Science.gov

Sample records for individual differences standardization

  1. Individual Differences in Cognitive Editing Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale; Dallinger, Judith M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines how people edit arguments prior to speaking, and what editorial criteria (effectiveness, principled objection to argument type, person-centered issues, and discourse competence) different types of people prefer. Notes that argumentativeness, verbal aggression, interpersonal orientation, and respondent gender are associated with use ofÖ

  2. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  3. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  4. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on individual differences in learning. "Creek Women's Perceptions of Work: A Qualitative Study" (Barbara Bussell Kawulich, Carol D. Hansen), which is an ethnographic study, discusses differences between the value systems held by Creek women and those of the mainstream population. "Subordinates'…

  5. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  6. A cognitive neuroscience based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: Standardization and initial construct validation

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ruben C.; Richard, Jan; Hughett, Paul; Calkins, Monica E.; Macy, Larry; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen; Gur, Raquel E.

    2009-01-01

    There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1 hour and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individual differences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multisite genetic studies and clinical trials. PMID:19945485

  7. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  8. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural plasticities observed at a given age. Several authors have predicted correlations across individuals between different types of behavioural plasticities, i.e. that some individuals will be generally more plastic than others. However, empirical support for most of these predictions, including indirect evidence from studies of relationships between personality traits and plasticities, is currently sparse and equivocal. The final section of this review suggests how an appreciation of the similarities and differences between different types of behavioural plasticities may help theoreticians formulate testable models to explain the evolution of individual differences in behavioural plasticities and the evolutionary and ecological consequences of individual differences in behavioural plasticities. PMID:25865135

  9. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  10. Individual Differences in Thought Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogliatto, Hermelinda M.

    In this research on individual differences in thought processes, the primary interest was to study the process followed by the subject in order to reach the solution of the problem. For this purpose, the performance of 38 experimental subjects was studied throughout 24 problems of the training sessions. The methods used were group norms, length of…

  11. Individual differences in pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Selected literature on individual differences in pilot performance is reviewed in order to indicate a possible direction for research. Approaches to studying pilot decision-making processes are discussed, with emphasis given to the wrong-model approach in which accident and incident data, or 'process tracing' provide experimental computational structures. Analysis of data from a simulator experiment on V/STOL zero-visibility landing performance suggests that the order of ranking of individual pilot's effectiveness varies with particular situations defined by combinations of tracking requirements (e.g., glide slope, localizer) and glide-slope segment, or speed requirements; the data are being further analyzed.

  12. Individual Differences in Trauma Disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided. PMID:22080869

  13. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  14. Individual differences in musical taste.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between (usually a narrow set of) personality dimensions and liking for a small number of individual musical styles. To date there has been no attempt to investigate, within a single methodology, the extent to which personality factors correlate with liking for a very wide range of musical styles. To address this, 36,518 participants rated their liking for 104 musical styles, completed a short form of the Big 5 personality inventory, and provided other data about their favorite musical styles. Personality factors were related to both liking for the musical styles and participants' reasons for listening to this music. However, on the whole these latter variables were related more closely to participants' age, sex, and income than to Big 5 scores. Thus, personality is related to musical taste, but other individual differences are arguably related more closely. PMID:20518436

  15. Standards for Services for Developmentally Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Provided are standards for agencies and hospitals serving developmentally disabled persons with emphasis on planning and implementing individual programs. The introduction provides information on the establishment of the Accreditation Council for Services for Mentally Retarded and Other Developmentally Disabled Persons and the Joint Commission onÖ

  16. Individual Differences and Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…

  17. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional…

  18. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected byÖ

  19. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  20. Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

  1. Standards of Scientific Conduct: Disciplinary Differences.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Michael; Sweet, Monica; Plemmons, Dena

    2015-10-01

    Teaching of responsible conduct of research is largely predicated on the assumption that there are accepted standards of conduct that can be taught. However there is little evidence of consensus in the scientific community about such standards, at least for the practices of authorship, collaboration, and data management. To assess whether such differences in standards are based on disciplinary differences, a survey, described previously, addressing standards, practices, and perceptions about teaching and learning was distributed in November 2010 to US faculty from 50 graduate programs for the biomedical disciplines of microbiology, neuroscience, nursing, and psychology. Despite evidence of statistically significant differences across the four disciplines, actual differences were quite small. Stricter measures of effect size indicated practically significant disciplinary differences for fewer than 10% of the questions. This suggests that the variation in individual standards of practice within each discipline is at least as great as variation due to differences among disciplines. Therefore, the need for discipline-specific training may not be as important as sometimes thought. PMID:25256408

  2. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood‚ÄĒreversible state effects. We define these as ‚Äėreversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness‚Äô, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  3. Individual differences, intelligence, and behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  4. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  5. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‚Äėcrossfertilisation‚Äô among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  6. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6¬†years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0¬†% of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of ő≤ estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  7. Individual Differences in Early Child Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports three studies concerning individual differences in children's use of consonants during early phonological development. The findings indicate that these differences fall within a predictable range, that the linguistic environment cannot account for several of them, and that they are partly due to variations in the choice of lexical items.…

  8. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  9. Individual differences in negative affect repair.

    PubMed

    Hemenover, Scott H; Augustine, Adam A; Shulman, Tirza; Tran, Tuan Q; Barlett, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    The extant literature implicates affect repair ability as one source of individual differences in negative affect. Emerging from this literature are three regulatory traits that should predict repair ability (negative mood regulation expectancies, monitoring, labeling), yet no experimental examination of this possibility exists. Two studies explored this issue. Participants (Ns=305, 146) watched negative affect-inducing videos and completed a repair or control writing task, before and after which they reported their affect. Results revealed wide individual differences in repair ability. Specifically, participants with high expectancies of repair success and those who attend to and understand their affect experienced the largest decreases in negative affect and largest increases in positive affect following the repair tasks. These findings advance understanding of individual differences in affect regulation and have implications for future research. PMID:18729579

  10. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Individual drain systems. 61.346 Section 61.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations § 61.346...

  11. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  12. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  13. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  14. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  15. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  16. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educationalÖ

  17. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire ¬Ė GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men¬ís health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers¬í health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers¬í individual differences. PMID:25578002

  18. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  19. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  20. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  1. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  2. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  3. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  4. Exploring individual differences in preschoolers' causal stance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E

    2016-03-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In this study, we explored the coherence and short-term stability of individual differences in children's causal stance. We also began to investigate the origins of this variability, focusing particularly on the potential role of mothers' explanatory talk in shaping the causal stance of their children. Two measures of causal stance correlated with each other, as well as themselves across time. Both also revealed internal consistency of response. The strength of children's causal stance also correlated with mother's responses on the same tasks and the frequency with which mothers emphasized causality during naturalistic joint activities with their children. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689761

  5. An individual difference analysis of false recognition.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, Timothy A; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2007-01-01

    Two studies with moderately large samples of participants were conducted to examine correlates of false recognition. In Experiment 1 false recognition of words was found to be a robust and reliable phenomenon at the level of individuals, and the tendency to classify critical lures as old was more closely related to the correct classification of old items as old than to the incorrect classification of unrelated new items as old. False recognition was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities that were assessed, including episodic memory, or to other factors such as personality and chronic mood. In Experiment 2 these findings were extended to include dot pattern and face stimuli. Although measures of veridical memory were significantly correlated across the different types of stimulus material, false recognition rates only had modest and generally not significant correlations, which suggests that the tendency to produce false recognitions may be a task-specific characteristic of individuals. PMID:17892087

  6. What standardized tests ignore when assessing individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Marcela; Campos, Ruth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In this article we critique the use of traditional standardized tests for the cognitive assessment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Limitations stem from the lack of integrating (a) results from research into the psychological functioning of these populations, and (b) the main arguments underlying models of human development. We identify four secondary issues in this discussion: (1) these instruments cannot be used with children who have particularly low cognitive functioning; (2) little or no variance in the scores obtained by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, because all are at floor, prevent adequate interpretations; (3) measurements do not provide information useful for the design of intervention strategies; and (4) different cognitive and/or neural processes may underlie behavioural scores Ďin the normal rangeí. Rethinking traditional assessment methods in favour of technologically-mediated games yields new cognitive assessment possibilities. PMID:26778874

  7. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range ‚Ää= 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

  8. Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors. PMID:23525147

  9. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment. PMID:26272366

  10. Individual Differences Reveal the Basis of Consonance

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Lehr, Andriana J.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Some combinations of musical notes are consonant (pleasant), while others are dissonant (unpleasant), a distinction central to music. Explanations of consonance in terms of acoustics, auditory neuroscience, and enculturation have been debated for centuries [1-12]. We utilized individual differences to distinguish the candidate theories. We measured preferences for musical chords as well as nonmusical sounds that isolated particular acoustic factors ‚Äď specifically, the beating and the harmonic relationships between frequency components, two factors that have long been thought to potentially underlie consonance [2, 3, 10, 13-20]. Listeners preferred stimuli without beats and with harmonic spectra, but across over 250 subjects, only the preference for harmonic spectra was consistently correlated with preferences for consonant over dissonant chords. Harmonicity preferences were also correlated with the number of years subjects had spent playing a musical instrument, suggesting that exposure to music amplifies preferences for harmonic frequencies because of their musical importance. Harmonic spectra are prominent features of natural sounds, and our results indicate they also underlie the perception of consonance. PMID:20493704

  11. Differing types of medical prevention appeal to different individuals.

    PubMed

    Bouckaert, Nicolas; Schokkaert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    We analyze participation in medical prevention with an expected utility model that is sufficiently rich to capture diverging features of different prevention procedures. The predictions of the model are not rejected with data from SHARE. A decrease in individual health decreases participation in breast cancer screening and dental prevention and increases participation in influenza vaccination, cholesterol screening, blood pressure screening, and blood sugar screening. Positive income effects are most pronounced for dental prevention. Increased mortality risk is an important predictor in the model for breast cancer screening, but not for the other procedures. Targeted screening and vaccination programs increase participation. PMID:26188378

  12. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution. PMID:22871043

  13. Why do Different Individuals Progress Along Different Life Trajectories?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    The core marker of progress in psychological science is the degree to which our work enhances the welfare of persons. In order to effectively enhance human welfare, one compelling challenge we face is to develop comprehensive models to explain why different individuals progress along different life trajectories. Exciting theoretical accounts that describe transitional processes from gene polymorphisms through moment-to-moment behavior are beginning to emerge. These early accounts highlight opportunities to investigate specific transitional steps along that long pathway, the need to understand the universal and the contextual aspects of psychological processes, and the need to define and measure psychological constructs with more precision and clarity. It is likely that creative new research in each of these areas will bring enormous progress over the coming decade. PMID:19672328

  14. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  15. Individual differences in spatial cognition influence mental simulation of language.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Williams, John N

    2015-09-01

    The factors that contribute to perceptual simulation during sentence comprehension remain underexplored. Extant research on perspective taking in language has largely focused on linguistic constraints, such as the role of pronouns in guiding perspective adoption. In the present study, we identify preferential usage of egocentric and allocentric reference frames in individuals, and test the two groups on a standard sentence-picture verification task. Across three experiments, we show that individual biases in spatial reference frame adoption observed in non-linguistic tasks influence visual simulation of perspective in language. Our findings suggest that typically reported grand-averaged effects may obscure important between-subject differences, and support proposals arguing for representational pluralism, where perceptual information is integrated dynamically and in a way that is sensitive to contextual and especially individual constraints. PMID:26036923

  16. Individual differences in face processing captured by ERPs.

    PubMed

    Turano, Maria Teresa; Marzi, Tessa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2016-03-01

    A rapid neural adaptation procedure and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were employed to study individual differences in Good and Bad recognizers in face perception. The major goal was to characterize the sensitivity of the P100 and the N170 to the identity repetition effect as a function of inter-individual perceptual abilities. For these purposes an integrated methodological approach was used in which a self-report, a standardized test and behavioral performances were combined with ERPs measures. Specifically, two groups of face recognizers (Good and Bad recognizers) were selected by means of a self-report questionnaire on face recognition abilities (The Italian Face Abilities Questionnaire) and the scoring at the Cambridge Face Memory Test. The P100 showed an early neural tuning for faces in Good recognizers. The N170 triggered by the adaptor showed face specificity compared to cars but, importantly, only Good recognizers showed a decreased amplitude of N170 for test faces of the same identity compared to test faces of different identity while this was not the case for Bad recognizers. These results show that ERPs are a suitable and sensitive tool to tap individual differences in face recognition. In conclusion, our results show the importance of considering inter-individual different perceptual abilities in face processing research. PMID:26747730

  17. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  18. AB076. Standardization and individualization in controlled ovarian stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complexity of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), in its decision-making process, there are a number of factors that should be taken into consideration, like the choices of gonadotropins (Gn) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, COS and luteal phase support protocols, et al. Based on experience from over 30 years of practice, physicians have come to an agreement that more oocytes resulted from an aggressive COS strategy is not always better, while we should do a comprehensive evaluation about the trade-off between maximal accumulative live birth rate and the medical and monetary burden, including the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and high-order multiple gestations. In order to individualize COS treatment, the key is to standardize evaluation and categorization of the patients undergoing COS treatment. All the patients could be generally divided into four categories: normal responders, slow responders, hyper responders and poor responders. Most young patients undergoing COS treatment with undiminished ovarian reserve should be categorized as normal responders. For these patients, large-scale meta-analysis suggests that the optimal daily recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (recFSH) stimulation dose is 150-225 IU/day, and patient-tailored adjustment should done based on individual patients characteristics including basal FSH, Anti-M√ľllerian hormone (AMH), body mass index and age et al. The definition of the term ‚Äėhyper response‚Äô refers to the retrieval of >15 oocytes and a rapid rise in estradiol levels. Previous history of OHSS and makers of ovarian reserve, in particular AMH and antral follicle counting (AFC) strongly suggest the possibility of showing a high response to a standard COS protocol. The prevalence of hyper response in all IVF cycles is estimated to be 3-6%. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased Gn sensitivities and present a higher risk of developing OHSS. The narrow margin between an inadequate Gn dose and excessive stimulation (OHSS) is a challenging situation. An inadequate Gn dose is not capable to stimulate multiple follicles development, resulting in cycle cancellation, while excessive ovarian stimulation in these patients commonly leading to a certain degree of OHSS. A low starting dose of Gn, 37.5 IU, is recommended by the consensus on PCOS infertility treatment endorsed by both the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Poor ovarian response indicates a reduction in follicular response, at least two of the following features must be present: (I) advanced maternal age (‚Č•40 years) or any other risk factor for poor ovarian response; (II) a previous poor ovarian response (‚ȧ3 oocytes with a conventional stimulation protocol); (III) an abnormal ovarian reserve test (i.e., AFC <5-7 follicles or AMH <0.5-1.1 ng/mL). For these poor responders, the supplementation of recLH is beneficial. Significantly more oocytes and better clinical pregnancy rate could be achieved in women treated with recFSH plus recLH vs. recFSH alone. In our reproductive medical center, a comprehensive protocol is employed to better the outcomes of the poor responders, including DHEA pretreatment, oral contraceptive pretreatment, high-dose recFSH priming, supplementation of recLH et al. Besides these categories of patients with different sensitivity to ovarian stimulation, slow responders are featured by no follicles larger than 10 mm and low estradiol level (E2 <180 pg/mL) on the 6th day of stimulation. The velocity of their follicle development is also reduced (<2 mm for three consecutive days). According to our practice, adding recombinant luteinizing hormone might be beneficial.

  19. Analysis of individual differences in radiosensitivity using genome editing.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, S; Royba, E; Akutsu, S N; Yanagihara, H; Ochiai, H; Kudo, Y; Tashiro, S; Miyamoto, T

    2016-06-01

    Current standards for radiological protection of the public have been uniformly established. However, individual differences in radiosensitivity are suggested to exist in human populations, which could be caused by nucleotide variants of DNA repair genes. In order to verify if such genetic variants are responsible for individual differences in radiosensitivity, they could be introduced into cultured human cells for evaluation. This strategy would make it possible to analyse the effect of candidate nucleotide variants on individual radiosensitivity, independent of the diverse genetic background. However, efficient gene targeting in cultured human cells is difficult due to the low frequency of homologous recombination (HR) repair. The development of artificial nucleases has enabled efficient HR-mediated genome editing to be performed in cultured human cells. A novel genome editing strategy, 'transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated two-step single base pair editing', has been developed, and this was used to introduce a nucleotide variant associated with a chromosomal instability syndrome bi-allelically into cultured human cells to demonstrate that it is the causative mutation. It is proposed that this editing technique will be useful to investigate individual radiosensitivity. PMID:27012844

  20. Individual differences in mental rotation: What does gesture tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Göksun, Tilbe; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Newcombe, Nora; Shipley, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gestures are common when people convey spatial information, for example, when they give directions or describe motion in space. Here we examine the gestures speakers produce when they explain how they solved mental rotation problems (Shepard & Meltzer, 1971). We asked whether speakers gesture differently while describing their problems as a function of their spatial abilities. We found that low-spatial individuals (as assessed by a standard paper-and-pencil measure) gestured more to explain their solutions than high-spatial individuals. While this finding may seem surprising, finer-grained analyses showed that low-spatial participants used gestures more often than high-spatial participants to convey ‚Äústatic only‚ÄĚ information but less often than high-spatial participants to convey dynamic information. Furthermore, the groups differed in the types of gestures used to convey static information: high-spatial individuals were more likely than low-spatial individuals to use gestures that captured the internal structure of the block forms. Our gesture findings thus suggest that encoding block structure may be as important as rotating the blocks in mental spatial transformation. PMID:23423638

  1. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts. PMID:20798810

  2. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Single Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Single case designs are a set of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by assigning different treatments to the same individual and measuring outcomes over time and are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single case designs have focused attention on…

  3. The role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Amy; Popovska, Ana; Dabova, Milena

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the role of scripts in personal consistency and individual differences. Scripts are personally distinctive rules for understanding emotionally significant experiences. In 2 studies, scripts were identified from autobiographical memories of college students (Ns‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ47 and 50) using standard categories of events and emotions to derive event-emotion compounds (e.g., Affiliation-Joy). In Study 1, scripts predicted responses to a reaction-time task 1 month later, such that participants responded more quickly to the event from their script when asked to indicate what emotion would be evoked by a series of events. In Study 2, individual differences in 5 common scripts were found to be systematically related to individual differences in traits of the Five-Factor Model. Distinct patterns of correlation revealed the importance of studying events and emotions in compound units, that is, in script form (e.g., Agreeableness was correlated with the script Affiliation-Joy but not with the scripts Fun-Joy or Affiliation-Love). PMID:21299561

  4. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…

  5. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  6. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatalÖ

  7. Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; L√ľdtke, Rainer; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0‚ÄČmm‚ÄČ=‚ÄČno pain, 100‚ÄČmm‚ÄČ=‚ÄČworst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (‚ąí33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017. PMID:24288556

  8. Developmental and Individual Differences in Chinese Writing

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the generalizability of a model of the underlying dimensions of written composition across writing systems (Chinese Mandarin vs. English) and level of writing skill. A five-factor model of writing originally developed from analyses of 1st and 4th grade English writing samples was applied to Chinese writing samples obtained from 4th and 7th grade students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fits of alternative models of written composition. The results suggest that the five-factor model of written composition generalizes to Chinese writing samples and applies to both less skilled (Grade 4) and more skilled (Grade 7) writing, with differences in factor means between grades that vary in magnitude across factors. PMID:26038631

  9. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  10. Reliable Individual Differences in Preterm Infants' Excitation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korner, Anneliese F.

    1996-01-01

    Determined whether individual neonate characteristics could be detected and reliably measured in preterm infants. Results showed that preterms were highly self-consistent in their reactions to stimuli from neurobehavioral assessments. Highly reliable individual differences among infants were also seen. Individual consistencies and differences inÖ

  11. Decoding Developmental Differences and Individual Variability in Response Inhibition Through Predictive Analyses Across Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica R.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Sabb, Fred W.; Bilder, Robert M.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Knowlton, Barbara J.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    Response inhibition is thought to improve throughout childhood and into adulthood. Despite the relationship between age and the ability to stop ongoing behavior, questions remain regarding whether these age-related changes reflect improvements in response inhibition or in other factors that contribute to response performance variability. Functional neuroimaging data shows age-related changes in neural activity during response inhibition. While traditional methods of exploring neuroimaging data are limited to determining correlational relationships, newer methods can determine predictability and can begin to answer these questions. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to determine which aspects of neural function predict individual differences in age, inhibitory function, response speed, and response time variability. We administered a stop-signal task requiring rapid inhibition of ongoing motor responses to healthy participants aged 9‚Äď30. We conducted a standard analysis using GLM and a predictive analysis using high-dimensional regression methods. During successful response inhibition we found regions typically involved in motor control, such as the ACC and striatum, that were correlated with either age, response inhibition (as indexed by stop-signal reaction time; SSRT), response speed, or response time variability. However, when examining which variables neural data could predict, we found that age and SSRT, but not speed or variability of response execution, were predicted by neural activity during successful response inhibition. This predictive relationship provides novel evidence that developmental differences and individual differences in response inhibition are related specifically to inhibitory processes. More generally, this study demonstrates a new approach to identifying the neurocognitive bases of individual differences. PMID:20661296

  12. Matching effects on eating. Individual differences do make a difference!

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2012-04-01

    Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two expressive individuals and moderately for dyads with one expressive participant. For dyads with two unexpressive participants, there was no evidence for matching behavior. Highly expressive people seem to be able to synchronize with others and thereby allow for close matching. This is the first study to show an influence of personality on matching consumption behavior. PMID:22182829

  13. Speech rhythm sensitivity and musical aptitude: ERPs and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Magne, Cyrille; Jordan, Deanna K; Gordon, Reyna L

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the electrophysiological markers of rhythmic expectancy during speech perception. In addition, given the large literature showing overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and music, we considered a relation between musical aptitude and individual differences in speech rhythm sensitivity. Twenty adults were administered a standardized assessment of musical aptitude, and EEG was recorded as participants listened to sequences of four bisyllabic words for which the stress pattern of the final word either matched or mismatched the stress pattern of the preceding words. Words with unexpected stress patterns elicited an increased fronto-central mid-latency negativity. In addition, rhythm aptitude significantly correlated with the size of the negative effect elicited by unexpected iambic words, the least common type of stress pattern in English. The present results suggest shared neurocognitive resources for speech rhythm and musical rhythm. PMID:26828758

  14. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…

  15. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. AlthoughÖ

  16. Individual Differences in Virtual Environments--Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; Czerwinski, Mary; Macredie, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Presents a brief historical overview of research in individual differences in the context of virtual environments. Highlights the notion of structure in the perception of individual users of an information system and the role of individuals' abilities to recognize and use such structures to perform various information-intensive tasks. (Author/LRW)

  17. The Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Everett

    This study compared three ways of analyzing individual mother-infant attachment behaviors in order to test the hypothesis that success in the search for stable individual differences in attachment behavior is in part a function of the level at which behavior individuality is assessed. Fifty infants were videotaped in the Ainsworth and WittigÖ

  18. Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search.

