. As attention and memory develop gradually over childhood and variably across individuals, assessing how participants of different ages and ability attend to mnemonic contents can elucidate their interplay. In Experiment 1, 7-, 10-year-olds and adults were asked to report whether a probe item had been part of a previously presented four-item array. The initial array could either be uncued, preceded (“pre-cued”) or followed (“retro-cued”) by a spatial cue orienting attention to one of the potential item locations. Performance across groups was significantly improved by both cue types and individual differences in children’s retrospective attentional control predicted their visual short-term and working memory span, whereas their basic ability to remember in the absence of cues did not. Experiment 2 imposed a variable delay between the array and the subsequent orienting cue. Cueing benefits were greater in adults compared to 10-year-olds, but they persisted even when cues followed the array by nearly 3 seconds, suggesting that orienting operated on durable short-term representations for both age groups. The findings indicate that there are substantial developmental and individual differences in the ability to control attention to memory and that in turn these differences constrain visual short-term memory capacity. PMID:20680889

Astle, D.E.; Nobre, A.C.; Scerif, G.

2014-01-01

398

Individual Differences and Social Influences on the Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Abused Drugs  

PubMed Central

The interaction of drugs with biologic targets is a critical area of research, particularly for the development of medications to treat substance use disorders. In addition to understanding these drug-target interactions, however, there is a need to understand more fully the psychosocial influences that moderate these interactions. The first section of this review introduces some examples from human behavioral pharmacology that illustrate the clinical importance of this research. The second section covers preclinical evidence to characterize some of the key individual differences that alter drug sensitivity and abuse vulnerability, related primarily to differences in response to novelty and impulsivity. Evidence is presented to indicate that critical neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with these individual differences involve integrated neurocircuits underlying stress, reward, and behavioral inhibitory processes. The third section covers social influences on drug abuse vulnerability, including effects experienced during infancy, adolescence, and young adulthood, such as maternal separation, housing conditions, and social interactions (defeat, play, and social rank). Some of the same neurocircuits involved in individual differences also are altered by social influences, although the precise neurochemical and cellular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated fully. Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. PMID:23343975

Neisewander, J. L.; Kelly, T. H.

2013-01-01

399

The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

2013-11-01

400

Empathy matters: ERP evidence for inter-individual differences in social language processing  

PubMed Central

When an adult claims he cannot sleep without his teddy bear, people tend to react surprised. Language interpretation is, thus, influenced by social context, such as who the speaker is. The present study reveals inter-individual differences in brain reactivity to social aspects of language. Whereas women showed brain reactivity when stereotype-based inferences about a speaker conflicted with the content of the message, men did not. This sex difference in social information processing can be explained by a specific cognitive trait, one’s ability to empathize. Individuals who empathize to a greater degree revealed larger N400 effects (as well as a larger increase in ?-band power) to socially relevant information. These results indicate that individuals with high-empathizing skills are able to rapidly integrate information about the speaker with the content of the message, as they make use of voice-based inferences about the speaker to process language in a top-down manner. Alternatively, individuals with lower empathizing skills did not use information about social stereotypes in implicit sentence comprehension, but rather took a more bottom-up approach to the processing of these social pragmatic sentences. PMID:21148175

Van Berkum, Jos J.A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C.M.; Tesink, Cathelijne M.J.Y.; Kos, Miriam; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hagoort, Peter

2012-01-01

401

Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements.

Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

1995-09-01

402

Combining information from ancestors and personal experiences to predict individual differences in developmental trajectories.  

PubMed

Abstract A persistent question in biology is how information from ancestors combines with personal experiences over the lifetime to affect the developmental trajectories of phenotypic traits. We address this question by modeling individual differences in behavioral developmental trajectories on the basis of two assumptions: (1) differences among individuals in the behavior expressed at birth or hatching are based on information from their ancestors (via genes, epigenes, and prenatal maternal effects), and (2) information from ancestors is combined with information from personal experiences over ontogeny via Bayesian updating. The model predicts relationships between the means and the variability of the behavior expressed by neonates and the subsequent developmental trajectories of their behavior when every individual is reared under the same environmental conditions. Several predictions of the model are supported by data from previous studies of behavioral development, for example, that the temporal stability of personality will increase with age and that the intercepts and slopes of developmental trajectories for boldness will be negatively correlated across individuals or genotypes when subjects are raised in safe environments. We describe how other specific predictions of the model can be used to test the hypothesis that information from ancestors and information from personal experiences are combined via nonadditive, Bayesian-like processes. PMID:25325748

Stamps, Judy A; Krishnan, V V

2014-11-01

403

Male great bowerbirds create forced perspective illusions with consistently different individual quality.  

