Sample records for individual differences standardization

  1. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  2. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  3. Individual differences in helping behavior 

    E-print Network

    Tackett, Jennifer Lee

    2013-02-22

    fellow student in need. After listening to the situation described in a supposed radio broadcast, participants were given an opportunity to help. Outcomes suggest individual differences in empathy and emotionality. Results were discussed in terms...

  4. Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank H. Farley; Anthony L. Truog

    1970-01-01

    Reading comprehension was studied as a function of individual differences in extraversion-introversion, neuroticism and academic and resultant achievement motivation. Seventy-eight college students were categorized into personality or motive groups on the basis of personality test scores, dividing the distribution into top, middle and bottom thirds. Academic achievement motivation was assessed by a recently developed measure previously used with British students;

  5. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  6. Standards for Services for Developmentally Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Provided are standards for agencies and hospitals serving developmentally disabled persons with emphasis on planning and implementing individual programs. The introduction provides information on the establishment of the Accreditation Council for Services for Mentally Retarded and Other Developmentally Disabled Persons and the Joint Commission on…

  7. Individual differences in oral thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Suzanna; Zald, David H

    2006-07-30

    Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip. Thermal testing consisted of both cooling and warming threshold detection, and intensity ratings of warm and cool suprathreshold temperatures. Intensity ratings of different temperatures were highly correlated, especially for temperatures in the same class. Similarly, warming and cooling thresholds were highly correlated. In contrast, thermal detection abilities were largely dissociable from suprathreshold intensity ratings, especially in the cooling direction. Suprathreshold ratings of cooling on the tongue were also modestly associated with ratings of the taste intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, a similar association was observed for the lower lip, indicating that the effect does not reflect an isolated characteristic of lingual physiology. Unexpectedly, two subjects with no history of oral trauma demonstrated abnormally deficient (4 S.D. below the mean) cool threshold detection abilities for the tongue, suggesting that there may exist subjects in the population who have profoundly poor lingual temperature processing. PMID:16733061

  8. Individual differences in helping behavior

    E-print Network

    Tackett, Jennifer Lee

    2013-02-22

    fulfillment of the requirements of the For the Designation of UNIVERSITY IJNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW Approved as to style and content by; William G. Graziano (Fellows Advisor) Edward A. Funkhouser (Executive Director) April 2000 Group: Psychology... II ABSTRACT Individual Dilferences in Helping Behavior. (April 2000) Jennifer Lee Tackett Department of Psychology 'I'exas A&M University Fellows Advisor: Dr. William G. Graziano Department of Psychology This study examined the relations among...

  9. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  10. Individual Differences and Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…

  11. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional…

  12. Individual Differences in Verbal Fluency

    E-print Network

    Rozek, Ellen Kathryn

    2009-07-13

    63.0 165.2c 58.4 Letter Comparison Rate 2.9a 0.5 4.2b 1.3 7.7d 3.6 6.2c 3.0 Letter Comparison Correct 29.7a 0.8 28.9a,b 1.1 25.8c 6.7 27.7b 3.6 Note. Table entries that have common subscripts do not differ at p < 0.05. 12 Basic demographic....6a 0.5 1.9a 0.6 1.5a,b 0.6 1.6a,b 0.4 Total Clusters 9.8a 3.9 10.2a 3.0 5.3c 3.3 7.8b 2.8 Cluster Switching 31.9a 7.9 29.2a,b 8.8 25.0b 10.2 28.3a,b 6.8 Note: Row entries showing the same subscript do not differ at p < 0.05. 26 Table 5. Means...

  13. Cultural Differences in Individualism? Just Artifact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Spencer; Zahn, G. Lawrence

    1983-01-01

    To test possible cultural differences in strength of individualistic motivation and explore reliability of different individualism measures, two individualism measures were administered to 476 Anglo American, 156 Mexican American, and 101 Black children, aged six to 12. Results indicated age but not cultural differences in strength of…

  14. Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

  15. Individual Differences in Arithmetic: Implications for Psychology, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowker, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Standards in numeracy are a constant concern to educational policy-makers. However, why are differences in arithmetical performance so marked? In "Individual Differences in Arithmetic", Ann Dowker seeks to provide a better understanding of why these differences in ability exist, encouraging a more informed approach to tackling numeracy…

  16. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  17. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  18. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  19. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  20. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  1. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  2. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  3. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  4. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  5. Individual Differences in Preference for Solitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry M. Burger

    1995-01-01

    Past research suggests that solitude can have either a positive or a negative impact on a person?s well-being. How time away from others affects people may depend on the person?s general preference for solitude. We present a scale to measure individual differences in preference for solitude. Experiments 1 and 2 report on the development of the Preference for Solitude Scale

  6. Individual differences in need for cognitive closure.

    PubMed

    Webster, D M; Kruglanski, A W

    1994-12-01

    This article introduces an individual-difference measure of the need for cognitive closure. As a dispositional construct, the need for cognitive closure is presently treated as a latent variable manifested through several different aspects, namely, desire for predictability, preference for order and structure, discomfort with ambiguity, decisiveness, and close-mindedness. This article presents psychometric work on the measure as well as several validation studies including (a) a "known-groups" discrimination between populations assumed to differ in their need for closure, (b) discriminant and convergent validation with respect to related personality measures, and (c) replication of effects obtained with situational inductions of the need for closure. The present findings suggest that the Need for Closure Scale is a reliable and valid instrument of considerable potential utility in future "motivated social cognition" research. PMID:7815301

  7. Individual differences in estrogen receptor in select brain nuclei are associated with individual differences in aggression

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Brian

    behavior. When males were treated with fadrozole (an aromatase inhibitor), aggressive behavior was reduced reserved. Keywords: Estrogen receptor; Aromatase; Lateral septum; Social behavior; Individual differences species, increased aromatase activity in the brain is associated with increased aggression (Schlinger

  8. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range ?= 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

  9. Subcortical Correlates of Individual Differences in Aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A.

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N?=?107), healthy, young (age range ?=?16–29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math – higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary – higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding – higher right thalamus volume; Foresight – lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning – higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

  10. Individual differences in spatial cognition influence mental simulation of language.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Williams, John N

    2015-09-01

    The factors that contribute to perceptual simulation during sentence comprehension remain underexplored. Extant research on perspective taking in language has largely focused on linguistic constraints, such as the role of pronouns in guiding perspective adoption. In the present study, we identify preferential usage of egocentric and allocentric reference frames in individuals, and test the two groups on a standard sentence-picture verification task. Across three experiments, we show that individual biases in spatial reference frame adoption observed in non-linguistic tasks influence visual simulation of perspective in language. Our findings suggest that typically reported grand-averaged effects may obscure important between-subject differences, and support proposals arguing for representational pluralism, where perceptual information is integrated dynamically and in a way that is sensitive to contextual and especially individual constraints. PMID:26036923

  11. Integrating Individual Differences in Career Assessment: The Atlas Model of Individual Differences and the Strong Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2010-01-01

    Career assessment methods often include measures of individual differences constructs, such as interests, personality, abilities, and values. Although many researchers have recently called for the development of integrated models, career counseling professionals have long faced the challenge of integrating this information into their practice. The…

  12. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution. PMID:22871043

  13. Standardized Tests, Group Differences, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The paper considers the controversies of standardized tests and group differences as they relate to the formation of public policy. The overlapping or confounding issues of standardized tests and group differences have long since become matters of public policy. Neither separately nor jointly can the issues be resolved within the confines of…

  14. Mathematical cognition: individual differences in resource allocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Bornemann; Manja Foth; Judith Horn; Jan Ries; Elke Warmuth; Isabell Wartenburger; Elke van der Meer

    2010-01-01

    Individuals scoring higher in tests of general cognitive abilities tend to perform better on novel and familiar mathematical\\u000a tasks. It has been scarcely investigated how this superior mathematical performance relates to the amount of cognitive resources\\u000a that is invested to solve a given task. In this study we propose that, on novel tasks, individuals with high cognitive abilities\\u000a outperform less

  15. Individual and sex differences in learning abilities of ravens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Range; T. Bugnyar; C. Schlögl; K. Kotrschal

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological characteristics of individuals within the same species have been found to be stable across time and contexts. In this study, we investigated individual differences in learning abilities and object and social manipulation to test for consistency within individuals across different tasks. Individual ravens (Corvus corax) were tested in simple color and position discrimination tasks to establish their

  16. Research Report Individual Differences in Insular

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Brian

    -compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder (for a review, see Paulus & Stein, 2006). More with self-report measures of chronic anxiety, previous research has not examined whether individual. These findings suggest that in addition to correlating with self- reported anxiety, heightened insular

  17. The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain variations…

  18. Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pach, Daniel; Yang-Strobel, Xiaoli; Lüdtke, Rainer; Icke, Katja; Brinkhaus, Benno; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of standardized and individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center randomized controlled single-blind trial was performed in a general medical practice in Germany run by a Chinese-born medical doctor trained in western and Chinese medicine. One hundred and fifty outpatients with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups (78 standardized and 72 individualized acupuncture). Patients received either standardized acupuncture or individualized acupuncture. Treatment encompassed between 10 and 15 treatments based on individual symptoms with two treatments per week. The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) summarizing eight weeks of daily rated pain severity measured with a visual analogue scale (0?mm?=?no pain, 100?mm?=?worst imaginable pain). No significant differences between groups were observed for the AUC (individualized acupuncture mean: 1768.7 (95% CI, 1460.4; 2077.1); standardized acupuncture 1482.9 (1177.2; 1788.7); group difference, 285.8 (?33.9; 605.5) P = 0.080). In this single-center trial, individualized acupuncture was not superior to standardized acupuncture for patients suffering from chronic pain. As a next step, a multicenter noninferiority study should be performed to investigate whether standardised acupuncture treatment for chronic low back pain might be applicable in a broader usual care setting. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00758017. PMID:24288556

  19. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences

  20. A Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size for Single Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Single case designs are a set of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by assigning different treatments to the same individual and measuring outcomes over time and are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and medicine. Emerging standards for single case designs have focused attention on…

  1. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  2. Estimating standardized risk differences from odds ratios.

    PubMed

    Greenland, S; Holland, P

    1991-03-01

    Holland (1989, Biometrics 45, 1009-1016) gave simple formulas for an "adjusted" risk difference based on the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio estimator and its variance. This "adjusted" risk difference is, in general, inconsistent, but Holland's variance formula is an immediate corollary of a more general formula by Greenland (1987, Journal of Chronic Diseases 40, 1087-1094). We show how, under a large-stratum limiting model, one can derive consistent estimators of standardized risk differences from any consistent odds ratio estimator. We also show how one can derive nonparametric standardized estimators under a sparse-data limiting model. PMID:2049505

  3. Individual Differences Confrence en adaptation scolaire

    E-print Network

    on academic outcomes 14. English language learners 15. ADHD (2) 16. Selective Mutism 17. Children Differences 1. Students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing 2. Social anxiety 3. Dyslexia 4. Stuttering 5. ADHD (1 Disorder 25. ADHD (3) 26. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences 27. Text-to-speech software (Proloquo) 28

  4. Representation construction, externalised cognition and individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Cox

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the cognitive differences between reasoning with self-constructed external representations (ERs) and reasoning with presented representations (e.g. textbook diagrams). Examples of ERs produced by subjects solving reasoning problems are provided. It is argued that effective reasoning with ERs involves a three-way interaction between (a) the cognitive and semantic properties of the representation; (b) the match between the demands

  5. Decoding Developmental Differences and Individual Variability in Response Inhibition Through Predictive Analyses Across Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica R.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Sabb, Fred W.; Bilder, Robert M.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Knowlton, Barbara J.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    Response inhibition is thought to improve throughout childhood and into adulthood. Despite the relationship between age and the ability to stop ongoing behavior, questions remain regarding whether these age-related changes reflect improvements in response inhibition or in other factors that contribute to response performance variability. Functional neuroimaging data shows age-related changes in neural activity during response inhibition. While traditional methods of exploring neuroimaging data are limited to determining correlational relationships, newer methods can determine predictability and can begin to answer these questions. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to determine which aspects of neural function predict individual differences in age, inhibitory function, response speed, and response time variability. We administered a stop-signal task requiring rapid inhibition of ongoing motor responses to healthy participants aged 9–30. We conducted a standard analysis using GLM and a predictive analysis using high-dimensional regression methods. During successful response inhibition we found regions typically involved in motor control, such as the ACC and striatum, that were correlated with either age, response inhibition (as indexed by stop-signal reaction time; SSRT), response speed, or response time variability. However, when examining which variables neural data could predict, we found that age and SSRT, but not speed or variability of response execution, were predicted by neural activity during successful response inhibition. This predictive relationship provides novel evidence that developmental differences and individual differences in response inhibition are related specifically to inhibitory processes. More generally, this study demonstrates a new approach to identifying the neurocognitive bases of individual differences. PMID:20661296

  6. Developmental and Individual Differences in Chinese Writing

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the generalizability of a model of the underlying dimensions of written composition across writing systems (Chinese Mandarin vs. English) and level of writing skill. A five-factor model of writing originally developed from analyses of 1st and 4th grade English writing samples was applied to Chinese writing samples obtained from 4th and 7th grade students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fits of alternative models of written composition. The results suggest that the five-factor model of written composition generalizes to Chinese writing samples and applies to both less skilled (Grade 4) and more skilled (Grade 7) writing, with differences in factor means between grades that vary in magnitude across factors.

  7. Individual differences and occupational stress perceived: a Croatian survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Pološki Voki?; Ana Bogdani?

    2007-01-01

    Apart from elaborating the concept of occupational stress (through it’s definition, sources, consequences, ways of dealing with it, and it’s relationship with individual differences), the research had two objectives: (1) to measure occupational stress levels among different categories of employees working in Croatian enterprises, and (2) to study and analyze stress in Croatia in relation to individual differences (gender, age,

  8. The Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Everett

    This study compared three ways of analyzing individual mother-infant attachment behaviors in order to test the hypothesis that success in the search for stable individual differences in attachment behavior is in part a function of the level at which behavior individuality is assessed. Fifty infants were videotaped in the Ainsworth and Wittig…

  9. Individual Differences in Virtual Environments--Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; Czerwinski, Mary; Macredie, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Presents a brief historical overview of research in individual differences in the context of virtual environments. Highlights the notion of structure in the perception of individual users of an information system and the role of individuals' abilities to recognize and use such structures to perform various information-intensive tasks. (Author/LRW)

  10. Investigating Inter-Individual Differences in Short-Term Intra-Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…

  11. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  12. Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

  13. Individual differences in navigational strategy: implications for display design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carryl L. Baldwin

    2009-01-01

    Three investigations that demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences when designing in-vehicle navigation systems are described. Drivers were categorised in terms of their spatial awareness and wayfinding strategies, based on brief self-report questionnaires. Experiment 1 revealed individual differences in route learning performance as a function of these categories and display modality (visual, auditory or both). Experiment 2 demonstrated that

  14. The negativity bias: conceptualization, quantification, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gollan, Jackie K

    2014-06-01

    There is an extensive literature on the negativity bias, including its conceptualization, measurement, temporal stability (individual differences), and neural and genetic associations. Hibbing et al. posit that the difference across individuals in the negativity bias is a key factor in determining political predisposition. The measures and paradigms developed in this literature provide a means of testing this hypothesis. PMID:24970431

  15. Localizing Age-Related Individual Differences in a Hierarchical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and…

  16. Brief Communications Individual Differences in Nucleus Accumbens Activity to

    E-print Network

    Kelley, William M.

    .Anopenquestionistheextenttowhichindividualdifferencesinneuralcuereactivityrelatetoactualbehavioraloutcomes. Here we show that individual differences in human reward-related brain activity in the nucleus). Women with bulimia nervosa also show increased brain reward activity when observing food cues-drug behaviors? An open question is whether individual differences in brain activity, specifically in regions

  17. MSc/Dip in the Psychology of Individual Differences

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    is a guide to the MSc/Dip in the Psychology of Individual Differences. This handbook is designed to introduceMSc/Dip in the Psychology of Individual Differences PROGRAMME HANDBOOK 2011-2012 Psychology The School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh #12;MSc in the Psychology

  18. Individual Differences in Face Cognition: Brain-Behavior Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grit Herzmann; Olga Kunina; Werner Sommer; Oliver Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in perceiving, learning, and recognizing faces, summarized under the term face cognition, have been shown on the behavioral and brain level, but connections between these levels have rarely been made. We used ERPs in structural equation models to determine the contributions of neurocognitive processes to individual differences in the accuracy and speed of face cognition as established by

  19. Individual Differences and Formal Operational Performance of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi, Helen; Pulos, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential sources of individual and group differences affecting formal thought, and to examine the relationship between the performance of college students on a specific formal operational task and their performance on other cognitive measures identified as possible sources of individual differences. (MK)

  20. What can individual differences reveal about face processing?

    PubMed Central

    Yovel, Galit; Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Faces are probably the most widely studied visual stimulus. Most research on face processing has used a group-mean approach that averages behavioral or neural responses to faces across individuals and treats variance between individuals as noise. However, individual differences in face processing can provide valuable information that complements and extends findings from group-mean studies. Here we demonstrate that studies employing an individual differences approach—examining associations and dissociations across individuals—can answer fundamental questions about the way face processing operates. In particular these studies allow us to associate and dissociate the mechanisms involved in face processing, tie behavioral face processing mechanisms to neural mechanisms, link face processing to broader capacities and quantify developmental influences on face processing. The individual differences approach we illustrate here is a powerful method that should be further explored within the domain of face processing as well as fruitfully applied across the cognitive sciences. PMID:25191241

  1. Determinants of Individual Differences and Gender Differences in Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence

  2. Running head: Individual Differences in L2 ERPs Individual Differences Reveal Stages of L2 Grammatical Acquisition: ERP Evidence*

    E-print Network

    Osterhout, Lee

    Running head: Individual Differences in L2 ERPs Individual Differences Reveal Stages of L2 Grammatical Acquisition: ERP Evidence* Darren Tanner1 , Judith McLaughlin2 , Julia Herschensohn3 & Lee German speakers and native English speakers enrolled in college-level German courses. ERPs were recorded

  3. Sex Differences in Cortical Thickness Mapped in 176 Healthy Individuals

    E-print Network

    matter in women and some showing no differences between the sexes. Regional sex differ- ences in gray individuals between the ages of 7 and 87 years. We also mapped localized differences in brain size. Maps of sex differences in cortical thickness revealed thicker cortices in women in right inferior parietal

  4. Individual and sex differences in learning abilities of ravens.

    PubMed

    Range, F; Bugnyar, T; Schlögl, C; Kotrschal, K

    2006-07-01

    Behavioral and physiological characteristics of individuals within the same species have been found to be stable across time and contexts. In this study, we investigated individual differences in learning abilities and object and social manipulation to test for consistency within individuals across different tasks. Individual ravens (Corvus corax) were tested in simple color and position discrimination tasks to establish their learning abilities. We found that males were significantly better in the acquisition of the first discrimination task and the object manipulation task, but not in any of the other tasks. Furthermore, faster learners engaged less often in manipulations of conspecifics and exploration of objects to get access to food. No relationship between object and social manipulation and reversal training were found. Our results suggest that individual differences in regard to the acquisition of new tasks may be related to personalities or at least object manipulation in ravens. PMID:16675158

  5. Individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences and variation in behavioural responses have been identified in many animal species. These differences may be the result of genetic or environmental factors or the interaction between them. Analysis of individual differences in behaviour may be important for many reasons. The zebrafish is a powerful model organism that is rapidly gaining popularity in behavioural brain research. However, individual differences have rarely been explored in zebrafish although significant variation in their performance has been reported. In the current study we identified individual differences in activity levels of zebrafish using a genetically heterogeneous population. Groups of zebrafish classified as high, medium, or low activity performers demonstrated consistent activity levels over a period of 7 days, and also in a subsequent open field task, suggesting stable individual differences as opposed to stochastic variation among subjects. We also uncovered a sex dependent relationship between behavioural measures. Female zebrafish in the high activity group preferred the top portion of the tank, whereas low activity females preferred the lower portion but males did not show such a relationship. The relationship between these two behaviours in females implies the potential existence of a behavioural syndrome persisting between contexts. Furthermore, females demonstrated a higher level of consistency in their behaviour as compared to males, and the behavioural differences were found to be independent of both body size and weight of the tested subjects. The identification of individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish will allow the investigation of underlying genetic and/or environmental underpinnings. PMID:24084583

  6. Individual Skill Differences and Large-Scale Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alexa W.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individual differences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited…

  7. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect...

  8. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect...

  9. A Brief Overview of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Leaver, Betty Lou; Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2003-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the field of individual differences in language learning, especially as they are reflected in learning styles, learning strategies, and affective variables. Touches on areas for further research. (Author/VWL)

  10. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression

    E-print Network

    Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

  11. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  12. Individual differences in susceptibility to misinformation effects and hindsight bias.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, Dustin P

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in susceptibility to two similar forms of memory distortion: the misinformation effect and hindsight bias. The misinformation effect occurs when individuals witness an event, are provided with misinformation, and recall the original event as containing elements of the misinformation. Hindsight bias occurs when individuals make judgments, are provided with feedback, and recall their original judgments as being more similar to the feedback than they actually were. Seventy-five participants completed a misinformation task, a hindsight bias task, and several individual difference measures related to memory distortions. Working memory capacity was negatively correlated with the misinformation effect and hindsight bias, and the misinformation effect and hindsight bias were negatively correlated with one another. Although the misinformation effect and hindsight bias are measured with similar designs, and both are predicted by working memory capacity, the negative correlation between them suggests these phenomena result from somewhat different processes. PMID:25302589

  13. Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:25632345

  14. Reproductive Performance of Mice in Disposable and Standard Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403

  15. Individual differences in working memory capacity and attentional control.

    PubMed

    Hiebel, Nina; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory (WM) has a very limited online capacity making it considerably important to control the gating of encoding into WM. Recent studies have suggested that attention control is of importance in doing so, especially the time needed to disengage. However, the disengagement mechanism operates on a later stage of processing after the initial selection of information has already been initiated. We assume that individual differences in WM capacity are also driven by individual variations in the voluntary engagement of attention. In 2 experiments we investigated whether individuals with high- and low-WM capacity differ in the efficiency and speed of this attention control process. We realised different versions of the task in which different amounts of attention control were necessary, a more automatically triggered allocation of attention and a voluntary initiation of attention engagement, respectively. We further manipulated the time course to look for differences in the latency of attention control. The results revealed that participants with low-WM capacity were less effective to exhibit voluntary attention control processes and they were also slower in doing so compared with high-WM capacity individuals. However, this effect seems to be partly moderated by the ability to update the current task set. If the trial structure did not require task set updating smaller individual differences involving WM capacity could be found. PMID:25730638

  16. Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

  17. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures. PMID:23242798

  18. Attributional processing style differences in depressed and nondepressed individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Kammer

    1984-01-01

    A series of four studies used different measures to assess the amount of attributional processing following failure and success. It was found that, from an actor's point of view, relatively depressed students consistently differed from relatively nondepressed students in the amount of their attributional processing. The depressed individuals reported more attributions for both hypothetical and real failure, compared to the

  19. Individual Differences in Readers’ Sentence and Text-Level Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra L. Long; Brian J. Oppy; Mark R. Seely

    1997-01-01

    Poor reading comprehension is often associated with a failure to make appropriate inferences during reading. Do less skilled readers fail to make inferences because they fail to construct accurate propositional representations? We conducted two experiments to investigate individual differences in readers’ sentence- and text-level representations. In Experiment 1, we found no differences in the two groups’ ability to perform a

  20. Violent Forensic Psychiatric Patients: Individual Differences and Consequences for Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruud H. J. Hornsveld; Clive R. Hollin; Henk L. I. Nijman; Floor W. Kraaimaat

    2007-01-01

    The literature on differences between aggressive individuals exhibiting reactive and proactive aggression raises the issue whether different treatment programs should be developed for violent forensic psychiatric patients with a conduct disorder or an antisocial personality disorder. In order to study this issue, aggressive behavior of 133 inpatients and of 176 outpatients was analyzed in detail for four subgroups, composed on

  1. The Brain Basis of Individual Differences in Language Comprehension Abilities

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    .g., Broca's and Wernicke's areas), to effective communication between components, and to dynamicThe Brain Basis of Individual Differences in Language Comprehension Abilities Chantel S. Prat by differences in brain functioning. Thus, comprehensive theories of the biological basis of language should

  2. Neural correlates of individual differences in circadian behaviour.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer A; Leise, Tanya L; Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Davidson, Alec J

    2015-07-01

    Daily rhythms in mammals are controlled by the circadian system, which is a collection of biological clocks regulated by a central pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. Changes in SCN function have pronounced consequences for behaviour and physiology; however, few studies have examined whether individual differences in circadian behaviour reflect changes in SCN function. Here, PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE mice were exposed to a behavioural assay to characterize individual differences in baseline entrainment, rate of re-entrainment and free-running rhythms. SCN slices were then collected for ex vivo bioluminescence imaging to gain insight into how the properties of the SCN clock influence individual differences in behavioural rhythms. First, individual differences in the timing of locomotor activity rhythms were positively correlated with the timing of SCN rhythms. Second, slower adjustment during simulated jetlag was associated with a larger degree of phase heterogeneity among SCN neurons. Collectively, these findings highlight the role of the SCN network in determining individual differences in circadian behaviour. Furthermore, these results reveal novel ways that the network organization of the SCN influences plasticity at the behavioural level, and lend insight into potential interventions designed to modulate the rate of resynchronization during transmeridian travel and shift work. PMID:26108632

  3. Individual and sex-specific differences in intrinsic growth rate covary with consistent individual differences in behaviour.