    PubMed

    Reader, Simon M

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential net payoffs of exploration versus the exploitation of known acts. Informative cues could arise from both recent and early-life experiences, from both the social and physical environment. Open questions are the extent to which an individual's exploratory tendencies are fixed throughout life versus being flexibly adjusted according to prevailing conditions and the actions of other individuals, and the extent to which individual differences in exploration extend across domains and are independent of other processes. PMID:25982255

  19. Investigating Inter-Individual Differences in Short-Term Intra-Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…

  20. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours. PMID:20492087

  1. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  2. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  3. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extentÖ

  4. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of textÖ

  5. Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

  6. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  7. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  8. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  9. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  10. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  11. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  12. Individual differences in emotion word processing: A diffusion model analysis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christina J; Kuchinke, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The exploratory study investigated individual differences in implicit processing of emotional words in a lexical decision task. A processing advantage for positive words was observed, and differences between happy and fear-related words in response times were predicted by individual differences in specific variables of emotion processing: Whereas more pronounced goal-directed behavior was related to a specific slowdown in processing of fear-related words, the rate of spontaneous eye blinks (indexing brain dopamine levels) was associated with a processing advantage of happy words. Estimating diffusion model parameters revealed that the drift rate (rate of information accumulation) captures unique variance of processing differences between happy and fear-related words, with highest drift rates observed for happy words. Overall emotion recognition ability predicted individual differences in drift rates between happy and fear-related words. The findings emphasize that a significant amount of variance in emotion processing is explained by individual differences in behavioral data. PMID:26860908

  13. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....346 Section 61.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... opening is to provide dilution air to reduce the explosion hazard; (2) The opening is designed to...

  14. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....346 Section 61.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... opening is to provide dilution air to reduce the explosion hazard; (2) The opening is designed to...

  15. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....346 Section 61.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... opening is to provide dilution air to reduce the explosion hazard; (2) The opening is designed to...

  16. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....346 Section 61.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene... opening is to provide dilution air to reduce the explosion hazard; (2) The opening is designed to...

  17. What can individual differences reveal about face processing?

    PubMed Central

    Yovel, Galit; Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Faces are probably the most widely studied visual stimulus. Most research on face processing has used a group-mean approach that averages behavioral or neural responses to faces across individuals and treats variance between individuals as noise. However, individual differences in face processing can provide valuable information that complements and extends findings from group-mean studies. Here we demonstrate that studies employing an individual differences approach‚ÄĒexamining associations and dissociations across individuals‚ÄĒcan answer fundamental questions about the way face processing operates. In particular these studies allow us to associate and dissociate the mechanisms involved in face processing, tie behavioral face processing mechanisms to neural mechanisms, link face processing to broader capacities and quantify developmental influences on face processing. The individual differences approach we illustrate here is a powerful method that should be further explored within the domain of face processing as well as fruitfully applied across the cognitive sciences. PMID:25191241

  18. PREDICTORS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE RESPONSE TO OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purposes of this study were to identify personal characteristics which predict individual differences in acute response to ozone exposure and to develop a predictive model for decrements in FEV1 as a function of ozone concentration and individual predictors. esponse and predi...

  19. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  20. An Individual Differences Analysis of Double-Aspect Stimulus Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Huber, R. John

    Any theory of information processing must address both what is processed and how that processing takes place. Most studies investigating variables which alter physical dimension utilization have ignored the large individual differences in selective attention or cue utilization. A paradigm was developed using an individual focus on information…

  1. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J.; Fisher, Simon E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  2. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  3. Reproductive Performance of Mice in Disposable and Standard Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 ¬įF warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403

  4. Introversion and individual differences in middle ear acoustic reflex function.

    PubMed

    Bar-Haim, Yair

    2002-10-01

    A growing body of psychophysiological evidence points to the possibility that individual differences in early auditory processing may contribute to social withdrawal and introverted tendencies. The present study assessed the response characteristics of the acoustic reflex arc of introverted-withdrawn and extraverted-sociable individuals. Introverts displayed a greater incidence of abnormal middle ear acoustic reflexes and lower acoustic reflex amplitudes than extraverts. These findings were strongest for stimuli presented at a frequency of 2000 Hz. Results are discussed in light of the controversy concerning the anatomic loci (peripheral vs. central neuronal activity) of the individual differences between introverts and extraverts in early auditory processing. PMID:12374642

  5. Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Bertl, Bianca; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2012-08-01

    This study examined differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals on a range of personality and individual difference measures. A community sample of 540 individuals from the southern German-speaking area of central Europe completed a survey consisting of measures of the Big Five personality factors, Need for Uniqueness, Self-esteem, sensation seeking, Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Tattoos, tattoo possession, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that 22% of the total sample possessed at least one tattoo. Further analyses showed that, compared with non-tattooed (n = 420) individuals, tattooed participants (n = 120) had significantly higher scores on Extraversion, Experience Seeking, Need for Uniqueness, and held more positive Attitudes Toward Tattoos, although effect sizes of these group differences were generally small- to medium-sized. These results are considered in relation to the contemporary prevalence of tattoos in socioeconomically developed societies. PMID:23045851

  6. Individual Differences and Metacognitive Knowledge of Visual Search Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the ‚Äėtemplate‚Äô of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions. PMID:22066030

  7. Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

  8. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  9. Individual differences in learning predict the return of fear.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Samuel J; Hartley, Catherine A

    2015-09-01

    Using a laboratory analogue of learned fear (Pavlovian fear conditioning), we show that there is substantial heterogeneity across individuals in spontaneous recovery of fear following extinction training. We propose that this heterogeneity might stem from qualitative individual differences in the nature of extinction learning. Whereas some individuals tend to form a new memory during extinction, leaving their fear memory intact, others update the original threat association with new safety information, effectively unlearning the fear memory. We formalize this account in a computational model of fear learning and show that individuals who, according to the model, are more likely to form new extinction memories tend to show greater spontaneous recovery compared to individuals who appear to only update a single memory. This qualitative variation in fear and extinction learning may have important implications for understanding vulnerability and resilience to fear-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26100524

  10. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures. PMID:23242798

  11. Who withdraws? Psychological individual differences and employee withdrawal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G

    2016-04-01

    Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595754

  12. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the…

  13. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the…

  14. Individual differences in human annoyance response to noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R. G.; Hart, F. D.; Obrien, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Individual variations in annoyance and in susceptibility to noise were studied to establish a finer definition of the ingredients of the human annoyance response. The study involved interactions among a heterogeneous sample of human subjects, various noise stimuli, and different physical environments of exposure. Significant differences in annoyance ratings among the six noise stimuli, all equated for peak sound pressure level, were found.

  15. Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Kylie J.; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E.; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P.; Newell, Fiona N.; Mitchell, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in…

  16. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to…

  17. Variations in Cognitive Maps: Understanding Individual Differences in Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Steven M.; Schinazi, Victor R.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Epstein, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult toÖ

  18. Standardized Tests, Group Differences, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    1977-01-01

    The educational value of standardized tests and their fairness to racial and ethnic groups continue to be intensely debated issues that affect public policies. This article summarizes many of the prominent points of view and suggests a series of six policy alternatives as possible solutions to the controversies. (Editor/LBH)

  19. Individual Differences in Learning a Novel Discrete Motor Task

    PubMed Central

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2014-01-01

    Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

  20. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics (‚ÄúDogs bark‚ÄĚ) convey important information about categories and facilitate children‚Äôs learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N=104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents‚Äô essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children‚Äôs rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers‚Äô conceptual attitudes toward categories. PMID:24266531

  1. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  2. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels-genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental-constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer's disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  3. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  4. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  5. Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

  7. Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

  8. Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

  9. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  10. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phoneticÖ

  11. Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Day, Susan X.; McVay, Jason P.; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    Using data from published sources, the authors investigated J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) theory of interest types as an integrative framework for organizing individual differences variables that are used in counseling psychology. Holland's interest types were used to specify 2- and 3-dimensional interest structures. In Study 1, measures of…

  12. Explaining Individual Differences In Scholastic Behaviour and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, K.V.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Frederickson, Norah; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: This paper presents results from the first wave of a longitudinal study examining the effects of various psychosocial variables on scholastic achievement and behaviour at school. Aims: The main aim is to investigate the nature and strength of the effects of major individual difference dimensions on important outcome variables at school…

  13. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic…

  14. Determinants of Individual Differences in Infants' Reactions to Unfamiliar Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George A.; And Others

    In this study an attempt was made to measure variables which were expected to be related to individual differences in infants' social responsiveness toward strangers. The subjects were 48 infants (24 boys and 24 girls) between 8 and 13 months of age. Most were children of Cornell University faculty or graduate students, but a broad range of…

  15. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish

    2014-01-01

    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  16. Individual Differences in RIASEC Profile Similarity across Five Interest Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Taber, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    The present research indicated substantial variation within the 5 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) profiles obtained by each of 99 individuals who responded to the same 5 interest inventories. The authors concluded that the RIASEC indicators on each inventory probably reflect different portions of the…

  17. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  18. Individual Differences Attributed to Self-Correction in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, G. B.

    1981-01-01

    An appraisal was made of data reported by Clay (1969) as evidence for individual differences in self-correction behavior in children's reading. It was found that the index of incidence of self-correction used had several properties which could not be justified. (Author/SJL)

  19. Developmental and Individual Differences in Pure Numerical Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined developmental and individual differences in pure numerical estimation, the type of estimation that depends solely on knowledge of numbers. Children between kindergarten and 4th grade were asked to solve 4 types of numerical estimation problems: computational, numerosity, measurement, and number line. In Experiment 1,…

  20. Components of Individual Differences in Human Intelligence. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    This final report reviews the main theoretical and empirical developments concerning components of individual differences in human intelligence. The report is divided into three main sections. The first briefly reviews alternative approaches to understanding the nature of intelligence. The second provides the proposed componential metatheory, a…

  1. Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

    In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

  2. Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

  3. Individual Differences in the Fan Effect and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, M.F.; Conway, A.R.A.; Heitz, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    In opposition to conceptualizing working memory (WM) in terms of a general capacity, we present four experiments that favor the view that individual differences in WM depend on attentional control. High- and low-WM participants, as assessed by the operation span task, learned unrelated sentences for which the subject and predicate of the sentences…

  4. Understanding Individual Differences in Young Children's Imitative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Susan K.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2006-01-01

    Because early theoretical frameworks such as Piaget's stage model and social learning theory sought to explain the development and performance of imitation in terms of overall group trends, any evidence for individual differences in this behavior was until recently largely overlooked. Results of contemporary imitation studies have not only begun…

  5. Individual Differences in the Fan Effect and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, M.F.; Conway, A.R.A.; Heitz, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    In opposition to conceptualizing working memory (WM) in terms of a general capacity, we present four experiments that favor the view that individual differences in WM depend on attentional control. High- and low-WM participants, as assessed by the operation span task, learned unrelated sentences for which the subject and predicate of the sentencesÖ

  6. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N†=†68)Ö

  7. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  8. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects languageÖ

  9. Cultural Differences between Arabs and Americans: Individualism-Collectivism Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…

  10. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. PMID:25721566

  11. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  12. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  13. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  14. Dissociable mechanisms underlying individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie; de Jong, Ritske; Morey, Candice C; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2014-10-01

    Individuals scoring relatively high on measures of working memory tend to be more proficient at controlling attention to minimize the effect of distracting information. It is currently unknown whether such superior attention control abilities are mediated by stronger suppression of irrelevant information, enhancement of relevant information, or both. Here we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) with the Eriksen flanker task to track simultaneously the attention to relevant and irrelevant information by tagging target and distractors with different frequencies. This design allowed us to dissociate attentional biasing of perceptual processing (via SSVEPs) and stimulus processing in the frontal cognitive control network (via time-frequency analyses of EEG data). We show that while preparing for the upcoming stimulus, high- and low-WMC individuals use different strategies: High-WMC individuals show attentional suppression of the irrelevant stimuli, whereas low-WMC individuals demonstrate attentional enhancement of the relevant stimuli. Moreover, behavioral performance was predicted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in strength of distractor-suppression for high-WMC participants. We found no evidence for WMC-related differences in cognitive control network functioning, as measured by midfrontal theta-band power. Taken together, these findings suggest that early suppression of irrelevant information is a key underlying neural mechanism by which superior attention control abilities are implemented. PMID:24878830

  15. Individual differences during acquisition predict shifts in generalization.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Church, Barbara A; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Learning to distinguish subtle differences in objects or events can impact how one generalizes. In some cases, training can cause novel events to appear more familiar or attractive than those actually experienced during training: the peak shift effect. This study examined whether individual differences in learning led to systematic patterns of generalization. Participants were trained to identify simulated birdsongs, and then tested on their ability to identify a target song presented among several similar songs that differed in pitch. Initial analysis showed that those attaining moderate proficiency at discriminating songs during training were more likely to shift than those performing poorly or proficiently. However, a neural network trained to output individuals' gradient dynamics using only performance during training as input found an additional set of training variables that predicted shift. Specifically, one subset of shifters had highly conservative response biases accompanied by very little change to perceptual sensitivity in training. These findings suggest that discrimination learning may only lead to generalization shifts in some individuals, and that all individuals who shift may not do so for the same reason. PMID:24445021

  16. 10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual protection standard after permanent closure. 63.311 Section 63.311 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Postclosure Individual...

  17. Individual differences in the acquisition of second language phonology.

    PubMed

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic and the tonal contrasts, but there were considerable individual differences in performance. A category boundary effect during the post-training discrimination of the Hindi but not of the tonal contrast suggests different learning mechanisms for these two stimulus types. Specifically, our results suggest that successful learning of the speech sounds involves the formation of a long-term memory category representation for the new speech sound. PMID:18295875

  18. Neural correlates of individual differences in fear learning.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Shankman, Stewart A; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    Variability in fear conditionability is common, and clarity regarding the neural regions responsible for individual differences in fear conditionability could uncover brain-based biomarkers of resilience or vulnerability to trauma-based psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder). In recent years, neuroimaging work has yielded a detailed understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear conditioning common across participants, however only a minority of studies have investigated the brain basis of inter-individual variation in fear learning. Moreover, the majority of these studies have employed small sample sizes (mean n=17; range n=5-27) and all have failed to meet the minimum recommended sample size for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of individual differences. Here, using fMRI, we analyzed blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response recorded simultaneously with skin conductance response (SCR) and ratings of unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy in 49 participants undergoing Pavlovian fear conditioning. On average, participants became conditioned to the conditioned stimulus (CS+; higher US expectancy ratings and SCR for the CS+ compared to the unpaired conditioned stimulus, CS-); the CS+ also robustly increased activation in the bilateral insula. Amygdala activation was revealed from a regression analysis that incorporated individual differences in fear conditionability (i.e., a between-subjects regressor of mean CS+>CS- SCR). By replicating results observed using much smaller sample sizes, the results confirm that variation in amygdala reactivity covaries with individual differences in fear conditionability. The link between behavior (SCR) and brain (amygdala reactivity) may be a putative endophenotype for the acquisition of fear memories. PMID:25819422

  19. A capability model of individual differences in frontal EEG asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Allen, John J.B.; McKnight, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers interested in measuring individual differences in affective style via asymmetries in frontal brain activity have depended almost exclusively upon the resting state for EEG recording. This reflects an implicit conceptualization of affective style as a response predisposition that is manifest in frontal EEG asymmetry, with the goal to describe individuals in terms of their general approach or withdrawal tendencies. Alternatively, the response capability conceptualization seeks to identify individual capabilities for approach versus withdrawal responses during emotionally salient events. The capability approach confers a variety of advantages to the study of affective style and personality, and suggests new possibilities for the approach/withdrawal motivational model of frontal EEG asymmetry and emotion. Logical as well as empirical arguments supportive of this conclusion are presented. PMID:16316717

  20. A capability model of individual differences in frontal EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B; McKnight, Patrick E

    2006-05-01

    Researchers interested in measuring individual differences in affective style via asymmetries in frontal brain activity have depended almost exclusively upon the resting state for EEG recording. This reflects an implicit conceptualization of affective style as a response predisposition that is manifest in frontal EEG asymmetry, with the goal to describe individuals in terms of their general approach or withdrawal tendencies. Alternatively, the response capability conceptualization seeks to identify individual capabilities for approach versus withdrawal responses during emotionally salient events. The capability approach confers a variety of advantages to the study of affective style and personality, and suggests new possibilities for the approach/withdrawal motivational model of frontal EEG asymmetry and emotion. Logical as well as empirical arguments supportive of this conclusion are presented. PMID:16316717

  1. Individual Differences and Fitting Methods for the Two-Choice Diffusion Model of Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Childers, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Methods of fitting the diffusion model were examined with a focus on what the model can tell us about individual differences. Diffusion model parameters were obtained from the fits to data from two experiments and consistency of parameter values, individual differences, and practice effects were examined using different numbers of observations from each subject. Two issues were examined, first, what sizes of differences between groups can be obtained to distinguish between groups and second, what sizes of differences would be needed to find individual subjects that had a deficit relative to a control group. The parameter values from the experiments provided ranges that were used in a simulation study to examine recovery of individual differences. This study used several diffusion model fitting programs, fitting methods, and published packages. In a second simulation study, 64 sets of simulated data from each of 48 sets of parameter values (spanning the range of typical values obtained from fits to data) were fit with the different methods and biases and standard deviations in recovered model parameters were compared across methods. Finally, in a third simulation study, a comparison between a standard chi-square method and a hierarchical Bayesian method was performed. The results from these studies can be used as a starting point for selecting fitting methods and as a basis for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of using diffusion model analyses to examine individual differences in clinical, neuropsychological, and educational testing. PMID:26236754

  2. Individual differences in perceptual abilities predict target visibility during masking.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Silvia; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the visual system can implicitly process a single stimulus under conditions of low visibility. However, it remains unknown whether this ability extends when viewing conditions become more difficult, and whether differences in early perceptual abilities modulate masking sensitivity. To address these issues, participants enumerated a variable number of target elements among distracters in two electroencephalography experiments. Either one (Experiment 1) or all targets (Experiment 2) were masked through object-substitution. Results showed that an event-related potential measure of selective individuation, the N2pc component, was modulated by target numerosity in both masked and unmasked trials, suggesting that multiple object individuation can operate in conditions of limited visibility. However, this effect was present mainly for participants with low masking effects, who overall showed more pronounced N2pc modulations as a function of target numerosity. Finally, oscillatory activity analyses revealed that early segmentation mechanisms, as reflected by lateralized gamma synchronization, were more active in participants with low sensitivity to masking, suggesting that individual variation in early perceptual functions is associated with susceptibility to masking such that more efficient segmentation and individuation mechanisms reduce the effects of masking. These findings cast doubt on the claim that effectively masked stimuli can be individuated. PMID:25970761

  3. On the Motivational Properties of Reward Cues: Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Terry E.; Yager, Lindsay M.; Cogan, Elizabeth S.; Saunders, Benjamin T.

    2013-01-01

    Cues associated with rewards, such as food or drugs of abuse, can themselves acquire motivational properties. Acting as incentive stimuli, such cues can exert powerful control over motivated behavior, and in the case of cues associated with drugs, they can goad continued drug-seeking behavior and relapse. However, recent studies reviewed here suggest that there are large individual differences in the extent to which food and drug cues are attributed with incentive salience. Rats prone to approach reward cues (sign-trackers) attribute greater motivational value to discrete localizable cues and interoceptive cues than do rats less prone to approach reward cues (goal-trackers). In contrast, contextual cues appear to exert greater control over motivated behavior in goal-trackers than sign-trackers. It is possible to predict, therefore, before any experience with drugs, in which animals specific classes of drug cues will most likely reinstate drug-seeking behavior. The finding that different individuals may be sensitive to different triggers capable of motivating behavior and producing relapse suggests there may be different pathways to addiction, and has implications for thinking about individualized treatment. PMID:23748094

  4. Modeling individual differences in ferret external ear transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Booth, John; King, Andrew J.

    2003-04-01

    Individual variations in head and outer ear size, as well as growth of these structures during development, can markedly alter the values of the binaural and monaural cues which form the basis for auditory localization. This study investigated individual differences in the directional component of the head-related transfer function of both adult and juvenile ferrets. In line with previous studies in humans and cats, intersubject spectral differences were found to be reduced by scaling one of the directional transfer functions on a log-frequency axis. The optimal scale factor correlated most highly with pinna cavity height. Optimal frequency scaling reduced interear spectral difference equally well for adult-juvenile comparisons as for comparisons between pairs of adult ears. This illustrates that the developmental changes in localization cue values should be at least partly predictable on the basis of the expected growth rate of the outer ear structures. Predictions of interaural time differences (ITDs) were also derived from the physical dimensions of the head. ITDs were found to be poorly fitted by the spherical head model, while much better predictions could be derived from a model based on von Mises spherical basis functions. Together, these findings show how more accurate estimates of spatial cue values can be made from knowledge of the dimensions of the head and outer ears, and may facilitate the generation of virtual acoustic space stimuli in the absence of acoustical measurements from individual subjects.