PubMed

Males often produce elaborate displays that increase their attractiveness to females, and some species extend their displays to include structures or objects that are not part of their body. Such "extended phenotypes" may communicate information that cannot be transmitted by bodily signals or may provide a more reliable signal than bodily signals. However, it is unclear whether these signals are individually distinct and whether they are consistent over long periods of time. Male bowerbirds construct and decorate bowers that function in mate choice. Bower display courts constructed by male great bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) induce a visual illusion known as forced perspective for the female viewing the male's display over the court, and the quality of illusion is associated with mating success. We improved the quality of the forced perspective to determine whether males maintained it at the new higher level, decreased the perspective quality back to its original value, or allowed it to decay at random over time. We found that the original perspective quality was actively recovered to individual original values within 3 d. We measured forced perspective over the course of one breeding season and compared the forced perspective of individual males between two successive breeding seasons. We found that differences in the quality of visual illusion among males were consistent within and between two breeding seasons. This suggests that forced perspective is actively and strongly maintained at a different level by each individual male. PMID:23213203

Kelley, Laura A; Endler, John A

2012-12-18

404

Individual differences in mood reactions to d-amphetamine: a test of three personality factors.  

PubMed

Individual differences in self-reported mood following either 5 mg or 10 mg d-amphetamine challenge were examined in order to test the modifying role of three factors of personality, viz., the Eysencks' psychoticism, Cloninger's novelty seeking, and Depue and Collins' extraversion. In a double-blind study, mood measures (energetic arousal, tense arousal, and hedonic tone) were taken immediately following a single-dose of d-amphetamine and then again after 90 min. The results showed significant psychoticism x d-amphetamine interactions for both drug doses: d-amphetamine increased energetic arousal and hedonic tone, and reduced tense arousal, only in low psychoticism individuals; in high psychoticism individuals, it led to lowered energetic arousal and hedonic tone, and increased tense arousal. Neither novelty seeking nor extraversion modified the effects of d-amphetamine. These data suggest a link between psychoticism and dopaminergic functioning, although they do not rule out the involvement of other transmitter systems (e.g. noradrenergic). In common with other studies, such findings point to the important role that well-established factors of personality play in accounting for individual differences in reactions to psychoactive drugs. It is concluded that the routine inclusion of personality measures in future psychopharmacological studies may help to refine the characterization of drug effects. PMID:11198055

Corr, P J; Kumari, V

2000-01-01

405

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

2012-01-01

406

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D

2012-09-01

407

Differences in the chemical reactivity of individual molecules of an enzyme.  

PubMed

Much attention has been focused recently on the detection and physical characterization of individual molecules. Using such methods to study the chemical properties, such as reactivity, of single molecules offers the potential to investigate how these might vary from molecule to molecule, and for individual molecules as a function of time. The complex structures of biomolecules such as enzymes make them particularly attractive targets for studying how subtle changes or differences at the molecular level might influence chemical reactivity. We have shown previously that very small (zeptomole) amounts of enzymes can be studied using a fluorescence microassay; single enzyme molecules have also been detected in oil-dispersed droplets by fluorescence microscopy. Here we report the observation of reactions of individual molecules of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-1), which produces NADH from lactate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). When they are present at very low concentrations in a narrow capillary, each enzyme molecule produces a discrete zone of NADH; these can be manipulated electrophoretically and monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. We find that the activity of individual electrophoretically pure enzyme molecules can vary by up to a factor of four, and that these activities remain unchanged over a two-hour period. We suggest that the origin of the activity differences may lie in the presence of several stable forms of the enzyme. PMID:7854448

Xue, Q; Yeung, E S

1995-02-23

408

Differences in the chemical reactivity of individual molecules of an enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUCH attention has been focused recently on the detection and physical characterization of individual molecules1-11. Using such methods to study the chemical properties, such as reactivity, of single molecules offers the potential to investigate how these might vary from molecule to molecule, and for individual molecules as a function of time. The complex structures of biomolecules such as enzymes make them particularly attractive targets for studying how subtle changes or differences at the molecular level might influence chemical reactivity. We have shown previously12,13 that very small (zeptomole) amounts of enzymes can be studied using a fluorescence microassay; single enzyme molecules have also been detected in oil-dispersed droplets by fluorescence microscopy14,15. Here we report the observation of reactions of individual molecules of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-1), which produces NADH from lactate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). When they are present at very low concentrations in a narrow capillary, each enzyme molecule produces a discrete zone of NADH; these can be manipulated electrophoretically and monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. We find that the activity of individual electrophoretically pure enzyme molecules can vary by up to a factor of four, and that these activities remain unchanged over a two-hour period. We suggest that the origin of the activity differences may lie in the presence of several stable forms of the enzyme.

Xue, Qifeng; Yeung, Edward S.

1995-02-01

409

Motor and Tactile-Perceptual Skill Differences between Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Typically Developing Individuals Ages 5-21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined motor and tactile-perceptual skills in individuals with high-functioning autism (IHFA) and matched typically developing individuals (TDI) ages 5-21 years. Grip strength, motor speed and coordination were impaired in IHFA compared to matched TDI, and the differences between groups varied with age. Although tactile-perceptual skills of…

Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Holm, Margo B.; Rogers, Joan C.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

410

Feature Extraction for Mental Fatigue and Relaxation States Based on Systematic Evaluation Considering Individual Difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature extraction for mental fatigue and relaxation states is helpful to understand the mechanisms of mental fatigue and search effective relaxation technique in sustained work environments. Experiment data of human states are often affected by external and internal factors, which increase the difficulties to extract common features. The aim of this study is to explore appropriate methods to eliminate individual difference and enhance common features. Mental fatigue and relaxation experiments are executed on 12 subjects. An integrated and evaluation system is proposed, which consists of subjective evaluation (visual analogue scale), calculation performance and neurophysiological signals especially EEG signals. With consideration of individual difference, the common features of multi-estimators testify the effectiveness of relaxation in sustained mental work. Relaxation technique can be practically applied to prevent accumulation of mental fatigue and keep mental health. The proposed feature extraction methods are widely applicable to obtain common features and release the restriction for subjection selection and experiment design.