    PubMed

    Biro, Peter A; Adriaenssens, Bart; Sampson, Portia

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary causes of consistent individual differences in behaviour are currently a source of debate. A recent hypothesis suggests that consistent individual differences in life-history productivity (growth and/or fecundity) may covary with behavioural traits that contribute to growth-mortality trade-offs, such as risk-proneness (boldness) and foraging activity (voraciousness). It remains unclear, however, to what extent individual behavioural and life-history profiles are set early in life, or are a more flexible result of specific environmental or developmental contexts that allow bold and active individuals to acquire more resources. Longitudinal studies of individually housed animals under controlled conditions can shed light on this question. Since growth and behaviour can both vary within individuals (they are labile), studying between-individual correlations in behaviour and growth rate requires repeated scoring for both variables over an extended period of time. However, such a study has not yet been done. Here, we repeatedly measured individual mass seven times each, boldness 40 times each and voracity eight times each during the first 4 months of life on 90 individually housed crayfish (Cherax destructor). Animals were fed ad libitum, generating a context where individuals can express their intrinsic growth rate (i.e. growth capacity), but in which bold and voracious behaviour is not necessary for high resource acquisition (crayfish can and do hoard food back to their burrow). We show that individuals that were consistently bold over time during the day were also bolder at night, were more voracious and maintained higher growth rates over time than shy individuals. Independent of individual differences, we also observed that males were faster-growing, bolder and more voracious than females. Our findings imply that associations between bold behaviour and fast growth can occur in unlimited food contexts where there is no necessary link between bold behaviour and resource acquisition - offering support for the 'personality-productivity' hypothesis. We suggest future research should study links between consistent individual differences in behaviour and life history under a wider range of contexts, in order to shed light on the role of biotic and abiotic conditions in the strength, direction and stability of their covariance. PMID:24673423

  4. Individual Differences in Learning a Novel Discrete Motor Task

    PubMed Central

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2014-01-01

    Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

  5. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics (“Dogs bark”) convey important information about categories and facilitate children’s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N=104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents’ essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children’s rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers’ conceptual attitudes toward categories. PMID:24266531

  6. Investigating inter-individual differences in short-term intra-individual variability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan (Peggy); Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this paper we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models inter-individual differences in intra-individual variability by separately considering both the amplitude of fluctuations and temporal dependency in the data. In the proposed model, temporal dependency and amplitude of fluctuations are both included as random effects. Parameter estimation is done with a multiple-step approach using maximum likelihood, or with a recommended one-step approach using a Bayesian method. The similarity and differences between the proposed method and some existing methods are discussed and investigated using diary study data from older adults. The results from empirical data analysis revealed that temporal dependency and amplitude of fluctuations have different predictability of health outcomes and thus should be modeled and considered separately. PMID:22924600

  7. What contributes to individual differences in brain structure?

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jenny; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in adult human brain structure have been found to reveal a great deal of information about variability in behaviors, cognitive abilities and mental and physical health. Driven by such evidence, what contributes to individual variation in brain structure has gained accelerated attention as a research question. Findings thus far appear to support the notion that an individual’s brain architecture is determined largely by genetic and environmental influences. This review aims to evaluate the empirical literature on whether and how genes and the environment contribute to individual differences in brain structure. It first considers how genetic and environmental effects may separately contribute to brain morphology, by examining evidence from twin, genome-wide association, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Next, evidence for the influence of the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, characterized as gene-environment interactions and correlations, is reviewed. In evaluating the extant literature, this review will conclude that both genetic and environmental factors play critical roles in contributing to individual variability in brain structure. PMID:24808848

  8. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  9. Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Cognitive consequences of individual differences in arousal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that semantic organization in the right hemisphere (RH) is more diffuse and specialized for distant semantic associates than is semantic organization in the left hemisphere (LH). The present research explored individual differences in this regard. If the RH is more specialized for distant semantic associates, then individuals with a more active RH should display greater activation of distant semantic associations. Two experiments were conducted to examine this issue. In both studies a line bisection task was used to assess arousal asymmetry. In Experiment 1, greater RH activation was associated with the ability to generate remote associates to three word stimuli. In Experiment 2, relatively greater RH activation was associated with enhanced priming of distant semantic associates. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that arousal asymmetry is an individual difference variable that is related to variability in semantic organization and retrieval. PMID:23867738

  11. Individual differences in persistence in lying and experiences while deceiving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldert Vrij; Michelle Holland

    1998-01-01

    The present study examines individual differences in persistence in lying, feeling uncomfortable when lying, and finding lying a difficult task. We hypothesized that being manipulative, being teen on making a good impression on others, being good at con trolling verbal and nonverbal communication, and having an active social life would be positively related to persistence in lying, and negatively related

  12. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  13. Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei

    2000-01-01

    Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

  14. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

  15. Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

  16. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic…

  17. Remembering talk: Individual and gender differences in reported speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Ely; Elizabeth Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined individual and group differences in the nature and frequency of reports of past speech in the autobiographical memories of young adults. A sample of 108 participants (60 females, 48 males) responded in writing to six memory prompts. They also completed the Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence & Helmreich, 1978).

  18. Towards a Pedagogy for Clinical Education: Beyond Individual Learning Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.; Baysan, Aylin; Cabot, Lyndon Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching in higher education towards a more learner-orientated model has been supported by the literature on individual learning differences and on learning styles in particular. This has contributed to the evolution of university pedagogy away from a medieval transmission model than runs counter to contemporary understanding of…

  19. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  20. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Elizabeth Bates, indeed essential, if we want to understand the mechanisms that underlie normal language development. Far normal and abnormal development; because it is stable, it provides a window onto the correlates and (by

  1. Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: Cognitive factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Elizabeth F. Loftus; Chongde Lin; Qinghua He; Chunhui Chen; He Li; Gui Xue; Zhonglin Lu; Qi Dong

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with

  2. Understanding Individual Differences in Young Children's Imitative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Susan K.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2006-01-01

    Because early theoretical frameworks such as Piaget's stage model and social learning theory sought to explain the development and performance of imitation in terms of overall group trends, any evidence for individual differences in this behavior was until recently largely overlooked. Results of contemporary imitation studies have not only begun…

  3. Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

  4. Towards a pedagogy for clinical education: beyond individual learning differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Kinchin; Aylin Baysan; Lyndon Bruce Cabot

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching in higher education towards a more learner?orientated model has been supported by the literature on individual learning differences and on learning styles in particular. This has contributed to the evolution of university pedagogy away from a medieval transmission model than runs counter to contemporary understanding of learning. However, rather than solving problems of classroom practice, recognition

  5. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  6. Cultural Differences between Arabs and Americans: Individualism-Collectivism Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…

  7. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Individual Differences in Amygdala Activity Predict

    E-print Network

    Burgess, Greg

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Individual Differences in Amygdala Activity Predict Response SpeedDepartmentofPsychology,WashingtonUniversity,St.Louis,Missouri63130 The human amygdala has classically been report here findings suggesting that the human amygdala also has a role in supporting working memory (WM

  8. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  9. Individual differences in the impact of attentional bias training on cardiovascular responses to stress in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niamh M. Higgins; Brian M. Hughes

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies show that training people to attend to negative stimuli makes them more likely to respond with greater anxiety to stress. The present study investigated this effect in students using measures of cardiovascular responses to stress and examined whether individual differences influence the impact of attention training on stress responses. Using a standard dot probe task, 30 participants underwent

  10. Individual differences in the impact of attentional bias training on cardiovascular responses to stress in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niamh M. Higgins; Brian M. Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies show that training people to attend to negative stimuli makes them more likely to respond with greater anxiety to stress. The present study investigated this effect in students using measures of cardiovascular responses to stress and examined whether individual differences influence the impact of attention training on stress responses. Using a standard dot probe task, 30 participants underwent

  11. Individual differences in transcranial electrical stimulation current density

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael J; Goodman, Theodore; Pierson, Ronald; Shepherd, Shane; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Wiley, David F

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) is effective in treating many conditions, but it has not been possible to accurately forecast current density within the complex anatomy of a given subject's head. We sought to predict and verify TCES current densities and determine the variability of these current distributions in patient-specific models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment estimated conductivity from MRIs and compared the current density results against actual measurements from the scalp surface of 3 subjects. In the second experiment, virtual electrodes were placed on the scalps of 18 subjects to model simulated current densities with 2 mA of virtually applied stimulation. This procedure was repeated for 4 electrode locations. Current densities were then calculated for 75 brain regions. Comparison of modeled and measured external current in experiment 1 yielded a correlation of r = .93. In experiment 2, modeled individual differences were greatest near the electrodes (ten-fold differences were common), but simulated current was found in all regions of the brain. Sites that were distant from the electrodes (e.g. hypothalamus) typically showed two-fold individual differences. MRI-based modeling can effectively predict current densities in individual brains. Significant variation occurs between subjects with the same applied electrode configuration. Individualized MRI-based modeling should be considered in place of the 10-20 system when accurate TCES is needed. PMID:24285948

  12. Individual Differences in Usability of Cell Phone SMS Menus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADEM KARAHOCA; DILEK KARAHOCA; ILKER YENGIN; BARIS YUCE; ILKER BERKMAN; SERKAN SIMSEK; CEREN DAGYAR; SENAY YALCIN

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays there are wide range and different cell phones but there are not any standardized produced cell phones. Menu systems of the cell phones create complications according to usability of the cell phone user interfaces. One of the main usability problems is encountered in SMS (short messaging services) sending procedure. In this study, we investigated usability issues of the SMS

  13. Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) on the basis of shared features or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) on the basis of participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual's relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual's tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results indicate that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in 2 parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

  14. Accounting for individual differences in human associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Byrom, Nicola C.

    2013-01-01

    Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning. PMID:24027551

  15. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  16. Individual differences in metacontrast masking are enhanced by perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Thorsten; Klapötke, Susan; Mattler, Uwe

    2010-06-01

    In vision research metacontrast masking is a widely used technique to reduce the visibility of a stimulus. Typically, studies attempt to reveal general principles that apply to a large majority of participants and tend to omit possible individual differences. The neural plasticity of the visual system, however, entails the potential capability for individual differences in the way observers perform perceptual tasks. We report a case of perceptual learning in a metacontrast masking task that leads to the enhancement of two types of adult human observers despite identical learning conditions. In a priming task both types of observers exhibited the same priming effects, which were insensitive to learning. Findings suggest that visual processing of target stimuli in the metacontrast masking task is based on neural levels with sufficient plasticity to enable the development of two types of observers, which do not contribute to processing of target stimuli in the priming task. PMID:20044281

  17. Individual differences in grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ): effects of training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene M. Pepperberg

    2007-01-01

    Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) have been shown to exhibit many complex cognitive and communicative abilities in a laboratory setting. The parrots’ successes\\u000a likely rely on two factors: An underlying neurological architecture that supports complex information processing, and training\\u000a that enables them to express their capacities in ways measurable by human researchers. Individual differences likely can affect\\u000a both factors, in terms

  18. Measures of Individual Differences in Taste and Creaminess Perception

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lenka; Green, Barry G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous reports that the sensitivity to the bitter tasting substance 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is related to the sensitivity to other tastes, to chemical irritants, and to fats and oils have led to adoption of PROP as a measure of general oral sensitivity and as a predictor of dietary habits that could impact health. The results, however, have not been consistent. It was recently discovered that the ability to perceive “thermal taste” (i.e., sweetness from thermal stimulation alone) was associated with higher responsiveness to 4 prototypical taste stimuli but not to PROP. This finding implied that individual differences in taste perception are determined in large part by factors other than those related to genetic expression of the PROP receptor. The present study followed up this observation by comparing individual differences in perception of 4 prototypical taste stimuli (sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine) and PROP under conditions that also enabled assessment of the reliability of individual intensity ratings of taste. Creaminess ratings of 3 milk products that had different fat contents were also collected to investigate further the relationship between taste and oral somatosensory perception. The results showed that intensity ratings across 2 trials were significantly correlated for all 5 taste stimuli and that averaging across replicates led to significant correlations among the 4 prototypical stimuli. In contrast, the bitterness of PROP was correlated only with the bitterness of quinine. None of the taste stimuli, including PROP, was significantly correlated with ratings of creaminess. These results imply 1) that with the exception of PROP, as few as 2 intensity ratings of common taste stimuli can reveal individual differences in overall taste perception and 2) that any relationship between taste and oral sensation is too weak to be detected under the same conditions. Accordingly, the results support other evidence that the genetic factors which determine the ability to perceive PROP do not play a major role in overall taste and oral somatosensory perception. PMID:18453638

  19. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Carlson; Louis J. Moses

    2001-01-01

    This research examined the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC; a central compo- nent of executive functioning) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschool-age children. Across two sessions, 3- and 4-year-old children ( N ? 107) were given multitask batteries measuring IC and ToM. Inhibi- tory control was strongly related to ToM, r ? .66, p ? .001. This

  20. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Michael D; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making task can be attributed to (1) differences in evidence accumulation rates, (2) differences in variability of evidence accumulation within trials, and (3) differences in non-decision times across individuals. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that these differences in cognitive variables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-locking of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to the signal and noise components of the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model) were obtained from accuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs) of SSVEPs with a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress the SSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correct evidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times), leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combination of cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiological processes to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample) participant's neural data can predict that participant's behavior more accurately than models without physiological data. PMID:25762974

  1. Individual differences in attention influence perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Michael D.; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sequential sampling decision-making models have been successful in accounting for reaction time (RT) and accuracy data in two-alternative forced choice tasks. These models have been used to describe the behavior of populations of participants, and explanatory structures have been proposed to account for between individual variability in model parameters. In this study we show that individual differences in behavior from a novel perceptual decision making task can be attributed to (1) differences in evidence accumulation rates, (2) differences in variability of evidence accumulation within trials, and (3) differences in non-decision times across individuals. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we demonstrate that these differences in cognitive variables, in turn, can be explained by attentional differences as measured by phase-locking of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to the signal and noise components of the visual stimulus. Parameters of a cognitive model (a diffusion model) were obtained from accuracy and RT distributions and related to phase-locking indices (PLIs) of SSVEPs with a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Participants who were able to suppress the SSVEP response to visual noise in high frequency bands were able to accumulate correct evidence faster and had shorter non-decision times (preprocessing or motor response times), leading to more accurate responses and faster response times. We show that the combination of cognitive modeling and neural data in a hierarchical Bayesian framework relates physiological processes to the cognitive processes of participants, and that a model with a new (out-of-sample) participant's neural data can predict that participant's behavior more accurately than models without physiological data. PMID:25762974

  2. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  3. Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Münte, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism. PMID:22291668

  4. Individual differences in oral nicotine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Collins, Allan C; Pogun, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    To study individual differences in nicotine preference and intake, male and female rats were given free access to a choice of oral nicotine (10 or 20 mg/L) or water for 24 h/day for periods of at least six weeks, starting at adolescence or adulthood. A total of 341 rats, were used in four different experiments; weight, nicotine intake and total liquid consumption were recorded weekly. Results show that rats can discriminate nicotine from water, can regulate their intake, and that there are readily detected individual differences in nicotine preference. Ward analyses indicated that the animals could be divided into minimum, median and maximum preferring subgroups in all experiments. The effect of saccharine on nicotine intake was also evaluated; although the addition of saccharine increased total intake, rats drank unsweetened nicotine solutions and those with higher preferences for nicotine, preferred nicotine over water with or without saccharine added. Nicotine reduced weight gain and the effect was more pronounced in females than males. The average nicotine consumption of adolescent rats was higher than adults and nicotine exposure during adolescence reduced nicotine intake in adult rats. About half of the rats which had access to nicotine as adolescents and also as adults had a persistent pattern of consumption; the behavior was very stable in the female minimum preferring groups and a much higher ratio of rats sustained their adolescent behavior as adults. The change in preference was more pronounced when there was an interval between adolescent and adult exposure; female rats showed a more stable behavior than males suggesting a greater role for environmental influences on males. In conclusion, marked individual differences were observed in oral nicotine intake as measured in a continuous access 2-bottle choice test. Age and sex of the subjects and previous exposure to nicotine are significant factors which affect preference in rats. PMID:21504750

  5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ORAL NICOTINE INTAKE IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Collins, Allan C; Pogun, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    To study individual differences in nicotine preference and intake, male and female rats were given free access to a choice of oral nicotine (10 or 20 mg/L) or water for 24 hours/day for periods of at least six weeks, starting at adolescence or adulthood. A total of 341 rats, were used in four different experiments; weight, nicotine intake and total liquid consumption were recorded weekly. Results show that rats can discriminate nicotine from water, can regulate their intake, and that there are readily detected individual differences in nicotine preference. Ward analyses indicated that the animals could be divided into minimum, median and maximum preferring subgroups in all experiments. The effect of saccharine on nicotine intake was also evaluated; although the addition of saccharine increased total intake, rats drank unsweetened nicotine solutions and those with higher preferences for nicotine, preferred nicotine over water with or without saccharine added. Nicotine reduced weight gain and the effect was more pronounced in females than males. The average nicotine consumption of adolescent rats was higher than adults and nicotine exposure during adolescence reduced nicotine intake in adult rats. About half of the rats which had access to nicotine as adolescents and also as adults had a persistent pattern of consumption; the behavior was very stable in the female minimum preferring groups and a much higher ratio of rats sustained their adolescent behavior as adults. The change in preference was more pronounced when there was an interval between adolescent and adult exposure; female rats showed a more stable behavior than males suggesting a greater role for environmental influences on males. In conclusion, marked individual differences were observed in oral nicotine intake as measured in a continuous access 2-bottle choice test. Age and sex of the subjects and previous exposure to nicotine are significant factors which affect preference in rats. PMID:21504750

  6. Interpreting the Results of Three Different Standard Setting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross

    Different procedures for setting cut points on achievement test scales provide the standard-setting participants with different information to support the unique judgment task associated with each procedure. This study examined how participants in standard settings used the different information from three different procedures in Kentucky in 2000.…

  7. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  8. Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

  9. Individual differences in autonomic learning: a quarter century of reflection.

    PubMed

    Ax, A F

    1990-11-01

    A series of studies carried out over the past two decades has shown selected group differences in the speed and final level of learned control of various autonomic functions. The Pavlovian and operant conditioning of as many as 6 physiological variables have revealed varying ability for this form of control. Studies were performed on subject populations that included drug-free chronic schizophrenics and healthy controls, psychopathic and non-psychopathic male juvenile delinquents, and a clinical population that included migraine sufferers and persons undergoing psychotherapy. Also studied were school dropouts in vocational training, inner-city high school seniors and junior high school students at a university school. These studies carried out on normal and abnormal individuals of strikingly different social backgrounds have lent consistent support for the hypothesis that an aptitude for autonomic learning is basic to social motivation, achievement, emotional control, and empathy. PMID:2269642

  10. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gary R.

    2001-05-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

  11. Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Magdalena M.; Frei, Luisa S.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18–79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m2. We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

  12. Effects of Individualized and Standardized Interventions on Middle School Students With Reading Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    VAUGHN, SHARON; WEXLER, JADE; ROBERTS, GREG; BARTH, AMY A.; CIRINO, PAUL T.; ROMAIN, MELISSA A.; FRANCIS, DAVID; FLETCHER, JACK; DENTON, CAROLYN A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the effectiveness of a year-long, small-group, tertiary (Tier 3) intervention that examined 2 empirically derived but conceptually different treatments and a comparison condition. The researchers had randomly assigned all students to treatment or comparison conditions. The participants were seventh- and eighth-grade students from the previous year who received an intervention and did not meet exit criteria. The researchers assigned them to one of two treatments: standardized (n = 69) or individualized (n = 71) for 50 min a day, in group sizes of 5, for the entire school year. Comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention (n = 42). The researchers used multigroup modeling with nested comparisons to evaluate the statistical significance of Time 3 estimates. Students in both treatments outperformed the comparison students on assessments of decoding, fluency, and comprehension. Intervention type did not moderate the pattern of effects, although students in the standardized treatment had a small advantage over individualized students on word attack. This study provides a framework from which to refine further interventions for older students with reading disabilities. PMID:23125463

  13. Musical training, individual differences and the cocktail party problem.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Mason, Christine R; Streeter, Timothy M; Best, Virginia; Kidd, Gerald; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2015-01-01

    Are musicians better able to understand speech in noise than non-musicians? Recent findings have produced contradictory results. Here we addressed this question by asking musicians and non-musicians to understand target sentences masked by other sentences presented from different spatial locations, the classical 'cocktail party problem' in speech science. We found that musicians obtained a substantial benefit in this situation, with thresholds ~6?dB better than non-musicians. Large individual differences in performance were noted particularly for the non-musically trained group. Furthermore, in different conditions we manipulated the spatial location and intelligibility of the masking sentences, thus changing the amount of 'informational masking' (IM) while keeping the amount of 'energetic masking' (EM) relatively constant. When the maskers were unintelligible and spatially separated from the target (low in IM), musicians and non-musicians performed comparably. These results suggest that the characteristics of speech maskers and the amount of IM can influence the magnitude of the differences found between musicians and non-musicians in multiple-talker "cocktail party" environments. Furthermore, considering the task in terms of the EM-IM distinction provides a conceptual framework for future behavioral and neuroscientific studies which explore the underlying sensory and cognitive mechanisms contributing to enhanced "speech-in-noise" perception by musicians. PMID:26112910

  14. Musical training, individual differences and the cocktail party problem

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Mason, Christine R.; Streeter, Timothy M.; Best, Virginia; Kidd, Jr, Gerald; Patel, Aniruddh D.