  5. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages. PMID:25917143

  6. Musical Rhythm Discrimination Explains Individual Differences in Grammar Skills in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Yoder, Paul J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2015-01-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness,Ö

  7. Musical Rhythm Discrimination Explains Individual Differences in Grammar Skills in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Yoder, Paul J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2015-01-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness,…

  8. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: personality and individual difference predictors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Bridges, Stacey; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individual difference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that the predictor variables explained a large proportion of the variance in ACSS factors (Adj. R(2) ranging between .31 and .60). In addition, structural equation modelling revealed that distal factors (sex and age) were generally associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery through the mediate influence of more proximate variables (in the first instance, the Big Five personality factors, followed by self-esteem and conformity, and finally self-assessed attractiveness). These results allow for the presentation of a preliminary model integrating personality and individual differences in predicting acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:19041287

  9. Individual differences in perceived bitterness predict liking of sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kamerud, Jennifer K; Delwiche, Jeannine F

    2007-11-01

    Although recent molecular studies suggest that only one receptor and one signaling pathway are involved in the perception of sweetness, this seems to contradict everyday experience that people not only have different likes and dislikes of certain sweeteners but also perceive the sweeteners differently. One possible explanation is that variation in liking of sweeteners is due, in part, to variation across individuals in sensitivity to nonsweet tastes, such as bitterness, which are transduced by a variety of receptors. Fifty individuals were asked to rate intensities of several taste attributes of 10 sweeteners and to give hedonic assessments of each sweetener. Additionally, their sensitivity to 6-n-propyl-3-thiouracil (PROP) was determined. Results indicated that when matched for sweetness, the perception of bitterness and the sweetener compound were the 2 largest factors contributing to overall liking of a sweetener. Sensitivity to PROP did not contribute significantly to the model. PMID:17646203

  10. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  11. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels‚ÄĒgenetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental‚ÄĒconstitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer‚Äôs disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  12. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N†=†68) English-speaking children completed a test of comprehension of four syntactic structures, a test of SL utilizing nonlinguistic visual stimuli, and several additional control measures. The results revealed that SL independently predicted comprehension of two syntactic structures that show considerable variability in this age range: passives and object relative clauses. These data suggest that individual differences in children's capacity for SL are associated with the acquisition of the syntax of natural languages. PMID:26510168

  13. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; DiZio, P

    1991-06-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described. PMID:11540716

  14. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Maude; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; Mutch, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals. Methods Thirty adults (35‚Äď70 yrs) were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal). Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs) and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs). Results The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC) for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05). Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, ő≥-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid) showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA) and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids) were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC. Conclusion MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals. PMID:26274804

  15. Measures of Individual Differences in Taste and Creaminess Perception

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lenka; Green, Barry G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous reports that the sensitivity to the bitter tasting substance 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is related to the sensitivity to other tastes, to chemical irritants, and to fats and oils have led to adoption of PROP as a measure of general oral sensitivity and as a predictor of dietary habits that could impact health. The results, however, have not been consistent. It was recently discovered that the ability to perceive ďthermal tasteĒ (i.e., sweetness from thermal stimulation alone) was associated with higher responsiveness to 4 prototypical taste stimuli but not to PROP. This finding implied that individual differences in taste perception are determined in large part by factors other than those related to genetic expression of the PROP receptor. The present study followed up this observation by comparing individual differences in perception of 4 prototypical taste stimuli (sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine) and PROP under conditions that also enabled assessment of the reliability of individual intensity ratings of taste. Creaminess ratings of 3 milk products that had different fat contents were also collected to investigate further the relationship between taste and oral somatosensory perception. The results showed that intensity ratings across 2 trials were significantly correlated for all 5 taste stimuli and that averaging across replicates led to significant correlations among the 4 prototypical stimuli. In contrast, the bitterness of PROP was correlated only with the bitterness of quinine. None of the taste stimuli, including PROP, was significantly correlated with ratings of creaminess. These results imply 1) that with the exception of PROP, as few as 2 intensity ratings of common taste stimuli can reveal individual differences in overall taste perception and 2) that any relationship between taste and oral sensation is too weak to be detected under the same conditions. Accordingly, the results support other evidence that the genetic factors which determine the ability to perceive PROP do not play a major role in overall taste and oral somatosensory perception. PMID:18453638

  16. Individual differences of the contribution of chromatic channels to brightness.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, H; Kawada, A; Shioiri, S; Miyake, Y

    1993-06-01

    Perceived brightness is considered to be a combined consequence of outputs of the luminance channel and the chromatic channels in the visual system. The differences of logarithmic spectral luminous efficiencies between heterochromatic brightness matching and flicker photometry that were obtained from 16 subjects were examined by using principal component analysis. The luminous-efficiency difference between the two methods is described by only two principal components. Individual characteristics of the contribution of chromatic channels to brightness can be specified by measuring luminous efficiencies at 470 and 660 nm. PMID:8320595

  17. Developmental and individual differences in understanding of fractions.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Pyke, Aryn A

    2013-10-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children's fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the 2 grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  18. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th gradersí fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving childrenís fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  19. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Kr√§mer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; M√ľnte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish‚ÄďCatalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  20. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Ak√ßay, √áańülar; Campbell, S. Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or ‚Äėpersonality‚Äô in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009‚Äď2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait ‚Äėcommunicativeness‚Äô and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of ‚Äėunder-signalling‚Äô. PMID:24307671

  1. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the phenomenon of AP are also discussed. PMID:25909580

  2. Oscillation Encoding of Individual Differences in Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Colomer, Marc; Sebasti√°n-Gall√©s, N√ļria

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) phoneme perception (within the normal population) have been related to speech perception abilities, also observed in the native language, in studies assessing the electrophysiological response mismatch negativity (MMN). Here, we investigate the brain oscillatory dynamics in the theta band, the spectral correlate of the MMN, that underpin success in phoneme learning. Using previous data obtained in an MMN paradigm, the dynamics of cortical oscillations while perceiving native and unknown phonemes and nonlinguistic stimuli were studied in two groups of participants classified as good and poor perceivers (GPs and PPs), according to their L2 phoneme discrimination abilities. The results showed that for GPs, as compared to PPs, processing of a native phoneme change produced a significant increase in theta power. Stimulus time-locked analysis event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) showed differences for the theta band within the MMN time window (between 70 and 240 ms) for the native deviant phoneme. No other significant difference between the two groups was observed for the other phoneme or nonlinguistic stimuli. The dynamic patterns in the theta-band may reflect early automatic change detection for familiar speech sounds in the brain. The behavioral differences between the two groups may reflect individual variations in activating brain circuits at a perceptual level. PMID:24992269

  3. Oscillation encoding of individual differences in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu; D√≠az, Bego√Īa; Colomer, Marc; Sebasti√°n-Gall√©s, N√ļria

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) phoneme perception (within the normal population) have been related to speech perception abilities, also observed in the native language, in studies assessing the electrophysiological response mismatch negativity (MMN). Here, we investigate the brain oscillatory dynamics in the theta band, the spectral correlate of the MMN, that underpin success in phoneme learning. Using previous data obtained in an MMN paradigm, the dynamics of cortical oscillations while perceiving native and unknown phonemes and nonlinguistic stimuli were studied in two groups of participants classified as good and poor perceivers (GPs and PPs), according to their L2 phoneme discrimination abilities. The results showed that for GPs, as compared to PPs, processing of a native phoneme change produced a significant increase in theta power. Stimulus time-locked analysis event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) showed differences for the theta band within the MMN time window (between 70 and 240 ms) for the native deviant phoneme. No other significant difference between the two groups was observed for the other phoneme or nonlinguistic stimuli. The dynamic patterns in the theta-band may reflect early automatic change detection for familiar speech sounds in the brain. The behavioral differences between the two groups may reflect individual variations in activating brain circuits at a perceptual level. PMID:24992269

  4. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching. PMID:26620929

  5. On assessing individual differences in rumination on sadness.

    PubMed

    Conway, M; Csank, P A; Holm, S L; Blake, C K

    2000-12-01

    The Rumination on Sadness Scale (RSS), an individual-difference measure of rumination on sadness, was developed as an alternative to the Ruminative Responses scale of the Response Styles Questionnaire (RRRSQ; Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). Research has shown the RRRSQ to consist of multiple, not highly intercorrelated factors; only I factor explicitly addresses rumination. In Study 1, a 1-factor solution to a principal components analysis was shown to hold for responses to the RSS. The RSS was also shown to be reliable. In Study 2, convergent and discriminant validity of the RSS were assessed. In Study 3, individuals with high RSS scores exhibited more distress regarding current concerns with the introduction of a delay period (to allow them to ruminate) after a sad mood induction. PMID:11117154

  6. Pornography and teenagers: the importance of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Malamuth, Neil; Huppin, Mark

    2005-06-01

    This article focuses on the effects of exposure to pornography on teenagers, particularly males, and concentrates on sexually aggressive outcomes and on the characteristics of the individual as crucial in determining whether pornography consumption may or may not lead to sexually aggressive outcomes. In future work, it is important not to use an overly simplistic lens of focus in which pornography exposure is seen as generally harmful or not. Depending on particular constellations of personality characteristics, the effects of pornography may differ considerably among different teenagers as well as within different cultures. The research suggests that particular concerns may be needed for those who are highly frequent consumers of pornography, those who seek out sexually violent content, and those who also have other risk factors. PMID:16111620

  7. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  8. Individual differences in visual behavior in simulated flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredson, Jens

    2002-06-01

    Flying an aircraft is highly visually demanding. It is very important to map pilot visual behaviour, both for the purpose of evaluating the cockpit interface and to effectively integrate it with future adaptive interfaces and decision support systems. Pilots' visual behaviour was studied in two experiments. In the first experiment commercial aviation pilots were flying a commercial aviation scenario and eye point of gaze, and eye blinks were collected. In the second experiment military pilots were flying an air-to-air combat scenario and the visual behaviour was video recorded. In both of the experiments the results show individual differences in the pilots' visual behaviour. In the second experiment two different categories of eye blinks were found that might help explain the individual differences in visual behaviour. One category can be related to the systematic eye blinks found to occur when the eye point of gaze was changed between head-up/head-down and head-down/head-up. The other category could be related to other reasons, such as mental workload or visual demands.

  9. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  10. Sensitivity of alpha band ERD to individual differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H

    2006-01-01

    According to the neural efficiency hypothesis, brighter individuals might be characterized by lower and topographically more differentiated brain activation than less intelligent individuals, presumably reflecting a more specialized recruitment of task-related areas. The findings of several studies analyzing the event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the (upper) alpha frequency band have corroborated and elaborated the original neural efficiency hypothesis. In this chapter, we review classical and recent findings and argue in favor of a more differentiated picture of this phenomenon, emphasizing the role of participants' sex, task complexity, and material specificity, as well as the importance to select an adequate external criterion (intelligence measure). Also, recent ERD findings related to emotional intelligence and creativity as well as recent studies focusing on practice, learning ability, and expertise are presented, which point to the need of a broader neurophysiological ability concept. The reviewed findings point at the high suitability of the ERD method to uncover consistent and stable individual differences in people's brain activation patterns when engaged in performing cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:17071230

  11. Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25181327

  12. Individual versus Standardized Running Protocols in the Determination of VO2max

    PubMed Central

    Sperlich, Paula F.; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Reed, Jennifer L.; Zinner, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individually designed incremental exercise protocol results in greater rates of oxygen uptake (VO2max) than standardized testing. Fourteen well-trained, male runners performed five incremental protocols in randomized order to measure their VO2max: i) an incremental test (INCS+I) with pre-defined increases in speed (2 min at 8.64 km¬∑h‚ąí1, then a rise of 1.44 km¬∑h‚ąí1 every 30 s up to 14.4 km¬∑h‚ąí1) and thereafter inclination (0.5¬į every 30 s); ii) an incremental test (INCI) at constant speed (14.4 km¬∑h‚ąí1) and increasing inclination (2¬į every 2 min from the initial 0¬į); iii) an incremental test (INCS) at constant inclination (0¬į) and increasing speed (0.5 km¬∑h‚ąí1 every 30 s from the initial 12.0 km¬∑h‚ąí1); iv) a graded exercise protocol (GXP) at a 1¬į incline with increasing speed (initially 8.64 km¬∑h‚ąí1 + 1.44 km¬∑h‚ąí1 every 5 min); v) an individual exercise protocol (INDXP) in which the runner chose the inclination and speed. VO2max was lowest (-4.2%) during the GXP (p = 0.01; d = 0.06-0.61) compared to all other tests. The highest rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, ventilation and end-exercise blood lactate concentration were similar between the different protocols (p < 0.05). The time to exhaustion ranged from 7 min 18 sec (INCS) to 25 min 30 sec (GXP) (p = 0.01).The VO2max attained by employing an individual treadmill protocol does not differ from the values derived from various standardized incremental protocols. Key points The mean maximum oxygen uptake during the GXP was lower than for all other tests. Differences in the maximum rate of oxygen uptake between the various protocols exhibited considerable inter-individual variation. From the current findings, it can be concluded that well trained athletes are able to perform an individually designed treadmill running protocol. PMID:25983589

  13. Individual differences in error tolerance in humans: Neurophysiological evidences.

    PubMed

    Padrao, Gonçalo; Mallorquí, Aida; Cucurell, David; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    When interacting in error-prone environments, humans display different tolerances to changing their decisions when faced with erroneous feedback information. Here, we investigated whether these individual differences in error tolerance (ET) were reflected in neurophysiological mechanisms indexing specific motivational states related to feedback monitoring. To explore differences in ET, we examined the performance of 80 participants in a probabilistic reversal-learning task. We then compared event-related brain responses (ERPs) of two extreme groups of participants (High ET and Low ET), which showed radical differences in their propensity to maintain newly learned rules after receiving spurious negative feedback. We observed that High ET participants showed reduced anticipatory activity prior to the presentation of incoming feedback, informing them of the correctness of their performance. This was evidenced by measuring the amplitude of the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), an ERP component indexing attention and motivational engagement of incoming informative feedback. Postfeedback processing ERP components (the so-called Feedback-Related Negativity and the P300) also showed reduced amplitude in this group (High ET). The general decreased responsiveness of the High ET group to external feedback suggests a higher proneness to favor internal(rule)-based strategies, reducing attention to external cues and the consequent impact of negative evaluations on decision making. We believe that the present findings support the existence of specific cognitive and motivational processes underlying individual differences on error-tolerance among humans, contributing to the ongoing research focused on understanding the mental processes behind human fallibility in error-prone scenarios. PMID:26018781

  14. Alternative Perspectives on Risk: Individual Differences in Problem Structuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Fischer, Ute; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Team decision making involves contributions of multiple players toward a common goal. While much has been written about the importance of developing shared mental models in order for teams to work together effectively, little has been done to determine the value of alternative perspectives on problem solving and decision making. Early studies of expertise contrasted experts with novices and noted that the two groups differ in the way they structure problems and in their selection of information as salient. Little attention has been given to differences among experts who differ in their specializations. A series of experiments was conducted to determine: (1) what dimensions of flight-related problem situations pilots judge to be most important when making flight-relevant decisions; and (2) whether pilots in different crew positions differ in the way they interpret problems relating to flight decisions. A sorting task was used to identify underlying dimensions judged as salient to individual pilots. Captains, first officers, and flight engineers from two major carriers participated in the study. Twenty-two flight scenarios were developed based on ASRS reports. Pilots were required to make judgments about how they would respond in each case and to sort the scenarios on the basis of similarity of decision factors. They were also asked to provide a verbal label that described each of their sorted categories. A second study required a different group of pilots (also captains, first officers and flight engineers) to sort on predetermined bases.

  15. Effects of Individualized and Standardized Interventions on Middle School Students With Reading Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy A; Cirino, Paul T; Romain, Melissa A; Francis, David; Fletcher, Jack; Denton, Carolyn A

    2011-05-01

    This study reports the effectiveness of a year-long, small-group, tertiary (Tier 3) intervention that examined 2 empirically derived but conceptually different treatments and a comparison condition. The researchers had randomly assigned all students to treatment or comparison conditions. The participants were seventh- and eighth-grade students from the previous year who received an intervention and did not meet exit criteria. The researchers assigned them to one of two treatments: standardized (n = 69) or individualized (n = 71) for 50 min a day, in group sizes of 5, for the entire school year. Comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention (n = 42). The researchers used multigroup modeling with nested comparisons to evaluate the statistical significance of Time 3 estimates. Students in both treatments outperformed the comparison students on assessments of decoding, fluency, and comprehension. Intervention type did not moderate the pattern of effects, although students in the standardized treatment had a small advantage over individualized students on word attack. This study provides a framework from which to refine further interventions for older students with reading disabilities. PMID:23125463

  16. Effects of Individualized and Standardized Interventions on Middle School Students With Reading Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    VAUGHN, SHARON; WEXLER, JADE; ROBERTS, GREG; BARTH, AMY A.; CIRINO, PAUL T.; ROMAIN, MELISSA A.; FRANCIS, DAVID; FLETCHER, JACK; DENTON, CAROLYN A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the effectiveness of a year-long, small-group, tertiary (Tier 3) intervention that examined 2 empirically derived but conceptually different treatments and a comparison condition. The researchers had randomly assigned all students to treatment or comparison conditions. The participants were seventh- and eighth-grade students from the previous year who received an intervention and did not meet exit criteria. The researchers assigned them to one of two treatments: standardized (n = 69) or individualized (n = 71) for 50 min a day, in group sizes of 5, for the entire school year. Comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention (n = 42). The researchers used multigroup modeling with nested comparisons to evaluate the statistical significance of Time 3 estimates. Students in both treatments outperformed the comparison students on assessments of decoding, fluency, and comprehension. Intervention type did not moderate the pattern of effects, although students in the standardized treatment had a small advantage over individualized students on word attack. This study provides a framework from which to refine further interventions for older students with reading disabilities. PMID:23125463

  17. Individual differences in premotor and motor recruitment during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Peelle, Jonathan E; Norris, Dennis; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-06-01

    Although activity in premotor and motor cortices is commonly observed in neuroimaging studies of spoken language processing, the degree to which this activity is an obligatory part of everyday speech comprehension remains unclear. We hypothesised that rather than being a unitary phenomenon, the neural response to speech perception in motor regions would differ across listeners as a function of individual cognitive ability. To examine this possibility, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural processes supporting speech perception by comparing active listening to pseudowords with matched tasks that involved reading aloud or repetition, all compared to acoustically matched control stimuli and matched baseline tasks. At a whole-brain level there was no evidence for recruitment of regions in premotor or motor cortex during speech perception. A focused region of interest analysis similarly failed to identify significant effects, although a subset of regions approached significance, with notable variability across participants. We then used performance on a battery of behavioural tests that assessed meta-phonological and verbal short-term memory abilities to investigate the reasons for this variability, and found that individual differences in particular in low phonotactic probability pseudoword repetition predicted participants' neural activation within regions in premotor and motor cortices during speech perception. We conclude that normal listeners vary in the degree to which they recruit premotor and motor cortex as a function of short-term memory ability. This is consistent with a resource-allocation approach in which recruitment of the dorsal speech processing pathway depends on both individual abilities and specific task demands. PMID:22521874

  18. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  19. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gary R.

    2001-05-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

  20. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  1. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial) or near the focus of attention (central). We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities. PMID:26258545

  2. Individual differences in physiological responses and type A behavior pattern.

    PubMed

    Oishi, K; Kamimura, M; Nigorikawa, T; Nakamiya, T; Williams, R E; Horvath, S M

    1999-05-01

    The relationships between individual differences in psychophysiological responses and tendency of Type A behavior pattern (TABP) were investigated during mental arithmetic (MA) at a steady rhythm, challenging calculation (Uchida-Kraepelin serial addition test: UK test), music listening, and exposure to an 80 dB SPL of white noise. Each mental task was sustained for 5 minutes. Sixteen healthy Japanese adults, (10 males and 6 females) with an age from 18 to 36 years old volunteered for this study. The KG's Daily Life Questionnaire (KG Questionnaire) was used to investigate the tendency toward TABP, which included three sub-factors: aggression-hostility, hard-driving and time urgency, and speed-power items. Recorded physiological variables were respiratory rate (RR), skin resistance response (SRR), eyeblinks, and heart rate (HR) calculated using frequency analysis to render high frequency power (HF) and the ratio of low/high frequencies (L/H ratio). During the MA and UK tests, significant increases in HR, L/H ratio, RR occurred, while significant decreases in HF were observed. Eyeblinks significantly increased during the MA test and significantly decreased during the UK test. During music and white noise, no significant changes occurred except for SRR, which decreased significantly. The coefficient of variances in each response was over 20% for almost all variables, indicating that individual differences in the magnitude of each response were large, even if the direction (increase or decrease) of the change was the same in almost all subjects. The highest correlation coefficients (r) between the mean values of relative magnitude for each variable and TABP scores during the MA and UK tests were obtained for the L/H ratio (MA: r = 0.591, UK test: r = 0.577) and the RR (MA: r = -0.576, UK test: r = -0.511). These values were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for TABP sub-factors. Though other investigations have reported relationships between HF and TABP, we found no significant relationship. It was suggested that sympathetic nerve activity became greater for TABP individuals than for Type B individuals under stress conditions. PMID:10462841

  3. 12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Bank § 3.11...

  4. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  6. Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

  7. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  8. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  9. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick T; Wallace, Robert Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations. PMID:26834428

  10. Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Frederick T.; Wallace, Robert Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores brain patterns associated with the three categories of regulatory principles of the body, mind, and behavior in Ayurveda, called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha dosha. A growing body of research has reported patterns of blood chemistry, genetic expression, physiological states, and chronic diseases associated with each dosha type. Since metabolic and growth factors are controlled by the nervous system, each dosha type should be associated with patterns of functioning of six major areas of the nervous system: The prefrontal cortex, the reticular activating system, the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, the limbic system, and the hypothalamus. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, which includes the anterior cingulate, ventral medial, and the dorsal lateral cortices, would exhibit a high range of functioning in the Vata brain-type leading to the possibility of being easily overstimulated. The Vata brain-type performs activity quickly. Learns quickly and forgets quickly. Their fast mind gives them an edge in creative problem solving. The Pitta brain-type reacts strongly to all challenges leading to purposeful and resolute actions. They never give up and are very dynamic and goal oriented. The Kapha brain-type is slow and steady leading to methodical thinking and action. They prefer routine and needs stimulation to get going. A model of dosha brain-types could provide a physiological foundation to understand individual differences. This model could help individualize treatment modalities to address different mental and physical dysfunctions. It also could explain differences in behavior seen in clinical as well as in normal populations. PMID:26834428

  11. Musical training, individual differences and the cocktail party problem

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Mason, Christine R.; Streeter, Timothy M.; Best, Virginia; Kidd, Jr, Gerald; Patel, Aniruddh D.