Chen, Lanlan; Sugi, Takenao; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

411

Amygdala Volume Predicts Inter-Individual Differences in Fearful Face Recognition  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli. PMID:24009767

Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Fu, Xiaolan

2013-01-01

412

A descriptive study of individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2×2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Independent variables were country and gender. Grade Point Average (GPA) and age were entered

Mustafa Balo?lu; M. Engin Deniz; ?ahin Kesici

2011-01-01

413

A cognitive neuroscience approach to individual differences in sensitivity to reward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory proposes that a neurobiological system, the Behavioral Activation System, defines individual\\u000a differences on the subject’s sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with mesocorticolimbic structures,\\u000a while this system does not mediate aversive stimulus processing. However, Jeffrey A. Gray’s model also predicts the system’s\\u000a antagonism between this appetitive system and another aversive stimulus sensitive system, the Behavioral

C. Ávila; M. A. Parcet; A. BarróS-Loscertales

2008-01-01

414

A “Crossomics” Study Analysing Variability of Different Components in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Caucasoid Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDifferent immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases are being developed and tested in clinical studies worldwide. Their resulting complex experimental data should be properly evaluated, therefore reliable normal healthy control baseline values are indispensable.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo assess intra- and inter-individual variability of various biomarkers, peripheral blood of 16 age and gender equilibrated healthy volunteers was sampled on

Kristina Gruden; Matjaž Hren; Ana Herman; Andrej Blejec; Tanja Albrecht; Joachim Selbig; Chris Bauer; Johannes Schuchardt; Michal Or-Guil; Klemen Zupan?i?; Urban Švajger; Borut Štabuc; Alojz Ihan; Andreja Nataša Kopitar; Maja Ravnikar; Miomir Kneževi?; Primož Rožman; Matjaž Jeras

2012-01-01

415

Identifying the situational triggers underlying avoidance of communication situations and individual differences therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are actively involved in the selection and avoidance of the situations they face during everyday life. Moreover, such selection\\/avoidance behavior is subject to sizeable individual differences. Yet, to a large extent this phenomenon has been underinvestigated, and a full understanding of selection\\/avoidance remains lacking. In the present paper, we take a first step to a more in-depth understanding of

Sofie Frederickx; Iven Van Mechelen

416

Development of a Scale to Measure Individual Differences in Children's Trust-Value Basis of Friendship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to assess individual differences in children's ascription to the trust-value basis of friendship. A sample of 130 children (70 girls and 60 boys) from 5th and 6th grades were administered the Chumship Checklist, and the newly constructed Trust-Value Friendship (T-V F) Scale, which measures children's desire for trust-value in forming

Ken J. Rotenberg; Cathy J. Morgan

1995-01-01

417

Designing Effective Soldier-Robot Teams in Complex Environments: Training, Interfaces, and Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Extensive US Army programs are being pursued to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicles for diverse missions during\\u000a future combat. The following paper identified 23 human-robot interaction (HRI) guidelines related to interface design, procedural\\u000a issues, individual differences and training implications based on three HRI research programs. The programs range from simulation\\u000a experiments that investigated robot control in a multitasking environment

Michael J. Barnes; Jessie Y. C. Chen; Florian Jentsch; Elizabeth S. Redden

418

Individual Differences in Radial Maze Performance and Locomotor Activity in the Meadow Vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the

G. Campbell Teskey; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp; Martin Kavaliers; Nancy K. Innis; Francis H. Boon

1998-01-01

419

Individual differences in mature readers in reading, spelling, and grapheme-phoneme conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in word recognition, spelling, verbal reasoning, frequency of print exposure, phonological skills,\\u000a Gestalt processing and semantic processing were examined in 110 university undergraduates. Most reading and phonological tasks\\u000a involved making sequences of lexical decisions through lists of common stimuli within set time limits. The test measures were\\u000a percentages correct adjusting for chance. The main findings were as follows:

John R. Beech

2002-01-01

420

The stability of individual differences in gender typing: Implications for understanding gender segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of individual differences has important implications for understanding the origins of gender-typed behaviors. For example, if some children have a stronger preference for same-sex playmates (gender segregation) than do others, then exploring characteristics that may differentiate these children from their peers (e.g., preference for gender-typed toys or teacher proximity) should prove fruitful. Otherwise, research might be focused more

Kimberly K. Powlishta; Lisa A. Serbin; Lora C. Moller

1993-01-01

421

The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.  