    2015-01-01

    Are musicians better able to understand speech in noise than non-musicians? Recent findings have produced contradictory results. Here we addressed this question by asking musicians and non-musicians to understand target sentences masked by other sentences presented from different spatial locations, the classical ‘cocktail party problem’ in speech science. We found that musicians obtained a substantial benefit in this situation, with thresholds ~6?dB better than non-musicians. Large individual differences in performance were noted particularly for the non-musically trained group. Furthermore, in different conditions we manipulated the spatial location and intelligibility of the masking sentences, thus changing the amount of ‘informational masking’ (IM) while keeping the amount of ‘energetic masking’ (EM) relatively constant. When the maskers were unintelligible and spatially separated from the target (low in IM), musicians and non-musicians performed comparably. These results suggest that the characteristics of speech maskers and the amount of IM can influence the magnitude of the differences found between musicians and non-musicians in multiple-talker “cocktail party” environments. Furthermore, considering the task in terms of the EM-IM distinction provides a conceptual framework for future behavioral and neuroscientific studies which explore the underlying sensory and cognitive mechanisms contributing to enhanced “speech-in-noise” perception by musicians. PMID:26112910

  15. The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Dhejne, Cecilia; Landen, Mikael; Elander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements. PMID:22654902

  16. Explaining individual differences in cognitive processes underlying hindsight bias.

    PubMed

    Coolin, Alisha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Allen E; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2015-04-01

    After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contributing to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon. More recent applications of this model have revealed that, in comparison to younger adults, older adults are more susceptible to two underlying HB processes: recollection bias and reconstruction bias. However, the impact of cognitive functioning on these processes remains unclear. In this article, we extend the MPT model for HB by incorporating individual variation in cognitive functioning into the estimation of the model's core parameters in older and younger adults. In older adults, our findings revealed that (1) better episodic memory was associated with higher recollection ability in the absence of outcome knowledge, (2) better episodic memory and inhibitory control and higher working memory capacity were associated with higher recollection ability in the presence of outcome knowledge, and (3) better inhibitory control was associated with less reconstruction bias. Although the pattern of effects was similar in younger adults, the cognitive covariates did not significantly predict the underlying HB processes in this age group. In sum, we present a novel approach to modeling individual variability in MPT models. We applied this approach to the HB paradigm to identify the cognitive mechanisms contributing to the underlying HB processes. Our results show that working memory capacity and inhibitory control, respectively, drive individual differences in recollection bias and reconstruction bias, particularly in older adults. PMID:25147027

  17. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (?RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D. Cicchetti, 1997). In addition, the authors explored whether children’s physiological regulation would moderate the effect of maternal depressive symptomatology on children’s emotion regulation trajectories. Results indicated that over time, emotion regulation increased whereas negativity decreased, though considerable individual variability in the pattern of change was observed. Greater maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with less steep emotion regulation trajectories. There was a significant Maternal Depressive Symptomatology × Baseline RSA × Age interaction predicting emotion regulation trajectories. Overall, it appears that the development of emotion regulation over time is compromised when mothers report greater depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that children’s capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology. PMID:18605838

  18. Ambiguity between self and other: Individual differences in action attribution.

    PubMed

    de Bézenac, Christophe E; Sluming, Vanessa; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-09-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to attribute actions to self or other. This variance is thought to explain, in part, the experience of voice-hearing. Misattribution can also be context-driven. For example, causal ambiguity can arise when the actions of two or more individuals are coordinated and produce similar effects (e.g., music-making). Experience in such challenging contexts may refine skills of action attribution. Forty participants completed a novel finger-tapping task which parametrically manipulated the proportion of control that 'self' versus 'other' possessed over resulting auditory tones. Results showed that action misattribution peaked in the middle of the self-to-other continuum and was biased towards other. This pattern was related to both high hallucination-proneness and to low musical-experience. Findings suggest not only that causal ambiguity plays a key role in agency but also that action attribution abilities may improve with practice, potentially providing an avenue for remediation of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25956971

  19. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

  20. Individual Differences in Recovery Time From Attentional Capture

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity reflects a core ability of the individual that affects performance on many cognitive tasks. Recent work has suggested that an important covariate of memory capacity is attentional control, and specifically that low-capacity individuals are more susceptible to attentional capture by distractors than high-capacity individuals are, with the latter being able to resist capture. Here, we tested an alternative account according to which all individuals are equally susceptible to attentional capture, but high-capacity individuals recover more quickly than low-capacity individuals. Using psychophysical and electrophysiological methods, we measured recovery time from attentional capture. In two experiments, we found that high- and low-capacity individuals showed equivalent attentional capture effects in the initial moments following capture, but that low-capacity individuals took much longer to recover than high-capacity individuals did. These results suggest that the poor attentional control associated with low capacity is due to slow disengagement from distractors. PMID:21310945

  1. Individual Differences in Metacognitive Responsiveness: Cognitive and Personality Correlates

    PubMed Central

    WASHBURN, DAVID A.; SMITH, J. DAVID; TAGLIALATELA, LAUREN A.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals differ not only in the ability to make decisions, but also in the degree to which they respond adaptively to uncertainty about those decisions. We examined how optimally 124 participants used an uncertain response on near-threshold trials of a psychophysical task. All participants showed overconfidence, but women tended to be more adaptive than men in responsiveness to uncertainty. Participants who responded to uncertainty most optimally exhibited more cognitive failures, fewer attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms, greater need for closure, better attention scanning skills, but larger effects of Stroop-task incongruity compared with participants who were least optimal in responsiveness to uncertainty. These data suggest that response competition might provide a mechanism for the cognitive experience of uncertainty. PMID:17607328

  2. Sources of individual differences in children's understanding of fractions.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Rose K; Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Jordan, Nancy C; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation analyses controlling for general mathematics ability and general academic ability revealed that numerical and mathematical competencies were direct predictors of fraction concepts, whereas domain-general competencies supported the acquisition of fraction concepts via whole-number arithmetic computations or number line estimation. Results indicate multiple pathways to fraction competence. PMID:24433246

  3. Sampling Capacity Underlies Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limited generalization between distinct stimulus compounds and their constituent elements. In Experiment 2, participants pretrained to adopt global processing similarly showed strong negative patterning discrimination. These results demonstrate considerable individual difference in capacity to engage in negative patterning discrimination and suggest that the tendency toward global processing may be one factor explaining this variability. The need for models of learning to account for this variability in learning is discussed. PMID:24446699

  4. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: interactions and causes of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Kammersgaard, T S; Pedersen, L J; Jørgensen, E

    2011-07-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using 635 crossbred neonatal piglets, the aim of this study was to identify the links among different physiological and behavioral measures and their connections to the ability of piglets to overcome initial postnatal hypothermia, with rectal temperature at 2 h as the response variable. The data included birth weight, hypoxia at birth (viability score and lactate in umbilical cord blood), latency to first udder contact and first suckle, scans of individual piglet position during the first 2 h after birth, and rectal temperature at birth and 2 h postpartum. A graphical chain model was used to analyze data. The statistical variables were divided into blocks according to level (design and litter) and chronological order (prenatal, birth, perinatal, and thermoregulatory success at 2 h) before applying the graphical model to the data. Bayesian information criteria (BIC) was used for model selection. The BIC relates to maximum likelihood, but introduces an additional penalty term for the number of variables. The strength of an association between 2 variables is reported as the increase in BIC (BICinc) due to removing the link. Results indicate that at 2 h, 22.1% of the piglets had a rectal temperature below 37 °C. Out of the 16 variables included in the model, only 3 had direct links to the response variable of rectal temperature at 2 h. There was a positive relationship between rectal temperature at 2 h and birth weight (BICinc=26), and between being observed more often by the udder as opposed to alone during both the first (BICinc=8) and second hours (BICinc=19) after birth. Lighter piglets and piglets that had experienced hypoxia took longer to achieve first suckle, which in turn affected where the piglet positioned itself during the first and second hours after birth. Variables related to the birth process had no direct connection to thermoregulatory success, but were additive in the explanation of piglet behavior. The rectal temperature of individual piglets at 2 h depends largely on piglet birth weight and on piglet position in relation to sow and littermates. Birth weight is the most important single factor in successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia. PMID:21317343

  5. The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Shah, Priti; Jonides, John

    2014-04-01

    Working memory (WM) training has recently become a topic of intense interest and controversy. Although several recent studies have reported near- and far-transfer effects as a result of training WM-related skills, others have failed to show far transfer, suggesting that generalization effects are elusive. Also, many of the earlier intervention attempts have been criticized on methodological grounds. The present study resolves some of the methodological limitations of previous studies and also considers individual differences as potential explanations for the differing transfer effects across studies. We recruited intrinsically motivated participants and assessed their need for cognition (NFC; Cacioppo & Petty Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:116-131, 1982) and their implicit theories of intelligence (Dweck, 1999) prior to training. We assessed the efficacy of two WM interventions by comparing participants' improvements on a battery of fluid intelligence tests against those of an active control group. We observed that transfer to a composite measure of fluid reasoning resulted from both WM interventions. In addition, we uncovered factors that contributed to training success, including motivation, need for cognition, preexisting ability, and implicit theories about intelligence. PMID:24081919

  6. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  7. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  8. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

  9. Respiratory function dynamics in individuals with increased motor activity during standard exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Andziulis, A; Gocentas, A; Jascaniniene, N; Jaszczanin, J; Juozulynas, A; Radzijewska, M

    2005-01-01

    Functional diagnostics is one of the most important areas of sports medicine, which plays an increasingly role in selection of athletes, optimisation of training, early diagnostics and prophylaxis of sports pathology. Functional condition of the body undergoes constant changes under the influence of a number of factors. The differences may be considerable and pose problems related to the recruitment of athletes to teams in game sports and in individual sports. Physical ability is determined by the quality of external breathing and cardiovascular functions and by peculiarities of metabolism related to the tissue breathing and transport of substrates. In qualitative assessment of these phenomena one must relate the parameters of the individual's functional conditions to the required or desired values, i.e. norms. On the other hand, there exist no norms for a comprehensive evaluation of the Lithuanian persons' physical capacity and breathing system and metabolic function capacity including residents going in for sports. It is not clear whether one may rely upon the nomograms drawn up by foreign authors because they may not be applicable to Lithuanian athletes for a number of possible reasons: differences in training methods, regional cultural environment (differences in energy requirements in daily life), nutritional aspects, even demographic peculiarities taking into account limited assimilation level and small number of inhabitants. It has been established that the maximum oxygen uptake indicators reflecting the body's dynamic potential are different in elite athletes when evaluated during a standard ergo metric test. The aerobic capacity is determined by all links in the oxygen transport chain, since both heart rate (HR) and breathing indicators (VE-ventilation volume, PEF-peak expiratory flow and RR-respiratory rate) are characterised by equally good correlation with the oxygen uptake indicators and high determination coefficients (all r > 0.95, R2 > 95%, p < 0.01). PMID:16201157

  10. Individual differences in adult handwritten spelling-to-dictation

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production. PMID:23882229

  11. Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: a multidimensional view.

    PubMed

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, George

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety proposed by Endler (1997), state (cognitive-worry and autonomic-emotional) and trait (related to social evaluation, physical danger, ambiguous situations, and daily routines) anxiety were assessed in this evaluation context. Results indicated that shifting and inhibition (negative priming) efficiency were negatively related to state (cognitive-worry) and trait (related to social evaluation) anxiety. However, there was a relative advantage of subjects higher in social evaluation apprehensions in their memory updating performance. The results are consistent with several predictions of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), and are relevant for research regarding the interaction of situational, personality, and cognitive functioning dimensions. PMID:22348375

  12. Heritability of individual differences in cortical processing of facial affect.

    PubMed

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-03-01

    Facial expression of emotion is a key mechanism of non-verbal social communication in humans. Deficits in processing of facial emotion have been implicated in psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal social behavior, such as autism and schizophrenia. Identification of genetically transmitted variability in the neural substrates of facial processing can elucidate the pathways mediating genetic influences on social behavior and provide useful endophenotypes for psychiatric genetic research. This study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by changes in facial expression in adolescent twins (age 12, 47 monozygotic and 51 dizygotic pairs). Facial images with happy, fearful, and neutral expressions were administered in a continuous mode, such that different expressions of the same face instantaneously replaced each other. This experimental design allowed us to isolate responses elicited by changes in emotional expression that were not confounded with responses elicited by image onset. Changes of emotional expression elicited a N240 wave with a right temporoparietal maximum and a P300 wave with a centropariatal midline maximum. Genetic analyses using a model fitting approach showed that a substantial proportion of the observed individual variation in these ERP responses can be attributed to genetic factors (36-64% for N250 and 42-62% for P300 components, respectively). This study provides the first evidence for heritability of neuroelectric indicators of face processing and suggests that ERP components sensitive to emotional expressions can potentially serve as endophenotypes for psychpathology characterized by abnormalities in social cognition and behavior. PMID:20127403

  13. Individual differences in memory search and their relation to intelligence.

    PubMed

    Healey, M Karl; Crutchley, Patrick; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Attempts to understand why memory predicts intelligence have not fully leveraged state-of-the-art measures of recall dynamics. Using data from a multisession free recall study, we examine individual differences in measures of recall initiation and postinitiation transitions. We identify 4 sources of variation: a recency factor reflecting variation in the tendency to initiate recall from an item near the end of the list, a primacy factor reflecting a tendency to initiate from the beginning of the list, a temporal factor corresponding to transitions mediated by temporal associations, and a semantic factor corresponding to semantically mediated transitions. Together, these 4 factors account for 83% of the variability in overall recall accuracy, suggesting they provide a nearly complete picture of recall dynamics. We also show that these sources of variability account for over 80% of the variance shared between memory and intelligence. The temporal association factor was the most influential in predicting both recall accuracy and intelligence. We outline a theory of how controlled drift of temporal context may be critical across a range of cognitive activities. PMID:24730719

  14. Individual differences and reproductive success in yellow-bellied marmots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Armitage; D. H. Van Vuren

    2003-01-01

    Mirror-image stimulation (MIS) was used to determine the individual behavioral phenotypes of 90 adult, 132 yearling, and 135 young yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Linear typal analysis (LTA) was used to group individuals based on similarities in their MIS scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the patterns of variation in behaviors and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used

  15. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124...PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized...203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?...

  16. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124...PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized...203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?...

  17. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124...PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized...203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?...

  18. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124...PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized...203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?...

  19. 40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? 124...PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Applying for A Standardized...203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?...

  20. Individual differences in FFA activity suggest independent processing at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Isabel; Curby, Kim M; Skudlarski, Pawel; Epstein, Russell A

    2005-06-01

    The brain processes images at different spatial scales, but it is unclear how far into the visual stream different scales remain segregated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found evidence that BOLD activity in the fusiform face area (FFA) reflects computations based on separate spatial frequency inputs. When subjects perform different tasks (attend location vs. identity; attend whole vs. parts) or the same task with different stimuli (upright or inverted) with high- and low-pass images of cars and faces, individual differences in the FFA in one condition are correlated with those in the other condition. However, FFA activity in response to low-pass stimuli is independent of its response to high-pass stimuli. These results suggest that spatial scales are not integrated before the FFA and that processing in this area could support the flexible use of different sources of information present in broad-pass images. PMID:16180628

  1. Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy L. Mammen; Stephen Nowicki

    1981-01-01

    A detailed sound analysis of the Chick-adee call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was performed in order to determine a basis for individual recognition and for imitation within winter flocks. During the winter of 1978–1979 members of five free-living black-capped chickadee flocks were uniquely marked for individual identification, and their calls were recorded in the field. Nested analysis of

  2. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 26 ? 2012-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? true ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  3. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 24 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  4. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2011-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  6. Subgenual PFC Activity Predicts Individual Differences in HPA Activity Across Different Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Allison L.; Fox, Andrew S.; Abercrombie, Heather C.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activation is adaptive in response to stress, and HPA dysregulation occurs in stress-related psychopathology. It is important to understand the mechanisms that modulate HPA output; yet, few studies have addressed the neural circuitry associated with HPA regulation in primates and humans. Using high-resolution [F-18]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in rhesus monkeys, we assessed the relation between individual differences in brain activity and HPA function across multiple contexts that varied in stressfulness. Methods Using a logical AND conjunctions analysis, we assessed cortisol and brain metabolic activity with FDG-PET in 35 adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to two threat and two home-cage conditions. To test the robustness of our findings, we used similar methods in an archival data set. In this data set, brain metabolic activity and cortisol were assessed in 17 adolescent male rhesus monkeys that were exposed to three different stress-related contexts. Results Results from the two studies, revealed that subgenual PFC metabolism (Area 25/24) consistently predicted individual differences in plasma cortisol concentrations regardless of the context in which brain activity and cortisol were assessed. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation in subgenual PFC may be related to HPA output across a variety of contexts (including familiar settings and novel or threatening situations). Individuals prone to elevated subgenual PFC activity across multiple contexts may be individuals who consistently show heightened cortisol, and may be at risk for stress-related HPA dysregulation. PMID:19846063

  7. Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

  8. Pornography and Teenagers: The Importance of Individual Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Malamuth; Mark Huppin

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of exposure to pornography on teenagers, particularly males, concentrating on sexually aggressive outcomes and on the characteristics of the individual as crucial in determining whether pornography consumption may or may not lead to sexually aggressive outcomes. The term ''pornography'' refers to sexually explicit media that primarily is intended to arouse the viewer sexually. Pornography

  9. Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E; Leonard, Christiana M

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009; Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, Towler, et al., 2009; Welcome et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioural classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individual differences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralisation profiles. These findings generalised to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard participant variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. A total of 17 participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioural profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterise such individuals. PMID:22385144

  10. Motivation Towards Closure and Cognitive Resources: An Individual Differences Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma?gorzata Kossowska; Edward Orehek; Arie W. Kruglanski

    \\u000a Motivation and cognitive ability represent two basic determinants of information processing, influencing the ability to learn\\u000a new knowledge and to carry out judgment and decision making tasks. However, cognitive and motivational influences on the results\\u000a of information processing and performance are usually studied separately. On the one hand, numerous studies have investigated\\u000a the role of cognitive-intellectual abilities in predicting individual

  11. October 28, 2009 Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    October 28, 2009 · Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism and treatment response Peter on the nature of individual differences and diagnostic subgroups in autism. His research findings help parents and professionals understand how executive functions and temperament contribute to individual differences in autism

  12. Individual differences in infant fearfulness and cognitive performance: a testing, performance, or competence effect?

    PubMed

    Rieser-Danner, Loretta A

    2003-02-01

    The author conducted 2 studies to examine the relations between infant fear and cognitive testing performance in 12-month-old infants. In Study 1, fear was assessed by using 2 standard temperament questionnaires and a laboratory-based, standardized stranger approach. Individual differences in cognitive development were assessed using the Object Permanence Scale of the Infant Psychological Development Scales (I. C. Uzgiris & J. M. Hunt, 1975). All 3 assessments of fear significantly predicted object permanence performance, with correlations ranging from -.32 to -.35. In Study 2, fear was assessed via a maternal report questionnaire, and habituation performance was assessed via a basic-level categorization task. Familiarity with the examiner and with the testing environment was manipulated to test for a familiarity influence on performance. Testing revealed individual differences in both fear and habituation. Results suggest that highly fearful infants required more trials to habituate and were less likely to meet the habituation criterion than infants who were less fearful. Methodological and conceptual implications of these results are discussed. PMID:12895010

  13. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity, RS) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high as compared to low (HRS vs. LRS) individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or non-social stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  14. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2013-08-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity [RS]) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high compared to low individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or nonsocial stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  15. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul G

    2012-06-23

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission-fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive 'chur' calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation-discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  16. Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission–fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive ‘chur’ calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation–discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

  17. Subcortical representation of musical dyads: individual differences and neural generators.

    PubMed

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    When two notes are played simultaneously they form a musical dyad. The sensation of pleasantness, or "consonance", of a dyad is likely driven by the harmonic relation of the frequency components of the combined spectrum of the two notes. Previous work has demonstrated a relation between individual preference for consonant over dissonant dyads, and the strength of neural temporal coding of the harmonicity of consonant relative to dissonant dyads as measured using the electrophysiological "frequency-following response" (FFR). However, this work also demonstrated that both these variables correlate strongly with musical experience. The current study was designed to determine whether the relation between consonance preference and neural temporal coding is maintained when controlling for musical experience. The results demonstrate that strength of neural coding of harmonicity is predictive of individual preference for consonance even for non-musicians. An additional purpose of the current study was to assess the cochlear generation site of the FFR to low-frequency dyads. By comparing the reduction in FFR strength when high-pass masking noise was added to the output of a model of the auditory periphery, the results provide evidence for the FFR to low-frequency dyads resulting in part from basal cochlear generators. PMID:25636498

  18. Personal Problem Solving: A Descriptive Study of Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined differences between students who perceived themselves as "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers. Results revealed "successful" and "unsuccessful" problem solvers differed in number of problems acknowledged, on self-report ratings about the personal problem solving process, and on ratings made by interviewers on several cognitive…

  19. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal. PMID:22083654

  20. Child sexual abuse myths: attitudes, beliefs, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-11-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced 119 child sexual abuse myths, some with overlapping themes. Coders grouped myths into four categories: (a) minimizations or exaggerations of the extent of harm child sexual abuse poses, (b) denials of the extent of child sexual abuse, (c) diffusions of perpetrator blame, and (d) perpetrator stereotypes. This review provides available data regarding the prevalence for these myths, empirical research that refutes or confirms myth categories, and considerations of cultural contexts and implications. PMID:21113832

  1. Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

  2. Shallow Semantic Processing of Text: An Individual-Differences Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda; Daneman, Meredyth

    2004-01-01

    We used Barton and Sanford's (1993) anomaly detection task to investigate text processing differences between skilled and less-skilled readers. The results of 2 experiments showed that many readers had the tendency to process text in a shallow or incomplete manner, frequently failing to detect anomalous nouns or noun phrases (NPs) in text such as…

  3. Individual Differences in Substance Preference and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Kumar, V. K.; Angelini, Frank; Pekala, Ronald J.; Porter, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Using H. J. Eysenck's (1957,1967) theory of temperament, this study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, and personality among incarcerated inmates. Analysis indicated a general preference for marijuana and alcohol over 8 other commonly used drugs across different personality types. Theoretical and clinical implications are…

  4. Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

    2011-01-01

    Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students on…

  5. Socioeconomic gradients predict individual differences in neurocognitive abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly G. Noble; Bruce D. McCandliss; Martha J. Farah

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with childhood cognitive achievement. In previous research we found that this asso- ciation shows neural specificity; specifically we found that groups of low and middle SES children differed disproportionately in perisylvian\\/language and prefrontal\\/executive abilities relative to other neurocognitive abilities. Here we address several new questions: To what extent does this disparity between groups reflect a

  6. Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

  7. Individual and Sex Differences in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, S. Alvin; Harmon, Lenore W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined zone of acceptable alternatives construct from Gottfredson's theory of career aspiration. College students' (N=246) responses to Occupations List were coded with measurements of sex type and prestige, and indicators of zone of acceptable alternatives for subjects' were computed. Found changes over time and differences related to gender…

  8. Individual Differences in Verbal and Nonverbal Fluency Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickman, David L.

    According to A. R. Luria (1973) the cerebral organization of mental activity can be understood through analyzing how mental activity is altered in different local brain lesions. Recent brain function research has used this approach in locating areas of the brain involved in specific processes. This study recognized the importance of this method…

  9. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  10. A novel standard food model to analyze the individual parameters of human mastication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Slavicek; M. Soykher; H. Gruber; P. Siegl; M. Oxtoby

    2009-01-01

    Summary  INTRODUCTION: The aim of this project was to develop a standard food model, which can be used not only in experimental settings,\\u000a but also in clinical diagnosis. On the basis of the findings of a systematic literature search, an elastic food model was\\u000a created with the aim of standardizing the size and the elastic properties. Three different eatable jellied products

  11. Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children’s computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills. PMID:21170171

  12. Estimating pairwise relatedness between individuals with different levels of ploidy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Ritland, Kermit; Guo, Songtao; Dunn, Derek W; Chen, Dan; Ren, Yi; Qi, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Pei; He, Gang; Li, Baoguo

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of relatedness coefficients, based on genetic marker data, are often necessary for studies of genetics and ecology. Whilst many estimates based on method-of-moment or maximum-likelihood methods exist for diploid organisms, no such estimators exist for organisms with multiple ploidy levels, which occur in some insect and plant species. Here, we extend five estimators to account for different levels of ploidy: one relatedness coefficient estimator, three coefficients of coancestry estimators and one maximum-likelihood estimator. We use arrhenotoky (when unfertilized eggs develop into haploid males) as an example in evaluations of estimator performance by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, three virtual sex-determination systems are simulated to evaluate their performances for higher levels of ploidy. Additionally, we used two real data sets to test the robustness of these estimators under actual conditions. We make available a software package, PolyRelatedness, for other researchers to apply to organisms that have various levels of ploidy. PMID:25453904

  13. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  14. Individual differences in aging: behavioral and neurobiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A L; Stone, W S; Ingram, D K; Reynolds, J; Gold, P E; Conti, L H; Pontecorvo, M J; Wenk, G L; Olton, D S

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this experiment was to determine the correlations among different behavioral and neurobiological measures in aged rats. Aged Sprague-Dawley rats were given a battery of cognitive and sensorimotor tests, followed by electrophysiological assessment of sleep and biochemical measurements of various neurotransmitter systems. The behavioral tests included the following: Activity level in an open field; short-term and long-term memory of a spatial environment as assessed by habituation: spatial navigation, discrimination reversal, and cue learning in the Morris water pool; spatial memory in a T-maze motivated by escape from water; spatial memory and reversal on the Barnes circular platform task; passive avoidance; motor skills. Sleep was assessed by electrographic cortical records. The following neurotransmitter markers were examined: Choline acetyltransferase; the density of nicotinic, benzodiazepine and glutamine receptors in the cortex and caudate nucleus; endogenous levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in the cortex and hippocampus. The duration of bouts of paradoxical sleep was strongly correlated with several cognitive measures and selected serotonergic markers. This finding suggests that changes in sleep patterns and brain biochemistry contribute directly to deficits in learning and memory, or that the same neurobiological defect contributes to age-related impairments in sleep and in learning and memory. PMID:2569170

  15. Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals. PMID:23983983

  16. Mechanisms of impulsive choice: I. Individual differences in interval timing and reward processing.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew T; Smith, Aaron P; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    Impulsive choice behavior incorporates the psychological mechanisms involved in the processing of the anticipated magnitude and delay until reward. The goal of the present experiment was to determine whether individual differences in such processes related to individual differences in impulsive choice behavior. Two groups of rats (Delay Group and Magnitude Group) were initially exposed to an impulsive choice task with choices between smaller-sooner (SS) and larger-later (LL) rewards. The Delay Group was subsequently exposed to a temporal discrimination task followed by a progressive interval task, whereas the Magnitude Group was exposed to a reward magnitude sensitivity task followed by a progressive ratio task. Intertask correlations revealed that the rats in the Delay Group that made more self-controlled (LL) choices also displayed lower standard deviations in the temporal bisection task and greater delay tolerance in the progressive interval task. Impulsive choice behavior in the Magnitude Group did not display any substantial correlations with the reward magnitude sensitivity and progressive ratio tasks. The results indicate the importance of core timing processes in impulsive choice behavior, and encourage further research examining the effects of changes in core timing processes on impulsive choice. PMID:24965705

  17. Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

  18. Optical fiber power measurement using different transfer standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nan; Gan, Haiyong; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhixin; Li, Jian

    2014-11-01

    A comparison of different transfer standard optical fiber power detectors is present. Traceable to cryogenic radiometer, these planar, focus-planar and trap detectors have different characteristics during the optical fiber power values transfer because of the different input angles or fiber connectors. For different types of fibers and fiber connectors, a new trap detector is capable for the optical fiber power measurement, which has very little sensitivity for a variety of input conditions. Comparison of fiber power measurement using a planar and a trap detector is present by employing a three-lens method. A good agreement between the two types of detectors shows the feasibility of fiber power transfer using planar detectors.