    2015-01-01

    Are musicians better able to understand speech in noise than non-musicians? Recent findings have produced contradictory results. Here we addressed this question by asking musicians and non-musicians to understand target sentences masked by other sentences presented from different spatial locations, the classical ‚Äėcocktail party problem‚Äô in speech science. We found that musicians obtained a substantial benefit in this situation, with thresholds ~6‚ÄČdB better than non-musicians. Large individual differences in performance were noted particularly for the non-musically trained group. Furthermore, in different conditions we manipulated the spatial location and intelligibility of the masking sentences, thus changing the amount of ‚Äėinformational masking‚Äô (IM) while keeping the amount of ‚Äėenergetic masking‚Äô (EM) relatively constant. When the maskers were unintelligible and spatially separated from the target (low in IM), musicians and non-musicians performed comparably. These results suggest that the characteristics of speech maskers and the amount of IM can influence the magnitude of the differences found between musicians and non-musicians in multiple-talker ‚Äúcocktail party‚ÄĚ environments. Furthermore, considering the task in terms of the EM-IM distinction provides a conceptual framework for future behavioral and neuroscientific studies which explore the underlying sensory and cognitive mechanisms contributing to enhanced ‚Äúspeech-in-noise‚ÄĚ perception by musicians. PMID:26112910

  12. Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called ‚Äėtheory of mind‚Äô or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

  13. Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Harriet; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2014-09-01

    Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called 'theory of mind' or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

  14. Ambiguity between self and other: Individual differences in action attribution.

    PubMed

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-09-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to attribute actions to self or other. This variance is thought to explain, in part, the experience of voice-hearing. Misattribution can also be context-driven. For example, causal ambiguity can arise when the actions of two or more individuals are coordinated and produce similar effects (e.g., music-making). Experience in such challenging contexts may refine skills of action attribution. Forty participants completed a novel finger-tapping task which parametrically manipulated the proportion of control that 'self' versus 'other' possessed over resulting auditory tones. Results showed that action misattribution peaked in the middle of the self-to-other continuum and was biased towards other. This pattern was related to both high hallucination-proneness and to low musical-experience. Findings suggest not only that causal ambiguity plays a key role in agency but also that action attribution abilities may improve with practice, potentially providing an avenue for remediation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25956971

  15. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

  16. Systematic genome sequence differences among leaf cells within individual trees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even in the age of next-generation sequencing (NGS), it has been unclear whether or not cells within a single organism have systematically distinctive genomes. Resolving this question, one of the most basic biological problems associated with DNA mutation rates, can assist efforts to elucidate essential mechanisms of cancer. Results Using genome profiling (GP), we detected considerable systematic variation in genome sequences among cells in individual woody plants. The degree of genome sequence difference (genomic distance) varied systematically from the bottom to the top of the plant, such that the greatest divergence was observed between leaf genomes from uppermost branches and the remainder of the tree. This systematic variation was observed within both Yoshino cherry and Japanese beech trees. Conclusions As measured by GP, the genomic distance between two cells within an individual organism was non-negligible, and was correlated with physical distance (i.e., branch-to-branch distance). This phenomenon was assumed to be the result of accumulation of mutations from each cell division, implying that the degree of divergence is proportional to the number of generations separating the two cells. PMID:24548431

  17. Individual differences in spatial learning from computer-simulated environments.

    PubMed

    Waller, D

    2000-12-01

    A multivariate study examined relationships between the following factors: paper-and-pencil assessments of verbal and spatial ability, ability to form an accurate spatial representation of a large real-world environment, gender, computer attitudes and experience, proficiency with the navigational interface of a virtual environment (VE), and the ability to acquire and transfer spatial knowledge from a VE. Psychometrically assessed spatial ability and proficiency with the navigational interface were found to make substantial contributions to individual differences in the ability to acquire spatial information from a VE. Gender influenced many VE-related tasks, primarily through its relationship with interface proficiency and spatial ability. Measures of spatial knowledge of a VE maze were highly predictive of subsequent performance in a similar real-world maze, suggesting that VEs can be useful for training people about real-world spaces. PMID:11218340

  18. Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

  19. Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: cognitive factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Li, He; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi

    2010-07-01

    This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with measures of intelligence (measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), perception (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Change Blindness, and Tone Discrimination), memory (Wechsler Memory Scales and 2-back Working Memory tasks), and face judgement (Face Recognition and Facial Expression Recognition). These findings suggest that people with relatively low intelligence and poor perceptual abilities might be more susceptible to the misinformation effect. PMID:20623420

  20. Individual differences in wisdom conceptions: relationships to gratitude and wisdom.

    PubMed

    K√∂nig, Susanne; Gl√ľck, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that most laypeople hold one of two typical conceptions of wisdom--a cognitive or an integrative conception. The current study extends previous research by including a qualitative assessment of people's views of what wisdom is and how it develops, and by relating wisdom conceptions are related to levels of wisdom and gratitude. A sample of 443 young adults rated the relevance of cognitive, reflective, and affective aspects for wisdom. Cluster analyses confirmed the two typical wisdom conceptions: a primarily cognitive view of wisdom and a view emphasizing the integration of cognition, reflection, and affect. The two groups also differed in freely-generated characteristics of wisdom and its development. Additionally, the integrative conception was more frequent in individuals with higher levels of gratitude and wisdom. In sum, laypeople's conceptions of wisdom vary along similar lines as those of wisdom psychologists. PMID:24416966

  1. Individual differences in time perspective predict autonoetic experience.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathleen M; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-09-01

    Tulving (1985) posited that the capacity to remember is one facet of a more general capacity-autonoetic (self-knowing) consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness was proposed to underlie the ability for "mental time travel" both into the past (remembering) and into the future to envision potential future episodes (episodic future thinking). The current study examines whether individual differences can predict autonoetic experience. Specifically, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) was administered to 133 undergraduate students, who also rated phenomenological experiences accompanying autobiographical remembering and episodic future thinking. Scores on two of the five subscales of the ZTPI (Future and Present-Hedonistic) predicted the degree to which people reported feelings of mentally traveling backward (or forward) in time and the degree to which they reported re- or pre-experiencing the event, but not ten other rated properties less related to autonoetic consciousness. PMID:21450493

  2. Individual differences in physiological flexibility predict spontaneous avoidance.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-08-01

    People often regulate their emotions by resorting to avoidance, a putatively maladaptive strategy. Prior work suggests that increased psychopathology symptoms predict greater spontaneous utilisation of this strategy. Extending this work, we examined whether heightened resting cardiac vagal tone (which reflects a general ability to regulate emotions in line with contextual demands) predicts decreased spontaneous avoidance. In Study 1, greater resting vagal tone was associated with reduced spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting pictures, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms and emotional reactivity. In Study 2, resting vagal tone interacted with anxiety and depression symptoms to predict spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting film clips. The positive association between symptoms and spontaneous avoidance was more pronounced among participants with reduced resting vagal tone. Thus, increased resting vagal tone might protect against the use of avoidance. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both subjective and biological processes when studying individual differences in emotion regulation. PMID:26147365

  3. A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

    2014-02-01

    The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

  4. Individual differences in situation awareness: Validation of the Situationism Scale

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Klein, William M. P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the construct of lay situationism‚ÄĒan individual‚Äôs belief in the importance of a behavior‚Äôs context. Study 1 identified a 13-item Situationism Scale, which demonstrated good reliability and validity. In particular, higher situationism was associated with greater situation-control (strategies to manipulate the environment in order to avoid temptation). Subsequent laboratory studies indicated that people higher on the situationism subscales used greater situation-control by sitting farther from junk food (Study 2) and choosing to drink non-alcoholic beverages before a cognitive task (Study 3). Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric validity and predictive utility of the Situationism Scale and offer this individual difference construct as a means to expand self-regulation theory. PMID:25329242

  5. Measuring Individual Differences in Decision Biases: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Aczel, Balazs; Bago, Bence; Szollosi, Aba; Foldes, Andrei; Lukacs, Bence

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in people's susceptibility to heuristics and biases (HB) are often measured by multiple-bias questionnaires consisting of one or a few items for each bias. This research approach relies on the assumptions that (1) different versions of a decision bias task measure are interchangeable as they measure the same cognitive failure; and (2) that some combination of these tasks measures the same underlying construct. Based on these assumptions, in Study 1 we developed two versions of a new decision bias survey for which we modified 13 HB tasks to increase their comparability, construct validity, and the participants' motivation. The analysis of the responses (N = 1279) showed weak internal consistency within the surveys and a great level of discrepancy between the extracted patterns of the underlying factors. To explore these inconsistencies, in Study 2 we used three original examples of HB tasks for each of seven biases. We created three decision bias surveys by allocating one version of each HB task to each survey. The participants' responses (N = 527) showed a similar pattern as in Study 1, questioning the assumption that the different examples of the HB tasks are interchangeable and that they measure the same underlying construct. These results emphasize the need to understand the domain-specificity of cognitive biases as well as the effect of the wording of the cover story and the response mode on bias susceptibility before employing them in multiple-bias questionnaires. PMID:26635677

  6. Smoking among Individuals with Schizophrenia in Korea: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S.; Chung, Sangkeun; Park, Jong-Il; Jung, Ae-Ja; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status. Method An anonymous self-report survey was conducted with psychiatric inpatients. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to be current smokers (p < 0.001) and more likely to be former smokers (p < 0.01). Females were also less likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001). Having more years of education (p < 0.05) and higher nicotine dependence scores (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased odds of intending to quit smoking, whereas having more previous quit attempts (p < 0.01) was associated with increased odds. These findings were significant even after adjusting for gender. Smokers were more likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001) than their non-smoking counterparts. Conclusion Nurses in Korea should play an active role in tobacco control for patients with schizophrenia by providing cessation counseling and educating the effect of caffeine use on cigarette consumption, while tailoring the service to gender differences found in this study. PMID:24070993

  7. Individual differences in working memory strategies for reading expository text.

    PubMed

    Budd, D; Whitney, P; Turley, K J

    1995-11-01

    This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) span are associated with different WM management strategies during the reading of expository text. In Experiment 1, probe questions were presented on line during reading to determine whether thematic information was maintained in WM throughout comprehension. The data indicated that readers across the range of WM span maintained thematic information in WM throughout the reading of a given passage. In Experiment 2, sentence reading times and accuracy for both topic and detail questions were measured in two conditions: when topic sentences were present and when topic sentences were absent. Subjects performed similarly across the range of WM span in the topic-present condition, but lower span subjects performed more poorly on detail questions in the topic-absent condition. In Experiment 3, the topic-present condition of the second experiment was replicated, except that subjects expected to receive questions about details only. Thematic processing and retention of topic and detail information all increased with span. Taken together, these results suggest that, for more difficult text processing tasks, high- and low-span subjects adopt different WM management strategies and these strategies influence what is learned from reading the text. PMID:8538446

  8. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. PMID:22608267

  9. Individual Differences Among Children in Sucrose Detection Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Paule Valery; Reed, Danielle R.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on whether there are individual differences among children in their sensitivity to sweet taste and, if so, the biological correlates of such differences. Objectives Our goal was to understand how variations in children‚Äôs sucrose detection thresholds relate to their age and gender, taste genotype, body composition, and dietary intake of added sugars. Methods Sucrose detection thresholds in 7- to 14-year-old children were tested individually using a validated, two-alternative, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method. Five genetic variants of taste genes were assayed: TAS1R3 and GNAT3 (sweet genes; one variant each) and the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 (three variants). All children were measured for body weight and height. A subset of these children were measured for the percentage of body fat and waist circumference and provided added sugar intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Results Sucrose thresholds ranged from 0.23 to 153.8 mM with most of the children completing the threshold task (216/235; 92%). Some children were biologically related (i.e., siblings), and for the genetic analysis, one sibling from each family was studied. Variants in the bitter but not the sweet genes were related to sucrose threshold and sugar intake; children with two bitter-sensitive alleles could detect sucrose at lower concentrations (F(2,165) = 4.55, p = .01; rs1726866) and reported eating more added sugar (% kcal; F(2, 62) = 3.64, p = .03) than did children with less sensitive alleles. Age, gender, and indices of obesity also were related to child-to-child differences in sucrose threshold; girls were more sensitive than boys (t(214) = 2.0, p = .05), older children were more sensitive than younger children (r(214) = ‚ąí.16, p = .02), and fatter (r(84) = ‚ąí.22, p = .05) or more centrally obese children (r(84) = ‚ąí.26, p = .02) were more sensitive relative to others. Discussion Inborn differences in bitter sensitivity may affect childhood dietary sugar intake with long-term health consequences. There may be a more complex interplay between the developing bitter and sweet taste systems than previously understood. PMID:26633761

  10. Individual Differences in Memory Search and Their Relation to Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Healey, M. Karl; Crutchley, Patrick; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand why memory predicts intelligence have not fully leveraged state-of-the-art measures of recall dynamics. Using data from a multi‚Äďsession free recall study we examine individual differences in measures of recall initiation and post‚Äďinitiation transitions. We identify four sources of variation: a recency factor reflecting variation in the tendency to initiate recall from an item near the end of the list, a primacy factor reflecting a tendency to initiate from the beginning of the list, a temporal factor corresponding to transitions mediated by temporal associations, and a semantic factor corresponding to semantically‚Äďmediated transitions. Together these four factors account for 83% of the variability in overall recall accuracy, suggesting they provide a nearly complete picture of recall dynamics. We also show that these sources of variability account for over 80% of the variance shared between memory and intelligence. The temporal association factor was the most influential in predicting both recall accuracy and intelligence. We outline a theory of how controlled drift of temporal context may be critical across a range of cognitive activities. PMID:24730719

  11. Individual differences in adult handwritten spelling-to-dictation

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production. PMID:23882229

  12. Individual differences in emotional creativity: structure and correlates.

    PubMed

    Averill, J R

    1999-04-01

    The structure and correlates of emotional creativity were explored in a series of six studies, using a specially constructed measure of individual differences--the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI). Analyses of the ECI suggest that three facets of emotional creativity can be distinguished empirically as well as theoretically, namely, preparedness (understanding and learning from one's own and others' emotions), novelty (the ability to experience unusual emotions), and effectiveness/authenticity (the skill to express emotions adroitly and honestly). Women score higher than men on emotional preparedness and effectiveness/authenticity, but not on the novelty of their responses. People who score high on the ECI are considered by their peers to be more emotionally creative, presumably on the basis of everyday behavior. Associations between emotional creativity as measured by the ECI and a variety of other personality variables (including the Big Five personality traits, mysticism, self-esteem, authoritarianism, locus of control, alexithymia, and ways of coping) are examined, as is the relation between emotional creativity and prior traumatic experiences. PMID:10202807

  13. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities. PMID:26710824

  14. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    PubMed

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children. PMID:20563783

  15. Individual differences in perceptual adaptability of foreign sound categories.

    PubMed

    Schertz, Jessamyn; Cho, Taehong; Lotto, Andrew; Warner, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Listeners possess a remarkable ability to adapt to acoustic variability in the realization of speech sound categories (e.g., different accents). The current work tests whether non-native listeners adapt their use of acoustic cues in phonetic categorization when they are confronted with changes in the distribution of cues in the input, as native listeners do, and examines to what extent these adaptation patterns are influenced by individual cue-weighting strategies. In line with previous work, native English listeners, who use voice onset time (VOT) as a primary cue to the stop voicing contrast (e.g., 'pa' vs. 'ba'), adjusted their use of f0 (a secondary cue to the contrast) when confronted with a noncanonical "accent" in which the two cues gave conflicting information about category membership. Native Korean listeners' adaptation strategies, while variable, were predictable based on their initial cue weighting strategies. In particular, listeners who used f0 as the primary cue to category membership adjusted their use of VOT (their secondary cue) in response to the noncanonical accent, mirroring the native pattern of "downweighting" a secondary cue. Results suggest that non-native listeners show native-like sensitivity to distributional information in the input and use this information to adjust categorization, just as native listeners do, with the specific trajectory of category adaptation governed by initial cue-weighting strategies. PMID:26404530

  16. Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

  17. Coherent motion sensitivity predicts individual differences in subtraction.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest deficits in coherent motion sensitivity, an index of visual dorsal stream functioning, in children with poor mathematical skills or dyscalculia, a specific learning disability in mathematics. We extended these data using a longitudinal design to unravel whether visual dorsal stream functioning is able to predict individual differences in subsequent specific mathematical skills, i.e., single-digit subtraction and multiplication. We measured children's sensitivity to coherent motion in kindergarten (mean age: 5 years 8 months) and evaluated their subtraction and multiplication skills in third grade (mean age 8 years 3 months). Findings revealed an association between subtraction but not multiplication performance and coherent motion sensitivity. This association remained significant even when intellectual ability and reading ability were additionally controlled for. Subtractions are typically solved by means of quantity-based procedural strategies, which reliably recruit the intraparietal sulcus. Against the background of a neural overlap between the intraparietal sulcus and visual dorsal stream functioning, we hypothesize that low-level visuospatial mechanisms might set constraints on the development of quantity representations, which are used during calculation, particularly in subtraction. PMID:21324638

  18. Sleepiness phenomics: modeling individual differences in subjective sleepiness profiles.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Olivier; De Valck, Elke; Quanten, Stijn; Neu, Daniel; Cortoos, Aisha; Pattyn, Nathalie; Theuns, Peter; Cluydts, Raymond; Hofmans, Joeri

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates individual differences in subjective sleepiness profiles during 36 h of sustained wakefulness in a modified constant routine protocol. Twenty-three volunteers (11 females), aged between 18 and 47 yrs (M age = 30.41, SD = 10.26) enrolled in the study. Subjective sleepiness ratings were collected every 2 h by means of visual analogue scales. Circadian rhythmicity was assessed by means of salivary cortisol. Subjective sleepiness data were analyzed using functional principal component analysis (fPCA). Our results show that approximately 80% of the variance is accounted for by three functional components. The first component explains 50.28% of the variance and is characterized by a profile of exclusively positive loadings, representing vertical shifts from the mean sleepiness profile. Scores on this component are positively related to self-reported habitual sleep times and mean slow wave activity (SWA) during wake. Positive scores on the second component (18.40% of the variance) are characterized by a higher than average peak-to-trough amplitude in subjective sleepiness profiles. Participants with higher than average scores on this component show a significantly higher amplitude in salivary cortisol profiles as opposed to participants with lower than average scores. Participants with positive scores on the third component (10.09% of the variance) show higher than average levels of subjective sleepiness during morning hours, a buildup of wake effort occurring later and more afternoon sleepiness after sleep deprivation than negative scorers. Peak levels of salivary cortisol occur significantly later in these participants. Taken together, our results suggest that component 1 represents tonic differences in sleepiness profiles primarily related to mechanisms of sleep homeostasis, component 2 to circadian amplitude differences and component 3 to diurnal preference. However, since the components are additions to a mean profile, each of the three components is likely to correspond to a mixture of multiple physiological parameters, rather than to a single process. The approach shows interesting potential for (1) revealing unidentified physiological processes, (2) testing existing assumptions about regulatory mechanisms at the basis of interindividual variability in sleepiness profiles and (3) the specification of sleepiness phenotypes on a quantitative basis. PMID:23566886

  19. Individual differences in alpha frequency drive crossmodal illusory perception.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

    2015-01-19

    Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ?100 ms. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ?100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ?100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120-60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAFĪ2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF-2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions. PMID:25544613

  20. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  1. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  2. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  3. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  4. Building a Science of Individual Differences from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Julien; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    To date, fMRI research has been concerned primarily with evincing generic principles of brain function through averaging data from multiple subjects. Given rapid developments in both hardware and analysis tools, the field is now poised to study fMRI-derived measures in individual subjects, and to relate these to psychological traits or genetic variations. We discuss issues of validity, reliability and statistical assessment that arise when the focus shifts to individual subjects and that are applicable also to other imaging modalities. We emphasize that individual assessment of neural function with fMRI presents specific challenges and necessitates careful consideration of anatomical and vascular between-subject variability as well as sources of within-subject variability. PMID:27138646

  5. Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitiveÖ

  6. Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…

  7. Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

  8. Generalization of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anjum, Amber Nasreen; Al-Othmany, Dheya Shujaa; Hussain, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is based on the analyses of the participants' responses provided in written form while filling the questionnaires. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze factors in individuals' experiences about second language acquisition. The study was conducted through a research questionnaire. The questions were designed for…

  9. Individual Differences in Cognition: Verbal Ability, Clustering, and Retrieval Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert A.; Grier, J. Brown

    Relationships between verbal ability, semantic category clustering, and speed of retrieval were studied. Lists of 30 words were presented individually to subjects with high- and low-verbal ability under free recall, delayed free recall, and clustering recall conditions. In the first stage of recall, high verbals displayed a significantly higher…

  10. What's Normal? Specific Language Impairment in an Individual Differences Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Philip S.; Cole, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    In response to Leonard (EC 600 867), two aspects of language development are identified in which the discrepancies between domains of language and/or cognitive development often observed in specific language impairment children occur naturally as a consequence of individual variation in rate of development together with relative independence of…

  11. The Impact of Adapting Content for Students with Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Inan, Fethi A.; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

    2012-01-01

    Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by instructional theory and motivation models, an adaptable tutorial was designed and developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether the goals of an adaptable tutorial, which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e.…

  12. Individual Differences in Learning from an Intelligent Discovery World: Smithtown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.

    "Smithtown" is an intelligent computer program designed to enhance an individual's scientific inquiry skills as well as to provide an environment for learning principles of basic microeconomics. It was hypothesized that intelligent computer instruction on applying effective interrogative skills (e.g., changing one variable at a time while holding…

  13. Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansman, Marcy; Hunt, Earl

    This report summarizes the research results and provides a reference. The basic question addressed was, "Is performance on multi-component tasks predicted by performance on the individual components performed separately?" In the first series of experiments, a dual task involving memory and verbal processing components to predict a psycholmetric…

  14. Individual Differences in Distraction by Pictures in a Reading Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Good, normal, and poor third grade readers were required to read easy, moderate, and difficult one-syllable nouns under three conditions: control condition with no pictures, identifying-picture condition, and unrelated-picture condition. Reading performance of poor readers was influenced by pictures under all conditions. Individual differences…

  15. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

  16. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    PubMed

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. PMID:26162193

  17. Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

  18. Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.Ö

  19. Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie; Arnon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players ‚Äď under 14 years, 14‚Äď17, and over 17, playing different positions ‚Äď goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14‚Äď17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer. PMID:25031689

  20. Plaques from different individuals yield different microbiota responses to oral-antiseptic treatment.

    PubMed

    Filoche, Sara K; Soma, Dennes; van Bekkum, Margo; Sissons, Chris H

    2008-10-01

    Dental caries is a polymicrobial disease and complicated to treat. Understanding the microbiota responses to treatment from different individuals is a key factor in developing effective treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the 24-h posttreatment effect of two oral antiseptics (chlorhexidine and Listerine) on species composition of microplate plaque biofilms that had been initiated from the saliva of five different donors and grown in both 0.15% and 0.5% sucrose. Plaque composition was analyzed using checkerboard DNA : DNA hybridization analysis, which comprised of a panel of 40 species associated with oral health and disease. The supernatant pH of the plaques grown in 0.15% sucrose ranged from 4.3 to 6 and in 0.5% sucrose, it ranged from 3.8 to 4. Plaque biomass was largely unaffected by either antiseptic. Each donor had a different salivary microbial profile, differentiating according to the prevalence of either caries or periodontal/anaerobic pathogens. Despite similar plaque microbiota compositions being elicited through the sucrose growth conditions, microbiota responses to chlorhexidine and Listerine differentiated according to the donor. These findings indicate that efficacious caries treatments would depend on the responses of an individual's microbiota, which may differ from person to person. PMID:18647353

  1. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity, RS) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high as compared to low (HRS vs. LRS) individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or non-social stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  2. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  3. Individual differences in reading social intentions from motor deviants

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Quesque, Francois; Coello, Yann; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne N.

    2015-01-01

    As social animals, it is crucial to understand others‚Äô intention. But is it possible to detect social intention in two actions that have the exact same motor goal? In the present study, we presented participants with video clips of an individual reaching for and grasping an object to either use it (personal trial) or to give his partner the opportunity to use it (social trial). In Experiment 1, the ability of na√Įve participants to classify correctly social trials through simple observation of short video clips was tested. In addition, detection levels were analyzed as a function of individual scores in psychological questionnaires of motor imagery, visual imagery, and social cognition. Results revealed that the between-participant heterogeneity in the ability to distinguish social from personal actions was predicted by the social skill abilities. A second experiment was then conducted to assess what predictive mechanism could contribute to the detection of social intention. Video clips were sliced and normalized to control for either the reaction times (RTs) or/and the movement times (MTs) of the grasping action. Tested in a second group of participants, results showed that the detection of social intention relies on the variation of both RT and MT that are implicitly perceived in the grasping action. The ability to use implicitly these motor deviants for action-outcome understanding would be the key to intuitive social interaction. PMID:26347673

  4. Individual Differences in Students' Perceptions of Routine Classroom Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrkemper, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Elementary school students (N=144) differing in classroom adjustment were presented with three written vignettes portraying inappropriate student behavior. Students' predictions of their teacher's motivation and responses to the vignette characters, as well as their own response and understanding, were analyzed for differences by grade, sex, and…

  5. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

  6. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

  7. Reexamining individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeffrey K; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2013-05-01

    A growing number of investigators explore evolutionary psychological hypotheses concerning the avoidance of rape using self-report measures of behavior. Among the most recent and most ambitious, is the work of McKibbin et al. (2011). McKibbin et al. presented evidence supporting their predictions that such behaviors would vary according to the individual's physical attractiveness, relationship status, and proximity to kin. In addition, McKibbin et al. predicted, but failed to find evidence, that age would exercise a similar influence. We question McKibbin et al.'s position on both theoretical and empirical grounds, arguing that (1) two of their predictions do not rule out alternative explanations, and (2) their key supporting findings may well be artifacts of their measurement instrument, the Rape Avoidance Inventory (RAI). Employing new empirical evidence derived from a broader sample of U.S. women, we simultaneously tested McKibbin et al.'s predictions and compared the RAI to alternative dependent measures. We found that McKibbin et al.'s substantive predictions were not supported, and suggest that there may be limits to the utility of the RAI beyond one specific demographic category. PMID:22722957

  8. [Stress as an indicator of individual-typologic differences].