PubMed

Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness. PMID:23799900

Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

2014-12-01

422

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REPETITIONS, TOTAL WEIGHT LIFTED AND NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT TRAINING BACKGROUNDS  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, as well as neuromuscular activity, in a strength task in subjects with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 26) were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or mixed) and submitted to three sessions: (1) determination of the maximum oxygen uptake during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM) for the half squat; (2) 1RM determination; and (3) strength exercise, four sets at 80% of the 1RM, in which the maximum number of repetitions (MNR), the total weight lifted (TWL), the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of the electromyographic (EMG) activity for the second and last repetition were computed. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the aerobic group performing a higher MNR compared to the strength group (P = 0.045), and an effect on MF with a higher value in the second repetition than in the last repetition (P = 0.016). These results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness were more fatigue resistant than strength trained individuals. The absence of differences in EMG signals indicates that individuals with different training backgrounds have a similar pattern of motor unit recruitment during a resistance exercise performed until failure, and that the greater capacity to perform the MNR probably can be explained by peripheral adaptations. PMID:24744479

Azevedo, Neto R.M.; Julio, U.F.; Andreato, L.V.; Pinto e Silva, C.M.; Hardt, F.; Franchini, E.

2013-01-01

423

Presentation and AcqKnowledge: an application of software to study human emotions and individual differences.  

PubMed

This work describes an experiment about startle reflex and individual differences in personality with the application of the Presentation and AcqKnowledge software. First, Presentation was useful for the design of the display and timing of a set of pictures from the IAPS (International Affective Picture System) that modulated the elicitation of the startle reflex response to an acoustic stimulus. Second, the AcqKnowledge program allowed to record and store psychophysiological data, while a Java routine helped to transform the output data into a proper data disposition better suited to analyze individual differences. The software used in psychophysiological experiments is of an utmost importance concerning the design and presentation of stimuli, and to the general management of this type of information. In this work, we present an example of the use of two computer programs that are helpful for the research about the psychophysiological bases of individual differences in relation with human personality, even though they are extensible to other biomedical areas of interest. PMID:23159496

Blanch, Angel; Balada, Ferran; Aluja, Anton

2013-04-01

424

Connectivity strength of dissociable striatal tracts predict individual differences in temporal discounting.  

PubMed

Large individual differences exist in the ability to delay gratification for the sake of satisfying longer-term goals. These individual differences are commonly assayed by studying intertemporal preferences, as revealed by choices between immediate and delayed rewards. In the brain, reward-based and goal-oriented decisions are believed to rely on the striatum and its interactions with other cortical and subcortical networks. However, it remains unknown which specific cortical-striatal tracts are involved in intertemporal decision making. We use connectivity analyses in both structural and functional MRI to further our understanding of the relationship between distinct corticostriatal networks and intertemporal preferences in humans. Our results revealed distinct striatal pathways that are differentially related to delay discounting. Structural and functional connectivity between striatum and lateral prefrontal cortex was associated with increased patience, whereas connectivity between subcortical areas and striatum was associated with increased impulsivity. These findings provide novel insights into how the anatomy and functioning of striatal circuits mediate individual differences in intertemporal choice. PMID:25080591

van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A; Schweitzer, Julie B; McClure, Samuel M

2014-07-30

425

The emergence of leaders and followers in foraging pairs when the qualities of individuals differ  

PubMed Central

Background Foraging in groups offers animals a number of advantages, such as increasing their likelihood of finding food or detecting and avoiding predators. In order for a group to remain together, there has to be some degree of coordination of behaviour and movement between its members (which may in some cases be initiated by a decision-making leader, and in other cases may emerge as an underlying property of the group). For example, behavioural synchronisation is a phenomenon where animals within a group initiate and then continue to conduct identical behaviours, and has been characterised for a wide range of species. We examine how a pair of animals should behave using a state-dependent approach, and ask what conditions are likely to lead to behavioural synchronisation occurring, and whether one of the individuals is more likely to act as a leader. Results The model we describe considers how the energetic gain, metabolic requirements and predation risks faced by the individuals affect measures of their energetic state and behaviour (such as the degree of behavioural synchronisation seen within the pair, and the value to an individual of knowing the energetic state of its colleague). We explore how predictable changes in these measures are in response to changes in physiological requirements and predation risk. We also consider how these measures should change when the members of the pair are not identical in their metabolic requirements or their susceptibility to predation. We find that many of the changes seen in these measures are complex, especially when asymmetries exist between the members of the pair. Conclusion Analyses are presented that demonstrate that, although these general patterns are robust, care needs to be taken when considering the effects of individual differences, as the relationship between individual differences and the resulting qualitative changes in behaviour may be complex. We discuss how these results are related to experimental observations, and how the model and its predictions could be extended. PMID:18282297

2008-01-01

426

CB1 Receptor Autoradiographic Characterization of the Individual Differences in Approach and Avoidance Motivation  