  19. Finding a common ordination for several data sets by individual differences scaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jari Oksanen; Pertti Huttunen

    1989-01-01

    Individual differences scaling is a multidimensional scaling method for finding a common ordination for several data sets. An individual ordination for each data set can then be derived from the common ordination by adjusting the axis lengths so as to maximize the correlations between observed proximities and individual ordination distances. The importance of the various axes for each data set

  20. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

  1. Factors underlying individual differences in the color matches of normal observers.

    PubMed

    Webster, M A; MacLeod, D I

    1988-10-01

    We have used a factor analysis of the Stiles-Burch [Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959)] 10 degrees field color matches to examine the basis of individual differences in the color matches made by observers with normal color vision. The differences in the matches are primarily due to interobserver variations in the macular-pigment density [with a standard deviation (sigma) of 0.12 at 460 nm]; the lens-pigment density (sigma = 0.18 at 400 nm); the spectral position of the long-wavelength-sensitive (sigma = 50.3 cm-1), medium-wavelength sensitive (sigma = 31.9 cm-1), and short-wavelength-sensitive (sigma = 45.3 cm-1) photopigments; the covarying densities of the three photopigments (sigma = 0.045); and the degree of rod intrusion. Variations in the different factors appear to be uncorrelated. Comparable estimates of the sources and range of interobserver differences in color matching were obtained from a similar analysis of the Stiles-Burch 2 degrees color matches [Opt. Acta 2, 168 (1955)]. PMID:3204435

  2. Strong personalities, not social niches, drive individual differences in social behaviours in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for consistent individual differences in behaviour is a recent challenge for behavioural ecology. Although theory is rapidly developing in this area, there are few empirical tests. There are at least two hypotheses to explain why individuals behave differently from one another in a dynamic social environment. The social niche specialization hypothesis proposes that repeated social interactions generate consistent individual differences in social behaviour. The behavioural type hypothesis proposes that an individual’s social behaviour reflects its behavioural type. We tested these two hypotheses by manipulating the opportunity for repeated social interactions in groups of three spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and by measuring the behavioural types of the same individuals in three contexts: when in a novel environment, when presented with an opportunity to associate with conspecifics and when confronted by an intruder. We found no evidence that repeated social interactions increased between-individual variation in social foraging behaviour. Instead, individuals’ social foraging behaviour was related to their behavioural type, specifically their shoaling behaviour. In addition, the behavioural types of the members of a group strongly influenced a group’s average foraging behaviour. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that social dynamics within groups generates individual differences in behaviour. Instead, they suggest the reverse: individual differences in behaviour drive group-level dynamics. PMID:25076789

  3. Individual Differences in Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity are Associated with

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Individual Differences in Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity are Associated differences in amygdala activation in re- sponse to negative relative to neutral information are related information were associated with increased left and right amygdala activation. In the prefrontal cortex

  4. Sustained performance under overload: personality and individual differences in stress and coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Matthews; Sian E. Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Individuals differ considerably in their vulnerability to task-induced stress, in part because of individual differences in cognitions of task demands. This study investigated the personality and cognitive factors that may control stress vulnerability, using a ‘rapid information processing’ task that was configured to overload attention. Stress response was assessed using the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (Matthews, G. et al., 2002.

  5. Cognitive, Perceptual-Speed, and Psychomotor Determinants of Individual Differences During Skill Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Ackerman; Anna T. Cianciolo

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe a series of experiments that explore 3 major ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition in the context of prior theory (e.g., P. L. Ackerman, 1988) and subsequent empirical and theoretical research. Experiment 1 assessed the predictability of individual differences in asymptotic skill levels on the Kanfer–Ackerman Air Traffic Controller (ATC) task. Experiment 2 provided an

  6. On the Neural Mechanisms Underlying Developmental and Individual Differences in Visual Fixation in Infancy: Two Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, John

    1995-01-01

    Examines the potential contribution of different neural systems to developmental change in the duration of visual fixation, and the individual differences in that variable that are predictive of subsequent cognitive function. Presents hypotheses concerning two specific and independent neural systems and how they might contribute to individual and…

  7. Does Computer-Assisted Instruction Reduce Individual Differences? Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August

    The interrelationship of computer assisted instruction and individual differences was investigated. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Bloom's hypothesis of decreasing individual differences under a mastery-learning strategy, and (2) the random walk interpretation of simplicial correlation matrices. Stanford's Computer-Assisted Instruction Math…

  8. Individual Differences in Mediators and Reactions to a Personal Safety Threat Message

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michèle M. Schlehofer; Suzanne C. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in processing information about a personal threat message about bisphenol A (BPA) risk were examined using the threat orientation model (Thompson & Schlehofer, 2008). Adults (N = 448) read a risk message concerning BPA in plastics. Threat orientations, intentions to protect oneself from BPA risk, and emotional and cognitive reactions to the message were measured. Individuals with different approaches to

  9. Individual Differences in Category Learning: Sometimes Less Working Memory Capacity Is Better than More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCaro, Mari S.; Thomas, Robin D.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether individual differences in working memory influence the facility with which individuals learn new categories. Participants learned two different types of category structures: "rule-based" and "information-integration." Successful learning of the former category structure is thought to be based on explicit hypothesis testing that…

  10. Individual differences in SA measurement and performance in human-robot teaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schuster; Joseph R. Keebler; Jorge Zuniga; Florian Jentsch

    2012-01-01

    In human-robot teams, robots with a high degree of autonomy and intelligence may be able to coordinate with humans and contribute to, rather than tax, SA. We investigated team member SA and individual differences as potential performance metrics. Results indicated a relationship between the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and individual differences, but only the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART)

  11. Individual differences in the real-time comprehension of children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Venker, Courtney E; Eernisse, Elizabeth R; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate deficits in language comprehension, but little is known about how they process spoken language as it unfolds. Real-time lexical comprehension is associated with language and cognition in children without ASD, suggesting that this may also be the case for children with ASD. This study adopted an individual differences approach to characterizing real-time comprehension of familiar words in a group of 34 three- to six-year-olds with ASD. The looking-while-listening paradigm was employed; it measures online accuracy and latency through language-mediated eye movements and has limited task demands. On average, children demonstrated comprehension of the familiar words, but considerable variability emerged. Children with better accuracy were faster to process the familiar words. In combination, processing speed and comprehension on a standardized language assessment explained 63% of the variance in online accuracy. Online accuracy was not correlated with autism severity or maternal education, and nonverbal cognition did not explain unique variance. Notably, online accuracy at age 5½ was related to vocabulary comprehension 3 years earlier. The words typically learned earliest in life were processed most quickly. Consistent with a dimensional view of language abilities, these findings point to similarities in patterns of language acquisition in typically developing children and those with ASD. Overall, our results emphasize the value of examining individual differences in real-time language comprehension in this population. We propose that the looking-while-listening paradigm is a sensitive and valuable methodological tool that can be applied across many areas of autism research. PMID:23696214

  12. Inter-Individual Differences in the Oral Bacteriome Are Greater than Intra-Day Fluctuations in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Natsuko; Ye, Bin; Yamada, Takuji; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nagasaki, Masao; Tsuboi, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Given the advent of massively parallel DNA sequencing, human microbiome is analyzed comprehensively by metagenomic approaches. However, the inter- and intra-individual variability and stability of the human microbiome remain poorly characterized, particularly at the intra-day level. This issue is of crucial importance for studies examining the effects of microbiome on human health. Here, we focused on bacteriome of oral plaques, for which repeated, time-controlled sampling is feasible. Eighty-one supragingival plaque subjects were collected from healthy individuals, examining multiple sites within the mouth at three time points (forenoon, evening, and night) over the course of 3 days. Bacterial composition was estimated by 16S rRNA sequencing and species-level profiling, resulting in identification of a total of 162 known bacterial species. We found that species compositions and their relative abundances were similar within individuals, and not between sampling time or tooth type. This suggests that species-level oral bacterial composition differs significantly between individuals, although the number of subjects is limited and the intra-individual variation also occurs. The majority of detected bacterial species (98.2%; 159/162), however, did not fluctuate over the course of the day, implying a largely stable oral microbiome on an intra-day time scale. In fact, the stability of this data set enabled us to estimate potential interactions between rare bacteria, with 40 co-occurrences supported by the existing literature. In summary, the present study provides a valuable basis for studies of the human microbiome, with significant implications in terms of biological and clinical outcomes. PMID:26121551

  13. Individual differences in self-attributed motives for tipping: Antecedents, consequences, and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Lynn

    2009-01-01

    A web-based survey of consumers finds that: (i) individual differences in self-attributed motives for tipping load on two factors – intrinsic and self-presentational motives,(ii) more people claim to tip for intrinsic reasons than for self-presentational reasons, (iii) demographic differences in motives for tipping are small, (iv) individual differences in self-attributed motives for tipping are rooted in more general dispositional tendencies

  14. Neuropsychological test profile differences between young and old human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ned Sacktor; Richard Skolasky; Ola A. Selnes; Michael Watters; Pamela Poff; Bruce Shiramizu; Cecilia Shikuma; Victor Valcour

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia remains as an important cause of neurological morbidity among HIV-seropositive\\u000a (HIV+) individuals. Differences in the neuropsychological profiles between older and younger HIV+ individuals have not been\\u000a examined extensively. The objective of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test performance between old and young\\u000a HIV+ individuals (a) with and without cognitive impairment (total cohort) and

  15. Individual Differences in Anterior Cingulate\\/Paracingulate Morphology Are Related to Executive Functions in Healthy Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Fornito; Murat Yücel; Stephen Wood; Geoffrey W. Stuart; Jo-Anne Buchanan; Tina Proffitt; Vicki Anderson; Dennis Velakoulis; Christos Pantelis

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological correlates of inter-individual variations in cortical folding are poorly understood. Anterior cingulate (AC) cortex is one region characterized by considerable variability, particularly with respect to the paracingulate sulcus (PCS), which is present in only 30-60% of individuals and more commonly found in the left cerebral hemisphere. To investigate whether inter-individual differ- ences in this PCS asymmetry are related

  16. Do individuals with autism spectrum disorder process own- and other-race faces differently?

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Feng, Cong; Li, Jiao; Ding, Haiyan; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process human faces in atypical ways according to previous literature. We investigated whether individuals with ASD can process face race information and respond to own- and other-race faces differentially. Chinese individuals with ASD (n=24), typically developing (TD) individuals (n=28), and individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, n=26) were asked to recognize Chinese and Caucasian faces in an old-new face paradigm using eye tracking. In terms of recognition, the ASD and ID groups did not perform differently and displayed superior own-race recognition compared with other-race faces; TD participants displayed similar recognition of the two types of faces. In terms of eye tracking, the TD, ASD, and ID groups displayed more looking on the eyes and less looking on the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces relative to Chinese faces. Overall, individuals with ASD manifested a behavioral other-race effect and displayed the same type of cross-racial differentiation in face scanning observed in TD individuals. The findings suggest that as is the case with TD individuals, face processing of individuals with ASD is influenced by differences in visual experience with different face categories. PMID:25542277

  17. FUNCTION OPTIMIZATION BY USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS WITH INDIVIDUALS HAVING DIFFERENT BIRTH AND SURVIVAL RATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. MAK; Y. S. WONG

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective approach to function optimisation using the concept of genetic algorithms. The proposed approach differs from the canonical genetic algorithm in that the populations of candidate solutions consist of individuals from various age-groups, and each individual is incorporated with an age attribute to enable its birth and survival rates to be governed by predefined aging patterns.

  18. Sentence Processing in Context: The Impact of Experience on Individual Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Farmer; Morten H. Christiansen; Karen A. Kemtes

    There exists considerable variation, at the level of the individual, in human sentence processing performance. Here, we aim to illuminate the degree to which experience with language can account for these individual differences. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that subtle interactions between specific verbs and preceding linguistic context can drive reading times on complex sentences, but only in participants with

  19. Individual differences in general intelligence correlate with brain function during nonreasoning tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Haier; Nathan S. White; Michael T. Alkire

    2003-01-01

    Brain imaging can help identify the functional neuroanatomy of general intelligence (i.e., “g”) and indicate how brain areas salient to g relate to information processing. An important question is whether individual differences in g among subjects are related to brain function even when nonreasoning tasks are studied. If so, this would imply that individuals with high g scores may process

  20. Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

  1. Making a Difference: Using Peers To Assess Individual Students' Contributions to a Group Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Winnie; Warren, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated a peer assessment procedure to factor in the contributions of individual group members engaged in an integrated group project. Findings demonstrated that the method resulted in a substantially wider spread of marks being given to individual students; about one-third received a grade different from the grade the project as a whole would…

  2. Trait-like differences in underlying oscillatory state predict individual differences in the TMS-evoked response

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Bornali; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) can provide insights into how differing cognitive contexts produce different brain states, through TMS-based measures of effective connectivity. For instance, in a recent study, the amplitude of the TMS-evoked response (TMS-ER) derived during the delay-period of a spatial short-term memory (STM) task had a larger amplitude, and greater spread to distal cortical areas, than the TMS-ER from a fixation condition [1]. This indicated that the brain's electrical response to TMS is influenced by the cognitive context (STM or fixation) at the time of stimulation. This study also showed significant individual differences in the shape of the TMS-ER. Further, delay-period spectrograms revealed patterns of activity, the sustained pattern of delay-period activity (SPDPA), which were different across individuals. Objective/Hypothesis The present study addressed whether individual differences in the SPDPA predict spectral properties of the TMS-ER. We predicted that significant relationships would exist in task-relevant areas, such as the prefrontal cortex in the case of STM. Methods The TMS-ER was derived using TMS-EEG and source-localization methods. Results The SPDPA varied significantly across subjects, and these differences predicted individual differences in several frequency-dependent parameters of the TMS-ER that were specific to task-relevant areas, including prefrontal cortex for STM. Furthermore, a follow-up test-retest study revealed that the SPDPA was stable over sessions. Conclusions These observations offer a window into how individual differences in the effects of TMS are related to trait-like individual differences in physiological profile. PMID:24472620

  3. 12 CFR 615.5351 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual institution minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...individual institution minimum capital ratios. 615.5351 Section 615.5351 ...OPERATIONS Establishment of Minimum Capital Ratios for an Individual Institution § 615...individual institution minimum capital ratios. The appropriate minimum...

  4. How Studies of Wild and Captive Dolphins Contribute to our Understanding of Individual Differences and Personality

    E-print Network

    Highfill, Lauren E.; Kuczaj II, Stan A.

    2010-01-01

    individuals. Knowledge of personality types can also aid inthe presence of different personality types within a dolphintypes of relationships into which a dolphin enters likely reflects the dolphin’s personality.

  5. Anatomical, gender, and physiological differences in prolactin secretion from individual pituitary cells of chickens 

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Marisol Emma

    1995-01-01

    differences in PRL secretion using the reverse hemolytic plaque assay, which measures hormone secretion at the level of individual cells. We report that increased PRL secretion due to gender (females greater than males), anatomic distribution (cephalic...

  6. Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David W DeGroot (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology)

    2006-12-01

    Journal article "Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects", from the Journal of Applied Physiology, by David W. Degroot, W. Larry Kenny, and George Havenith.

  7. Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria When by NIH, the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has announced first genomic compilation of the generalized infectious disease research previously impossible without this community resource." The human body contains

  8. Three-Mode Models and Individual Differences in Semantic Differential Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Takashi; Kroonenberg, Pieter M.

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrated how individual differences in semantic differential data can be modeled and assessed using three-mode models by studying the characterization of Chopin's "Preludes" by 38 Japanese college students. (SLD)

  9. TMFA: A FORTRAN Program for Three-Mode Factor Analysis and Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Joel

    1978-01-01

    TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)

  10. Quantification of Hordeins by ELISA: The Correct Standard Makes a Magnitude of Difference

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Gregory J.; Blundell, Malcolm J.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Howitt, Crispin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coeliacs require a life-long gluten-free diet supported by accurate measurement of gluten (hordein) in gluten-free food. The gluten-free food industry, with a value in excess of $6 billion in 2011, currently depends on two ELISA protocols calibrated against standards that may not be representative of the sample being assayed. Aim The factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA analysis of hordeins in beer were examined. Results A simple alcohol-dithiothreitol extraction protocol successfully extracts the majority of hordeins from barley flour and malt. Primary hordein standards were purified by FPLC. ELISA detected different classes of purified hordeins with vastly different sensitivity. The dissociation constant (Kd) for a given ELISA reaction with different hordeins varied by three orders of magnitude. The Kd of the same hordein determined by ELISA using different antibodies varied by up to two orders of magnitude. The choice of either ELISA kit or hordein standard may bias the results and confound interpretation. Conclusions Accurate determination of hordein requires that the hordein standard used to calibrate the ELISA reaction be identical in composition to the hordeins present in the test substance. In practice it is not feasible to isolate a representative hordein standard from each test food. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes which may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. PMID:23509607

  11. Individual Differences in Social, Cognitive, and Morphological Aspects of Infant Pointing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liszkowski, Ulf; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the origins of the pointing gesture. We sought to gain insight into its emergence by investigating individual differences in the pointing of 12-month-old infants in two ways. First, we looked at differences in the communicative and interactional uses of pointing and asked how different hand shapes relate to point frequency,…

  12. The influence of sex differences and individual task performance on brain activation during planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Unterrainer; C. C. Ruff; B. Rahm; C. P. Kaller; J. Spreer; R. Schwarzwald; U. Halsband

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to identify the neuronal basis of sex differences in cognition. However, group differences in cognitive ability rather than genuine neurocognitive differences between the sexes may account for their results. Here, we compare with functional magnetic resonance imaging the relation between gender, individual task performance, and planning-related brain activation. Men and women preselected to display identical performance

  13. Are Some Negotiators Better Than Others? Individual Differences in Bargaining Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Curhan, Jared R.; Eisenkraft, Noah; Shirako, Aiwa; Baccaro, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the long-standing mystery of stable individual differences in negotiation performance, on which intuition and conventional wisdom have clashed with inconsistent empirical findings. The present study used the Social Relations Model to examine individual differences directly via consistency in performance across multiple negotiations and to disentangle the roles of both parties within these inherently dyadic interactions. Individual differences explained a substantial 46% of objective performance and 19% of subjective performance in a mixed-motive bargaining exercise. Previous work may have understated the influence of individual differences because conventional research designs require specific traits to be identified and measured. Exploratory analyses of a battery of traits revealed few reliable associations with consistent individual differences in objective performance—except for positive beliefs about negotiation, positive affect, and concern for one's outcome, each of which predicted better performance. Findings suggest that the field has large untapped potential to explain substantial individual differences. Limitations, areas for future research, and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21720453

  14. Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Reyna L; Shivers, Carolyn M; Wieland, Elizabeth A; Kotz, Sonja A; Yoder, Paul J; Devin McAuley, J

    2015-07-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness, morpho-syntactic competence, and non-verbal cognitive ability. Rhythm perception accounted for 48% of the variance in morpho-syntactic competence after controlling for non-verbal IQ, socioeconomic status, and prior musical activities. Children with higher phonological awareness scores were better able to discriminate complex rhythms than children with lower scores, but not after controlling for IQ. This study is the first to show a relation between rhythm perception skills and morpho-syntactic production in children with typical language development. These findings extend the literature showing substantial overlap of neurocognitive resources for processing music and language. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://youtu.be/_lO692qHDNg. PMID:25195623

  15. The Academic Diligence Task (ADT): Assessing Individual Differences in Effort on Tedious but Important Schoolwork.

    PubMed

    Galla, Brian M; Plummer, Benjamin D; White, Rachel E; Meketon, David; D'Mello, Sidney K; Duckworth, Angela L

    2014-10-01

    The current study reports on the development and validation of the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), designed to assess the tendency to expend effort on academic tasks which are tedious in the moment but valued in the long-term. In this novel online task, students allocate their time between solving simple math problems (framed as beneficial for problem solving skills) and, alternatively, playing Tetris or watching entertaining videos. Using a large sample of high school seniors (N = 921), the ADT demonstrated convergent validity with self-report ratings of Big Five conscientiousness and its facets, self-control and grit, as well as discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, such as Big Five extraversion, openness, and emotional stability, test anxiety, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect. The ADT also demonstrated incremental predictive validity for objectively measured GPA, standardized math and reading achievement test scores, high school graduation, and college enrollment, over and beyond demographics and intelligence. Collectively, findings suggest the feasibility of online behavioral measures to assess noncognitive individual differences that predict academic outcomes. PMID:25258470

  16. Individual Differences in Newborn Visual Attention Associate with Temperament and Behavioral Difficulties in Later Childhood.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Kostas A; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H; Smith, Tim J; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was shown that individual differences in attention style in infants are associated with childhood effortful control, surgency, and hyperactivity-inattention. Here we investigated whether effortful control, surgency and behavioral problems in childhood can be predicted even earlier, from individual differences in newborns' average duration of gaze to stimuli. Eighty newborns participated in visual preference and habituation studies. Parents completed questionnaires at follow up (mean age?=?7.5 years, SD?=?1.0 year). Newborns' average dwell time was negatively associated with childhood surgency (??=?-.25, R(2)?=?.04, p?=?.02) and total behavioral difficulties (??=?-.28, R(2)?=?.05, p?=?.04) but not with effortful control (??=?.03, R(2)?=?.001, p?=?.76). Individual differences in newborn visual attention significantly associated with individual variation in childhood surgency and behavioral problems, showing that some of the factors responsible for this variation are present at birth. PMID:26110979

  17. Individual Differences in Newborn Visual Attention Associate with Temperament and Behavioral Difficulties in Later Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Kostas A.; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.; Smith, Tim J.; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was shown that individual differences in attention style in infants are associated with childhood effortful control, surgency, and hyperactivity-inattention. Here we investigated whether effortful control, surgency and behavioral problems in childhood can be predicted even earlier, from individual differences in newborns’ average duration of gaze to stimuli. Eighty newborns participated in visual preference and habituation studies. Parents completed questionnaires at follow up (mean age?=?7.5 years, SD?=?1.0 year). Newborns’ average dwell time was negatively associated with childhood surgency (??=??.25, R2?=?.04, p?=?.02) and total behavioral difficulties (??=??.28, R2?=?.05, p?=?.04) but not with effortful control (??=?.03, R2?=?.001, p?=?.76). Individual differences in newborn visual attention significantly associated with individual variation in childhood surgency and behavioral problems, showing that some of the factors responsible for this variation are present at birth. PMID:26110979

  18. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  19. Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