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1992-01-01

    Typological peculiarities of the behaviour of adult white male rats were determined using the "emotional resonance" test, i. e. reaction of avoidance of the signals of the defensive state of the other animal of the same species (vocalization, release of pheromones, motor excitation). The rats developed a conditional motor food reflex, and then they were subject to a stress of inescapable pain reaction. Judging by the preserved conditional food reflexes, the rats which avoided the partner's pain screams proved to be the most stable. The rats unable to determine the dominating motivation and incessantly running from one section of the chamber to the other are the least stable. The highest level of catecholamines was found in the blood of the latter group. The sensitivity to the partner's signals of defensive excitation correlates with the degree of such shifts, occurring under the stress influence as the content of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-oxyndolacetic acid in the tissues of the brain, the state of the lipid component of the cerebral membranes. According to the obtained results the stress reveals the individual peculiarities of the physiological functions which are not obvious without the stress influences. The animals, highly sensitive to the signals of the partner's emotional state, possess high resistance to the action of the most various stresses. It can be assumed that thanks to such stability natural selection preserved the capacity for zoosocial "empathy"--phylogenetic predecessor of human altruism. PMID:1303509

  9. Metabolic capacity of individual muscle fibers from different anatomic locations.

    PubMed

    Rosser, B W; Norris, B J; Nemeth, P M

    1992-06-01

    We studied muscle fibers by quantitative biochemistry to determine whether metabolic capacity varied among fibers of a given type as a function of their anatomic location. Muscles were selected from both contiguous and diverse anatomic regions within the rats studied. The individual fibers, classified into myosin ATPase fiber types by histochemical means, were assessed for fiber diameters and analyzed for the activities of enzymes representing major energy pathways: malate dehydrogenase (MDH, oxidative), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glycolytic), and adenylokinase (AK, high-energy phosphate metabolism). We found that neither the average activities of each of the three enzymes nor the fiber diameters varied in Type I or Type IIa fibers selected from superficial to deep portions of the triceps surae of the hindlimb. However, the IIb fibers in the deep region of this muscle group had significantly greater oxidative capacity, less glycolytic capacity, and smaller diameters than the superficially situated IIb fibers. Type IIa fibers in lateral gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus, psoas, diaphragm, biceps brachii, superficial masseter, and superior rectus muscles were highly variable in both diameter and enzyme profiles, with a correlation between MDH activity and fiber diameter. Therefore, our results show that both intermuscular and intramuscular metabolic variations exist in muscle fibers of a given type. PMID:1588028

  10. Working memory capacity and categorization: individual differences and modeling.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2011-05-01

    Working memory is crucial for many higher-level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization, and modeling in category learning has thus far been largely uninformed by knowledge about people's memory processes. This article reports a large study (N = 113) that related people's working memory capacity (WMC) to their category-learning performance using the 6 problem types of Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961). Structural equation modeling revealed a strong relationship between WMC and category learning, with a single latent variable accommodating performance on all 6 problems. A model of categorization (the Attention Learning COVEring map, ALCOVE; Kruschke, 1992) was fit to the individual data and a single latent variable was sufficient to capture the variation among associative learning parameters across all problems. The data and modeling suggest that working memory mediates category learning across a broad range of tasks. PMID:21417512

  11. Individual Differences in Substance Preference and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Kumar, V. K.; Angelini, Frank; Pekala, Ronald J.; Porter, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Using H. J. Eysenck's (1957,1967) theory of temperament, this study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, and personality among incarcerated inmates. Analysis indicated a general preference for marijuana and alcohol over 8 other commonly used drugs across different personality types. Theoretical and clinical implications areÖ

  12. Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students onÖ

  13. Socioeconomic Gradients Predict Individual Differences in Neurocognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Farah, Martha J.

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with childhood cognitive achievement. In previous research we found that this association shows neural specificity; specifically we found that groups of low and middle SES children differed disproportionately in perisylvian/language and prefrontal/executive abilities relative to other neurocognitiveÖ

  14. Individual Differences Reveal Correlates of Hidden Hearing Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of ‚Äúnormal hearing.‚ÄĚ PMID:25653371

  15. Individual differences reveal correlates of hidden hearing deficits.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2015-02-01

    Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of "normal hearing." PMID:25653371

  16. Socioeconomic Gradients Predict Individual Differences in Neurocognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Farah, Martha J.

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with childhood cognitive achievement. In previous research we found that this association shows neural specificity; specifically we found that groups of low and middle SES children differed disproportionately in perisylvian/language and prefrontal/executive abilities relative to other neurocognitive…

  17. Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on…

  18. Individual Differences in False Recall: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…

  19. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission‚Äďfusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive ‚Äėchur‚Äô calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation‚Äďdiscrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  20. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul G

    2012-06-23

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission-fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive 'chur' calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation-discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  1. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5¬Ī4.9 J h‚ąí1) than S individuals (7.3¬Ī1.1 J h‚ąí1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  2. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5¬Ī4.9 J h-1) than S individuals (7.3¬Ī1.1 J h-1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  3. Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

    1991-01-01

    A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

  4. Individual differences in degree of handedness and somesthetic asymmetry predict individual differences in left-right confusion.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, Guy; Sarrechia, Iemke

    2009-12-01

    Confusion or frustration connected with daily demands involving left-right discrimination is a common observation even in neurologically intact adults. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the degree of left-right confusion is associated with bodily asymmetry. Sixty-two female volunteers performed a left-right decision task that required fast responses to visually presented directional words (left, right, up, down) or pictograms (<--, -->, upward arrow, downward arrow). Participants also performed several tests that measured asymmetry of handedness, grip strength, and tactile sensitivity, and completed self-reports on left-right confusion and perceived bodily asymmetry. Results showed significant correlations between left-right confusion and the degree of handedness and asymmetry in tactile sensitivity. These results suggest that individuals who reveal a stronger internal bias between both sides of the body show less left-right confusion than people with less salient bodily asymmetry. PMID:19523492

  5. Individual difference of seminal plasma detected with crossed immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, M; Yokoi, T; Sagisaka, K

    1983-06-01

    Seminal plasma from 120 subjects was examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis using anti-seminal plasma. The samples were divided into two groups depending on a precipitation line which migrated fast in the first dimension electrophoresis. This precipitation line showed an incidence of 48 percent and was proved to have no acid phosphatase, esterase or lactate dehydrogenase activity and was not stained with Schiff's reagent. Analysis with column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 and Sephadex G-50, revealed that molecular weight of the protein was about 10,000 dolton. The difference was not identified with the other methods; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and agarose immunoelectrophoresis. PMID:6612719

  6. The Relationships between Individual Difference Variables and Test Performance in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu; McLean, James E.

    The relationship between several individual difference variables and test performance using computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was studied with 208 South Korean college students. The general individual difference variable selected was test anxiety, and the math-related individual difference variables were mathematics aptitude, math test anxiety,…

  7. Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children’s computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills. PMID:21170171

  8. Individual differences in selecting patients for regular haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T R; Aitchison, J; Parker, L S; Moore, M F

    1975-01-01

    Eight clinicians in a renal dialysis unit were asked to classify the suitability of 100 cases (some real, some simulated) for regulat haemodialysis. Seven categories were used, ranging from "excellent prospect: accept without reservation" to "unequivocal rejection," based on 18 items of information previously agreed on as sufficient for the purpose. The ways in which they classified the cases different considerably; only six cases were placed in the same category by all eight clinicians, and this was the "unequivocal rejection" category. Analysis of the extent to which they made effective use of the items showed that between three and nine items were used to a sufficient extent to reach significance for the 100 cases. PMID:1131609

  9. Gender differences in platelet aggregation in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Otahbachi, Mohammad; Simoni, Jan; Simoni, Grace; Moeller, John F; Cevik, Cihan; Meyerrose, Gary E; Roongsritong, Chanwit

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated gender variability in platelet aggregation in response to common agonists. Platelet aggregation was measured in 36 healthy men and women free of any antiplatelet medication, aged 22-36 years, of Caucasian (White not of Hispanic origin), Hispanic, and African-American not of Hispanic origin. In this ex-vivo study, we investigated platelet aggregation in response to adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine (EPI), arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen (COL), using a platelet ionized calcium aggregometer (Chrono-Log Co.). Platelet aggregation response to all tested agonists was higher in females than in males regardless of ethnicity. The most significant differences were observed with collagen (P < 0.01). Among the ethnic groups, Caucasian women were most prone to platelet aggregation. Gender is a determinant of agonist effects on platelet aggregability in healthy subjects. PMID:20039102

  10. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  11. Bowel function measurements of individuals with different eating patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, G J; Crowder, M; Reid, B; Dickerson, J W

    1986-01-01

    Bowel function was assessed in 51 subjects: 10 women and seven men who habitually consumed an omnivorous, vegetarian, or vegan diet. The subjects on these diets had a mean intake of fibre of 23 g, 37 g, and 47 g respectively. Mean transit times were variable and not significantly different between the groups. Vegans, however, had a greater frequency of defecation and passed softer stools. All measurements of bowel function were significantly correlated with total dietary fibre. As dietary fibre increased mean transit time decreased, stool frequency increased and the stools became softer. Men produced a greater quantity of softer, less formed faeces than women. During the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle women excreted harder stools and had a significantly longer mean transit time. The finding that mean transit time was more highly correlated with faecal form than any of the other bowel function measurements could be of practical importance. PMID:3005140

  12. Individual differences: either relational learning or item-specific learning in a same/different task.

    PubMed

    Elmore, L Caitlin; Wright, Anthony A; Rivera, Jacquelyne J; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2009-05-01

    Three pigeons were trained in a three-item simultaneous same/different task. Three of six stimulus combinations were not trained (untrained set) and were tested later. Following acquisition, the subjects were tested with novel stimuli, the untrained set, training-stimulus inversions, and object shape and color manipulations. There was no novel-stimulus transfer--that is, no abstract-concept learning. Two pigeons showed partial transfer to untrained pairs and good transfer to stimulus inversions, suggesting that they had learned the relationship between the stimuli. Lack of transfer by the third pigeon suggests item-specific learning. The somewhat surprising finding of relational learning by 2 pigeons with only six training pairs suggests restricted-domain relational learning that was controlled more by color than by shape features. Individual differences of item-specific learning by 1 pigeon and relational learning by 2 others demonstrate that this task can be learned in different ways and that relational learning can occur in the absence of novel-stimulus transfer. PMID:19380897

  13. Individual differences in estrogen receptor őĪ in select brain nuclei are associated with individual differences in aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Greiwe, Kelly M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormones play an important role in modulating social behavior in many species. Estrogens are thought to act on an interconnected network of hypothalamic and limbic brain areas to affect aggressive behavior, although the specific nuclei unknown remain unspecified. We show that individual variation in estrogen receptor alpha (ERőĪ) immunoreactivity in the lateral septum (LS), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST), and anterior hypothalamus (AHA) of CD-1 mice is positively correlated with aggressive behavior. When males were treated with fadrozole (an aromatase inhibitor), aggressive behavior was reduced, although castration did not reduce aggression. These results suggest that estrogens modulate aggressive behavior by acting on a circuit that includes the LS, vBNST, and AHA and that the source of estrogens is nongonadal. Fadrozole also decreased c-fos expression in the lateral septum following aggressive encounters. Although the effects of estrogen on aggression appear to involve regulation of neuronal activity in the LS, additional processes are likely involved. These results suggest that estrogen acts in a specific subset of a complex network of nuclei to affect aggressive behavior. PMID:16753164

  14. Formaldehyde emission‚ÄĒComparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels‚ÄĒdetermination of formaldehyde release‚ÄĒPart 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels‚ÄĒdetermination of formaldehyde release‚ÄĒPart 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels‚ÄĒdetermination of formaldehyde release‚ÄĒPart 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels‚ÄĒdetermination of formaldehyde content‚ÄĒextraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission‚ÄĒdesiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products‚ÄĒsmall chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6.0% for the chamber method, 25% and 3.5% for the gas analysis method and 15% and 5.2% for the desiccator method.

  15. Individual Differences in Premotor Brain Systems Underlie Behavioral Apathy

    PubMed Central

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Manohar, Sanjay; Behrens, Tim; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical engagement, productivity, and initiative‚ÄĒso-called ‚Äúbehavioral apathy‚ÄĚ‚ÄĒis a common problem with significant impact, both personal and economic. Here, we investigate whether there might be a biological basis to such lack of motivation using a new effort and reward-based decision-making paradigm, combined with functional and diffusion-weighted imaging. We hypothesized that behavioral apathy in otherwise healthy people might be associated with differences in brain systems underlying either motivation to act (specifically in effort and reward-based decision-making) or in action processing (transformation of an intention into action). The results demonstrate that behavioral apathy is associated with increased effort sensitivity as well as greater recruitment of neural systems involved in action anticipation: supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor zones. In addition, decreased structural and functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and SMA were associated with increased behavioral apathy. These findings reveal that effort sensitivity and translation of intentions into actions might make a critical contribution to behavioral apathy. We propose a mechanism whereby inefficient communication between ACC and SMA might lead to increased physiological cost‚ÄĒand greater effort sensitivity‚ÄĒfor action initiation in more apathetic people. PMID:26564255

  16. Individual Differences in Premotor Brain Systems Underlie Behavioral Apathy.

    PubMed

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Manohar, Sanjay; Behrens, Tim; Husain, Masud

    2016-02-01

    Lack of physical engagement, productivity, and initiative-so-called "behavioral apathy"--is a common problem with significant impact, both personal and economic. Here, we investigate whether there might be a biological basis to such lack of motivation using a new effort and reward-based decision-making paradigm, combined with functional and diffusion-weighted imaging. We hypothesized that behavioral apathy in otherwise healthy people might be associated with differences in brain systems underlying either motivation to act (specifically in effort and reward-based decision-making) or in action processing (transformation of an intention into action). The results demonstrate that behavioral apathy is associated with increased effort sensitivity as well as greater recruitment of neural systems involved in action anticipation: supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor zones. In addition, decreased structural and functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and SMA were associated with increased behavioral apathy. These findings reveal that effort sensitivity and translation of intentions into actions might make a critical contribution to behavioral apathy. We propose a mechanism whereby inefficient communication between ACC and SMA might lead to increased physiological cost--and greater effort sensitivity--for action initiation in more apathetic people. PMID:26564255

  17. Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Anticipatory Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

  18. The Privacy Rule: HIPAA standards for the privacy of individually identifiable health information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lisa W

    2002-09-01

    The main objective of the HIPAA Privacy Rule is to provide a uniform and simplified minimum standard for the privacy of individually identifiable health information. Five broad categories are covered: boundaries, security, consumer control, accountability and public responsibility. Compliance with the Privacy Rule includes appointing a security official, making some basic assessments about a fund's current policies and procedures, assessing security protocols for network systems, developing a participant complaint mechanism and creating an internal grievance procedure for employer action and employee whistle-blowing. At this writing, although the final standards are still under debate, most health care plans should accept the regulation and begin compliance procedures. Successful implementation of the Privacy Rule can streamline fund operations and give participants the added security and peace of mind they demand. PMID:12219566

  19. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals. PMID:23983983

  20. Quantifying the influence of measured and unmeasured individual differences on demography.

    PubMed

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Michallet, Jacques; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Krishnakumar, Siddharth; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    1. Demographic rates can vary not only with measured individual characters like age, sex and mass but also with unmeasured individual variables like behaviour, genes and health. 2. Predictions from population models that include measured individual characteristics often differ from models that exclude them. Similarly, unmeasured individual differences have the potential to impact predictions from population models. However, unmeasured individual differences are rarely included in population models. 3. We construct stage- and age-structured models (where stage is mass) of a roe deer population, which are parameterized from statistical functions that either include, or ignore, unmeasured individual differences. 4. We found that mass and age structures substantially impacted model parameters describing population dynamics, as did temporal environmental variation, while unmeasured individual differences impacted parameters describing population dynamics to a much smaller extent once individual heterogeneity related to mass and age has been included in the model. We discuss how our assumptions (unmeasured individual differences only in mean trait values) could have influenced our findings and under what circumstances unmeasured individual differences could have had a larger impact on population dynamics. 5. There are two reasons explaining the relative small influence of unmeasured individual differences on population dynamics in roe deer. First, individual body mass and age both capture a large amount of individual differences in roe deer. Second, in large populations of long-lived animals, the average quality of individuals (independent of age and mass) within the population is unlikely to show substantial variation over time, unless rapid evolution is occurring. So even though a population consisting of high-quality individuals would have much higher population growth rate than a population consisting of low-quality individuals, the probability of observing a population consisting only of high-quality individuals is small. PMID:26140296

  1. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  2. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  3. Individual Differences in Infant Oculomotor Behavior During the Viewing of Complex Naturalistic Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V; Smith, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Little research hitherto has examined how individual differences in attention, as assessed using standard experimental paradigms, relate to individual differences in how attention is spontaneously allocated in more naturalistic contexts. Here, we analyzed the time intervals between refoveating eye movements (fixation durations) while typically developing 11-month-old infants viewed a 90-min battery ranging from complex dynamic to noncomplex static materials. The same infants also completed experimental assessments of cognitive control, psychomotor reaction times (RT), processing speed (indexed via peak look during habituation), and arousal (indexed via tonic pupil size). High test‚Äďretest reliability was found for fixation duration, across testing sessions and across types of viewing material. Increased cognitive control and increased arousal were associated with reduced variability in fixation duration. For fixations to dynamic stimuli, in which a large proportion of saccades may be exogenously cued, we found that psychomotor RT measures were most predictive of mean fixation duration; for fixations to static stimuli, in contrast, in which there is less exogenous attentional capture, we found that psychomotor RT did not predict performance, but that measures of cognitive control and arousal did. The implications of these findings for understanding the development of attentional control in naturalistic settings are discussed. PMID:25635173

  4. Individual differences and age-related changes in divergent thinking in toddlers and preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children as young as 2 years. The Unusual Box test is a nonverbal and nonimitative test in which children play individually with a novel toy and novel objects. Divergent thinking is scored as the number of different actions performed. Study 1 shows that the Unusual Box test is a valid measure of divergent thinking as it correlates with standard measures of divergent thinking in 3- and 4-year-olds. Study 2 indicates that the test can be used with 2-year-olds, as it shows high test-retest reliability, demonstrating that 2-year-olds can think divergently. Across both studies, individual differences and age-related changes were found, indicating that some children are better at divergent thinking than others and that children's divergent thinking increases with age. This test will allow researchers to gain insight into the early emergence of divergent thinking. PMID:24588519

  5. Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

  6. Conceptual Analysis and Implications of Students' Individual Differences to Curriculum Implementation in Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Essien, Emmanuel O.; Okure, Okure S.

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences refer to the unique ways each human being differs from another human being as expressed in behaviour or perceived in the physical appearance. Three factors of individual differences identified to be closely related to learning/acquisition of skills and performance of tasks. These are personality dimensions, self-efficacy and…

  7. Mathematical skill in individuals with Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a standardized mathematics battery

    PubMed Central

    O’Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which measures a wide range of skills. We administered the TEMA-2 to 14 individuals with WS and 14 children matched individually for mental age on the matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. There were no differences between groups on the overall scores on the TEMA-2. However, an item-by-item analysis revealed group differences. Participants with WS performed more poorly than controls when reporting which of two numbers was closest to a target number, a task thought to utilize a mental number line subserved by the parietal lobe, consistent with previous evidence showing parietal abnormalities in people with WS. In contrast, people with WS performed better than the control group at reading numbers, suggesting that verbal math skills may be comparatively strong in WS. These findings add to evidence that components of mathematical knowledge may be differentially damaged in developmental disorders. PMID:17482333

  8. Revealing a latent variable: individual differences in affective response to repeated injections.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 129(5) of Behavioral Neuroscience (see record 2015-43762-001). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The sentence "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared with handled-controls." should be "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, compared with handled-controls."] Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals 1 such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally na√Įve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, [corrected] while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, [corrected] compared with handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in rats. Given that such underlying emotional variability exists within standard, outbred rat populations, this study highlights the importance of accounting for such variability in any study investigating the effects of repeated drug administration on depressive-like behavior for reliability and replicability of findings. Thus, we recommend including an uninjected control group in all studies. PMID:26191946

  9. Social modulation of pituitary-adrenal responsiveness and individual differences in behavior of young domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Price, E O; Moberg, G P

    1988-01-01

    The effects of three variables known to influence pituitary-adrenal activity were examined in kid goats who were accompanied by adult goats in standard goat-human encounters. Serum corticosteroid concentrations in bold kids who characteristically spent above average amounts of time closely interacting with the person were never significantly different from control values. Corticosteroids in timid kids who spent little time near the person depended on the adult goat's behavior toward the person and the nature of the social relationship between the kid and the adult goat. When timid kids were accompanied by adult goats (familiar pen-mates or strangers) who behaved as if they were fearful of the person, their corticosteroids were significantly greater than control values. In contrast, bold pen-mates or bold strangers effectively reduced pituitary-adrenal responsiveness in timid kids. Only mothers unconditionally reduced kid pituitary-adrenal responsiveness and systematically affected kid behavior toward the person. The functioning of behavioral and pituitary-adrenal systems in young goats was influenced by consistent individual differences in responsiveness and the differing capacities of social companions to modulate this responsivity. PMID:3194465

  10. Multilevel Models for Examining Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation and Covariation over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance--it may be of direct interest as a result of individual differences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individual differences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for…

  11. Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence wereÖ

  12. A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

  13. Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. ItÖ

  14. Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

  15. A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present inÖ

  16. An Individual Differences Additive Model: An Alternating Least Squares Method with Optimal Scaling Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Takane, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    An individual differences additive model is discussed which represents individual differences in additivity by differential weighting or additive factors. A procedure for estimating model parameters for various data measurement characteristics is developed. The method is found to be very useful in describing certain types of developmental change…

  17. Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Fisher, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It…

  18. Individual Differences in the Processing of Written Sarcasm and Metaphor: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olkoniemi, Henri; Ranta, Henri; Kaakinen, Johanna K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in the processing of different forms of figurative language. Sixty participants read sarcastic, metaphorical, and literal sentences embedded in story contexts while their eye movements were recorded, and responded to a text memory and an inference question after each story. Individual differences…

  19. Origins of Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: From Nature to Nurture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Jaffee, Sara R.; Happ, Francesca; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    In this study of the origins of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM), the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study sample of 1,116 sixty-month-old twin pairs completed a comprehensive battery of ToM tasks. Individual differences in ToM were striking and strongly associated with verbal ability. Behavioral genetic models of the…

  20. Diagnosis of Moyamoya Disease: International Standard and Regional Differences

    PubMed Central

    FUJIMURA, Miki; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology characterized by bilateral steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. These diagnostic criteria of the moyamoya disease, stated by the Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis (moyamoya disease) in Japan, are well established and generally accepted as the definition of this rare entity. On the contrary to the diagnosis of definitive moyamoya disease, there is some confusion in the terminology and understanding of quasi-moyamoya disease; moyamoya disease in association with various disease entities, such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, etc. Although the clinical management is not affected by these semantic distinctions, terminological confusion may interfere with the international collaboration of the clinical investigation of these rare conditions. In this article, we sought to review the international standard and regional differences in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease and quasi-moyamoya disease. PMID:25739428