PubMed Central

Typically, approach behaviour is displayed in the context of moving towards a desired goal, while avoidance behaviour is displayed in the context of moving away from threatening or novel stimuli. In the current research, we detected three sub-populations of C57BL/6J mice that spontaneously responded with avoiding, balancing or approaching behaviours in the presence of the same conflicting stimuli. While the balancing animals reacted with balanced responses between approach and avoidance, the avoiding or approaching animals exhibited inhibitory or advance responses towards one of the conflicting inputs, respectively. Individual differences in approach and avoidance motivation might be modulated by the normal variance in the level of functioning of different systems, such as endocannabinoid system (ECS). The present research was aimed at analysing the ECS involvement on approach and avoidance behavioural processes. To this aim, in the three selected sub-populations of mice that exhibited avoiding or balancing or approaching responses in an approach/avoidance Y-maze we analysed density and functionality of CB1 receptors as well as enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in different brain regions, including the networks functionally responsible for emotional and motivational control. The main finding of the present study demonstrates that in both approaching and avoiding animals higher CB1 receptor density in the amygdaloidal centro-medial nuclei and in the hypothalamic ventro-medial nucleus was found when compared with the CB1 receptor density exhibited by the balancing animals. The characterization of the individual differences to respond in a motivationally based manner is relevant to clarify how the individual differences in ECS activity are associated with differences in motivational and affective functioning. PMID:22848724

Rodriguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Petrosini, Laura; Fowler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

427

Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in male adults  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in cognitive style can be characterized along two dimensions: ‘systemizing’ (S, the drive to analyze or build ‘rule-based’ systems) and ‘empathizing’ (E, the drive to identify another's mental state and respond to this with an appropriate emotion). Discrepancies between these two dimensions in one direction (S > E) or the other (E > S) are associated with sex differences in cognition: on average more males show an S > E cognitive style, while on average more females show an E > S profile. The neurobiological basis of these different profiles remains unknown. Since individuals may be typical or atypical for their sex, it is important to move away from the study of sex differences and towards the study of differences in cognitive style. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined how neuroanatomy varies as a function of the discrepancy between E and S in 88 adult males from the general population. Selecting just males allows us to study discrepant E-S profiles in a pure way, unconfounded by other factors related to sex and gender. An increasing S > E profile was associated with increased gray matter volume in cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal areas which have been implicated in processes related to cognitive control, monitoring, error detection, and probabilistic inference. An increasing E > S profile was associated with larger hypothalamic and ventral basal ganglia regions which have been implicated in neuroendocrine control, motivation and reward. These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style. PMID:22446488

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Sadek, Susan A.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

428

Reduced Neural Integration of Letters and Speech Sounds in Dyslexic Children Scales with Individual Differences in Reading Fluency  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n?=?20), dysfluent (n?=?18) and severely dysfluent (n?=?18) dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter ‘a’ was presented either simultaneously (AV0), or 200 ms before (AV200) vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN) and late negativity (LN) responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200) led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers. PMID:25329388

Zaric, Gojko; Fraga Gonzalez, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bonte, Milene

2014-01-01

429

Attachment-related individual differences in the consistency of relationship behavior interpretation.  

PubMed

The consistency with which people interpret relationship-based information has important implications for attachment theory and research. Our objective is to determine whether there are attachment-related individual differences in the manner and the consistency with which individuals interpret hypothetical relationship behaviors. In two studies (N?=?629, 79% female, 63% American, M(age) ?=?29; N?=?820, 78% female, 65% American, M(age) ?=?29), we assessed participants' ability and consistency in relationship behavior interpretation across two blocks and estimated how they would have performed had they interpreted information perfectly consistently. Secure participants were generally more consistent in their interpretations relative to insecure participants. Estimates of perfectly consistent interpretation revealed that improvements to both systematic factors related to behavior interpretation (e.g., working models) and consistency would have led to a more secure interpretation style for participants of all attachment styles. Results imply that both secure and insecure individuals process relationship-based information according to secure scripts, but insecure individuals do so inconsistently. Our results imply that, due to the inconsistent behavioral responses that may occur as a result of inconsistent information processing, the consistency with which people process relationship-related information will be related to relationship satisfaction. Further directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23750636

Marks, Michael J; Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen C

2014-06-01

430

Individual differences in risk-related behaviors and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Some personality traits and comorbid psychiatric diseases are linked to a propensity for excessive alcohol drinking. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual differences in risk-related behaviors, voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Outbred male Wistar rats were tested in a novel open field, followed by assessment of behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. Animals were classified into high risk taking and low risk taking on the basis of open-field behavior and into high risk-assessing (HRA) and low risk-assessing (LRA) on the basis of the MCSF profile. Finally, voluntary alcohol intake was investigated using intermittent access to 20% ethanol and water for 5 weeks. Only minor differences in voluntary alcohol intake were found between high risk taking and low risk taking. Differences between HRA and LRA rats were more evident, with higher intake and increased intake over time in HRA relative to LRA rats. Thus, individual differences in risk-assessment behavior showed greater differences in voluntary alcohol intake than risk taking. The findings may relate to human constructs of decision-making and risk taking associated with a predisposition to rewarding and addictive behaviors. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk-related behaviors, including risk-assessment behavior, and liability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:24776488

Momeni, Shima; Sharif, Mana; Agren, Greta; Roman, Erika

2014-06-01

431

Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.  