    2010-01-01

    Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

  20. Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Effective behavioral management plans are tailored to unique behavioral patterns of each individual species. However, even within a species behavioral needs of individuals can vary. Factors such as age, sex, and temperament can affect behavioral needs of individuals. While some of these factors, such as age and sex, are taken into account, other factors, such as an individual’s temperament, are rarely specifically provided for in behavioral management plans. However, temperament may affect how animals respond to socialization, positive reinforcement training and other forms of enrichment. This review will examine how individual differences in temperament might affect, or be affected by, behavioral management practices for captive primates. Measuring temperament may help us predict outcome of social introductions. It can also predict which animals may be difficult to train using traditional methods. Further, knowledge of temperament may be able to help identify individuals at risk for development of behavioral problems. Taken together, understanding individual differences in temperament of captive primates can help guide behavioral management decisions. PMID:22518067

  1. Individual differences in moral development: the relation of sex, gender, and personality to morality.

    PubMed

    Lifton, P D

    1985-06-01

    Individual differences in moral development are examined, with a particular emphasis on sex and gender differences. This examination includes an extensive review of the empirical and theoretical literature in psychology on morality. Based on this review, it is concluded that sex differences occur with less frequency and with a less systematic favoring of males than is predicted by several theories of moral development. In addition, a study is presented which considers the relation of sex, gender, and personality to morality. Two age cohort samples, college sophomores (n = 169) and adults (n = 151), were assessed with the moral judgment scale of the cognitive-developmental model (Kohlberg, 1984) and a newly developed moral character template of the personological model (Lifton, in press). Participants also completed the CPI and MMPI personality inventories. Results of the study indicate (1) the absence of sex differences for either model, (2) the presence of gender differences favoring masculine persons for the cognitive-developmental but not personological model, and (3) that individual differences in moral development parallel individual differences in personality development. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to Gilligan's (1982) claim that men and women differ in their moral orientations. Finally, it is argued that an individual difference approach, particularly one that emphasizes personality, would prove useful for future research on moral development. PMID:4045680

  2. Standardization Versus Adaptation in Global Markets: Is Channel Strategy Different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boryana Dimitrova; Bert Rosenbloom

    2010-01-01

    The argument over standardization versus adaptation of marketing strategy in international markets has raged for several decades. This argument has generally taken place at the aggregate level to include all four strategic areas of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place) taken together. This article disaggregates the standardization-versus-adaptation argument by focusing on just one strategic area of the marketing

  3. Interpreting the Results of Three Different Standard Setting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Trimble, C. Scott; Lewis, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the procedures by which Kentucky's state assessment program synthesized results from three standard setting procedures (Contrasting Groups, Bookmark, and Jaeger-Mills) for the 2000 state assessment. Shows the value of using multiple standard-setting approaches to gather information from each. (SLD)

  4. Linking Neurogenetics and Individual Differences in Language Learning: The Dopamine Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals’ genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between dopamine-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

  5. Individual Differences in Odor Imaging Ability Reflect Differences in Olfactory and Emotional Perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bensafi; C. Rouby

    2007-01-01

    We asked whether the large variability in odor imaging ability is underlain by interindividual differences in the processing of smells and emotion. Olfactory imaging ability, anhedonia level, and odor perception were measured in 40 subjects, using the Vividness of Olfactory Imagery Questionnaire (VOIQ), the Physical Anhedonia Scale, and the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities. ''Good'' olfactory imagers, defined primarily on

  6. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  7. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism Associates with Individual Differences in Sleep

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    baseline REM sleep latency. The genotypes, however, did not differ in performance across various executiveCatechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism Associates with Individual Differences in Sleep Physiologic Responses to Chronic Sleep Loss Namni Goel1 *, Siobhan Banks1¤ , Ling Lin2 , Emmanuel Mignot2

  8. PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES All in the Mind's Eye? Anger Rumination and Reappraisal

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES All in the Mind's Eye? Anger Rumination University Research on rumination has demonstrated that compared with distraction, rumination intensifies and prolongs negative emotion. However, rumination and distraction differ both in what one thinks about and how

  9. Differences in Dropout Rates Among Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy Clients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria V. Masi; Richard B. Miller; Michael M. Olson

    2003-01-01

    The premature dropout of clients from therapy is an inefficient expenditure of mental health resources. This study examined differences in dropout rates among individual, couple, and family therapy clients. Data came from archived records at a marriage and family therapy clinic at a university in the United States. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in dropout rates, despite

  10. Individual Differences in the Onset of Tense Marking: A Growth-Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at…

  11. Exploring the Dynamic System of TCFL: Individual Differences, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Henghua

    2012-01-01

    In the setting of TCFL, this dissertation is an exploration of the dynamic development of individual differences and the learning and instruction environment. Major research studies done on motivation and learning strategies are reviewed. The motivation research in foreign language learning is introduced from three different perspectives in…

  12. The Development of Children's Moral Sensibility: Individual Differences and Emotion Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developmental changes and individual differences in children's conceptions of transgression were studied in 46 children from preschool through 1st grade. Differences in response to moral transgressions in kindergarten were related to mothers' control management and to siblings' friendly behavior in the preschool period, early understanding of…

  13. Journal of Comparative Psychology Evidence for Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    , Rattus norvegicus Becca Franks, E. Tory Higgins, and Frances A. Champagne Online First Publication, March 5). Evidence for Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus in Rats, Rattus norvegicus. Journal Differences in Regulatory Focus in Rats, Rattus norvegicus Becca Franks, E. Tory Higgins, and Frances A

  14. Individual Differences in Early Adolescents' Beliefs in the Legitimacy of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Emily S.; Laird, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents differ in the extent to which they believe that parents have legitimate authority to impose rules restricting adolescents' behavior. The purpose of the current study was to test predictors of individual differences in legitimacy beliefs during the middle school years. Annually, during the summers following Grades 5, 6, and 7, early…

  15. Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

    2013-01-01

    Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

  16. Routine cognitive errors: A trait-like predictor of individual differences in anxiety and distress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam K. Fetterman; Michael D. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Five studies (N=361) sought to model a class of errors—namely, those in routine tasks—that several literatures have suggested may predispose individuals to higher levels of emotional distress. Individual differences in error frequency were assessed in choice reaction-time tasks of a routine cognitive type. In Study 1, it was found that tendencies toward error in such tasks exhibit trait-like stability over

  17. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  18. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation. PMID:25862996

  19. Examining the linguistic coding differences hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Sparks, R L

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed. PMID:24234194

  20. An approach to test for individual differences in the effects of situations without using moderator variables

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Donna D.; Shoda, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of situations may vary importantly across people. If the relevant individual difference variables are known, moderation analyses can test for this possibility. But what if the moderators are not measured or are unknown? We demonstrated how a Highly-Repeated Within-Person (HRWP) design can be used to answer this question, by examining the effect of support seekers’ expressions of distress separately for each participant. Although on average, participants’ willingness to provide social support increased as a function of support seekers’ levels of distress, the opposite was true for some participants; their willingness to provide support significantly decreased as support seekers’ expressed distress increased. These findings underscore the importance of examining reliable individual differences in the effects of situations, and show that this is possible without first identifying and measuring individual difference variables that moderate the situation effects. Furthermore, the HRWP design prevents stimulus sampling problems and substantially increases statistical power. PMID:24550572

  1. Individual differences in working memory capacity are reflected in different ERP and EEG patterns to task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shanshan; Reder, Lynne M; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Yuqiu; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-08-01

    This study examined whether there are neural markers of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and whether these differences are only manifest when performing a demanding WM task or at all levels of difficulty. Each subject's WM capacity was estimated using a modified digit span task prior to participation in an N-back task that varied difficulty from 1- to 4-back. While performing the N-back task, subjects wore scalp electrodes that allowed measurement of both event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related synchronization and desynchronization (ERS/ERD). Those subjects classified as low WM were more affected by the higher cognitive demands (many more errors in the 4-back task and generally slower responses) than those classified as high WM. These behavioral differences between the two groups were also apparent in the neural markers. Specifically, low WM subjects, when compared with high WM subjects, produced smaller P300 amplitudes and theta ERS, as well as greater alpha ERD at the most difficult level. Importantly, the observed differences in electrophysiological responses between the two groups were also observed at the lowest difficulty level, not just when the task challenged WM capacity. In addition, P300 amplitudes and alpha ERD responses were found to correlate with individual WM capacities independent of the task difficulty. These results suggest that there are qualitative neural differences among individuals with different WM capacities when approaching cognitive operations. Individuals with high WM capacities may make more efficient use of neural resources to keep their attention focused on the task-relevant information when performing cognitive tasks. PMID:25976774

  2. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  3. A Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Standard Versus Enhanced Risk Reduction and Adherence Counseling for Individuals Receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Following Sexual Exposures to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Neilands, Torsten B.; Krone, Melissa R.; Coates, Thomas J.; Franses, Karena; Chesney, Margaret A.; Kahn, James S.; Martin, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Background.?The National HIV/AIDS Strategy proposes to scale-up post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Intensive risk reduction and adherence counseling appear to be effective but are resource intensive. Identifying simpler interventions that maximize the HIV prevention potential of PEP is critical. Methods.?A randomized noninferiority study comparing 2 (standard) or 5 (enhanced) risk reduction counseling sessions was performed. Adherence counseling was provided in the enhanced arm. We measured changes in unprotected sexual intercourse acts at 12 months, compared with baseline; HIV acquisition; and PEP adherence. Outcomes were stratified by degree of baseline risk. Results.?We enrolled 457 individuals reporting unprotected intercourse within 72 h with an HIV-infected or at-risk partner. Participants were 96% male and 71% white. There were 1.8 and 2.3 fewer unprotected sex acts in the standard and enhanced groups. The maximum potential risk difference, reflected by the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval, was 3.9 acts. The difference in the riskier subset may have been as many as 19.6 acts. The incidence of HIV seroconversion was 2.9% and 2.6% among persons randomized to standard and enhanced counseling, respectively, with a maximum potential difference of 3.4%. The absolute and maximal HIV seroconversion incidence was 9.9% and 20.4% greater in the riskier group randomized to standard, compared with enhanced, counseling. Adherence outcomes were similar, with noninferiority in the lower risk group and concerning differences among the higher-risk group. Conclusions.?Risk assessment is critical at PEP initiation. Standard counseling is only noninferior for individuals with lower baseline risk; thus, enhanced counseling should be targeted to individuals at higher risk. PMID:21653307

  4. Individual differences in highly skilled visual perceptual-motor striking skill.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sean; Brenton, John; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Harbaugh, Allen G; Reid, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Expertise studies into visual perceptual-motor skills have mainly focused their investigation upon group comparisons rather than individual comparisons. This study investigated the pick-up of visual information to time weight transfer and bat kinematics within an exemplar group of striking sport experts using an in situ temporal occlusion paradigm. Highly skilled cricket batsmen faced bowlers and attempted to strike delivered balls, whilst their vision was either temporally occluded through occlusion glasses prior to ball bounce or not occluded (control condition). A chronometric analysis was conducted on trials in the occlusion condition to quantify the pick-up of visual information to time biomechanical variables. Results indicated that initiation of weight transfer and bat downswing, as well as bat downswing completion, was significantly different between some individual batsmen. No significant difference was found between individual batsmen for time of weight transfer completion. Unexpectedly, it was found that achievement of the goal to strike delivered balls, that is, the frequency of bat-ball contacts was not significantly different between batsmen. Collectively, the findings indicate that individual differences exist in the coordination pattern of a complex whole body visual perceptual-motor skill, but these different patterns are used to achieve a similar outcome, which is known as motor equivalence. PMID:25813740

  5. Individual Differences in Auditory Sentence Comprehension in Children: An Exploratory Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children’s receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical responses. Fourteen children, 10 to 16 years old, participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a cross modal sentence-picture verification paradigm. We manipulated sentence difficulty and length in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Task-related activation covered large regions of the left and right superior temporal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, precuneous, cingulate, middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus. Sentence difficulty, independent of length, led to increased activation in the left temporal-parietal junction and right superior temporal gyrus. Changes in activation in frontal regions positively correlated with age-standardized receptive vocabulary scores and negatively correlated with reaction time on a receptive grammar test outside the scanner. Thus, individual differences in language skills were associated with changes in the network in response to changing task demands. These preliminary findings in a small sample of typically developing children suggest that the investigation of individual differences may prove useful in elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms of language disorders in children. PMID:20053431

  6. Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer

    PubMed Central

    Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality. PMID:18522909

  7. Standardized Patient Encounters and Individual Case-Based Simulations Improve Students' Confidence and Promote Reflection: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy; Weidner, Thomas; Armstrong, Kirk J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Simulations and standardized patient (SP) encounters are used to provide clinical experiences for students. In athletic training, no research has examined the perceived educational benefits of these interventions. Objective: To explore athletic training students' perceptions regarding small group SP encounters and individual case-based…

  8. Individual topographic variability is inherent to cortical physiology but task-related differences may be noise.

    PubMed

    Basile, Luis F H; Sato, João R; Pasquini, Henrique A; Lozano, Mirna D; Nucci, Mariana P; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Ramos, Renato T; Anghina, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The observation of highly variable sets of association neocortical areas across individuals, containing the estimated generators of Slow Potentials (SPs) and beta oscillations, lead to the persistence in individual analyses. This brought to notice an unexpected within individual topographic similarity between task conditions, despite our original interest in task-related differences. A recent related work explored the quantification of the similarity in beta topography between largely differing tasks. In this article, we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the decomposition of beta activity from a visual attention task, and compared it with quiet resting, recorded by 128-channel EEG in 62 subjects. We statistically tested whether each ICA component obtained in one condition could be explained by a linear regression model based on the topographic patterns from the other condition, in each individual. Results were coherent with the previous report, showing a high topographic similarity between conditions. From an average of 12 beta component maps obtained for each task, over 80% were satisfactorily explained by the complementary task. Once more, the component maps including those considered unexplained, putatively "task-specific", had their scalp distribution and estimated cortical sources highly variable across subjects. These findings are discussed along with other studies based on individual data and the present fMRI results, reinforcing the increasingly accepted view that individual variability in sets of active neocortical association areas is not noise, but intrinsic to cortical physiology. Actual 'noise', mainly stemming from group "brain averaging" and the emphasis on statistical differences as opposed to similarities, may explain the overall hardship in replication of the vast literature on supposed task-specific forms of activity, and the ever inconclusive status of a universal functional mapping of cortical association areas. A new hypothesis, that individuals may use the same idiosyncratic sets of areas, at least by their fraction of activity in the sub-delta and beta range, in various non-sensory-motor forms of conscious activities, is a corollary of the discussed variability. PMID:26010428

  9. Individual Topographic Variability Is Inherent to Cortical Physiology but Task-Related Differences May Be Noise

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Luis F. H.; Sato, João R.; Pasquini, Henrique A.; Lozano, Mirna D.; Nucci, Mariana P.; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Ramos, Renato T.; Anghina, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The observation of highly variable sets of association neocortical areas across individuals, containing the estimated generators of Slow Potentials (SPs) and beta oscillations, lead to the persistence in individual analyses. This brought to notice an unexpected within individual topographic similarity between task conditions, despite our original interest in task-related differences. A recent related work explored the quantification of the similarity in beta topography between largely differing tasks. In this article, we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the decomposition of beta activity from a visual attention task, and compared it with quiet resting, recorded by 128-channel EEG in 62 subjects. We statistically tested whether each ICA component obtained in one condition could be explained by a linear regression model based on the topographic patterns from the other condition, in each individual. Results were coherent with the previous report, showing a high topographic similarity between conditions. From an average of 12 beta component maps obtained for each task, over 80% were satisfactorily explained by the complementary task. Once more, the component maps including those considered unexplained, putatively “task-specific”, had their scalp distribution and estimated cortical sources highly variable across subjects. These findings are discussed along with other studies based on individual data and the present fMRI results, reinforcing the increasingly accepted view that individual variability in sets of active neocortical association areas is not noise, but intrinsic to cortical physiology. Actual ‘noise’, mainly stemming from group “brain averaging” and the emphasis on statistical differences as opposed to similarities, may explain the overall hardship in replication of the vast literature on supposed task-specific forms of activity, and the ever inconclusive status of a universal functional mapping of cortical association areas. A new hypothesis, that individuals may use the same idiosyncratic sets of areas, at least by their fraction of activity in the sub-delta and beta range, in various non-sensory-motor forms of conscious activities, is a corollary of the discussed variability. PMID:26010428

  10. What Is the Primary Cause of Individual Differences in Contrast Sensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of early visual processing is the detection of luminance variations, often termed image contrast. Normal observers can differ in this ability by at least a factor of 4, yet this variation is typically overlooked, and has never been convincingly explained. This study uses two techniques to investigate the main source of individual variations in contrast sensitivity. First, a noise masking experiment assessed whether differences were due to the observer’s internal noise, or the efficiency with which they extracted information from the stimulus. Second, contrast discrimination functions from 18 previous studies were compared (pairwise, within studies) using a computational model to determine whether differences were due to internal noise or the low level gain properties of contrast transduction. Taken together, the evidence points to differences in contrast gain as being responsible for the majority of individual variation across the normal population. This result is compared with related findings in attention and amblyopia. PMID:23922732

  11. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  12. Individual differences in children's writing: A function of working memory or reading or both processes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lee Swanson; Virginia W. Berninger

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a general or specific working memory (WM) system is related to writing and whether individual differences in reading and\\/or processing efficiency underlie the correlations between WM and writing. Two studies correlated WM with writing (Test of Written Language-TOWL) and reading measures. In Study 1, WM was correlated significantly with a number

  13. A New ERP Paradigm for Studying Individual Differences in the Executive Control of Attention

    E-print Network

    Knight, Robert T.

    A New ERP Paradigm for Studying Individual Differences in the Executive Control of Attention Administration Research Service, 150 Muir Road, Martinez, CA 94553, USA Abstract Event-related potentials (ERPs- tion and working memory. Most ERP studies employ cognitive para- digms with a fixed task-set (i

  14. Individual differences in the nonverbal communication of affect: The diagnostic analysis of nonverbal accuracy scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Nowicki Jr; Marshall P. Duke

    1994-01-01

    The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA) was designed to measure individual differences in the accurate sending and receiving of nonverbal social information. The DANVA consists of four receptive and three expressive subtests that measure nonverbal processing accuracy in children from 6 to 10 years of age. Four propositions were offered to guide the gathering of construct validity data for

  15. Instructional Strategies and Individual Differences: a Selective Review and Summary of Literature. Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    A selective review of literature related to individual differences and instructional strategies is presented. The major purpose is to give the reader a flavor of the kind of thought that is currently prevalent and the type of research that is being conducted in selected areas. No attempt is made to provide either a comprehensive or a balanced…

  16. A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

  17. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  18. The Relationship Between Individual Differences in Learner Creativity and Language Learning Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Istvan

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for, and end results of, a small-scale study of the effects of learners' creativity on language learning. The study was part of an ongoing, larger-scale project on individual differences at Eotvos University in Budapest, Hungary. (Author/VWL)

  19. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  20. Individual Differences in Dispositional Pessimism, Stress, and Coping as a Function of Task Type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E. Thropp; James L. Szalma; Jennifer M. Ross; Peter A. Hancock

    2003-01-01

    Individual differences in dispositional pessimism and choice of coping strategy on performance and stress, in target detection were investigated. The results were consistent with prior research indicating that higher levels of pessimism were associated with higher levels of stress and less effective coping strategies. Similarly, pessimism predicted emotion focused coping only in tasks with spatial uncertainty. There was evidence that

  1. Optimal distinctiveness, values, and uncertainty orientation: Individual differences on perceptions of self and group identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Sorrentino; Clive Seligman; Michael E. Battista

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether predictions made by optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991) could be moderated by individual differences in uncertainty orientation, and whether optimal distinctiveness has implications for how people perceive their values relative to comparison groups. It was hypothesized that certainty-oriented persons, compared to uncertainty-oriented ones, should place greater importance on and see themselves as more similar in

  2. Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Reply to O'Sullivan (2008) and Pigott and Wu (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

    2008-01-01

    C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individual differences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…

  3. The Role of Some Individual Differences in Understanding Chemical Changes: A Study in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypraios, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    In this study, students' understanding of chemical changes was investigated in relation to four individual differences, related to logical thinking, field dependence/independence, convergence and divergence thinking. The study took place in Greece with the participation of students (n = 374) from three grades (8th, 10th and 12th grades) of…

  4. Individual and Sex Differences in the Consequences of Victimization: Moderation by Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to…

  5. Systematic individual differences in sleep homeostatic and circadian rhythm contributions to neurobehavioral impairment

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Systematic individual differences in sleep homeostatic and circadian rhythm contributions to neurobehavioral impairment during sleep deprivation Hans P.A. Van Dongena,*, Amy M. Bendera, and David F. Dingesb@mail.med.upenn.edu aSleep and Performance Research Center, Washington State University Spokane, PO Box 1495,Spokane, WA

  6. Patterns of HIV1 Evolution in Individuals with Differing Rates of CD4 T Cell Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Markham; Wei-Cinn Wang; Anton E. Weisstein; Zhe Wang; Alvaro Munoz; Alan Templeton; Joseph Margolick; David Vlahov; Thomas Quinn; Homayoon Farzadegan; Xiao-Fang Yu

    1998-01-01

    Evolution of HIV-1 env sequences was studied in 15 seroconverting injection drug users selected for differences in the extent of CD4 T cell decline. The rates of increase of either sequence diversity at a given visit or divergence from the first seropositive visit were both higher in progressors than in non-progressors. Viral evolution in individuals with rapid or moderate disease

  7. Coping in Stressful Episodes: The Role of Individual Differences, Environmental Factors, and Situational Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine R. Parkes

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical models emphasize the importance of person and environmental variables in stress and coping processes. This article examines individual differences (extraversion and neuroticism), environmental factors (social support and work demand), and situational characteristics (type of stressful episode and its perceived importance) as predictors of three self-report measures of coping (general coping, direct coping, and suppression) derived from the Ways of

  8. Individual Differences in Mathematical Competence Modulate Brain Responses to Arithmetic Errors: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individual differences in mathematical…

  9. Individual Differences in Pseudohomophony Effect Relates to Auditory Categorical Perception Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, David; Luque, Juan L.; Lopez-Zamora, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in the quality of phonological representations, measured by a categorical perception task (CP), are related with the use of phonological information in a lexical decision pseudohomophone task. In addition, the lexical frequency of the stimuli was manipulated. The sample consisted of…

  10. Structural covariance networks of the dorsal anterior insula predict females' individual differences in empathic responding.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have shown key roles of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) in empathy for the suffering of others. The current study mapped structural covariance networks of these regions and assessed the relationship between networks and individual differences in empathic responding in 94 females. Individual differences in empathy were assessed through average state measures in response to a video task showing others' suffering, and through questionnaire-based trait measures of empathic concern. Overall, covariance patterns indicated that dAI and aMCC are principal hubs within prefrontal, temporolimbic, and midline structural covariance networks. Importantly, participants with high empathy state ratings showed increased covariance of dAI, but not aMCC, to prefrontal and limbic brain regions. This relationship was specific for empathy and could not be explained by individual differences in negative affect ratings. Regarding questionnaire-based empathic trait measures, we observed a similar, albeit weaker modulation of dAI covariance, confirming the robustness of our findings. Our analysis, thus, provides novel evidence for a specific contribution of frontolimbic structural covariance networks to individual differences in social emotions beyond negative affect. PMID:23535178

  11. Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

  12. Discussion of Papers Presented in the Symposium on Individual Differences in Infancy: Reliability, Stability and Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Frances Degen

    Discussed are methodological aspects of three symposium papers on process approaches to individual differences in infancy. Fagan's (1987) research is viewed as an important contribution to the growing literature that demonstrates that process measures, that is, information processing behaviors, may provide a useful reflection of early to later…

  13. Individual differences in implicit theories of relationships and partner fit: Predicting forgiveness in developing relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeni L. Burnette; Renae Franiuk

    2010-01-01

    Extending past research on implicit theories of relationships (ITRs), we investigated how the role played by partner fit in predicting forgiveness varies as a function of individual differences in beliefs about the nature of relationships. We focused on developing relationships (MDuration=2months) to examine our proposed hypothesis that strong soulmate theorists, relative to weak soulmate theorists, rely heavily on information about

  14. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  15. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  16. The Role of Individual Differences in a Study Abroad Experience: The Case of Erasmus Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels; Tragant, Elsa; Serrano, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which a study abroad (SA) experience has an effect on the L2 written and oral performance of a group of Spanish undergraduates, studying English as a second language (L2) in a university in the UK. This article also examines the role that individual differences, such as the participants' motivation, attitudes,…

  17. Multimedia Learning: Cognitive Individual Differences and Display Design Techniques Predict Transfer Learning with Multimedia Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individual differences and display design manipulations on…

  18. Multimedia Learning and Individual Differences: Mediating the Effects of Working Memory Capacity with Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…

  19. Individual Differences in Valence Modulation of Face-Selective M170 Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shruti Japee; Laura Crocker; Frederick Carver; Luiz Pessoa; Leslie G. Ungerleider

    2009-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography was used to examine the effect of individual differences on the temporal dynamics of emotional face processing by grouping subjects based on their ability to detect masked valence-laden stimuli. Receiver operating characteristic curves and a nonparametric sensitivity measure were used to categorize subjects into those that could and could not reliably detect briefly presented fearful faces that were backward-masked

  20. The Inventory of Children's Individual Differences: Development and Validation of a Short Version

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Deal; Charles F. Halverson Jr; Roy P. Martin; James Victor; Spencer Baker

    2007-01-01

    As more researchers utilize the Five-factor model (FFM) of personality with children and adolescents, the need for instruments designed specifically for use with children and adolescents increases. In the United States, the 108-item Inventory of Children's Individual Differences (ICID; Halverson et al., 2003), has provided researchers with an age and culture neutral instrument designed specifically to assess the FFM of

  1. Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: A cluster analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Chiarello; Suzanne E. Welcome; Christiana M. Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain–behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009;

  2. Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: A cluster analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Chiarello; Suzanne E. Welcome; Christiana M. Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain–behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009;

  3. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

  4. Individual differences and implicit language: personality, parts-of-speech and pervasiveness

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    , such as personality traits, like Extraversion and Neuroti- cism. Extraversion is a trait strongly related, but not for Extraversion. We discuss possible ways of resolving the issue. Background Two personality traits ExtraversionIndividual differences and implicit language: personality, parts-of-speech and pervasiveness Jon

  5. A Formative Analysis of Individual Differences in the Effectiveness of Learning Objects in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the effectiveness of learning objects in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, gender, age, grade, subject area, and computer comfort (self-efficacy) were examined in 850 students. Effectiveness was measured in terms of student attitude (learning, quality, and engagement) and…

  6. Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…

  7. Strategies, Heuristics, and Adaptive Decision Making: New Evidence from an Individual Differences and Process Tracing Approach.