  1. Inter-Individual Differences in the Oral Bacteriome Are Greater than Intra-Day Fluctuations in Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukuto; Yamagishi, Junya; Yamashita, Riu; Shinozaki, Natsuko; Ye, Bin; Yamada, Takuji; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasaki, Masao; Tsuboi, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Given the advent of massively parallel DNA sequencing, human microbiome is analyzed comprehensively by metagenomic approaches. However, the inter- and intra-individual variability and stability of the human microbiome remain poorly characterized, particularly at the intra-day level. This issue is of crucial importance for studies examining the effects of microbiome on human health. Here, we focused on bacteriome of oral plaques, for which repeated, time-controlled sampling is feasible. Eighty-one supragingival plaque subjects were collected from healthy individuals, examining multiple sites within the mouth at three time points (forenoon, evening, and night) over the course of 3 days. Bacterial composition was estimated by 16S rRNA sequencing and species-level profiling, resulting in identification of a total of 162 known bacterial species. We found that species compositions and their relative abundances were similar within individuals, and not between sampling time or tooth type. This suggests that species-level oral bacterial composition differs significantly between individuals, although the number of subjects is limited and the intra-individual variation also occurs. The majority of detected bacterial species (98.2%; 159/162), however, did not fluctuate over the course of the day, implying a largely stable oral microbiome on an intra-day time scale. In fact, the stability of this data set enabled us to estimate potential interactions between rare bacteria, with 40 co-occurrences supported by the existing literature. In summary, the present study provides a valuable basis for studies of the human microbiome, with significant implications in terms of biological and clinical outcomes. PMID:26121551

  2. Inter-Individual Differences in the Oral Bacteriome Are Greater than Intra-Day Fluctuations in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Natsuko; Ye, Bin; Yamada, Takuji; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasaki, Masao; Tsuboi, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Given the advent of massively parallel DNA sequencing, human microbiome is analyzed comprehensively by metagenomic approaches. However, the inter- and intra-individual variability and stability of the human microbiome remain poorly characterized, particularly at the intra-day level. This issue is of crucial importance for studies examining the effects of microbiome on human health. Here, we focused on bacteriome of oral plaques, for which repeated, time-controlled sampling is feasible. Eighty-one supragingival plaque subjects were collected from healthy individuals, examining multiple sites within the mouth at three time points (forenoon, evening, and night) over the course of 3 days. Bacterial composition was estimated by 16S rRNA sequencing and species-level profiling, resulting in identification of a total of 162 known bacterial species. We found that species compositions and their relative abundances were similar within individuals, and not between sampling time or tooth type. This suggests that species-level oral bacterial composition differs significantly between individuals, although the number of subjects is limited and the intra-individual variation also occurs. The majority of detected bacterial species (98.2%; 159/162), however, did not fluctuate over the course of the day, implying a largely stable oral microbiome on an intra-day time scale. In fact, the stability of this data set enabled us to estimate potential interactions between rare bacteria, with 40 co-occurrences supported by the existing literature. In summary, the present study provides a valuable basis for studies of the human microbiome, with significant implications in terms of biological and clinical outcomes. PMID:26121551

  3. Solving the puzzle of collective action through inter-individual differences.

    PubMed

    von Rueden, Chris; Gavrilets, Sergey; Glowacki, Luke

    2015-12-01

    Models of collective action infrequently account for differences across individuals beyond a limited set of strategies, ignoring variation in endowment (e.g. physical condition, wealth, knowledge, personality, support), individual costs of effort, or expected gains from cooperation. However, behavioural research indicates these inter-individual differences can have significant effects on the dynamics of collective action. The papers contributed to this theme issue evaluate how individual differences affect the propensity to cooperate, and how they can catalyse others' likelihood of cooperation (e.g. via leadership). Many of the papers emphasize the relationship between individual decisions and socio-ecological context, particularly the effect of group size. All together, the papers in this theme issue provide a more complete picture of collective action, by embracing the reality of inter-individual variation and its multiple roles in the success or failure of collective action. PMID:26503677

  4. Solving the puzzle of collective action through inter-individual differences

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Chris; Gavrilets, Sergey; Glowacki, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Models of collective action infrequently account for differences across individuals beyond a limited set of strategies, ignoring variation in endowment (e.g. physical condition, wealth, knowledge, personality, support), individual costs of effort, or expected gains from cooperation. However, behavioural research indicates these inter-individual differences can have significant effects on the dynamics of collective action. The papers contributed to this theme issue evaluate how individual differences affect the propensity to cooperate, and how they can catalyse others’ likelihood of cooperation (e.g. via leadership). Many of the papers emphasize the relationship between individual decisions and socio-ecological context, particularly the effect of group size. All together, the papers in this theme issue provide a more complete picture of collective action, by embracing the reality of inter-individual variation and its multiple roles in the success or failure of collective action. PMID:26503677

  5. Consistent individual differences in paternal behavior: a field study of threespine stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Laura R.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in parenting are widespread; however, we know little about why there is variation in parenting behavior among individuals within species. One possible explanation for consistent individual differences in parenting is that individuals invest in different aspects of parental care, such as provisioning or defense. In this field study we measured consistent individual differences in parenting behavior and evaluated correlations between parenting and other behaviors in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We repeatedly measured male parenting behavior and male behavior in the presence of three different types of live intruders: a female, a conspecific male, and a predator, meant to provoke courtship, aggressive and antipredator behavior, respectively. While males plastically adjusted their reactions to different types of intruders, we found consistent individual differences in behavior (behavioral types) both within and across contexts, even after accounting for variation in body size and nest characteristics. Males that performed more parenting behavior responded faster to all types of intruders. These results suggest that in nature, individual male stickleback exhibit robust parental behavioral types, and highly parental males are more attentive to their surroundings. Future studies are needed to examine the potential causes of individual variation in parental behavior in the field. PMID:25663736

  6. State and Trait Components of Functional Connectivity: Individual Differences Vary with Mental State

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Cam-CAN; Henson, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is often treated as a trait, used, for example, to draw inferences about individual differences in cognitive function, or differences between healthy or diseased populations. However, functional connectivity can also depend on the individual's mental state. In the present study, we examined the relative contribution of state and trait components in shaping an individual's functional architecture. We used fMRI data from a large, population-based human sample (N = 587, age 18‚Äď88 years), as part of the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN), which were collected in three mental states: resting, performing a sensorimotor task, and watching a movie. Whereas previous studies have shown commonalities across mental states in the average functional connectivity across individuals, we focused on the effects of states on the pattern of individual differences in functional connectivity. We found that state effects were as important as trait effects in shaping individual functional connectivity patterns, each explaining an approximately equal amount of variance. This was true when we looked at aging, as one specific dimension of individual differences, as well as when we looked at generic aspects of individual variation. These results show that individual differences in functional connectivity consist of state-dependent aspects, as well as more stable, trait-like characteristics. Studying individual differences in functional connectivity across a wider range of mental states will therefore provide a more complete picture of the mechanisms underlying factors such as cognitive ability, aging, and disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The brain's functional architecture is remarkably similar across different individuals and across different mental states, which is why many studies use functional connectivity as a trait measure. Despite these trait-like aspects, functional connectivity varies over time and with changes in cognitive state. We measured connectivity in three different states to quantify the size of the trait-like component of functional connectivity, compared with the state-dependent component. Our results show that studying individual differences within one state (such as resting) uncovers only part of the relevant individual differences in brain function, and that the study of functional connectivity under multiple mental states is essential to disentangle connectivity differences that are transient versus those that represent more stable, trait-like characteristics of an individual. PMID:26468196

  7. Individual differences in the real-time comprehension of children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Venker, Courtney E; Eernisse, Elizabeth R; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate deficits in language comprehension, but little is known about how they process spoken language as it unfolds. Real-time lexical comprehension is associated with language and cognition in children without ASD, suggesting that this may also be the case for children with ASD. This study adopted an individual differences approach to characterizing real-time comprehension of familiar words in a group of 34 three- to six-year-olds with ASD. The looking-while-listening paradigm was employed; it measures online accuracy and latency through language-mediated eye movements and has limited task demands. On average, children demonstrated comprehension of the familiar words, but considerable variability emerged. Children with better accuracy were faster to process the familiar words. In combination, processing speed and comprehension on a standardized language assessment explained 63% of the variance in online accuracy. Online accuracy was not correlated with autism severity or maternal education, and nonverbal cognition did not explain unique variance. Notably, online accuracy at age 5¬Ĺ was related to vocabulary comprehension 3 years earlier. The words typically learned earliest in life were processed most quickly. Consistent with a dimensional view of language abilities, these findings point to similarities in patterns of language acquisition in typically developing children and those with ASD. Overall, our results emphasize the value of examining individual differences in real-time language comprehension in this population. We propose that the looking-while-listening paradigm is a sensitive and valuable methodological tool that can be applied across many areas of autism research. PMID:23696214

  8. Individual differences and workload effects on strategy adoption in a dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jungaa; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R

    2013-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of individual differences and workload on strategy adaptivity in a complex, dynamic task called the Space Fortress game (Donchin, 1989). Participants learned to use a strategy of flying a ship in circles around the fortress in a standard game environment. Once they mastered the strategy, they were assigned to different workload conditions and transferred to a nonstandard environment in which a strong wind was introduced that made it more difficult to achieve a circular orbit. About half of the participants continued with their prior circular strategy while the rest adopted a novel strategy that achieved comparable performance with less effort. With this novel strategy, rather than trying to complete orbits they flew into the wind and then allowed the wind to blow them back to achieve a pendulum-like path. Participants without a working-memory load were more likely to adopt the new strategy. Participants were also more likely to adopt the new strategy if their pattern of behavior exposed them more often to the potential of drifting with the wind. The results indicate that spontaneous changes in strategy occur when people are exposed to the potential of a new strategy and have the cognitive resources to understand its potential. PMID:23831665

  9. Individual differences in the allocation of attention to items in working memory: Evidence from pupillometry.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    We utilized pupillary responses as an online measure of attentional allocation and fluctuations in attention in order to better examine both how attention is allocated to items in working memory (WM) and individual differences therein. We found that the pupillary response during a delay was modulated by the number of items to be held in memory, reaching asymptote close to capacity limits. Furthermore, we found that during the delay, how individuals allocated attention to items in WM depended on the number of items to be held, as well as on an individual's capacity. Finally, we found that pretrial pupil diameter distinguished correct and error responses and that individuals with more variability in pretrial pupil diameter had lower behavioral capacity estimates. These results suggest that individual differences in WM are due both to differences in the amount of attention that can be allocated to maintain items in WM and to differences in fluctuations in attention control across trials. PMID:25324180

  10. Quantification of Hordeins by ELISA: The Correct Standard Makes a Magnitude of Difference

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Gregory J.; Blundell, Malcolm J.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Howitt, Crispin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coeliacs require a life-long gluten-free diet supported by accurate measurement of gluten (hordein) in gluten-free food. The gluten-free food industry, with a value in excess of $6 billion in 2011, currently depends on two ELISA protocols calibrated against standards that may not be representative of the sample being assayed. Aim The factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA analysis of hordeins in beer were examined. Results A simple alcohol-dithiothreitol extraction protocol successfully extracts the majority of hordeins from barley flour and malt. Primary hordein standards were purified by FPLC. ELISA detected different classes of purified hordeins with vastly different sensitivity. The dissociation constant (Kd) for a given ELISA reaction with different hordeins varied by three orders of magnitude. The Kd of the same hordein determined by ELISA using different antibodies varied by up to two orders of magnitude. The choice of either ELISA kit or hordein standard may bias the results and confound interpretation. Conclusions Accurate determination of hordein requires that the hordein standard used to calibrate the ELISA reaction be identical in composition to the hordeins present in the test substance. In practice it is not feasible to isolate a representative hordein standard from each test food. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes which may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. PMID:23509607

  11. Nonshared Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Early Behavioral Development: A Monozygotic Twin Differences Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judith F.; Pike, Alison; Plomin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Examined nonshared environmental (NSE) influences on twin preschoolers' behavior independent of genetics. Found that within-pair parenting differences correlated with monozygotic differences in behavior. For the extreme 10 percent of the parenting-discordant and behavior-discordant distributions, average NSE effect size was 11 percent, suggesting…

  12. Vowel-dependent variation in Cantonese /s/ from an individual-difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alan C L

    2016-04-01

    Individual variation is ubiquitous in the acoustic realization of human speech; however, little is known about the nature of individual differences in coarticulation. Through an in-depth case study of the temporal dynamics of vocalic influences on the acoustic realization of Cantonese /s/, this study demonstrates that coarticulatory effects may vary by the sex and self-reported autistic-like traits of the individual. These findings have significant implications for research in phonetics, phonology, and sound change. PMID:27106314

  13. Individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress exposure in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress alters the phenotype of the offspring in adulthood. When the prenatal and adult environments do not match, these alterations may induce pathology risk. There are, however, large individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress. While some individuals seem vulnerable, others appear to be relatively resistant to its effects. In this review we discuss potential mechanisms underlying these individual differences with a focus on animal models. Differences between rodent models selected for stress coping traits are discussed. In addition, the role of circulating factors, like glucocorticoids and cytokines, factors involved in brain development and influences of epigenetic and genetic factors in prenatal stress induced phenotype are covered.

  14. Individualism: a valid and important dimension of cultural differences between nations.

    PubMed

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) meta-analysis suggested problems in the measurement of individualism and collectivism. Studies using Hofstede's individualism scores show little convergent validity with more recent measures of individualism and collectivism. We propose that the lack of convergent validity is due to national differences in response styles. Whereas Hofstede statistically controlled for response styles, Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis relied on uncorrected ratings. Data from an international student survey demonstrated convergent validity between Hofstede's individualism dimension and horizontal individualism when response styles were statistically controlled, whereas uncorrected scores correlated highly with the individualism scores in Oyserman et al.'s meta-analysis. Uncorrected horizontal individualism scores and meta-analytic individualism scores did not correlate significantly with nations' development, whereas corrected horizontal individualism scores and Hofstede's individualism dimension were significantly correlated with development. This pattern of results suggests that individualism is a valid construct for cross-cultural comparisons, but that the measurement of this construct needs improvement. PMID:15745862

  15. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change over…

  16. Ignoring Individual Differences in Times of Assessment in Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulombe, Patrick; Selig, James P.; Delaney, Harold D.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often collect longitudinal data to model change over time in a phenomenon of interest. Inevitably, there will be some variation across individuals in specific time intervals between assessments. In this simulation study of growth curve modeling, we investigate how ignoring individual differences in time points when modeling change overÖ

  17. Experimental Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Corticosterone Reaction Norms with No Oxidative Costs

    PubMed Central

    Schoenle, Laura A.; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F.; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2014-01-01

    Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

  18. Experimental food restriction reveals individual differences in corticosterone reaction norms with no oxidative costs.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, Ad√°m Z; Ouyang, Jenny Q; Schoenle, Laura A; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

  19. Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…

  20. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  1. Individual Differences in Perceptions of Disabilities: An Application to Rehabilitation Counseling Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B., Jr.; Neubauer, Nancy A.

    How people perceive disabilities plays an important role in the lives of individuals with disabilities, in rehabilitation theories, and in the professional training and practice of rehabilitation counselors. Individual differences in subjective perceptions of disabilities were investigated. Thirty-seven applicants (22 unsuccessful and 15…

  2. Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition of Japanese Particles "WA" and "GA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Sachiho

    2008-01-01

    Although the L2 acquisition studies of Japanese particles "WA" and "GA" were investigated by many researchers (Sakamoto, 2000), they completely ignored learners' individual differences. Indeed, learners' individualities are important factors for the L2 learning (Lightbrown & Spada, 1999). Thus, this research explored whether learners' individual…

  3. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words thanÖ

  4. Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during aÖ

  5. Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…

  6. Characterizing individual differences in animal responses to a nutritional challenge: Toward improved robustness measures.

    PubMed

    Friggens, N C; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Etienne, M P; Mary-Huard, T; Schmidely, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the variation between individuals in the response to and recovery from a nutritional challenge, the repeatability of responses between lactation stages, and the use of shape-clustering methods to classify similar individuals. Sixteen dairy goats were exposed to a 2-d nutritional challenge (underfeeding) at 2 different stages of lactation. Each challenge consisted of a 7-d control period with standard total mixed ration (TMR), 2d of straw-only feeding, and a 10-d recovery period on the TMR. All feeds were offered ad libitum, as was water. The first challenge was in late lactation on primiparous goats (mean days in milk=249), and the second challenge was carried out on the same goats early in the following lactation (mean days in milk=28). The main energetic response traits dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, body weight, milk fat and protein contents, and plasma glucose, fatty acids (NEFA), ő≤-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), urea, and insulin, were measured daily throughout. A clustering procedure linked to a piecewise mixed model was used to characterize different types of response. As expected, straw feeding caused a large decline in DMI and milk yield, and substantial increases in milk fat and milk protein composition, relative to the prechallenge period on the control TMR. For both DMI and milk yield, the slope of the response, and hence the size of the drop, was strongly related to the prechallenge values, indicating that these 2measures were tightly constrained by the challenge. Regression slopes between lactation stages for responses to the same nutritional challenge were significant for DMI, milk protein content, plasma BHB and urea, and body weight, indicating that within-animal responses in late and early lactation were repeatable. The clustering procedure generally performed well, classifying both scaling differences and differences in shape. The extent of reranking of cluster designations between late lactation and the following early lactation period was examined. For milk yield, DMI, body weight, and urea, relatively little reranking occurred; the numbers of goats not changing class number were 10, 12, 10, and 13, respectively. In contrast, for milk contents of fat and protein, and also for BHB, no clear association was found between late and early lactation class numbers. For NEFA and glucose, these comparisons were not relevant because either the vast majority of goats were in 1 cluster (NEFA) or because an outlier goat skewed the cluster designation (glucose in late lactation). For insulin, 9 out of 16 goats kept the same rank. PMID:26830737

  7. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  8. Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords

    PubMed Central

    Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  9. Strong personalities, not social niches, drive individual differences in social behaviours in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for consistent individual differences in behaviour is a recent challenge for behavioural ecology. Although theory is rapidly developing in this area, there are few empirical tests. There are at least two hypotheses to explain why individuals behave differently from one another in a dynamic social environment. The social niche specialization hypothesis proposes that repeated social interactions generate consistent individual differences in social behaviour. The behavioural type hypothesis proposes that an individual’s social behaviour reflects its behavioural type. We tested these two hypotheses by manipulating the opportunity for repeated social interactions in groups of three spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and by measuring the behavioural types of the same individuals in three contexts: when in a novel environment, when presented with an opportunity to associate with conspecifics and when confronted by an intruder. We found no evidence that repeated social interactions increased between-individual variation in social foraging behaviour. Instead, individuals’ social foraging behaviour was related to their behavioural type, specifically their shoaling behaviour. In addition, the behavioural types of the members of a group strongly influenced a group’s average foraging behaviour. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that social dynamics within groups generates individual differences in behaviour. Instead, they suggest the reverse: individual differences in behaviour drive group-level dynamics. PMID:25076789

  10. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes. PMID:26948461

  11. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork.

    PubMed

    Galla, Brian M; Plummer, Benjamin D; White, Rachel E; Meketon, David; D'Mello, Sidney K; Duckworth, Angela L

    2014-10-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  12. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork

    PubMed Central

    Galla, Brian M.; Plummer, Benjamin D.; White, Rachel E.; Meketon, David; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  13. Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Reyna L; Shivers, Carolyn M; Wieland, Elizabeth A; Kotz, Sonja A; Yoder, Paul J; Devin McAuley, J

    2015-07-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness, morpho-syntactic competence, and non-verbal cognitive ability. Rhythm perception accounted for 48% of the variance in morpho-syntactic competence after controlling for non-verbal IQ, socioeconomic status, and prior musical activities. Children with higher phonological awareness scores were better able to discriminate complex rhythms than children with lower scores, but not after controlling for IQ. This study is the first to show a relation between rhythm perception skills and morpho-syntactic production in children with typical language development. These findings extend the literature showing substantial overlap of neurocognitive resources for processing music and language. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://youtu.be/_lO692qHDNg. PMID:25195623

  14. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects. PMID:27124457

  15. TMFA: A FORTRAN Program for Three-Mode Factor Analysis and Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Joel

    1978-01-01

    TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)

  16. Surgical treatment of gastric cancer in Japan, trend from standardization to individualization.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Katai, H

    2014-01-01

    Japan has a huge number of patients with gastric cancer and has developed various surgical treatments for this disease.This paper intends to introduce our strategies against gastric cancer. The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association was established in 1962. Its major purposes are promotion of basic and clinical researches and popularization of the latest knowledge and technologies. For the purposes, the association organized the annual scientific meeting and the nationwide registry by member hospitals, and published the Japanese Classification of Gastric Cancer (1) and the Treatment Guide Line (2). The nationwide registry reported that proportion of Stage-I cancer was 22.5% in 1963-66,which increased to 59.3% in 2008 (3,4,5). 11,261 patients with gastric resection were registered by 187 hospitals in 2008. 63 patients were died within 30 postoperative days and the direct death rate was 0.55%. 5 year survival rate (5YSR) was 37.5% for resected cases in 1963-66, which was improved to 70.1% in 2008. 5YSR was improved from 55.1% to 74.1% for Stage-II, and from 39.1% to 48.8% for Stage-III in the period. According to remarkable increase of early stage cancer, principle of surgical treatments was shifted from "¬Ä¬úextended and standardized surgery for radicality" ¬Ä¬Ěto "¬Ä¬úreasonable and individual surgery considering safety and quality of life"¬Ä¬Ě. This trend produced a large variation in surgical treatments; namely 1) minimally invasive surgeries,2) function preserving surgeries, 3) optimal extent of lymph node dissection, and 4) aggressive but safe surgeries.Intention of this paper is to explain these procedures, the intentions, the indications, and the treatment results. PMID:25560493

  17. Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Mj√łlstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological‚Äďhermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs‚Äô specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients‚Äô own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent. PMID:24054352

  18. Examining the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis to Explain Individual Differences in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes that foreign-language learning problems result from difficulties with native-language learning. Research evidence is summarized showing that good and poor foreign-language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native-language skill and phonological processing ability. Potential challenges to this hypothesis are…

  19. Within Cultural Differences: Examining Individual Differences in Korean American and European American Preschoolers' Social Pretend Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farver, Jo Ann M.; Kim, Yonnie Kwak; Lee-Shin, Yoolim

    2000-01-01

    Investigated differences in Korean- and European-American preschoolers' pretend play behavior, examining the influence of intracultural variations in children's skills and behavioral characteristics. Data from parent and teacher interviews and observations of children highlighted similar patterns predictive of pretend play for both groups.…

  20. Examining the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis to Explain Individual Differences in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes that foreign-language learning problems result from difficulties with native-language learning. Research evidence is summarized showing that good and poor foreign-language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native-language skill and phonological processing ability. Potential challenges to this hypothesis areÖ