PubMed

Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227

Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

2013-01-01

432

Individual differences in cue weights are stable across time: the case of Japanese stop lengths.  

PubMed

Speech categories are defined by multiple acoustic dimensions, and listeners give differential weighting to dimensions in phonetic categorization. The informativeness (predictive strength) of dimensions for categorization is considered an important factor in determining perceptual weighting. However, it is unknown how the perceptual system weighs acoustic dimensions with similar informativeness. This study investigates perceptual weighting of two acoustic dimensions with similar informativeness, exploiting the absolute and relative durations that are nearly equivalent in signaling Japanese singleton and geminate stop categories. In the perception experiments, listeners showed strong individual differences in their perceptual weighting of absolute and relative durations. Furthermore, these individual patterns were stable over repeated testing across as long as 2 months and were resistant to perturbation through short-term manipulation of speech input. Listeners own speech productions were not predictive of how they weighted relative and absolute duration. Despite the theoretical advantage of relative (as opposed to absolute) duration cues across contexts, relative cues are not utilized by all listeners. Moreover, examination of individual differences in cue weighting is a useful tool in exposing the complex relationship between perceptual cue weighting and language regularities. PMID:23231125

Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L; Seltman, Howard

2012-12-01

433

Individual differences in visual word recognition: insights from the English Lexicon Project.  

PubMed

Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly 4 million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Sibley, Daragh E; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-02-01

434

The Big Picture of Individual Differences in Physical Activity Behavior Change: A Transdisciplinary Approach  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. PMID:21278837

Nilsson, Renea; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Magnan, Renee E.; Marcus, Bess H.; Hutchison, Kent E.

2010-01-01

435

Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

Lieberman, Matthew D.

2010-01-01

436

Individual differences in cue weights are stable across time: The case of Japanese stop lengthsa  

PubMed Central

Speech categories are defined by multiple acoustic dimensions, and listeners give differential weighting to dimensions in phonetic categorization. The informativeness (predictive strength) of dimensions for categorization is considered an important factor in determining perceptual weighting. However, it is unknown how the perceptual system weighs acoustic dimensions with similar informativeness. This study investigates perceptual weighting of two acoustic dimensions with similar informativeness, exploiting the absolute and relative durations that are nearly equivalent in signaling Japanese singleton and geminate stop categories. In the perception experiments, listeners showed strong individual differences in their perceptual weighting of absolute and relative durations. Furthermore, these individual patterns were stable over repeated testing across as long as 2 months and were resistant to perturbation through short-term manipulation of speech input. Listeners own speech productions were not predictive of how they weighted relative and absolute duration. Despite the theoretical advantage of relative (as opposed to absolute) duration cues across contexts, relative cues are not utilized by all listeners. Moreover, examination of individual differences in cue weighting is a useful tool in exposing the complex relationship between perceptual cue weighting and language regularities. PMID:23231125

Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L.; Seltman, Howard

2012-01-01

437

Quadruplex-single nucleotide polymorphisms (Quad-SNP) influence gene expression difference among individuals  

PubMed Central

Non-canonical guanine quadruplex structures are not only predominant but also conserved among bacterial and mammalian promoters. Moreover recent findings directly implicate quadruplex structures in transcription. These argue for an intrinsic role of the structural motif and thereby posit that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that compromise the quadruplex architecture could influence function. To test this, we analysed SNPs within quadruplex motifs (Quad-SNP) and gene expression in 270 individuals across four populations (HapMap) representing more than 14?500 genotypes. Findings reveal significant association between quadruplex-SNPs and expression of the corresponding gene in individuals (P?difference in promoter activity in the ‘quadruplex-destabilized’ versus ‘quadruplex-intact’ promoter was noticed. As a further test, we incorporated a quadruplex motif or its disrupted counterpart within a synthetic promoter reporter construct. The quadruplex motif, and not the disrupted-motif, enhanced transcription in human cell lines of different origin. Together, these findings build direct support for quadruplex-mediated transcription and suggest quadruplex-SNPs may play significant role in mechanistically understanding variations in gene expression among individuals. PMID:22238381

Baral, Aradhita; Kumar, Pankaj; Halder, Rashi; Mani, Prithvi; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Ankita; Das, Swapan K.; Chowdhury, Shantanu

2012-01-01

438

A virtual trajectory model predicts differences in vocal fold kinematics in individuals with vocal hyperfunction1  

PubMed Central

A simple, one degree of freedom virtual trajectory model of vocal fold kinematics was developed to investigate whether kinematic features of vocal fold movement confirm increased muscle stiffness. Model simulations verified that increases in stiffness were associated with changes in kinematic parameters, suggesting that increases in gesture rate would affect kinematic features to a lesser degree in vocal hyperfunction patients given the increased levels of muscle tension they typically employ to phonate. This hypothesis was tested experimentally in individuals with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD; N=10) and vocal nodules (N=10) relative to controls with healthy normal voice (N=10) who were examined with trans-nasal endoscopy during a simple vocal fold abductory-adductory task. Kinematic measures in MTD patients were less affected by increased gesture rate, consistent with the hypothesis that these individuals have elevated typical laryngeal muscle tension. Group comparisons of the difference between medium and fast gesture rates (Mann–Whitney, one-tailed) showed statistically significant differences between the control and MTD individuals on the two kinematic features examined (p<0.05). Results in nodules participants were mixed and are discussed independently. The findings support the potential use of vocal fold kinematics as an objective clinical assay of vocal hyperfunction. PMID:21117765

Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

2010-01-01

439

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and "Autistic" Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

440

Developmental trends and individual differences in brain systems involved in intertemporal choice during adolescence.  