    E-print Network

    Cokely, Edward T.

    Strategies, Heuristics, and Adaptive Decision Making: New Evidence from an Individual Differences are the mechanisms (e.g. strategies, heuristics) that give rise to efficient and adaptive judgment and decision. Abilities and Adaptive Decision Making People do not always behave rationally. To a significant extent

  8. The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this model.…

  9. Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  10. Language Learning Disability and Individual Differences: Can We See between the Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Elaine R.

    2010-01-01

    In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individual differences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of learning…

  11. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  12. Language Experience Interviews: What Can They Tell Us about Individual Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    While language learners and teachers have long known that individual differences (IDs) among students result in differential learning, we still do not know how traditional ID variables interact or the specific impact each one has on language learning. The present study proposes that instead of looking at isolated variables, researchers should…

  13. The Importance of Managing Interference for Second Language Reading Ability: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamasaki, Brianna L.; Prat, Chantel S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on individual differences in second language (L2) reading ability has primarily focused on factors known to contribute to first language (L1) reading ability, with little consideration of factors mediating interference between languages. In an exploratory analysis, we compared the degree to which the linguistic interference that readers…

  14. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

    2007-01-01

    Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…

  15. Parameterising ecological validity and integrating individual differences within second-person neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2013-08-01

    This commentary situates the second person account within a broader framework of ecological validity for experimental paradigms in social cognitive neuroscience. It then considers how individual differences at psychological and genetic levels can be integrated within the proposed framework. PMID:23883743

  16. Individual differences in speed of mental processing and human cognitive abilities: Toward a taxonomic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D Roberts; Lazar Stankov

    1999-01-01

    Extensive research within the field of learning and individual differences focuses upon the relationship between general intelligence and process measures derived from elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs). This emphasis has ignored data indicating that cognitive abilities are best described by three levels (or strata). It has also been suggested that mental speed is a unitary construct, although it is more likely

  17. Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis formation are associated with individual differences in behavior of inbred Lewis rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enikö Sajti; Annemieke Kavelaars; Nico van Meeteren; Marc Teunis; Willem Hendrik Gispen; Cobi Heijnen

    2004-01-01

    There are large individual differences in cancer progression and it has been suggested that behavioral and psychological characteristics of cancer patients may contribute to the course of the disease. To get more insight in the contribution of behavioral characteristics to cancer progression, we investigated in rats, whether a stable behavioral trait characteristic is associated with NK cell activity, tumor angiogenesis,

  18. Scientific and Social Significance of Assessing Individual Differences: “Sinking Shafts at a Few Critical Points”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lubinski

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, per- sonality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of

  19. Large-scale analysis of individual and task differences in search result page examination strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Buscher; Ryen W. White; Susan T. Dumais; Jeff Huang

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of individual and task differences on search result page examination strategies is important in developing improved search engines. Characterizing these effects using query and click data alone is common but insufficient since they provide an incomplete picture of result examination behavior. Cursor- or gaze-tracking studies reveal richer interaction patterns but are often done in small-scale laboratory settings.

  20. Efficiency Under Record Performance Demands: Exertion Control—An Individual Difference Variable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Heckhausen; Hanno Strang

    1988-01-01

    Semiprofessional players ran basketball circuits under either normal or record performance demands. Lactate concentration and heart rate were measured as indexes of exertion. Number of dribbling errors, attempted shots, hits, and hit rate served as measures of performance and efficiency. Several individual difference measures were taken in order to identify those athletes who were capable of moderating the extent of

  1. The Influence of Individual Differences on Diagrammatic Communication and Problem Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the user and customizing the interface to augment cognition and usability are goals of human computer interaction research and design. Yet, little is known about the influence of individual visual-verbal information presentation preferences on visual navigation and screen element usage. If consistent differences in visual navigation…

  2. Individual Differences in Self-Efficacy Development: The Effects of Goal Orientation and Affectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Megan W.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of the individual differences of goal orientation and affectivity on self-efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive…

  3. Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

  4. Studying Individual Differences in Predictability With Gamma Regression and Nonlinear Multilevel Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Andrew Culpepper

    2010-01-01

    Statistical prediction remains an important tool for decisions in a variety of disciplines. An equally important issue is identifying factors that contribute to more or less accurate predictions. The time series literature includes well developed methods for studying predictability and volatility over time. This article develops distribution-appropriate methods for studying individual differences in predictability for settings in psychological research. Specifically,

  5. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  6. Individual Differences in Handedness and Specific Speech and Language Impairment: Evidence Against a Genetic Link

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. M. Bishop

    2001-01-01

    Data from two twin studies were used to address two related questions. First, is there any association between handedness and specific speech and language impairment (SSLI) in children? Second, is there genetic influence on individual differences in handedness and, if so, are the same genes implicated in the cause of SSLI? The first study used data from 58 MZ and

  7. Individual Differences in Handedness and Specific Speech and Language Impairment: Evidence Against a Genetic Link

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. M. Bishop

    2001-01-01

    Data from two twin studies were used to address two related questions. First, is there any asso- ciation between handedness and specific speech and language impairment (SSLI) in children? Second, is there genetic influence on individual differences in handedness and, if so, are the same genes implicated in the cause of SSLI? The first study used data from 58 MZ

  8. Sex and boldness explain individual differences in spatial learning in a lizard

    PubMed Central

    Carazo, Pau; Noble, Daniel W. A.; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding individual differences in cognitive performance is a major challenge to animal behaviour and cognition studies. We used the Eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii) to examine associations between exploration, boldness and individual variability in spatial learning, a dimension of lizard cognition with important bearing on fitness. We show that males perform better than females in a biologically relevant spatial learning task. This is the first evidence for sex differences in learning in a reptile, and we argue that it is probably owing to sex-specific selective pressures that may be widespread in lizards. Across the sexes, we found a clear association between boldness after a simulated predatory attack and the probability of learning the spatial task. In contrast to previous studies, we found a nonlinear association between boldness and learning: both ‘bold’ and ‘shy’ behavioural types were more successful learners than intermediate males. Our results do not fit with recent predictions suggesting that individual differences in learning may be linked with behavioural types via high–low-risk/reward trade-offs. We suggest the possibility that differences in spatial cognitive performance may arise in lizards as a consequence of the distinct environmental variability and complexity experienced by individuals as a result of their sex and social tactics. PMID:24619443

  9. The Multifold Relationship between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo; Hansson, Patrik; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory,…

  10. Individual Differences in Discriminatory Fear Learning under Conditions of Ambiguity: A Vulnerability Factor for Anxiety Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Boddez, Yannick; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing conditioned stimulus (CS) and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Stress (DASS-S), but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as GAD. PMID:23755030

  11. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English…

  12. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  13. Personality traits and individual differences predict threat-induced changes in postural control.

    PubMed

    Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L

    2015-04-01

    This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary. PMID:25687665

  14. Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Ilmarinen, R; Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Mäkinen, H

    1995-01-01

    Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with SCBA (total mass 25.9 kg) on maximal physical work performance, and to evaluate the relationship between individual characteristics and power output with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The subjects were 12 healthy firemen aged 26-46 years. The range of their body mass, body fat and maximal oxygen consumption was 69-101 kg, 10-20% and 2.70-5.86 l.min-1, respectively. The maximal tests without (control) and with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA were carried out on a treadmill in a thermoneutral environment. When compared to the control test, the decrease in the maximal power output in terms of maximal working time and walking speed averaged 25% (P < 0.001) varying from 18% to 34% with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. At maximum, no significant differences were found in pulmonary ventilation, absolute oxygen consumption, the respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, the rate-pressure product, mechanical efficiency, and the rating of perceived exertion between the tests with and without the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The reduction of the power output was related to the extra mass of the fire protective clothing and SCBA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7588692

  15. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase

    PubMed Central

    Sletten, Tracey L.; Segal, Ahuva Y.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01), greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001), and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022) were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual’s circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation. PMID:26043207

  16. The role of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertisements and individual differences in getting people to talk to physicians.

    PubMed

    Krezmien, Elyse; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2011-09-01

    In this study, 384 respondents provided quantitative and descriptive information about direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements and factors related to message reception and drug adoption. The authors applied M. Booth-Butterfield's ( 2008 ) Standard Model to explain how DTC advertising is used in getting individuals to talk to their doctors about pharmaceutical drugs. The researchers predicted that individuals who talked with their physicians about a pharmaceutical drug (referred to as talkers) would differ from those who did not talk with their physicians (referred to as nontalkers) in a number of meaningful ways. Findings from this data set indicate that individuals who talked with their physician about a specific medication were more likely to be female, older, higher in need for cognition, and reported higher physician satisfaction. Total number of channels (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet) was negatively associated with talking to a physician about a specific medication, as was exposure to DTC advertisement on television. The authors offer explanations for these findings along with descriptive accounts of how talkers and nontalkers differed in their recall of DTC advertisement information. PMID:21512934

  17. Individual differences in working memory capacity predict action monitoring and the error-related negativity.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Eve; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2012-05-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in interference-rich contexts, it is unclear whether corresponding differences exist in neural responses that arise out of the ACC. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an electrophysiological study using a variant of the Simon Task, recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in healthy normal individuals with varying working memory capacity (high vs. low spans; a behavioral proxy for variability in goal maintenance). Primary analyses focused on the magnitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), a response-locked ERP component associated with the commission of errors thought to arise because of action monitoring in the ACC. Our results revealed that frontally mediated working memory capacity may alter error monitoring by the ACC, with high spans showing a greater ERN than low spans. These individual differences were also observed in the posterror positivity, a response-locked ERP component associated with updating cognitive strategies, suggesting greater awareness of errors with increased working memory capacity. These results are interpreted within 2-process models of attentional control, suggesting individuals with greater working memory capacity may better maintain task goals by more strongly biasing neural activity in frontal-executive networks. PMID:22250911

  18. Function in the Human Connectome: Task-fMRI and Individual Differences in Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Harms, Michael P.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Glasser, Matthew F.; Curtiss, Sandra; Dixit, Sachin; Feldt, Cindy; Nolan, Dan; Bryant, Edward; Hartley, Tucker; Footer, Owen; Bjork, James M.; Poldrack, Russ; Smith, Steve; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to delineate the typical patterns of structural and functional connectivity in the healthy adult human brain. However, we know that there are important individual differences in such patterns of connectivity, with evidence that this variability is associated with alterations in important cognitive and behavioral variables that affect real world function. The HCP data will be a critical stepping-off point for future studies that will examine how variation in human structural and functional connectivity play a role in adult and pediatric neurological and psychiatric disorders that account for a huge amount of public health resources. Thus, the HCP is collecting behavioral measures of a range of motor, sensory, cognitive and emotional processes that will delineate a core set of functions relevant to understanding the relationship between brain connectivity and human behavior. In addition, the HCP is using task-fMRI (tfMRI) to help delineate the relationships between individual differences in the neurobiological substrates of mental processing and both functional and structural connectivity, as well as to help characterize and validate the connectivity analyses to be conducted on the structural and functional connectivity data. This paper describes the logic and rationale behind the development of the behavioral, individual difference, and tfMRI batteries and provides preliminary data on the patterns of activation associated with each of the fMRI tasks, at both a group and individual level. PMID:23684877

  19. Mind the gap: glucocorticoids modulate hippocampal glutamate tone underlying individual differences in stress susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Nasca, Carla; Bigio, Benedetta; Zelli, Danielle; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Why do some individuals succumb to stress and develop debilitating psychiatric disorders, whereas others adapt well in the face of adversity? There is a gap in understanding the neural bases of individual differences in the responses to environmental factors on brain development and functions. Here, using a novel approach for screening an inbred population of laboratory animals, we identified two sub-populations of mice: susceptible mice that show mood-related abnormalities compared to resilient mice, which cope better with stress. This approach combined with molecular and behavioral analyses, led us to recognize, in hippocampus, presynaptic mGlu2 receptors, which inhibit glutamate release, as a stress sensitive marker of individual differences to stress-induced mood disorders. Indeed genetic mGlu2 deletion in mice results in a more severe susceptibility to stress, mimicking the susceptible mouse sub-population. Furthermore, we describe an underlying mechanism by which glucocorticoids, acting via mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), decrease resilience to stress via down regulation of mGlu2 receptors. We also provide a mechanistic link between MR and an epigenetic control of the glutamatergic synapse that underlies susceptibility to stressful experiences. The approach and the epigenetic allostasis concept introduced here serve as a model for identifying individual differences based upon biomarkers and underlying mechanisms and also provide molecular features that may be useful in translation to human behavior and psychopathology. PMID:25178162

  20. The individual within the group: balancing the need to belong with the need to be different.

    PubMed

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Jetten, Jolanda

    2004-01-01

    Many theorists have wrestled with the notion of how people balance their need to be included in social groups with their need to be different and distinctive. This question is particularly salient to researchers from the social identity perspective, who have traditionally viewed individual differentiation within groups as being inimical to group identification. In this article we present a number of strategies that people can use to balance their need to belong and their need to be different, without violating social identity principles. First, drawing from optimal distinctiveness theory, we discuss 4 ways in which the need for belonging and the need to be different can be resolved by maximizing group distinctiveness. We then discuss 4 ways in which it is possible to achieve individual differentiation within a group at the same time demonstrating group identification. These strategies are discussed and integrated with reference to recent empirical research and to the social identity perspective. PMID:15454348

  1. Activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala underlies individual differences in prosocial and individualistic economic choices.

    PubMed

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kimura, Minoru; Frith, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Much decision-making requires balancing benefits to the self with benefits to the group. There are marked individual differences in this balance such that individualists tend to favor themselves whereas prosocials tend to favor the group. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this difference has important implications for society and its institutions. Using behavioral and fMRI data collected during the performance of the ultimatum game, we show that individual differences in social preferences for resource allocation, so-called "social value orientation," is linked with activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala elicited by inequity, rather than activity in insula, ACC, and dorsolateral pFC. Importantly, the presence of cognitive load made prosocials behave more prosocially and individualists more individualistically, suggesting that social value orientation is driven more by intuition than reflection. In parallel, activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in response to inequity, tracked this behavioral pattern of prosocials and individualists. In addition, we conducted an impunity game experiment with different participants where they could not punish unfair behavior and found that the inequity-correlated activity seen in prosocials during the ultimatum game disappeared. This result suggests that the accumbens and amygdala activity of prosocials encodes "outcome-oriented emotion" designed to change situations (i.e., achieve equity or punish). Together, our results suggest a pivotal contribution of the nucleus accumbens and amygdala to individual differences in sociality. PMID:24564471

  2. Standardization of Rates To Adjust for Differences in Enrollment Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    Community colleges must often analyze and report rates for outcomes, such as transfer to four-year colleges. A single, summary rate may be an invalid measure of its achievement in the transfer goal if the summary rate ignores the real difference in enrollment composition at different institutions. California's community colleges embody a very…

  3. Individual Differences in Effectiveness of Cochlear Implants in Children Who Are Prelingually Deaf: New Process Measures of Performance.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, David B; Cleary, Miranda; Geers, Ann E; Tobey, Emily A

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of cochlear implants in children who are deaf has been firmly established in the literature. However, the effectiveness of cochlear implants varies widely and is influenced by demographic and experiential factors. Several key findings suggest new directions for research on central auditory factors that underlie the effectiveness of cochlear implants. First, enormous individual differences have been observed in both adults and children on a wide range of audiological outcome measures. Some patients show large increases in speech perception scores after implantation, whereas others display only modest gains on standardized tests. Second, age of implantation and length of deafness affect all outcome measures. Children implanted at younger ages do better than children implanted at older ages, and children who have been deaf for shorter periods do better than children who have been deaf for longer periods. Third, communication mode affects outcome measures. Children from "oral-only" environments do much better on standardized tests that assess phonological processing skills than children who use Total Communication. Fourth, at the present time there are no preimplant predictors of outcome performance in young children. The underlying perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic abilities and skills emerge after implantation and improve over time. Finally, there are no significant differences in audiological outcome measures among current implant devices or processing strategies. This finding suggests that the major source of variance in outcome measures lies in the neural and cognitive information processing operations that the user applies to the signal provided by the implant. Taken together, this overall pattern of results suggests that higher-level central processes such as perception, attention, learning, and memory may play important roles in explaining the large individual differences observed among users of cochlear implants. Investigations of the content and flow of information in the central nervous system and interactions between sensory input and stored knowledge may provide important new insights into the basis of individual differences. Knowledge about the underlying basis of individual differences may also help in developing new intervention strategies to improve the effectiveness of cochlear implants in children who show relatively poor development of oral/aural language skills. PMID:21666760

  4. Individual Differences in Effectiveness of Cochlear Implants in Children Who Are Prelingually Deaf: New Process Measures of Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, David B.; Cleary, Miranda; Geers, Ann E.; Tobey, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of cochlear implants in children who are deaf has been firmly established in the literature. However, the effectiveness of cochlear implants varies widely and is influenced by demographic and experiential factors. Several key findings suggest new directions for research on central auditory factors that underlie the effectiveness of cochlear implants. First, enormous individual differences have been observed in both adults and children on a wide range of audiological outcome measures. Some patients show large increases in speech perception scores after implantation, whereas others display only modest gains on standardized tests. Second, age of implantation and length of deafness affect all outcome measures. Children implanted at younger ages do better than children implanted at older ages, and children who have been deaf for shorter periods do better than children who have been deaf for longer periods. Third, communication mode affects outcome measures. Children from “oral-only” environments do much better on standardized tests that assess phonological processing skills than children who use Total Communication. Fourth, at the present time there are no preimplant predictors of outcome performance in young children. The underlying perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic abilities and skills emerge after implantation and improve over time. Finally, there are no significant differences in audiological outcome measures among current implant devices or processing strategies. This finding suggests that the major source of variance in outcome measures lies in the neural and cognitive information processing operations that the user applies to the signal provided by the implant. Taken together, this overall pattern of results suggests that higher-level central processes such as perception, attention, learning, and memory may play important roles in explaining the large individual differences observed among users of cochlear implants. Investigations of the content and flow of information in the central nervous system and interactions between sensory input and stored knowledge may provide important new insights into the basis of individual differences. Knowledge about the underlying basis of individual differences may also help in developing new intervention strategies to improve the effectiveness of cochlear implants in children who show relatively poor development of oral/aural language skills. PMID:21666760

  5. Risk, individual differences, and environment: an Agent-Based Modeling approach to sexual risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Nagoski, Emily; Janssen, Erick; Lohrmann, David; Nichols, Eric

    2012-08-01

    Risky sexual behaviors, including the decision to have unprotected sex, result from interactions between individuals and their environment. The current study explored the use of Agent-Based Modeling (ABM)-a methodological approach in which computer-generated artificial societies simulate human sexual networks-to assess the influence of heterogeneity of sexual motivation on the risk of contracting HIV. The models successfully simulated some characteristics of human sexual systems, such as the relationship between individual differences in sexual motivation (sexual excitation and inhibition) and sexual risk, but failed to reproduce the scale-free distribution of number of partners observed in the real world. ABM has the potential to inform intervention strategies that target the interaction between an individual and his or her social environment. PMID:22042161

  6. Toward Understanding Body Image Importance: Individual Differences in a Canadian Sample of Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) andperfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed. PMID:23421695

  7. Individual differences in the influence of task-irrelevant Pavlovian cues on human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) refers to the process of a Pavlovian reward-paired cue acquiring incentive motivational proprieties that drive choices. It represents a crucial phenomenon for understanding cue-controlled behavior, and it has both adaptive and maladaptive implications (i.e., drug-taking). In animals, individual differences in the degree to which such cues bias performance have been identified in two types of individuals that exhibit distinct Conditioned Responses (CR) during Pavlovian conditioning: Sign-Trackers (ST) and Goal-Trackers (GT). Using an appetitive PIT procedure with a monetary reward, the present study investigated, for the first time, the extent to which such individual differences might affect the influence of reward-paired cues in humans. In a first task, participants learned an instrumental response leading to reward; then, in a second task, a visual Pavlovian cue was associated with the same reward; finally, in a third task, PIT was tested by measuring the preference for the reward-paired instrumental response when the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue was presented, in the absence of the reward itself. In ST individuals, but not in GT individuals, reward-related cues biased behavior, resulting in an increased likelihood to perform the instrumental response independently paired with the same reward when presented with the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue, even if the reward itself was no longer available (i.e., stronger PIT effect). This finding has important implications for developing individualized treatment for maladaptive behaviors, such as addiction.

  8. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  9. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  10. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  11. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  12. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards Additional Provisions § 63.343...

  13. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  14. Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct “slots” in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

  15. PS2-21: Using EHR Data to Quantify Within-individual Variability of Standardized Weight Measures for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Olson, Clifford; Luft, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims There is increasing interest in the study of preventive and therapeutic interventions for childhood obesity. Without accounting for baseline variability in children’s weight measures, however, it is difficult to accurately explore the true impact of interventions. We wanted to identify a) what percentage of children and adolescents have large longitudinal within-individual variability in their standardized weight measures and b) groups of individuals with differential growth trajectories over time. Our hypothesis is that a substantial fraction of children have large longitudinal within-individual variability and/or a non-constant growth trajectory. Methods We used a cohort of ~100,000 relatively healthy children and adolescents (2–20 years), seen in large ambulatory care organizations between 2000–2013, who had at least 3 weight measurements recorded longitudinally. The standardized weight measures we used were the weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and the weight-for-age percentile (WAPCT). We quantified the within-individual variability by a) the slope and b) the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of the regression of longitudinal standardized weight measures vs. age. Clusters of growth trajectories were identified using Growth Mixture Models (GMM). The number of clusters was determined by Akaike information criterion and relative cluster size. Results The mean duration of longitudinal follow-up of individuals in our cohort was 4.7 yrs (median 4.2 yrs, IQR 3.9 yrs). Approximately 19% of all children and adolescents had substantial longitudinal within-individual variability (|slope| ? 0.02 and/or RMSE ? 0.35). We identified two clusters within this group: 1) those with an initial relatively constant growth-trajectory (between 2–9 years) and then a slightly upward trend (between 10–20 years), 61% of the total sample and 2) those with an initial upward trend (between 2–9 years) and then downward trend (between 10–20 years) in their growth-trajectory, 39% of the total. Large within-individual variability was identified in 19.5% of children in cluster 1 and 18.7% of children in cluster 2. Conclusions Relatively healthy children and adolescents have large within-individual variability in their standardized weight measures that needs to be considered in study design when weight changes are used as study endpoints. Two subgroups exhibit potentially important growth patterns that warrant investigation.