  1. Individual differences in heart rate variability are associated with the avoidance of negative emotional events.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Although the emotional outcome of a choice generally affects subsequent decisions, humans can inhibit the influence of emotion. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an objective measure of individual differences in the capacity for inhibitory control. In the present study, we investigated how individual differences in HRV at rest are associated with the emotional effects of the outcome of a choice on subsequent decision making using a decision-making task in which emotional pictures appeared as decision outcomes. We used a reinforcement learning model to characterize the observed behaviors according to several parameters, namely, the learning rate and the motivational value of positive and negative pictures. Consequently, we found that individuals with a lower resting HRV exhibited a greater negative motivational value in response to negative pictures, suggesting that these individuals tend to avoid negative pictures compared with individuals with a higher resting HRV. PMID:25457639

  2. Are Some Negotiators Better Than Others? Individual Differences in Bargaining Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Curhan, Jared R.; Eisenkraft, Noah; Shirako, Aiwa; Baccaro, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the long-standing mystery of stable individual differences in negotiation performance, on which intuition and conventional wisdom have clashed with inconsistent empirical findings. The present study used the Social Relations Model to examine individual differences directly via consistency in performance across multiple negotiations and to disentangle the roles of both parties within these inherently dyadic interactions. Individual differences explained a substantial 46% of objective performance and 19% of subjective performance in a mixed-motive bargaining exercise. Previous work may have understated the influence of individual differences because conventional research designs require specific traits to be identified and measured. Exploratory analyses of a battery of traits revealed few reliable associations with consistent individual differences in objective performance‚ÄĒexcept for positive beliefs about negotiation, positive affect, and concern for one's outcome, each of which predicted better performance. Findings suggest that the field has large untapped potential to explain substantial individual differences. Limitations, areas for future research, and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21720453

  3. Individual differences in visual information processing rate and the prediction of performance differences in team sports: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Adam, J J; Wilberg, R B

    1992-06-01

    This study used a backward-masking paradigm to examine individual differences in rate of visual information processing among university basketball, ice hockey and Canadian football players. Displays containing four letters were presented for stimulus durations ranging from 25 to 300 ms. Following stimulus offset, a masking stimulus was presented for 200 ms. The subjects were instructed to write down as many letters as possible from the briefly presented stimulus display on a specially prepared response grid. The results indicated consistent individual differences in rate of visual information processing. More importantly, it was found that rate of visual information processing as indexed by the backward-masking technique, has promising validity for predicting general performance excellence in university ice hockey and basketball players. Individual differences in rate of visual information processing were interpreted as reflecting the operation of attentional factors. PMID:1602528

  4. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance. PMID:16956110

  5. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    PubMed

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  6. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  7. Neurochemical factors underlying individual differences in locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Variation among individuals may arise for several reasons, and may have diverse underlying mechanisms. Individual differences have been studied in a variety of species, but recently a new model organism has emerged in this field that offers both sophistication in phenotypical characterization and powerful mechanistic analysis. Recently, zebrafish, one of the favorites of geneticists, have been shown to exhibit consistent individual differences in baseline locomotor activity. In the current study, we further explore this finding and examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity correlate with anxiety-like behavioral measures and with levels of dopamine, serotonin and the metabolites of these neurotransmitters. In addition, we examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity are also associated with reactivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of and neurochemical responses to acute ethanol exposure (30min long, 1% v/v ethanol bath application). Principal component analyses revealed a strong association among anxiety-like responses, locomotor activity, serotonin and dopamine levels. Furthermore, ethanol exposure was found to abolish the locomotion-dependent anxiety-like behavioral and serotonergic responses suggesting that this drug also engages a common underlying pathway. Overall, our results provide support for an important role of the serotonergic system in mediating individual differences in anxiety-like responses and locomotor activity in zebrafish and for a minor modulatory role of the dopaminergic system. PMID:26316057

  8. Optimal life-history strategy differs between philopatric and dispersing individuals in a metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Cotto, Olivier; Kubisch, Alexander; Ronce, Ophélie

    2014-03-01

    Abundant empirical evidence for dispersal syndromes contrasts with the rarity of theoretical predictions about the evolution of life-history divergence between dispersing and philopatric individuals. We use an evolutionary model to predict optimal differences in age-specific reproductive effort between dispersing and philopatric individuals inhabiting the same metapopulation. In our model, only young individuals disperse, and their lifelong reproductive decisions are potentially affected by this initial event. Juvenile survival declines as density of adults and other juveniles increases. We assume a trade-off between reproduction and survival, so that different patterns of age-specific reproductive effort lead to different patterns of aging. We find that young immigrant mothers should allocate more resources to reproduction than young philopatric mothers, but these life-history differences vanish as immigrant and philopatric individuals get older. However, whether the higher early reproductive effort of immigrants results in higher fecundity depends on the postimmigration cost on fecundity. Dispersing individuals have consequently a shorter life span. Ultimately, these life-history differences are due to the fact that young dispersing individuals most often live in recently founded populations, where competition is relaxed and juvenile survival higher, favoring larger investment in offspring production at the expense of survival. PMID:24561601

  9. Shift work and inter-individual differences in sleep and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2006-01-01

    Inter-individual differences in tolerance for shift work have been studied primarily in terms of external factors affecting alertness on the job or the ability to rest and sleep while at home. However, there is increasing evidence that neurobiological factors play a role as well, particularly the major processes involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. These include a sleep homeostatic process seeking to balance wakefulness and sleep and a circadian process seeking to promote wakefulness during the day and sleep during the night. Shift work is associated with a temporal misalignment of these two endogenous processes. During nightwork, this misalignment makes it difficult to stay awake during the nightshift and sleep during the day. However, inter-individual variability in the processes involved in sleep/wake regulation is substantial. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of inter-individual differences in vulnerability to cognitive deficits from sleep loss. Moreover, these inter-individual differences were shown to constitute a trait. Interestingly, self-evaluations of sleepiness did not correspond well with the trait inter-individual variability in objective levels of performance impairment during sleep deprivation. Perhaps because of this discrepancy, in operational settings, the inter-individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss do not appear to be limited due to self-selection mechanisms. Indeed, even among a highly select group of active-duty jet fighter pilots flying a series of simulated night missions, systematic inter-individual differences in performance impairment from sleep loss were still observed. There are significant personal and economic consequences to human error and accidents caused by performance deficits due to sleep loss. It is important, therefore, to study the inter-individual differences in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in the work environment so that cognitive impairment during shift work may be better anticipated and prevented. PMID:17190701

  10. Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Lövdén, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9‚Äď12, 20‚Äď25, and 65‚Äď78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity. PMID:22615692

  11. Examining the linguistic coding differences hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Sparks, R L

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed. PMID:24234194

  12. Commutability of Cytomegalovirus WHO International Standard in Different Matrices.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara; Webb, Erika M; Barry, Catherine P; Choi, Won S; Abravaya, Klara B; Schneider, George J; Ho, Shiaolan Y

    2016-06-01

    Commutability of quantitative standards allows patient results to be compared across molecular diagnostic methods and laboratories. This is critical to establishing quantitative thresholds for use in clinical decision-making. A matrix effect associated with the 1st cytomegalovirus (CMV) WHO international standard (IS) was identified using the Abbott RealTime CMV assay. A commutability study was performed to compare the CMV WHO IS and patient specimens diluted in plasma and whole blood. Patient specimens showed similar CMV DNA quantitation values regardless of the diluent or extraction procedure used. The CMV WHO IS, on the other hand, exhibited a matrix effect. The CMV concentration reported for the WHO IS diluted in plasma was within the 95% prediction interval established with patient samples. In contrast, the reported DNA concentration of the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood was reduced approximately 0.4 log copies/ml, and values fell outside the 95% prediction interval. Calibrating the assay by using the CMV WHO IS diluted in whole blood would introduce a bias for CMV whole-blood quantitation; samples would be reported as having higher measured concentrations, by approximately 0.4 log IU/ml. Based on the commutability study with patient samples, the RealTime CMV assay was standardized based on the CMV WHO IS diluted in plasma. A revision of the instructions for use of the CMV WHO IS should be considered to alert users of the potential impact from the diluent matrix. The identification of a matrix effect with the CMV WHO IS underscores the importance of assessing commutability of the IS in order to achieve consistent results across methods. PMID:27030491

  13. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  14. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts. PMID:25967929

  15. Using Decision Models to Enhance Investigations of Individual Differences in Cognitive Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    White, Corey N; Curl, Ryan A; Sloane, Jennifer F

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in relating individual differences in cognitive processing to activation of neural systems. The general process involves relating measures of task performance like reaction times or accuracy to brain activity to identify individual differences in neural processing. One limitation of this approach is that measures like reaction times can be affected by multiple components of processing. For instance, some individuals might have higher accuracy in a memory task because they respond more cautiously, not because they have better memory. Computational models of decision making, like the drift-diffusion model and the linear ballistic accumulator model, provide a potential solution to this problem. They can be fitted to data from individual participants to disentangle the effects of the different processes driving behavior. In this sense the models can provide cleaner measures of the processes of interest, and enhance our understanding of how neural activity varies across individuals or populations. The advantages of this model-based approach to investigating individual differences in neural activity are discussed with recent examples of how this method can improve our understanding of the brain-behavior relationship. PMID:26903896

  16. Using Decision Models to Enhance Investigations of Individual Differences in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    White, Corey N.; Curl, Ryan A.; Sloane, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in relating individual differences in cognitive processing to activation of neural systems. The general process involves relating measures of task performance like reaction times or accuracy to brain activity to identify individual differences in neural processing. One limitation of this approach is that measures like reaction times can be affected by multiple components of processing. For instance, some individuals might have higher accuracy in a memory task because they respond more cautiously, not because they have better memory. Computational models of decision making, like the drift‚Äďdiffusion model and the linear ballistic accumulator model, provide a potential solution to this problem. They can be fitted to data from individual participants to disentangle the effects of the different processes driving behavior. In this sense the models can provide cleaner measures of the processes of interest, and enhance our understanding of how neural activity varies across individuals or populations. The advantages of this model-based approach to investigating individual differences in neural activity are discussed with recent examples of how this method can improve our understanding of the brain‚Äďbehavior relationship. PMID:26903896

  17. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind. PMID:15250813

  18. Differences in Social Vulnerability among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Moskowitz, Andrew L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals with disabilities are at increased risk of victimization, few studies examine persons with different disability conditions to determine whether distinctive cognitive-behavioral profiles are associated with different levels of social vulnerability. To determine the differences in social vulnerability and experiences of victimization, caregiver responses to a Social Vulnerability Questionnaire were examined for 103 caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and Down syndrome (DS). Although all three groups experienced similar rates and types of victimization, the specific correlates of social vulnerability differed by disability. Individuals with ASD displayed less risk awareness and had less social protection; those with WS were rated higher on risk factors related to perceived vulnerability and parental independence; and those with DS had less risk awareness and were perceived to be more vulnerable. Safety interventions should be tailored to address each group’s specific correlates of social vulnerability. PMID:23745132

  19. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  20. Standardization of Rates To Adjust for Differences in Enrollment Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    Community colleges must often analyze and report rates for outcomes, such as transfer to four-year colleges. A single, summary rate may be an invalid measure of its achievement in the transfer goal if the summary rate ignores the real difference in enrollment composition at different institutions. California's community colleges embody a very…

  1. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

    2004-01-01

    Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory…

  2. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,Ö

  3. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  4. Individual Differences in Early Adolescents' Beliefs in the Legitimacy of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Emily S.; Laird, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents differ in the extent to which they believe that parents have legitimate authority to impose rules restricting adolescents' behavior. The purpose of the current study was to test predictors of individual differences in legitimacy beliefs during the middle school years. Annually, during the summers following Grades 5, 6, and 7, early…

  5. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  6. Motor Impairment: Accepting Individual Differences [and] I Knew I Could Do It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Shirley; And Others

    The AID (Accepting Individual Differences) curriculum guide, the third in a series of five manuals that attempt to foster acceptance and respect for differences as exemplified by disabilities, presents activities on motor impairments for insructors' personal learning and lesson plans for teaching students in primary grades. Presented for…

  7. Exploring the Dynamic System of TCFL: Individual Differences, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Henghua

    2012-01-01

    In the setting of TCFL, this dissertation is an exploration of the dynamic development of individual differences and the learning and instruction environment. Major research studies done on motivation and learning strategies are reviewed. The motivation research in foreign language learning is introduced from three different perspectives in…

  8. Individual Differences in the Onset of Tense Marking: A Growth-Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at…

  9. Patterns of individual differences in the perception of missing-fundamental tones.

    PubMed

    Ladd, D Robert; Turnbull, Rory; Browne, Charlotte; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Ganushchak, Lesya; Swoboda, Kate; Woodfield, Verity; Dediu, Dan

    2013-10-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest stable individual differences in the perception of auditory stimuli lacking energy at the fundamental frequency (F0), here called missing fundamental (MF) tones. Specifically, some individuals readily identify the pitch of such tones with the missing F0 ("F0 listeners"), and some base their judgment on the frequency of the partials that make up the tones ("spectral listeners"). However, the diversity of goals and methods in recent research makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about individual differences. The first purpose of this article is to discuss the influence of methodological choices on listeners' responses. The second goal is to report findings on individual differences in our own studies of the MF phenomenon. In several experiments, participants judged the direction of pitch change in stimuli composed of two MF tones, constructed so as to reveal whether the pitch percept was based on the MF or the partials. The reported difference between F0 listeners and spectral listeners was replicated, but other stable patterns of responses were also observed. Test-retest reliability is high. We conclude that there are genuine, stable individual differences underlying the diverse findings, but also that there are more than two general types of listeners, and that stimulus variables strongly affect some listeners' responses. This suggests that it is generally misleading to classify individuals as "F0 listeners" or "spectral listeners." It may be more accurate to speak of two modes of perception ("F0 listening" and "spectral listening"), both of which are available to many listeners. The individual differences lie in what conditions the choice between the two modes. PMID:23398251

  10. 23 CFR 636.117 - What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team members for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the requirements of 48 CFR Part 3, Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest... who serve as selection team members for the owner? 636.117 Section 636.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... § 636.117 What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team...

  11. 23 CFR 636.117 - What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team members for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., the requirements of 48 CFR Part 3, Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest... who serve as selection team members for the owner? 636.117 Section 636.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... § 636.117 What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team...

  12. Standardized Patient Encounters and Individual Case-Based Simulations Improve Students' Confidence and Promote Reflection: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy; Weidner, Thomas; Armstrong, Kirk J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Simulations and standardized patient (SP) encounters are used to provide clinical experiences for students. In athletic training, no research has examined the perceived educational benefits of these interventions. Objective: To explore athletic training students' perceptions regarding small group SP encounters and individual case-based…

  13. On mathematicians' different standards when evaluating elementary proofs.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Weber, Keith; Alcock, Lara

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we report a study in which 109 research-active mathematicians were asked to judge the validity of a purported proof in undergraduate calculus. Significant results from our study were as follows: (a) there was substantial disagreement among mathematicians regarding whether the argument was a valid proof, (b) applied mathematicians were more likely than pure mathematicians to judge the argument valid, (c) participants who judged the argument invalid were more confident in their judgments than those who judged it valid, and (d) participants who judged the argument valid usually did not change their judgment when presented with a reason raised by other mathematicians for why the proof should be judged invalid. These findings suggest that, contrary to some claims in the literature, there is not a single standard of validity among contemporary mathematicians. PMID:23580451

  14. Individual differences on immunostimulatory activity of raw and black garlic extract in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Purev, Uranchimeg; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-08-01

    The immunostimulatory activities of garlic extract using a cell line or animal models have been reported; however, no previous studies have evaluated individual differences in regards to the immunostimulatory activities. The immunostimulatory activities such as cell proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and nitric oxides (NO) production of raw garlic and black garlic extracts on individual primary lymphocytes or macrophages isolated from the blood of 21 volunteers were evaluated. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of raw garlic and black garlic ethanol extract was measured to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The 70% ethanol black garlic extracts at 70įC for 12?h (70% BGE) showed the strongest antioxidant and anticancer activities. Immunostimulatory activities of garlic extracts extracted under optimal condition on primary immune cells obtained from 21 volunteers were analyzed. Results showed that the cell proliferation, TNF-? and NO production of primary immune cells treated with 70% raw garlic extract (70% RGE) were significantly different; however, little difference was observed for the 70% BGE treatment. BGE showed stronger immunostimulatory activities than RGE. These results indicate that the immunostimulatory activities of RGE and BGE can be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and anticancer activities. Determination of immunostimulatory activities of different types of garlic using immune cells isolated from volunteers was dependent on the individual constituents due to changes in the composition of garlic during processing. Individual primary immune cells might be used as important tools to determine individual differences in all food ingredients for the development of personalized immunostimulatory active foods. PMID:22260639

  15. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  16. Consistent individual differences in haemolymph density reflect risk propensity in a marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    F√ľrtbauer, Ines

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on consistent individual differences in correlated suites of physiological and behavioural traits is steadily growing for vertebrates, invertebrates have received less attention. The few studies that do exist have measured temporary physiological states (or responses), rather than consistent individual physiological traits. Here, I explore the consistency of individual differences in physiology and behaviour of n=53 shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) by repeatedly measuring haemolymph density (HD) and the crabs' responses to a novel environment. In crustaceans, HD is directly proportional to protein concentrations, and thus indicative of physiological condition. HD was highly repeatable, and crabs showed consistent individual differences in their behavioural responses to a novel environment, thus indicating individual consistency in both physiology and behaviour. Furthermore, HD was significantly correlated with the crabs' risk propensity, i.e. individuals with higher HD spent more time near shelter. Overall, this provides the first evidence for consistency in an endogenous physiological trait in an invertebrate. The link between consistent physiology and behaviour, i.e. coping styles, analogous to those found in vertebrates, suggests metabolic and/or immunological correlates of personality which offer great potential for future studies. PMID:26543575

  17. Camouflage and Individual Variation in Shore Crabs (Carcinus maenas) from Different Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Wood, Louisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this. PMID:25551233

  18. Individual differences in the processing of written sarcasm and metaphor: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Olkoniemi, Henri; Ranta, Henri; Kaakinen, Johanna K

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined individual differences in the processing of different forms of figurative language. Sixty participants read sarcastic, metaphorical, and literal sentences embedded in story contexts while their eye movements were recorded, and responded to a text memory and an inference question after each story. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC), need for cognition (NFC), and cognitive-affective processing were measured. The results showed that the processing of metaphors was characterized by slow-down during first-pass reading of the utterances, whereas sarcasm produced mainly delayed effects in the eye movement records. Sarcastic utterances were also harder to comprehend than literal or metaphorical utterances as indicated by poorer performance in responses to inference questions. Individual differences in general cognitive factors (WMC and NFC) were related to the processing of metaphors, whereas individual differences in both general cognitive factors (WMC) as well as processing of emotional information were related to the processing of sarcasm. The results indicate that different forms of figurative language pose different cognitive demands to the reader, and show that reader characteristics play a prominent role in figurative language comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371496

  19. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation. PMID:25862996

  20. Individual differences in foraging strategies of parasitic sabre-tooth blennies.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host-parasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp.) regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes. PMID:23029356

  1. Individual Differences in Foraging Strategies of Parasitic Sabre-Tooth Blennies

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host‚Äďparasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp.) regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes. PMID:23029356

  2. Individual differences and the neural representations of reward expectation and reward prediction error

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Reward expectation and reward prediction errors are thought to be critical for dynamic adjustments in decision-making and reward-seeking behavior, but little is known about their representation in the brain during uncertainty and risk-taking. Furthermore, little is known about what role individual differences might play in such reinforcement processes. In this study, it is shown behavioral and neural responses during a decision-making task can be characterized by a computational reinforcement learning model and that individual differences in learning parameters in the model are critical for elucidating these processes. In the fMRI experiment, subjects chose between high- and low-risk rewards. A computational reinforcement learning model computed expected values and prediction errors that each subject might experience on each trial. These outputs predicted subjects’ trial-to-trial choice strategies and neural activity in several limbic and prefrontal regions during the task. Individual differences in estimated reinforcement learning parameters proved critical for characterizing these processes, because models that incorporated individual learning parameters explained significantly more variance in the fMRI data than did a model using fixed learning parameters. These findings suggest that the brain engages a reinforcement learning process during risk-taking and that individual differences play a crucial role in modeling this process. PMID:17710118

  3. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards...

  4. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards...

  5. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards...

  6. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards...

  7. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... notify the Administrator in the report required in 40 CFR 60.7 that the owner or operator has elected to... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards...