PubMed

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural systems activated during an intertemporal choice task in a group of 14- to 19-year-old adolescents, as well as the relationship of such activation patterns to individual differences in the self-reported ability to engage in nonimmediate thinking (i.e., less impulsive and more future-oriented thoughts and action). With increasing age, there was greater differentiation between patterns of brain activity for immediate versus future choices across three distinct brain systems involved in intertemporal choice--those involved in exerting control over behavior, attributing affective value to choices, and imagining future outcomes. Furthermore, a greater propensity toward self-reported nonimmediate thinking was associated with decreased activity in the systems involved in cognitive control, possibly suggesting that individuals with greater self-reported nonimmediate thinking need to rely less on cognitive control regions during conditions of intertemporal choice. These results highlight the role that both developmental age and individual differences play in influencing neural systems involved in intertemporal choice. Implications for understanding the onset of substance abuse disorders during adolescence are discussed. PMID:23586454

Banich, Marie T; De La Vega, Alejandro; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Mackiewicz Seghete, Kristen; Du, Yiping; Claus, Eric D

2013-06-01

441

Likelihood-based confidence intervals for the risk difference of two-sample binary data with a fallible classifier and a gold standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop likelihood-based confidence intervals for risk difference in two-sample misclassified binary data. Such data consist of two studies. The first study is the main study where individuals are classified by an inexpensive fallible classifier which may misclassify. The second study is a validation substudy where individuals are classified by using both the fallible classifier and an expensive gold standard

Dewi Rahardja; Yan D. Zhao

2011-01-01

442

Asthma and rhinitis symptoms in individuals from different socioeconomic levels in a Brazilian city.  

PubMed

Allergy is considered to be caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Socioeconomic status (SES) may be the most important environmental determinant of allergy because it determines the living environment, but few studies have addressed the causal role of SES in allergy. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in two SES groups in a Brazilian city. History of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was collected using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. SES was determined by the Gallup method. Sera from subgroups of the individuals were used to determine total, anti-Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and anti-Blomia tropicalis IgE. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was higher in the A and B (A&B) SES group than in the C, D, and E (C, D&E) SES group. Individuals with asthma and/or rhinitis were more frequently positive for anti-B. tropicalis and anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE than individuals without these symptoms. A positive association between total IgE levels and asthma and rhinitis symptoms was observed in the A&B SES group but not in the C, D&E SES group. Women reported more respiratory symptoms than men. These results revealed higher prevalence rates ofasthma and rhinitis symptoms in individuals with higher SES and may provide support for the hygiene hypothesis, which attributes the high prevalence of respiratory allergies observed in individuals from developed countries to a low exposure to pathogens. The observed higher prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in women than in men could be attributed to differences in the perception of these symptoms or in exposures to allergens and protective pathogens. PMID:17619568

Baqueiro, Tiana; Pontes-de-carvalho, Lain; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Santos, Nilza Maria; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2007-01-01

443

Individual differences in neural regions functionally related to real and imagined stuttering.  

PubMed

Recent brain imaging investigations of developmental stuttering show considerable disagreement regarding which regions are related to stuttering. These divergent findings have been mainly derived from group studies. To investigate functional neurophysiology with improved precision, an individual-participant approach (N=4) using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and test-retest reliability measures was performed while participants produced fluent and stuttered single words during two separate occasions. A parallel investigation required participants to imagine stuttering or not stuttering on single words. The overt and covert production tasks produced considerable within-subject agreement of activated voxels across occasions, but little within-subject agreement between overt and covert task activations. However, across-subject agreement for regions activated by the overt and covert tasks was minimal. These results suggest that reliable effects of stuttering are participant-specific, an implication that might correspond to individual differences in stuttering severity and functional compensation due to related structural abnormalities. PMID:23333668

Wymbs, Nicholas F; Ingham, Roger J; Ingham, Janis C; Paolini, Katherine E; Grafton, Scott T

2013-02-01

444

Individual differences in neural regions functionally related to real and imagined stuttering  

PubMed Central

Recent brain imaging investigations of developmental stuttering show considerable disagreement regarding which regions are related to stuttering. These divergent findings have been mainly derived from group studies. To investigate functional neurophysiology with improved precision, an individual-participant approach (N = 4) using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and test-retest reliability measures was performed while participants produced fluent and stuttered single words during two separate occasions. A parallel investigation required participants to imagine stuttering or not stuttering on single words. The overt and covert production tasks produced considerable within-subject agreement of activated voxels across occasions, but little within-subject agreement between overt and covert task activations. However, across-subject agreement for regions activated by the overt and covert tasks was minimal. These results suggest that reliable effects of stuttering are participant-specific, an implication that might correspond to individual differences in stuttering severity and functional compensation due to related structural abnormalities. PMID:23333668

Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Ingham, Roger J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Paolini, Katherine E.; Grafton, Scott T.