  16. Attentional control constrains visual short-term memory: Insights from developmental and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Astle, D.E.; Nobre, A.C.; Scerif, G.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which attentional control biases mnemonic representations have attracted much interest but remain poorly understood. As attention and memory develop gradually over childhood and variably across individuals, assessing how participants of different ages and ability attend to mnemonic contents can elucidate their interplay. In Experiment 1, 7-, 10-year-olds and adults were asked to report whether a probe item had been part of a previously presented four-item array. The initial array could either be uncued, preceded (“pre-cued”) or followed (“retro-cued”) by a spatial cue orienting attention to one of the potential item locations. Performance across groups was significantly improved by both cue types and individual differences in children’s retrospective attentional control predicted their visual short-term and working memory span, whereas their basic ability to remember in the absence of cues did not. Experiment 2 imposed a variable delay between the array and the subsequent orienting cue. Cueing benefits were greater in adults compared to 10-year-olds, but they persisted even when cues followed the array by nearly 3 seconds, suggesting that orienting operated on durable short-term representations for both age groups. The findings indicate that there are substantial developmental and individual differences in the ability to control attention to memory and that in turn these differences constrain visual short-term memory capacity. PMID:20680889

  17. Individual Differences and Social Influences on the Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Abused Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, J. L.; Kelly, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of drugs with biologic targets is a critical area of research, particularly for the development of medications to treat substance use disorders. In addition to understanding these drug-target interactions, however, there is a need to understand more fully the psychosocial influences that moderate these interactions. The first section of this review introduces some examples from human behavioral pharmacology that illustrate the clinical importance of this research. The second section covers preclinical evidence to characterize some of the key individual differences that alter drug sensitivity and abuse vulnerability, related primarily to differences in response to novelty and impulsivity. Evidence is presented to indicate that critical neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with these individual differences involve integrated neurocircuits underlying stress, reward, and behavioral inhibitory processes. The third section covers social influences on drug abuse vulnerability, including effects experienced during infancy, adolescence, and young adulthood, such as maternal separation, housing conditions, and social interactions (defeat, play, and social rank). Some of the same neurocircuits involved in individual differences also are altered by social influences, although the precise neurochemical and cellular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated fully. Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. PMID:23343975

  18. A neural trait approach to exploring individual differences in social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kyle; Gianotti, Lorena R. R.; Knoch, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates that social preferences are characterized by significant individual differences. An important question, often overlooked, is from where do these individual differences originate? And what are the processes that underlie such differences? In this paper, we outline the neural trait approach to uncovering sources of individual differences in social preferences, particularly as evidenced in economic games. We focus on two primary methods—resting-state electroencephalography and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—used by researchers to quantify task-independent, brain-based characteristics that are stable over time. We review research that has employed these methods to investigate social preferences with an emphasis on a key psychological process in social decision-making; namely, self-control. We then highlight future opportunities for the neural trait approach in cutting-edge decision-making research. Finally, we explore the debate about self-control in social decision-making and the potential role neural trait research could play in this issue. PMID:25642176

  19. Male great bowerbirds create forced perspective illusions with consistently different individual quality

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Laura A.; Endler, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Males often produce elaborate displays that increase their attractiveness to females, and some species extend their displays to include structures or objects that are not part of their body. Such “extended phenotypes” may communicate information that cannot be transmitted by bodily signals or may provide a more reliable signal than bodily signals. However, it is unclear whether these signals are individually distinct and whether they are consistent over long periods of time. Male bowerbirds construct and decorate bowers that function in mate choice. Bower display courts constructed by male great bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) induce a visual illusion known as forced perspective for the female viewing the male’s display over the court, and the quality of illusion is associated with mating success. We improved the quality of the forced perspective to determine whether males maintained it at the new higher level, decreased the perspective quality back to its original value, or allowed it to decay at random over time. We found that the original perspective quality was actively recovered to individual original values within 3 d. We measured forced perspective over the course of one breeding season and compared the forced perspective of individual males between two successive breeding seasons. We found that differences in the quality of visual illusion among males were consistent within and between two breeding seasons. This suggests that forced perspective is actively and strongly maintained at a different level by each individual male. PMID:23213203

  20. Predicting individual differences in complex skill acquisition: dynamics of ability determinants.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, P L

    1992-10-01

    Substantial controversy exists about ability determinants of individual differences in performance during and subsequent to skill acquisition. This investigation addresses the controversy. An information-processing examination of ability-performance relations during complex task acquisition is described. Included are ability testing (including general, reasoning, spatial, perceptual speed, and perceptual/psychomotor abilities) and skill acquisition over practice on the terminal radar approach controller simulation. Results validate and extend Ackerman's (1988) theory of cognitive ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. Benefits of ability component and task component analyses over global analyses of ability-skill relations are demonstrated. Implications are discussed for selection instruments to predict air traffic controller success and for other tasks with inconsistent information-processing demands. PMID:1429345

  1. Ecological rationality or nested sets? Individual differences in cognitive processing predict Bayesian reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie; Hagmayer, York

    2014-02-01

    The presentation of a Bayesian inference problem in terms of natural frequencies rather than probabilities has been shown to enhance performance. The effect of individual differences in cognitive processing on Bayesian reasoning has rarely been studied, despite enabling us to test process-oriented variants of the two main accounts of the facilitative effect of natural frequencies: The ecological rationality account (ERA), which postulates an evolutionarily shaped ease of natural frequency automatic processing, and the nested sets account (NSA), which posits analytical processing of nested sets. In two experiments, we found that cognitive reflection abilities predicted normative performance equally well in tasks featuring whole and arbitrarily parsed objects (Experiment 1) and that cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions (analytical vs. intuitive) predicted performance with single-event probabilities, as well as natural frequencies (Experiment 2). Since these individual differences indicate that analytical processing improves Bayesian reasoning, our findings provide stronger support for the NSA than for the ERA. PMID:23794254

  2. On emotionally intelligent time travel: individual differences in affective forecasting ability.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth W; Brackett, Marc A; Ashton-James, Claire; Schneiderman, Elyse; Salovey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In two studies, the authors examined whether people who are high in emotional intelligence (EI) make more accurate forecasts about their own affective responses to future events. All participants completed a performance measure of EI (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) as well as a self-report measure of EI. Affective forecasting ability was assessed using a longitudinal design in which participants were asked to predict how they would feel and report their actual feelings following three events in three different domains: politics and academics (Study 1) and sports (Study 2). Across these events, individual differences in forecasting ability were predicted by participants' scores on the performance measure, but not the self-report measure, of EI; high-EI individuals exhibited greater affective forecasting accuracy. Emotion Management, a subcomponent of EI, emerged as the strongest predictor of forecasting ability. PMID:17178932

  3. Feature Extraction for Mental Fatigue and Relaxation States Based on Systematic Evaluation Considering Individual Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lanlan; Sugi, Takenao; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Feature extraction for mental fatigue and relaxation states is helpful to understand the mechanisms of mental fatigue and search effective relaxation technique in sustained work environments. Experiment data of human states are often affected by external and internal factors, which increase the difficulties to extract common features. The aim of this study is to explore appropriate methods to eliminate individual difference and enhance common features. Mental fatigue and relaxation experiments are executed on 12 subjects. An integrated and evaluation system is proposed, which consists of subjective evaluation (visual analogue scale), calculation performance and neurophysiological signals especially EEG signals. With consideration of individual difference, the common features of multi-estimators testify the effectiveness of relaxation in sustained mental work. Relaxation technique can be practically applied to prevent accumulation of mental fatigue and keep mental health. The proposed feature extraction methods are widely applicable to obtain common features and release the restriction for subjection selection and experiment design.

  4. Face recognition ability matures late: evidence from individual differences in young adults.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Germine, Laura; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Does face recognition ability mature early in childhood (early maturation hypothesis) or does it continue to develop well into adulthood (late maturation hypothesis)? This fundamental issue in face recognition is typically addressed by comparing child and adult participants. However, the interpretation of such studies is complicated by children's inferior test-taking abilities and general cognitive functions. Here we examined the developmental trajectory of face recognition ability in an individual differences study of 18-33 year-olds (n = 2,032), an age interval in which participants are competent test takers with comparable general cognitive functions. We found a positive association between age and face recognition, controlling for nonface visual recognition, verbal memory, sex, and own-race bias. Our study supports the late maturation hypothesis in face recognition, and illustrates how individual differences investigations of young adults can address theoretical issues concerning the development of perceptual and cognitive abilities. PMID:23915172

  5. Molecular genetic aspects of individual differences in pain sensitivity and thermoregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Rostovtseva; E. A. Bondareva; I. I. Agapov

    2009-01-01

    The molecular genetic aspects of individual differences in thermoregulation and pain sensitivity that may be used to evaluate\\u000a and predict the physical state of humans under contrast climate conditions, as well as during high physical and psychic loads,\\u000a are reviewed. In response to abrupt changes in both external and internal temperature, the body activates internal resources\\u000a that support homeostasis and

  6. Examining the Relationships Among Item Recognition, Source Recognition, and Recall From an Individual Differences Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nash Unsworth; Gene A. Brewer

    2009-01-01

    The authors of the current study examined the relationships among item-recognition, source-recognition, free recall, and other memory and cognitive ability tasks via an individual differences analysis. Two independent sources of variance contributed to item-recognition and source-recognition performance, and these two constructs related differentially to other memory and cognitive ability constructs. The results are in accordance with a dual-process theory of

  7. Consistency of individual differences in behaviour of the lion-headed cichlid, Steatocranus casuarius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey V Budaev; Dmitry D Zworykin; Andrei D Mochek

    1999-01-01

    The development of individual differences in behaviour in a novel environment, in the presence of a strange fish and during aggressive interactions with a mirror-image was studied in the lion-headed cichlid (Steatocranus casuarius, Teleostei, Cichlidae). No consistency in behaviour was found at 4–5.5 months of age. However, behaviours scored in situations involving a discrete source of stress (a strange fish

  8. Individual differences in repressive-defensiveness predict basal salivary cortisol levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurel L. Brown; Andrew J. Tomarken; David N. Orth; Peter T. Loosen; Ned H. Kalin; Richard J. Davidson

    1996-01-01

    Prior studies assessing the relation between negative affective traits and cortisoi have yielded incon- sistent results. Two studies assessed the relation between individual differences in repressive-defen- siveness and basal salivary cortisol levels. Experiment 1 assessed midafternoon salivary cortisol levels in men classified as repressors, high-anxious, or low-anxious. In Experiment 2, more rigorous con- trols were applied as salivary cortisol levels

  9. The stability of individual differences in gender typing: Implications for understanding gender segregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly K. Powlishta; Lisa A. Serbin; Lora C. Moller

    1993-01-01

    The stability of individual differences has important implications for understanding the origins of gender-typed behaviors. For example, if some children have a stronger preference for same-sex playmates (gender segregation) than do others, then exploring characteristics that may differentiate these children from their peers (e.g., preference for gender-typed toys or teacher proximity) should prove fruitful. Otherwise, research might be focused more

  10. Designing Effective Soldier-Robot Teams in Complex Environments: Training, Interfaces, and Individual Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Barnes; Jessie Y. C. Chen; Florian Jentsch; Elizabeth S. Redden

    \\u000a Extensive US Army programs are being pursued to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicles for diverse missions during\\u000a future combat. The following paper identified 23 human-robot interaction (HRI) guidelines related to interface design, procedural\\u000a issues, individual differences and training implications based on three HRI research programs. The programs range from simulation\\u000a experiments that investigated robot control in a multitasking environment

  11. Individual differences in semantic short-term memory capacity and reading comprehension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk J. Haarmann; Eddy J. Davelaar; Marius Usherb

    2003-01-01

    We report three correlation studies, which investigate the hypothesis that individual differences in the capacity of a semantic short-term memory (STM) component in working memory (WM) predict performance on complex language tasks. To measure the capacity of semantic STM, we devised a storage-only measure, the conceptual span, which makes use of a category-cued recall procedure. In the first two studies,

  12. A “Crossomics” Study Analysing Variability of Different Components in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Caucasoid Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Gruden; Matjaž Hren; Ana Herman; Andrej Blejec; Tanja Albrecht; Joachim Selbig; Chris Bauer; Johannes Schuchardt; Michal Or-Guil; Klemen Zupan?i?; Urban Švajger; Borut Štabuc; Alojz Ihan; Andreja Nataša Kopitar; Maja Ravnikar; Miomir Kneževi?; Primož Rožman; Matjaž Jeras

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundDifferent immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases are being developed and tested in clinical studies worldwide. Their resulting complex experimental data should be properly evaluated, therefore reliable normal healthy control baseline values are indispensable.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo assess intra- and inter-individual variability of various biomarkers, peripheral blood of 16 age and gender equilibrated healthy volunteers was sampled on

  13. Effects of Individual Differences and Job Search Behaviors on the Employment Status of Recent University Graduates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Saks; Blake E. Ashforth

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual difference variables (self-esteem, job search self-efficacy, and perceived control over job search outcomes) and job search behaviors (preparatory and active job search behavior, and job search intensity) on the employment status of recent university graduates at the time of graduation and 4 months later. The results indicate that only job search self-efficacy predicted

  14. ACCOMMODATING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES DURING EXTERNALLY PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 3--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERALD C., JR.

    THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATE APPROACHES TOWARD INDIVIDUALIZATION OF FIXED-PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WAS ASSESSED. THIS REPRESENTED THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 199, ED 003 200, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS…

  15. Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of salivary free cortisol: a replication of flattened cycles for some individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur A. Stone; Joseph E. Schwartz; Joshua Smyth; Clemens Kirschbaum; Sheldon Cohen; Dirk Hellhammer; Steven Grossman

    2001-01-01

    Free cortisol measured in saliva has been shown to have the same diurnal rhythm as serum cortisol, one that typically declines rapidly throughout the waking day. A recent study showed that over 15% of a sample of community individuals who were monitored over two days did not show the typical diurnal rhythm. The present study specifically tested the hypothesis that

  16. Developing Standards-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon; Adams, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Many special education professionals perceive a dilemma created by what seems to be conflicting mandates of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2002. Teachers and IEP (Individualized Education Program) teams serving students with significant disabilities are confronted with the challenge of designing programs that assure access to the general curriculum while at…

  17. The Impact of Disappointment in Decision Making: Inter-Individual Differences and Electrical Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Tzieropoulos, Hélène; de Peralta, Rolando Grave; Bossaerts, Peter; Andino, Sara L. Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Disappointment, the emotion experienced when faced to reward prediction errors (RPEs), considerably impacts decision making (DM). Individuals tend to modify their behavior in an often unpredictable way just to avoid experiencing negative emotions. Despite its importance, disappointment remains much less studied than regret and its impact on upcoming decisions largely unexplored. Here, we adapted the Trust Game to effectively elicit, quantify, and isolate disappointment by relying on the formal definition provided by Bell's in economics. We evaluated the effects of experienced disappointment and elation on future cooperation and trust as well as the rationality and utility of the different behavioral and neural mechanisms used to cope with disappointment. All participants in our game trusted less and particularly expected less from unknown opponents as a result of disappointing outcomes in the previous trial but not necessarily after elation indicating that behavioral consequences of positive and negative RPEs are not the same. A large variance in the tolerance to disappointment was observed across subjects, with some participants needing only a small disappointment to impulsively bias their subsequent decisions. As revealed by high-density EEG recordings the most tolerant individuals – who thought twice before making a decision and earned more money – relied on different neural generators to contend with neutral and unexpected outcomes. This study thus provides some support to the idea that different neural systems underlie reflexive and reflective decisions within the same individuals as predicted by the dual-system theory of social judgment and DM. PMID:21258645

  18. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  19. Evidence for individual differences in regulatory focus in rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Franks, Becca; Higgins, E Tory; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-11-01

    Regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) builds on the classic approach-avoidance distinction by identifying two important approach orientations: the promotion focus (approaching gains and attainment) and the prevention focus (approaching nonlosses and safety). Though individual differences in regulatory focus have been widely studied in human psychology, it is unknown if such differences exist in other species. To explore this possibility, we designed a series of tests for laboratory rats, paralleling human regulatory focus research on risk taking. In home-cage tests, rats (N = 23) were given an opportunity to prevent a loss by burying a noxious novel object. In solitary tests in a novel enclosure, the same rats had the opportunity to pursue gains (food rewards) and/or safety (darkness). Rats demonstrated stable individual differences on both tests (p's < .001). Complementing the human research, duration of time spent with the noxious novel object was predicted by an individual's tendency to pursue safety (p < .01) and not by the tendency to pursue gains (p > .8). Some aspects of these results were compatible with alternative approaches, such as the bold-shy axis and "if-then" personality profiles (Mischel & Shoda, 1995). Regulatory focus theory, however, was uniquely able to predict the overall pattern, which may be an indication that it could contribute to future research in animal personality, motivation, and welfare. PMID:22390620

  20. Notice of Proposed Rule Making for Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    On November 3, 1999 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published the first-ever set of proposed national standards to protect personal health information. According to the HHS, "the Administration standards will apply to health information created by health care providers, hospitals, health plans and health care clearinghouses that is either transmitted or maintained electronically." Users can read the 150 pages of proposed rules by chapter or section in either HTML or .pdf format. A link is provided for users who wish to submit comments electronically until February 17, 2000.

  1. Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing–systemizing cognitive styles in male adults

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Sadek, Susan A.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive style can be characterized along two dimensions: ‘systemizing’ (S, the drive to analyze or build ‘rule-based’ systems) and ‘empathizing’ (E, the drive to identify another's mental state and respond to this with an appropriate emotion). Discrepancies between these two dimensions in one direction (S > E) or the other (E > S) are associated with sex differences in cognition: on average more males show an S > E cognitive style, while on average more females show an E > S profile. The neurobiological basis of these different profiles remains unknown. Since individuals may be typical or atypical for their sex, it is important to move away from the study of sex differences and towards the study of differences in cognitive style. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined how neuroanatomy varies as a function of the discrepancy between E and S in 88 adult males from the general population. Selecting just males allows us to study discrepant E-S profiles in a pure way, unconfounded by other factors related to sex and gender. An increasing S > E profile was associated with increased gray matter volume in cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal areas which have been implicated in processes related to cognitive control, monitoring, error detection, and probabilistic inference. An increasing E > S profile was associated with larger hypothalamic and ventral basal ganglia regions which have been implicated in neuroendocrine control, motivation and reward. These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style. PMID:22446488

  2. A new fundamental diagram theory with the individual difference of the driver’s perception ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tieqiao Tang; Chuanyao Li; Haijun Huang; Huayan Shang

    Based on the driver’s individual difference of the driver’s perception ability, we in this paper develop a new fundamental\\u000a diagram with the driver’s perceived error and speed deviation difference. The analytical and numerical results show that the\\u000a speed-density and flow-density data are divided into three prominent regions. In the first region, the speed-density and flow-density\\u000a data are scattered around the

  3. Secular changes in standards of bodily attractiveness in American women: different masculine and feminine ideals.

    PubMed

    Barber, N

    1998-01-01

    Silverstein, Peterson, and Perdue (1986) studied changes in curvaceousness of the models in Vogue magazine over time and found that curvaceousness was inversely correlated with American women's participation in higher education and the professions. In the present study, it was predicted that the male standard for women's bodily attractiveness would differ from the female standard and would change differently over time, based on evolutionary theory. Published data on the bodily curvaceousness of models in Playboy and Vogue and on Miss America winners were used to test this hypothesis. Although they did not differ on average, the male and female standards changed differently over time. There was less variation in the male standard, represented by Playboy and by Miss America winners, than in the female standard, represented by Vogue. Results suggest that cultural standards of attractiveness are influenced by an evolved psychology of mate selection that has implications for understanding changes in the standard of attractiveness and its relation to eating disorders. PMID:9447727

  4. Bimanual proprioceptive performance differs for right- and left-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Anson, Judith

    2013-05-10

    It has been proposed that asymmetry between the upper limbs in the utilization of proprioceptive feedback arises from functional differences in the roles of the preferred and non-preferred hands during bimanual tasks. The present study investigated unimanual and bimanual proprioceptive performance in right- and left-handed young adults with an active finger pinch movement discrimination task. With visual information removed, participants were required to make absolute judgments about the extent of pinch movements made to physical stops, either by one hand, or by both hands concurrently, with the sequence of presented movement extents varied randomly. Discrimination accuracy scores were derived from participants' responses using non-parametric signal detection analysis. Consistent with previous findings, a non-dominant hand/hemisphere superiority effect was observed, where the non-dominant hands of right- and left-handed individuals performed overall significantly better than their dominant hands. For all participants, bimanual movement discrimination scores were significantly lower than scores obtained in the unimanual task. However, the magnitude of the performance reduction, from the unimanual to the bimanual task, was significantly greater for left-handed individuals. The effect whereby bimanual proprioception was disproportionately affected in left-handed individuals could be due to enhanced neural communication between hemispheres in left-handed individuals leading to less distinctive separation of information obtained from the two hands in the cerebral cortex. PMID:23523925

  5. Attachment-related individual differences in the consistency of relationship behavior interpretation.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael J; Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    The consistency with which people interpret relationship-based information has important implications for attachment theory and research. Our objective is to determine whether there are attachment-related individual differences in the manner and the consistency with which individuals interpret hypothetical relationship behaviors. In two studies (N?=?629, 79% female, 63% American, M(age) ?=?29; N?=?820, 78% female, 65% American, M(age) ?=?29), we assessed participants' ability and consistency in relationship behavior interpretation across two blocks and estimated how they would have performed had they interpreted information perfectly consistently. Secure participants were generally more consistent in their interpretations relative to insecure participants. Estimates of perfectly consistent interpretation revealed that improvements to both systematic factors related to behavior interpretation (e.g., working models) and consistency would have led to a more secure interpretation style for participants of all attachment styles. Results imply that both secure and insecure individuals process relationship-based information according to secure scripts, but insecure individuals do so inconsistently. Our results imply that, due to the inconsistent behavioral responses that may occur as a result of inconsistent information processing, the consistency with which people process relationship-related information will be related to relationship satisfaction. Further directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23750636

  6. Spatial gradient in value representation along the medial prefrontal cortex reflects individual differences in prosociality

    PubMed Central

    Sul, Sunhae; Tobler, Philippe N.; Hein, Grit; Leiberg, Susanne; Jung, Daehyun; Fehr, Ernst; Kim, Hackjin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of valuing another person’s welfare for prosocial behavior, currently we have only a limited understanding of how these values are represented in the brain and, more importantly, how they give rise to individual variability in prosociality. In the present study, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a prosocial learning task in which they could choose to benefit themselves and/or another person. Choice behavior indicated that participants valued the welfare of another person, although less so than they valued their own welfare. Neural data revealed a spatial gradient in activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), such that ventral parts predominantly represented self-regarding values and dorsal parts predominantly represented other-regarding values. Importantly, compared with selfish individuals, prosocial individuals showed a more gradual transition from self-regarding to other-regarding value signals in the MPFC and stronger MPFC–striatum coupling when they made choices for another person rather than for themselves. The present study provides evidence of neural markers reflecting individual differences in human prosociality. PMID:26056280

  7. Spatial gradient in value representation along the medial prefrontal cortex reflects individual differences in prosociality.