  8. Inter-individual differences in empathy are reflected in human brain structure.

    PubMed

    Banissy, Michael J; Kanai, Ryota; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint

    2012-09-01

    Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individual differences in grey matter volume and individual differences in empathy traits. We found that individual differences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy. PMID:22683384

  9. Linking Neurogenetics and Individual Differences in Language Learning: The Dopamine Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals’ genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between dopamine-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

  10. Beyond Self-Report: Emerging Methods for Capturing Individual Differences in Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    People vary in the way in which they approach decision-making, which impacts real-world behavior. There has been a surge of interest in moving beyond reliance on self-report measures to capture such individual differences. Particular emphasis has been placed on devising and applying a range of methodologies that include experimental, neuroscience, and observational paradigms. This paper provides a selective review of recent studies that illustrate the methods and yield of these approaches in terms of generating a deeper understanding of decision-making style and the notable differences that can be found across individuals. PMID:26973589

  11. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students’ postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than 7,000 rural youth in 73 high schools across 34 states. Results indicated that some individual (e.g., African American race/ethnicity) and contextual (e.g., parent education) difference factors were predictive while others were not. Extensions to, similarities, and variations with previous research are discussed. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:24474843

  12. Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Effective behavioral management plans are tailored to unique behavioral patterns of each individual species. However, even within a species behavioral needs of individuals can vary. Factors such as age, sex, and temperament can affect behavioral needs of individuals. While some of these factors, such as age and sex, are taken into account, other factors, such as an individual’s temperament, are rarely specifically provided for in behavioral management plans. However, temperament may affect how animals respond to socialization, positive reinforcement training and other forms of enrichment. This review will examine how individual differences in temperament might affect, or be affected by, behavioral management practices for captive primates. Measuring temperament may help us predict outcome of social introductions. It can also predict which animals may be difficult to train using traditional methods. Further, knowledge of temperament may be able to help identify individuals at risk for development of behavioral problems. Taken together, understanding individual differences in temperament of captive primates can help guide behavioral management decisions. PMID:22518067

  13. Individual differences in cognitive plasticity: an investigation of training curves in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    B√ľrki, C√©line N; Ludwig, Catherine; Chicherio, Christian; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2014-11-01

    To date, cognitive intervention research has provided mixed but nevertheless promising evidence with respect to the effects of cognitive training on untrained tasks (transfer). However, the mechanisms behind learning, training effects and their predictors are not fully understood. Moreover, individual differences, which may constitute an important factor impacting training outcome, are usually neglected. We suggest investigating individual training performance across training sessions in order to gain finer-grained knowledge of training gains, on the one hand, and assessing the potential impact of predictors such as age and fluid intelligence on learning rate, on the other hand. To this aim, we propose to model individual learning curves to examine the intra-individual change in training as well as inter-individual differences in intra-individual change. We recommend introducing a latent growth curve model (LGCM) analysis, a method frequently applied to learning data but rarely used in cognitive training research. Such advanced analyses of the training phase allow identifying factors to be respected when designing effective tailor-made training interventions. To illustrate the proposed approach, a LGCM analysis using data of a 10-day working memory training study in younger and older adults is reported. PMID:24652343

  14. A link between individual differences in multisensory speech perception and eye movements.

    PubMed

    Gurler, Demet; Doyle, Nathan; Walker, Edgar; Magnotti, John; Beauchamp, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The McGurk effect is an illusion in which visual speech information dramatically alters the perception of auditory speech. However, there is a high degree of individual variability in how frequently the illusion is perceived: some individuals almost always perceive the McGurk effect, while others rarely do. Another axis of individual variability is the pattern of eye movements make while viewing a talking face: some individuals often fixate the mouth of the talker, while others rarely do. Since the talker's mouth carries the visual speech necessary information to induce the McGurk effect, we hypothesized that individuals who frequently perceive the McGurk effect should spend more time fixating the talker's mouth. We used infrared eye tracking to study eye movements as 40 participants viewed audiovisual speech. Frequent perceivers of the McGurk effect were more likely to fixate the mouth of the talker, and there was a significant correlation between McGurk frequency and mouth looking time. The noisy encoding of disparity model of McGurk perception showed that individuals who frequently fixated the mouth had lower sensory noise and higher disparity thresholds than those who rarely fixated the mouth. Differences in eye movements when viewing the talker's face may be an important contributor to interindividual differences in multisensory speech perception. PMID:25810157

  15. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  16. Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction Strength Can Explain Different Collective Feeding Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Delcourt, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics. PMID:24130748

  17. Individual differences in the preferred neck-resting position of Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A; O'Brien, Edward H

    2009-01-01

    When resting, flamingos often lay their heads along their backs. While in this position they must curve their necks to either the right or left of their midline. Observations of captive Caribbean flamingos at the Philadelphia Zoo (Philadelphia, PA, USA) were conducted in order to determine if individual birds would display consistent preferences in neck-resting position over multiple observations. While individual birds were shown to vary greatly in regards to the strength and direction of their preferences, a significant flock-level preference towards neck resting to the right was obtained. Analysis of individual flamingos revealed that 5 out of 17 birds displayed preferences that significantly differed from chance, with each of these birds preferring to rest their necks to the right. From the present data we can conclude that flamingos display behavioural laterality of neck-resting position at both the level of the group and that of the individual. PMID:18629741

  18. Individual differences in working memory capacity predict retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2011-01-01

    Selectively retrieving a subset of previously studied information enhances memory for the retrieved information but causes forgetting of related, nonretrieved information. Such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) has often been attributed to inhibitory executive-control processes that supposedly suppress the nonretrieved items' memory representation. Here, we examined the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in young adults' RIF. WMC was assessed by means of the operation span task. Results revealed a positive relationship between WMC and RIF, with high-WMC individuals showing more RIF than low-WMC individuals. In contrast, individuals showed enhanced memory for retrieved information regardless of WMC. The results are consistent with previous individual-differences work that suggests a close link between WMC and inhibitory efficiency. In particular, the finding supports the inhibitory executive-control account of RIF. PMID:21090906

  19. The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter

    PubMed Central

    Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between ‚Äúcausation‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúcauses of variation‚ÄĚ (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its ‚Äúassociability‚ÄĚ provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this ‚Äúnew‚ÄĚ light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals‚Äô performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

  20. Using eye tracking to test for individual differences in attention to attractive faces.

    PubMed

    Valuch, Christian; Pfl√ľger, Lena S; Wallner, Bernard; Laeng, Bruno; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We assessed individual differences in visual attention toward faces in relation to their attractiveness via saccadic reaction times. Motivated by the aim to understand individual differences in attention to faces, we tested three hypotheses: (a) Attractive faces hold or capture attention more effectively than less attractive faces; (b) men show a stronger bias toward attractive opposite-sex faces than women; and (c) blue-eyed men show a stronger bias toward blue-eyed than brown-eyed feminine faces. The latter test was included because prior research suggested a high effect size. Our data supported hypotheses (a) and (b) but not (c). By conducting separate tests for disengagement of attention and attention capture, we found that individual differences exist at distinct stages of attentional processing but these differences are of varying robustness and importance. In our conclusion, we also advocate the use of linear mixed effects models as the most appropriate statistical approach for studying inter-individual differences in visual attention with naturalistic stimuli. PMID:25698993

  1. Inter-Individual Differences in RNA Levels in Human Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Wilfinger, William W.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Kennedy, Amy; Rymaszewski, Michal; Mackey, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the range of RNA levels in human blood. This report provides assessment of peripheral blood RNA level and its inter-individual differences in a group of 35 healthy humans consisting of 25 females and 10 males ranging in age from 50 to 89 years. In this group, the average total RNA level was 14.59 őľg/ml of blood, with no statistically significant difference between females and males. The individual RNA level ranged from 6.7 to 22.7 őľg/ml of blood. In healthy subjects, the repeated sampling of an individual‚Äôs blood showed that RNA level, whether high or low, was stable. The inter-individual differences in RNA level in blood can be attributed to both, differences in cell number and the amount of RNA per cell. The 3.4-fold range of inter-individual differences in total RNA levels, documented herein, should be taken into account when evaluating the results of quantitative RT-PCR and/or RNA sequencing studies of human blood. Based on the presented results, a comprehensive assessment of gene expression in blood should involve determination of both the amount of mRNA per unit of total RNA (U / ng RNA) and the amount of mRNA per unit of blood (U / ml blood) to assure a thorough interpretation of physiological or pathological relevance of study results. PMID:26863434

  2. Human brain structure predicts individual differences in preconscious evaluation of facial dominance and trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Social cues conveyed by the human face, such as eye gaze direction, are evaluated even before they are consciously perceived. While there is substantial individual variability in such evaluation, its neural basis is unknown. Here we asked whether individual differences in preconscious evaluation of social face traits were associated with local variability in brain structure. Adult human participants (n = 36) monocularly viewed faces varying in dominance and trustworthiness, which were suppressed from awareness by a dynamic noise pattern shown to the other eye. The time taken for faces to emerge from suppression and become visible (t2e) was used as a measure of potency in competing for visual awareness. Both dominant and untrustworthy faces resulted in slower t2e than neutral faces, with substantial individual variability in these effects. Individual differences in t2e were correlated with gray matter volume in right insula for dominant faces, and with gray matter volume in medial prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction and bilateral fusiform face area for untrustworthy faces. Thus, individual differences in preconscious social processing can be predicted from local brain structure, and separable correlates for facial dominance and untrustworthiness suggest distinct mechanisms of preconscious processing. PMID:25193945

  3. Generalization on the Basis of Prior Experience Is Predicted by Individual Differences in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lenaert, Bert; van de Ven, Vincent; Kaas, Amanda L; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-01-01

    Generalization on the basis of prior experience is a central feature of human and nonhuman behavior, and anomalies in generalization can give rise to a wide array of problems. For instance, elevated levels of generalization have been shown in individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder. Identifying the individual difference variables that influence the extent to which behavior generalizes to novel stimuli may help our understanding of generalization and its potential maladaptive consequences. In this study, we first present an index of generalization that captures individual differences in generalization in a single continuous measure, thereby surpassing problems associated with traditional analyzing techniques. Further, we investigate whether generalization is predicted by working memory capacity. More precisely, it is hypothesized that generalization is a function of individual differences in the capacity to compare the current situation with previous learning experiences in working memory, and to adjust subsequent behavior accordingly. In a community sample, we found higher levels of generalization in individuals who were less efficient at filtering out irrelevant information from access to working memory. These results suggest that working memory impairments may contribute to elevated and potentially maladaptive levels of generalization. PMID:26763503

  4. Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern‚ÄźPin; Yeo, Sing‚ÄźChen; Lee, Ivan Tian‚ÄźGuang; Tan, Luuan‚ÄźChin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S.; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait‚Äźlike, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic‚ÄźChinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22‚Äď30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10‚Äźmin psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between‚Äźsubject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67‚Äď0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait‚Äźlike. PMID:25263200

  5. Group decisions and individual differences: route fidelity predicts flight leadership in homing pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Robin; Mann, Richard; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2011-01-01

    How social-living animals make collective decisions is currently the subject of intense scientific interest, with increasing focus on the role of individual variation within the group. Previously, we demonstrated that during paired flight in homing pigeons, a fully transitive leadership hierarchy emerges as birds are forced to choose between their own and their partner's habitual routes. This stable hierarchy suggests a role for individual differences mediating leadership decisions within homing pigeon pairs. What these differences are, however, has remained elusive. Using novel quantitative techniques to analyse habitual route structure, we show here that leadership can be predicted from prior route-following fidelity. Birds that are more faithful to their own route when homing alone are more likely to emerge as leaders when homing socially. We discuss how this fidelity may relate to the leadership phenomenon, and propose that leadership may emerge from the interplay between individual route confidence and the dynamics of paired flight. PMID:20810431

  6. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer contributions (increased free riding) as compared to the situation when punishment was not implemented. This has implications for our understanding of why some people cannot resist the temptation to free ride, even when facing possible punishment for their actions. Our findings suggest that the diminished functioning of mechanisms, associated with trait behavioural inhibition, can partly explain such behaviours. PMID:23305116

  7. Individual differences in face-looking behavior generalize from the lab to the world.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew F; Lin, Jing; Zaun, Ian; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    Recent laboratory studies have found large, stable individual differences in the location people first fixate when identifying faces, ranging from the brows to the mouth. Importantly, this variation is strongly associated with differences in fixation-specific identification performance such that individuals' recognition ability is maximized when looking at their preferred location (Mehoudar, Arizpe, Baker, & Yovel, 2014; Peterson & Eckstein, 2013). This finding suggests that face representations are retinotopic and individuals enact gaze strategies that optimize identification, yet the extent to which this behavior reflects real-world gaze behavior is unknown. Here, we used mobile eye trackers to test whether individual differences in face gaze generalize from lab to real-world vision. In-lab fixations were measured with a speeded face identification task, while real-world behavior was measured as subjects freely walked around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. We found a strong correlation between the patterns of individual differences in face gaze in the lab and real-world settings. Our findings support the hypothesis that individuals optimize real-world face identification by consistently fixating the same location and thus strongly constraining the space of retinotopic input. The methods developed for this study entailed collecting a large set of high-definition, wide field-of-view natural videos from head-mounted cameras and the viewer's fixation position, allowing us to characterize subjects' actually experienced real-world retinotopic images. These images enable us to ask how vision is optimized not just for the statistics of the "natural images" found in web databases, but of the truly natural, retinotopic images that have landed on actual human retinae during real-world experience. PMID:27191940

  8. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Joseph P.; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3‚Äď4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work. PMID:27147986

  9. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Joseph P; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3-4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work. PMID:27147986

  10. What Is the Primary Cause of Individual Differences in Contrast Sensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of early visual processing is the detection of luminance variations, often termed image contrast. Normal observers can differ in this ability by at least a factor of 4, yet this variation is typically overlooked, and has never been convincingly explained. This study uses two techniques to investigate the main source of individual variations in contrast sensitivity. First, a noise masking experiment assessed whether differences were due to the observer’s internal noise, or the efficiency with which they extracted information from the stimulus. Second, contrast discrimination functions from 18 previous studies were compared (pairwise, within studies) using a computational model to determine whether differences were due to internal noise or the low level gain properties of contrast transduction. Taken together, the evidence points to differences in contrast gain as being responsible for the majority of individual variation across the normal population. This result is compared with related findings in attention and amblyopia. PMID:23922732

  11. The Fixed-Sequence Hypothesis: Individual Differences in the Development of School Related Spatial Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David H.

    In order to gather data bearing on the effects of individual differences of the "invariant stages" assumption of cognitive-developmental theory, 270 black, Chinese, and white subjects from 5th, 7th, and ninth grades were administered a new, 25-item, spatial reasoning task. It was predicted that age, ethnic group, and sex would significantly…

  12. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  13. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior inÖ

  14. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  15. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

  16. Development of Individual Differences in Reading: Results From Longitudinal Studies in English and Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrila, Rauno; Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kirby, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined individual differences in reading development in English and Finnish. English-speaking Canadian children were assessed once per year in Grades 1-5, and Finnish children were assessed twice per year in Grades 1-2. Results from latent growth curve and simplex analyses showed that initial status was generally negatively…

  17. Task Complexity, Focus on L2 Constructions, and Individual Differences: A Classroom-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revesz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by cognitive-interactionist frameworks for task-based learning, this study explores whether task complexity affects the extent to which learners focus on form-meaning connections during task-based work in a classroom setting, and whether this relationship is modulated by 3 individual difference factors--linguistic self-confidence,Ö

  18. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,Ö

  19. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African‚ÄďAmerican, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  20. Case Studies in Diversity: Individual Differences in Abilities and Traits of Young Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafenstein, Norma Lu; Tucker, Brooke

    This study documented how individual differences in personal experiences, cultures, learning styles, and interests affect the demonstrated abilities of children who are gifted, based on qualitative case study research with five children from early childhood classes at the University of Denver's Ricks Center for Gifted Children. Information was…

  1. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English…

  2. Language Learning Disability and Individual Differences: Can We See between the Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Elaine R.

    2010-01-01

    In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individual differences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of learning…

  3. Individual Differences in Written Corrective Feedback: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Su; Li, Pengjing

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback (WCF) has been a long time practice in L2 writing instruction. However, in many cases, the effects are not satisfactory. There have been controversies about it both theoretically and empirically. This paper reports a multi-case study exploring individual differences that impact learners' responses to WCF. Four students'…

  4. Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementaryÖ

  5. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  6. The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this model.…

  7. Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttleÖ

  8. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.Ö

  9. Vocational Rehabilitation Service Patterns and Outcomes for Individuals with Autism of Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, June L.; Sung, Connie; Pi, Sukyeong

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often experience employment difficulties. Using Rehabilitation Service Administration data (RSA-911), this study investigated the service patterns and factors related to the employment outcomes of individuals with ASD in different age groups. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted…

  10. Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

    2008-01-01

    Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

  11. Sex and boldness explain individual differences in spatial learning in a lizard

    PubMed Central

    Carazo, Pau; Noble, Daniel W. A.; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding individual differences in cognitive performance is a major challenge to animal behaviour and cognition studies. We used the Eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii) to examine associations between exploration, boldness and individual variability in spatial learning, a dimension of lizard cognition with important bearing on fitness. We show that males perform better than females in a biologically relevant spatial learning task. This is the first evidence for sex differences in learning in a reptile, and we argue that it is probably owing to sex-specific selective pressures that may be widespread in lizards. Across the sexes, we found a clear association between boldness after a simulated predatory attack and the probability of learning the spatial task. In contrast to previous studies, we found a nonlinear association between boldness and learning: both ‚Äėbold‚Äô and ‚Äėshy‚Äô behavioural types were more successful learners than intermediate males. Our results do not fit with recent predictions suggesting that individual differences in learning may be linked with behavioural types via high‚Äďlow-risk/reward trade-offs. We suggest the possibility that differences in spatial cognitive performance may arise in lizards as a consequence of the distinct environmental variability and complexity experienced by individuals as a result of their sex and social tactics. PMID:24619443

  12. Structural Model of Employee Involvement in Skill Development Activity: The Role of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…

  13. Different Effects of Individual Identification Systems on Chicken Well-Being

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual identification is a common method used in animal research. This study was designed to examine if various common identification systems, i.e., leg bands (LB), wing bands (WB), neck tags (ST), and livestock marker (LM), have different effects on hens' behavioral and physiological homeostas...

  14. Different Effects of Individual Identification Systems on Chicken Well-Being

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual identification is a common method used in animal research. This study was designed to examine if commonly used identification systems, i.e., leg bands, wing bands, neck tags, and livestock marker, have different effects on hens' behavioral and physiological homeostasis. At 18 wks of age, ...

  15. Individual Differences in Schema Utilization during Discourse Processing. Technical Report No. 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rand J.; Tirre, William C.

    One hundred twelve college students participated in a study designed to determine whether students differ in their relative employment of knowledge-based processes in discourse processing and whether individuals tend to be more "text-bound" and less able to use preexisting knowledge schemata when they are more "stimulus-bound" in a task withÖ

  16. Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

  17. Individualism, Collectivism, and Client Expression of Different Emotions: Their Relations to Perceived Counselor Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Young Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how individualism, collectivism, and counselor emphasis of different client emotions were related to perceived counselor effectiveness. Data were collected from 192 (122 women and 70 men) Korean students attending a large university in South Korea and from 170 (115 women and 55 men) American students attending a large…

  18. Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

  19. Exploration of Instructional Strategies and Individual Difference within the Context of Web-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomyan, Hesham; Au, Wing

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences have been identified as important factors that might have significant impact on students' learning. This study investigated the effect of student's cognitive styles, achievement motivation, prior knowledge, and attitudes on student's achievement in web-based learning. A web-based course was designed for second year…

  20. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

  1. The Role of Some Individual Differences in Understanding Chemical Changes: A Study in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypraios, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of chemical changes was investigated in relation to four individual differences, related to logical thinking, field dependence/independence, convergence and divergence thinking. The study took place in Greece with the participation of students (n = 374) from three grades (8th, 10th and 12th grades) ofÖ

  2. Individual Differences and the Conundrums of User-Centered Design: Two Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce

    2000-01-01

    Discusses individual differences between users of information systems that can influence search performance, and describes two experiments that addressed user-centered design of information systems. Highlights include interaction between cognitive abilities and design features; compensation and capitalization perspectives; recall and precision;…

  3. Who Me? Individual Differences in Preschool Children's Understanding of Nice and Mean Attributes in the Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hencke, Rebecca W.

    This study addressed the question of whether there are individual differences between children in the development of their understandings of social interactions. A total of 48 children between 2.5 and 5.5 years of age were engaged in telling stories with sequences about nice or mean peers. Children acted out stories with dolls and answeredÖ

  4. Who Learns Best with Multiple Representations? Cognitive Theory Implications for Individual Differences in Multimedia Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana

    This paper presents a cognitive theory of multimedia learning from which predictions on individual differences in learning are derived and tested. Elementary students learned how to add and subtract integers with an interactive multimedia game that included visual and symbolic representations of the arithmetic procedure. They learned either with…

  5. Individual Differences in Mathematical Competence Modulate Brain Responses to Arithmetic Errors: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individual differences in mathematical…

  6. Effortful Control among Low-Income Preschoolers in Three Cities: Stability, Change, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Grining, Christine P.

    2007-01-01

    Existing developmental models of effortful control focus more on the roles of child characteristics and parenting and focus less on the contributions of poverty-related stressors to individual differences in children's self-regulatory competence. Using a representative sample of low-income, predominantly African American and Latino children (n =…

  7. Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs wereÖ

  8. Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

  9. The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

  10. Evaluating the Power of Latent Growth Curve Models to Detect Individual Differences in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individual differences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both…

  11. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Hambrick, David Z.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether…

  12. Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Self-Regulation and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-regulation, or the ability to control one's actions and responses, is essential for healthy development across varied contexts. Self-regulation comes in several forms, including emotional, behavioral, and cognitive. The present study sought to examine whether individual differences in one form of self-regulation was related to children's…

  13. Symbol-Digit Substitution and Individual Differences in Visual Search Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Grover C.; Royer, Fred L.; Gruhn, Joseph J.; Esson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Substitution tests have a long history in psychology because of their simplicity of administration and their sensitivity to individual differences related to complex cognitive performance. Despite their widespread use there is no agreement on what the substitution test measures. The present study approached this question by applying a method of…

  14. Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

  15. Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

  16. The Multifold Relationship between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo; Hansson, Patrik; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory,…

  17. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  18. Is Reading Different for Deaf Individuals? Reexamining the Role of Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    A quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology…

  19. Building Interactive World Wide Web (Web) Learning Environments To Match and Support Individual Learning Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Margaret; Bunderson, C. Victor

    2000-01-01

    Examines individual learning differences and adaptive learning in interactive World Wide Web learning environments, highlighting the dominant influence of emotions and intentions and their impact on learning. Explains learning orientations and the System for Intentional Learning and Performance Assessment (SILPA), an interactive Web learningÖ

  20. Lexical Precision in Skilled Readers: Individual Differences in Masked Neighbor Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sally; Hersch, Jolyn

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship between masked form priming and individual differences in reading and spelling proficiency among university students. Experiment 1 assessed neighbor priming for 4-letter word targets from high- and low-density neighborhoods in 97 university students. The overall results replicated previous evidence of…

  1. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,…

  2. A Study of Two Methods for Adapting Self-Instructional Materials to Individual Differences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaragno, Ralph J.

    The two-phase study compared two methods of adapting self-instructional materials to individual differences among learners. The methods were compared with each other and with a control condition involving only minimal adaptation. The first adaptation procedure was based on subjects' performances on a learning task in Phase I of the study; the…

  3. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  4. The Role of Training, Individual Differences and Knowledge Representation in Cognitive-Oriented Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koubek, Richard J.

    The roles of training, problem representation, and individual differences on performance of both automated (simple) and controlled (complex) process tasks were studied. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) training and cognitive style affect the representation developed; (2) training and cognitive style affect the development and performance…

  5. Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…

  6. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

    2007-01-01

    Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to twoÖ

  7. Multimedia Learning: Cognitive Individual Differences and Display Design Techniques Predict Transfer Learning with Multimedia Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individual differences and display design manipulations on…

  8. The Multifold Relationship between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Missier, Fabio; Mšntylš, Timo; Hansson, Patrik; Bruine de Bruin, Wšndi; Parker, Andrew M.; Nilsson, Lars-GŲran

    2013-01-01

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory,Ö

  9. Multimedia Learning and Individual Differences: Mediating the Effects of Working Memory Capacity with Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…

  10. Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

  11. The Effect of Executive Function on Biological Reasoning in Young Children: An Individual Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitchik, Deborah; Iqbal, Yeshim; Carey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial variance in the age at which children construct and deploy their first explicit theory of biology. This study tests the hypothesis that this variance is due, at least in part, to individual differences in their executive function (EF) abilities. A group of 79 boys and girls aged 5-7†years (with a mean age of 6ņyears) wereÖ

  12. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

  13. Individual and Sex Differences in the Consequences of Victimization: Moderation by Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization toÖ

  14. Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences inÖ

  15. Individuals Differ in the Attentional Blink: Mental Speed and Intra-Subject Stability Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Christoph; Arend, Isabel C.; Beauducel, Andre; Shapiro, Kimron L.

    2011-01-01

    The failure to correctly report two targets ("T[subscript 1]", "T[subscript 2]") that follow each other in close temporal proximity has been called the "attentional blink" (AB). The AB has, so far, mainly been studied using experimental approaches. The present studies investigated individual differences in AB performance, revealing (among further…

  16. Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  17. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  18. A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

  19. The Effect of Individual Differences on Learners' Translation Belief in EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashouri, Amir Farzad; Fotovatnia, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated learners' beliefs about translation and the effect of two variables of individual differences, risk taking and tolerance of ambiguity, on the mentioned variable. The participants of the study were 120 EFL learners homogenized through Oxford Placement Test. They received three questionnaires on translation belief,…

  20. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…