2013-01-01

445

Emotional fit with culture: a predictor of individual differences in relational well-being.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture. PMID:24364853

De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon

2014-04-01

446

Verbal working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual differences.  

PubMed

Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571

Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G

2014-08-01

447

Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul fight operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-d trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. These patterns are very similar to those reported by Gander and Graeber and by Gander et al. using high-fidelity sleep and activity monitoring equipment. Examination of the impact of two personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.

Chidester, T. R.

1990-01-01

448

Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul flight operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-d trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. These patterns are very similar to those reported by Gander and Graeber (1987) and by Gander et al. (1988), using high-fidelity sleep and activity monitoring equipment. Examination of the impact of two personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.

Chidester, Thomas R.

1990-01-01

449

Individual differences in emotion lateralisation and the processing of emotional information arising from social interactions.  

PubMed

Previous research examining the possible association between emotion lateralisation and social anxiety has found conflicting results. In this paper two studies are presented to assess two aspects related to different features of social anxiety: fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and emotion regulation. Lateralisation for the processing of facial emotion was measured using the chimeric faces test. Individuals with greater FNE were more strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere for the processing of anger, happiness and sadness; and, for the processing of fearful faces the relationship was found for females only. Emotion regulation strategies were reduced to two factors: positive strategies and negative strategies. For males, but not females, greater reported use of negative emotion strategies is associated with stronger right hemisphere lateralisation for processing negative emotions. The implications for further understanding the neuropsychological processing of emotion in individuals with social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24921427

Bourne, Victoria J; Watling, Dawn

2015-01-01

450

Individual differences of cerebrovascular responses to gravitational stress — Prediction of orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment was designed to investigate the individual differences in the cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress. Seven male volunteers were exposed to head-up tilt (HUT) at 60 degrees for 15 min and to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at 30 mmHg for 25 min. We measured the flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery and the quantity of the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb) in the brain. Based upon oxy-Hb change during exposure to HUT, we classified the subjects into two groups: 1) the "good responder" group in which the oxy-Hb gradually increased from the 5th to 10th minute of HUT; 2) the "bad responder" group in which the oxy-Hb stabilized at lower levels after the initial decrease. The oxy-Hb changes between the two groups were significantly different during exposure to LBNP. During exposure to HUT and LBNP, no significant difference was observed in blood pressure and heart rate between the two groups. Our results suggest that there might be an individual difference in the cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress.

Ueno, T.; Yoshimoto, S.; Mayanagi, Y.; Yumikura, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Miyamoto, A.; Yajima, K.

451

Secular changes in standards of bodily attractiveness in American women: different masculine and feminine ideals.  

PubMed

Silverstein, Peterson, and Perdue (1986) studied changes in curvaceousness of the models in Vogue magazine over time and found that curvaceousness was inversely correlated with American women's participation in higher education and the professions. In the present study, it was predicted that the male standard for women's bodily attractiveness would differ from the female standard and would change differently over time, based on evolutionary theory. Published data on the bodily curvaceousness of models in Playboy and Vogue and on Miss America winners were used to test this hypothesis. Although they did not differ on average, the male and female standards changed differently over time. There was less variation in the male standard, represented by Playboy and by Miss America winners, than in the female standard, represented by Vogue. Results suggest that cultural standards of attractiveness are influenced by an evolved psychology of mate selection that has implications for understanding changes in the standard of attractiveness and its relation to eating disorders. PMID:9447727

Barber, N

1998-01-01

452

Individual Variation in Cone Photoreceptor Density in House Sparrows: Implications for Between-Individual Differences in Visual Resolution and Chromatic Contrast  

PubMed Central

Between-individual variation has been documented in a wide variety of taxa, especially for behavioral characteristics; however, intra-population variation in sensory systems has not received similar attention in wild animals. We measured a key trait of the visual system, the density of retinal cone photoreceptors, in a wild population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We tested whether individuals differed from each other in cone densities given within-individual variation across the retina and across eyes. We further tested whether the existing variation could lead to individual differences in two aspects of perception: visual resolution and chromatic contrast. We found consistent between-individual variation in the densities of all five types of avian cones, involved in chromatic and achromatic vision. Using perceptual modeling, we found that this degree of variation translated into significant between-individual differences in visual resolution and the chromatic contrast of a plumage signal that has been associated with mate choice and agonistic interactions. However, there was no evidence for a relationship between individual visual resolution and chromatic contrast. The implication is that some birds may have the sensory potential to perform “better” in certain visual tasks, but not necessarily in both resolution and contrast simultaneously. Overall, our findings (a) highlight the need to consider multiple individuals