    PubMed

    Sul, Sunhae; Tobler, Philippe N; Hein, Grit; Leiberg, Susanne; Jung, Daehyun; Fehr, Ernst; Kim, Hackjin

    2015-06-23

    Despite the importance of valuing another person's welfare for prosocial behavior, currently we have only a limited understanding of how these values are represented in the brain and, more importantly, how they give rise to individual variability in prosociality. In the present study, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a prosocial learning task in which they could choose to benefit themselves and/or another person. Choice behavior indicated that participants valued the welfare of another person, although less so than they valued their own welfare. Neural data revealed a spatial gradient in activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), such that ventral parts predominantly represented self-regarding values and dorsal parts predominantly represented other-regarding values. Importantly, compared with selfish individuals, prosocial individuals showed a more gradual transition from self-regarding to other-regarding value signals in the MPFC and stronger MPFC-striatum coupling when they made choices for another person rather than for themselves. The present study provides evidence of neural markers reflecting individual differences in human prosociality. PMID:26056280

  8. Individual differences in perception of bitterness from capsaicin, piperine and zingerone.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Hayes, John E

    2004-01-01

    It was recently shown that in some subjects capsaicin can evoke bitterness as well as burning and stinging, particularly in the circumvallate (CV) region of the tongue. Because perception of bitterness from capsaicin is characterized by large individual differences, the main goal of the present study was to learn whether people who taste capsaicin as bitter also report bitterness from structurally similar sensory irritants that are known to stimulate capsaicin-sensitive neurons. The irritancy and taste of capsaicin and two of its most commonly studied congeners, piperine and zingerone, were measured in individuals who had been screened for visibility of, and reliable access to, the CV papillae. Approximately half of these individuals reported tasting bitterness from all three irritants when the stimuli were swabbed directly onto the CV papillae. Concentrations that produced similar levels of burning sensation across subjects also produced similar (though lower) levels of bitter taste. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that capsaicin and its congeners stimulate bitterness via a common sensory receptor that is distributed differentially among individuals. Additionally, bitter tasters rated gustatory qualities (but not burning and stinging) slightly but significantly higher than did bitter non-tasters, which suggests that perception of capsaicin bitterness is associated with a higher overall taste responsiveness (but not chemesthetic responsiveness) in the CV region. PMID:14752040

  9. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227

  10. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227

  11. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

  12. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alan C L; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  13. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  14. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  15. Individual differences in subconscious motor control predicted by GABA concentration in SMA.

    PubMed

    Boy, Frederic; Evans, C John; Edden, Richard A E; Singh, Krish D; Husain, Masud; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-10-12

    Subliminal visual stimuli affect motor planning, but the size of such effects differs greatly between individuals. Here, we investigated whether such variation may be related to neurochemical differences between people. Cortical responsiveness is expected to be lower under the influence of more of the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. Thus, we hypothesized that, if an individual has more GABA in the supplementary motor area (SMA)--a region previously associated with automatic motor control--this would result in smaller subliminal effects. We measured the reversed masked prime--or negative compatibility--effect, and found that it correlated strongly with GABA concentration, measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This occurred specifically in the SMA region, and not in other regions from which spectroscopy measurements were taken. We replicated these results in an independent cohort: more GABA in the SMA region is reliably associated with smaller effect size. These findings suggest that, across individuals, the responsiveness of subconscious motor mechanisms is related to GABA concentration in the SMA. PMID:20888227

  16. Neural network configuration and efficiency underlies individual differences in spatial orientation ability.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Protzner, Andrea B; Bray, Signe; Levy, Richard M; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Spatial orientation is a complex cognitive process requiring the integration of information processed in a distributed system of brain regions. Current models on the neural basis of spatial orientation are based primarily on the functional role of single brain regions, with limited understanding of how interaction among these brain regions relates to behavior. In this study, we investigated two sources of variability in the neural networks that support spatial orientation--network configuration and efficiency--and assessed whether variability in these topological properties relates to individual differences in orientation accuracy. Participants with higher accuracy were shown to express greater activity in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right precentral cortex, and the left hippocampus, over and above a core network engaged by the whole group. Additionally, high-performing individuals had increased levels of global efficiency within a resting-state network composed of brain regions engaged during orientation and increased levels of node centrality in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right primary motor cortex, and the left hippocampus. These results indicate that individual differences in the configuration of task-related networks and their efficiency measured at rest relate to the ability to spatially orient. Our findings advance systems neuroscience models of orientation and navigation by providing insight into the role of functional integration in shaping orientation behavior. PMID:24047389

  17. Specificity of the Effect of a Nicotinic Receptor Polymorphism on Individual Differences in Visuospatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Pamela M.; Fossella, John A.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2005-01-01

    Cortical neurotransmitter availability is known to exert domain-specific effects on cognitive performance. Hence, normal variation in genes with a role in neurotransmission may also have specific effects on cognition. We tested this hypothesis by examining associations between polymorphisms in genes affecting cholinergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and individual differences in visuospatial attention. Healthy individuals were administered a cued visual search task which varied the size of precues to the location of a target letter embedded in a 15-letter array. Cues encompassed 1, 3, 9, or 15 letters. Search speed increased linearly with precue size, indicative of a spatial attentional scaling mechanism. The strength of attentional scaling increased progressively with the number of C alleles (0, 1, or 2) of the alpha-4 nicotinic receptor gene C1545T polymorphism (n = 104). No association was found for the dopamine beta hydroxylase gene G444A polymorphism (n = 135). These findings point to the specificity of genetic neuromodulation. Whereas variation in a gene linked to cholinergic transmission systematically modulated the ability to scale the focus of visuospatial attention, variation in a gene governing dopamine availability did not. The results show that normal variation in a gene controlling a nicotinic receptor makes a selective contribution to individual differences in visuospatial attention. PMID:16269100

  18. Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Long, Debra L.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Johns, Clinton L.; Zirnstein, Megan; Jonathan, Eunike

    2015-01-01

    Theories of eye-movement control in reading should ultimately describe how differences in knowledge and cognitive abilities affect reading and comprehension. Current mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading, although developmental and group-difference effects have been studied. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner, Chace, & Ashby, 2006). Our focus in this article is on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2001), we tested the extent to which overall reading speed and working-memory capacity moderate the degree to which syntactic and semantic information affect fixation times. Previous published data (Traxler et al., 2005) showed that working memory capacity and syntactic complexity interacted to determine fixation times in an eye-movement monitoring experiment. In a new set of models based on this same data set, we found that working-memory capacity interacted with sentence-characteristic variables only when processing speed was not included in the model. We interpret these findings with respect to current accounts of sentence processing and suggest how they might be incorporated into eye-movement control models.

  19. Consumer responses to advertising on the Internet: the effect of individual difference on ambivalence and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web. PMID:17474844

  20. Individual differences in neural regions functionally related to real and imagined stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Ingham, Roger J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Paolini, Katherine E.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent brain imaging investigations of developmental stuttering show considerable disagreement regarding which regions are related to stuttering. These divergent findings have been mainly derived from group studies. To investigate functional neurophysiology with improved precision, an individual-participant approach (N = 4) using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and test-retest reliability measures was performed while participants produced fluent and stuttered single words during two separate occasions. A parallel investigation required participants to imagine stuttering or not stuttering on single words. The overt and covert production tasks produced considerable within-subject agreement of activated voxels across occasions, but little within-subject agreement between overt and covert task activations. However, across-subject agreement for regions activated by the overt and covert tasks was minimal. These results suggest that reliable effects of stuttering are participant-specific, an implication that might correspond to individual differences in stuttering severity and functional compensation due to related structural abnormalities. PMID:23333668

  1. Rigidity, chaos and integration: hemispheric interaction and individual differences in metaphor comprehension.

    PubMed

    Faust, Miriam; Kenett, Yoed N

    2014-01-01

    Neurotypical individuals cope flexibly with the full range of semantic relations expressed in human language, including metaphoric relations. This impressive semantic ability may be associated with distinct and flexible patterns of hemispheric interaction, including higher right hemisphere (RH) involvement for processing novel metaphors. However, this ability may be impaired in specific clinical conditions, such as Asperger syndrome (AS) and schizophrenia. The impaired semantic processing is accompanied by different patterns of hemispheric interaction during semantic processing, showing either reduced (in Asperger syndrome) or excessive (in schizophrenia) RH involvement. This paper interprets these individual differences using the terms Rigidity, Chaos and Integration, which describe patterns of semantic memory network states that either lead to semantic well-being or are disruptive of it. We argue that these semantic network states lie on a rigidity-chaos semantic continuum. We define these terms via network science terminology and provide network, cognitive and neural evidence to support our claim. This continuum includes left hemisphere (LH) hyper-rigid semantic memory state on one end (e.g., in persons with AS), and RH chaotic and over-flexible semantic memory state on the other end (e.g., in persons with schizophrenia). In between these two extremes lie different states of semantic memory structure which are related to individual differences in semantic creativity. We suggest that efficient semantic processing is achieved by semantic integration, a balance between semantic rigidity and semantic chaos. Such integration is achieved via intra-hemispheric communication. However, impairments to this well-balanced and integrated pattern of hemispheric interaction, e.g., when one hemisphere dominates the other, may lead to either semantic rigidity or semantic chaos, moving away from semantic integration and thus impairing the processing of metaphoric language. PMID:25071534

  2. Evaluation of environmental compatibility of EAFD using different leaching standards.

    PubMed

    Sebag, M G; Korzenowski, C; Bernardes, A M; Vilela, A C

    2009-07-30

    A study on laboratory scale to evaluate the environmental compatibility of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is reported in this article. EAFD, a waste by-product of the steel-making process, was generated on a steel plant located in Brazil. Different leaching tests, NBR10005 (Brazilian), AFNORX31-210 (French), JST-13 (Japanese), DIN38414-S4 (German), TCLP (American), and NEN 7343 (Netherland) were conducted. These leaching procedures are batch tests and are columns conducted in a way that an equilibrium condition should be achieved. The pH of the medium showed a crucial parameter governing the release of metals from the solid phase into solution. As the pH of the medium varies with the leachant used, this determines the dissolution of the elements. Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, and Cu presented high leachability at NBR10005 procedures (acid pH). Except Pb and Cr, the leachability of all others metals in leaching tests with alkaline pH decreases with the increase of the pH. NBR10005 classifies the EAFD as a hazardous waste due to high concentration of Pb and Cd in leachate. The column tests are presented in the following order of leaching: Pb>Cr>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd. PMID:19223119

  3. Individual Variation in Cone Photoreceptor Density in House Sparrows: Implications for Between-Individual Differences in Visual Resolution and Chromatic Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Amanda L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation has been documented in a wide variety of taxa, especially for behavioral characteristics; however, intra-population variation in sensory systems has not received similar attention in wild animals. We measured a key trait of the visual system, the density of retinal cone photoreceptors, in a wild population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We tested whether individuals differed from each other in cone densities given within-individual variation across the retina and across eyes. We further tested whether the existing variation could lead to individual differences in two aspects of perception: visual resolution and chromatic contrast. We found consistent between-individual variation in the densities of all five types of avian cones, involved in chromatic and achromatic vision. Using perceptual modeling, we found that this degree of variation translated into significant between-individual differences in visual resolution and the chromatic contrast of a plumage signal that has been associated with mate choice and agonistic interactions. However, there was no evidence for a relationship between individual visual resolution and chromatic contrast. The implication is that some birds may have the sensory potential to perform “better” in certain visual tasks, but not necessarily in both resolution and contrast simultaneously. Overall, our findings (a) highlight the need to consider multiple individuals when characterizing sensory traits of a species, and (b) provide some mechanistic basis for between-individual variation in different behaviors (i.e., animal personalities) and for testing the predictions of several widely accepted hypotheses (e.g., honest signaling). PMID:25372039

  4. Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history.

    PubMed

    Woodley Of Menie, Michael A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Fernandes, Heitor B F; Madison, Guy; Wolf, Pedro S A; Black, Candace J

    2015-01-01

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods. PMID:25954216

  5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ATTRIBUTION OF INCENTIVE SALIENCE TO REWARD-RELATED CUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    FLAGEL, SHELLY B.; AKIL, HUDA; ROBINSON, TERRY E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Drugs of abuse acquire different degrees of control over thoughts and actions based not only on the effects of drugs themselves, but also on predispositions of the individual. Those individuals who become addicted are unable to shift their thoughts and actions away from drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Thus in addicts, exposure to places or things (cues) that have been previously associated with drug-taking often instigates renewed drug-taking. We and others have postulated that drug-associated cues acquire the ability to maintain and instigate drug-taking behavior in part because they acquire incentive motivational properties through Pavlovian (stimulus-stimulus) learning. In the case of compulsive behavioral disorders, including addiction, such cues may be attributed with pathological incentive value (“incentive salience”). For this reason, we have recently begun to explore individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues that predict rewards. When discrete cues are associated with the non-contingent delivery of food or drug rewards some animals come to quickly approach and engage the cue even if it is located at a distance from where the reward will be delivered. In these animals the reward-predictive cue itself becomes attractive, eliciting approach towards it, presumably because it is attributed with incentive salience. Animals that develop this type of conditional response are called “sign-trackers”. Other animals, “goal-trackers”, do not approach the reward-predictive cue, but upon cue presentation they immediately go to the location where food will be delivered (the “goal”). For goal-trackers the reward-predictive cue is not attractive, presumably because it is not attributed with incentive salience. We review here preliminary data suggesting that these individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues predictive of reward may confer vulnerability or resistance to compulsive behavioral disorders, including addiction. It will be important, therefore, to study how environmental, neurobiological and genetic interactions determine the extent to which individuals attribute incentive value to reward-predictive stimuli. PMID:18619474

  6. Heart rate variability differs between right- and left-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Ramazan; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Dane, Senol

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies reported reduced longevity in left-handers with the suggestion that it may be associated with different heart diseases. Therefore, differences in heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic cardiac activity, were examined for right- and left-handed individuals. 120 healthy young university students (75 women, 45 men; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.5) volunteered. Handedness was assessed with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and HRV was measured via electrocardiography. The results suggest that the left-handers' HRV was significantly different from that of right-handers on several parameters. The atypical cerebral organization of left-handers may be related to an imbalanced autonomic system that results in higher frequencies of heart irregularities. PMID:25068752

  7. Visual Working Memory Capacity: From Psychophysics and Neurobiology to Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Steven J.; Vogel, Edward K.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory capacity is of great interest because it is strongly correlated with overall cognitive ability, can be understood at the level of neural circuits, and is easily measured. Recent studies have shown that capacity influences tasks ranging from saccade targeting to analogical reasoning. A debate has arisen over whether capacity is constrained by a limited number of discrete representations or by an infinitely divisible resource, but the empirical evidence and neural network models currently favor a discrete item limit. Capacity differs markedly across individuals and groups, and recent research indicates that some of these differences reflect true differences in storage capacity whereas others reflect variations in the ability to use memory capacity efficiently. PMID:23850263

  8. Individual differences in the effect of orthographic/phonological conflict on rhyme and spelling decisions.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Alton, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    In typical readers, orthographic knowledge has been shown to influence phonological decisions. In the present study, we used visual rhyme and spelling tasks to investigate the interaction of orthographic and phonological information in adults with varying reading skill. Word pairs that shared both orthography and phonology (e.g., throat/boat), differed in both orthography and phonology (e.g., snow/arm), shared only orthography (e.g., farm/warm), and shared only phonology (e.g., vote/boat) were visually presented to university students who varied in reading ability. For rhyme judgment, participants were slower and less accurate to accept rhyming pairs when words were spelled differently and to reject non-rhyming pairs when words were spelled similarly. Similarly, for spelling judgments, participants were slower and less accurate when indicating that word endings were spelled differently when words rhymed, and slower and less accurate when indicating that words were spelled similarly when words did not rhyme. Crucially, while these effects were clear at the group level, there were large individual differences in the extent to which participants were impacted by conflict. In two separate samples, reading skill was associated with the extent to which orthographic conflict impacted rhyme decisions such that individuals with better nonword reading performance were less impacted by orthographic conflict. Thus, university students with poorer reading skills may differ from their peers either in the reading strategies they use or in the degree to which they automatically access word form information. Understanding these relationships is important for understanding the roles that reading processes play in readers of different skill. PMID:25751539

  9. Assessing Adolescents’ Attachment Hierarchies: Differences Across Developmental Periods and Associations With Individual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Natalie L.; Kobak, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents’ attachment hierarchies were assessed in a sample of 212 high school and 198 college students. The Important People Interview (IPI) differentiated attachment bonds from other supportive or affiliative relationships and indicated that adolescents show a hierarchical ordering of preferences for multiple attachment figures. Differences in the composition and structure of adolescents’ attachment hierarchies were found between the early high school (9th and 10th grades), later high school (11th and 12th grades), and college samples. In the college sample, romantic partners were placed in higher positions in adolescents’ hierarchies, fathers were placed in lower positions, and the structure of adolescents’ hierarchies were less differentiated than in the high school samples. Individual differences in the composition of adolescents’ hierarchies were associated with adjustment outcomes. Friends’ placement in higher positions and fathers’ exclusion from or placement in quaternary positions was associated with increased behavior problems. Findings demonstrate that the IPI provides a measure of adolescents’ attachment hierarchies that is sensitive to developmental stage and individual differences. PMID:22545000

  10. Does Cytokine-Induced Depression Differ from Idiopathic Major Depression in Medically Healthy Individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Capuron, Lucile; Fornwalt, Fiona B; Knight, Bettina T.; Harvey, Philip D.; Ninan, Philip T.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytokines of the innate immune response may contribute to behavioral alterations that resemble major depression as manifested in medically healthy individuals. Methods To explore potential similarities and differences between cytokine-induced depression and idiopathic major depression in healthy subjects, dimensional analyses comparing specific symptom dimensions of depression were conducted in 20 patients with malignant melanoma administered the innate immune cytokine, interferon (IFN)-alpha, and 28 medically healthy subjects with major depression of similar age and gender distribution. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to assess severity of individual depressive symptoms. Results Severity of symptoms of anxiety, depressed mood, and impaired work/activities were comparable between patients with IFN-alpha-induced depression and medically healthy depressed patients. Interestingly, however, compared to medically healthy patients with major depression, patients with IFN-alpha-induced depression reported significantly greater psychomotor retardation and weight loss and significantly less severe feelings of guilt. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited statistical power to detect small differences in symptom expression among groups. Conclusions The data suggest that there is considerable overlap in symptom expression between cytokine-induced depression and idiopathic depression in medically healthy subjects. Nevertheless, differences in isolated symptom domains suggest that cytokines may preferentially target neurocircuits relevant to psychomotor activity (e.g. basal ganglia), while having a limited effect on cognitive distortions regarding self-appraisal. PMID:19269036

  11. Strategic Adaptation to Task Characteristics, Incentives, and Individual Differences in Dual-Tasking

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Christian P.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how good people are at multitasking by comparing behavior to a prediction of the optimal strategy for dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. In our experiment, 24 participants had to interleave entering digits on a keyboard with controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. The difficulty of the tracking task was systematically varied as a within-subjects factor. Participants were also exposed to different explicit reward functions that varied the relative importance of the tracking task relative to the typing task (between-subjects). Results demonstrate that these changes in task characteristics and monetary incentives, together with individual differences in typing ability, influenced how participants choose to interleave tasks. This change in strategy then affected their performance on each task. A computational cognitive model was used to predict performance for a wide set of alternative strategies for how participants might have possibly interleaved tasks. This allowed for predictions of optimal performance to be derived, given the constraints placed on performance by the task and cognition. A comparison of human behavior with the predicted optimal strategy shows that participants behaved near optimally. Our findings have implications for the design and evaluation of technology for multitasking situations, as consideration should be given to the characteristics of the task, but also to how different users might use technology depending on their individual characteristics and their priorities. PMID:26161851

  12. Recollection-related increases in functional connectivity predict individual differences in memory accuracy.

    PubMed

    King, Danielle R; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Elward, Rachael L; Wang, Tracy H; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-01-28

    Recollection involves retrieving specific contextual details about a prior event. Functional neuroimaging studies have identified several brain regions that are consistently more active during successful versus failed recollection-the "core recollection network." In the present study, we investigated whether these regions demonstrate recollection-related increases not only in activity but also in functional connectivity in healthy human adults. We used fMRI to compare time-series correlations during successful versus unsuccessful recollection in three separate experiments, each using a different operational definition of recollection. Across experiments, a broadly distributed set of regions consistently exhibited recollection-related increases in connectivity with different members of the core recollection network. Regions that demonstrated this effect included both recollection-sensitive regions and areas where activity did not vary as a function of recollection success. In addition, in all three experiments the magnitude of connectivity increases correlated across individuals with recollection accuracy in areas diffusely distributed throughout the brain. These findings suggest that enhanced functional interactions between distributed brain regions are a signature of successful recollection. In addition, these findings demonstrate that examining dynamic modulations in functional connectivity during episodic retrieval will likely provide valuable insight into neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in memory performance. PMID:25632149

  13. Amgydala subregional structure and intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in anxiety during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Young, Christina B; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Tianwen; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood anxiety has been linked to an increased risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Little, however, is known about its effect on the brain during early childhood – a period when anxiety-related traits begin to be reliably identifiable. Even less is known about the neurodevelopmental origins of individual differences in childhood anxiety. Methods We combined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with neuropsychological assessment of anxiety based on daily life experiences to investigate the effects of anxiety on the brain in seventy-six young children. We then used machine learning algorithms with balanced cross-validation to examine brain-based predictors of individual differences in childhood anxiety. Results Even in children as young as ages 7–9, high childhood anxiety is associated with enlarged amygdala volume and this enlargement is localized specifically to the basolateral amygdala. High childhood anxiety is also associated with increased connectivity between the amygdala and distributed brain systems involved in attention, emotion perception and regulation, and these effects are most prominent effect in basolateral amygdala. Critically, machine learning algorithms revealed that levels of childhood anxiety could be reliably predicted by amygdala morphometry and intrinsic functional connectivity, with the left basolateral amygdala emerging again as the strongest predictor. Conclusions Individual differences in anxiety can be reliably detected with high predictive value in amygdala-centric emotion circuits at a surprisingly young age. Our study provides important new insights into the neurodevelopmental origins of anxiety, and has significant implications for the development of predictive biomarkers to identify children at-risk for anxiety disorders. PMID:24268662

  14. Self-efficacy contributes to individual differences in subjective improvements using CPAP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Glazer Baron; Cynthia A. Berg; Laura A. Czajkowski; Timothy W. Smith; Heather E. Gunn; Christopher R. Jones

    Purpose  Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is variability in response to CPAP. This study examined individual differences in the daily\\u000a associations between CPAP use and improvements in affect and sleepiness patients beginning CPAP.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This observational repeated measures study involved 31 CPAP-naïve patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep

  15. Neuroanatomy of individual differences in language in adult males with autism

    E-print Network

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; MRC AIMS Consortium; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-09-23

    Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism Meng-Chuan Lai1,2, Michael V. Lombardo1,3, Christine Ecker4, Bhismadev Chakrabarti1,5, John Suckling6,8, Edward T. Bullmore6,7,8, Francesca Happé9 MRC AIMS Consortium... , Declan G. M. Murphy4 and Simon Baron-Cohen1,8 1Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK, 2Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei 10051, Taiwan...

  16. Differences between domestic accounting standards and IAS: Measurement, determinants and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Ding; Ole-Kristian Hope; Thomas Jeanjean; Hervé Stolowy

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes determinants and effects of differences between Domestic Accounting Standards (DAS) and International Accounting Standards (IAS). We use an extensive list of differences between DAS and IAS to create two indices, absence and divergence. Absence measures the extent to which the rules regarding certain accounting issues are missing in DAS but are covered in IAS. Divergence applies in

  17. Reasoning about the self and relationships in maturity: an integrative complexity analysis of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Pratt, M W; Pancer, M; Hunsberger, B; Manchester, J

    1990-09-01

    This study examined age (35-55 versus 65-85), gender, and self-concept-orientation differences in reasoning about the self, relationships, and morality, on the basis of the theorizing of Gilligan (1982). Participants were interviewed about general relationship issues, a specific relationship, and about the self. Reasoning was scored for integrative complexity (Suedfeld & Tetlock, 1977). Life experience measures and the standard Kohlberg justice reasoning index were obtained. Results showed gender differences in the connectedness of the self-concept for middle-aged, but not older, adults. No age or gender differences in the complexity of relationship reasoning or in justice reasoning were found. Those with more connected self-concepts reasoned in more complex ways about relationships and about the self. PMID:2231286

  18. Neuronal DNA content variation (DCV) with regional and individual differences in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Jurjen W.; Rivera, Richard R.; Bushman, Diane M.; Yung, Yun C.; Peterson, Suzanne E.; Barral, Serena; Chun, Jerold

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the human brain contains genetically identical cells through which post-genomic mechanisms contribute to its enormous diversity and complexity. The relatively recent identification of neural cells throughout the neuraxis showing somatically generated mosaic aneuploidy indicates that the vertebrate brain can be genomically heterogeneous (Rehen et al., 2001; Rehen et al., 2005; Westra et al., 2008; Yurov et al., 2007). The extent of human neural aneuploidy is currently unknown because of technically limited sample sizes, but is reported to be small (Iourov et al., 2006). During efforts to interrogate larger cell populations using DNA content analyses, a surprising result was obtained: human frontal cortex brain cells were found to display “DNA content variation (DCV)” characterized by an increased range of DNA content both in cell populations and within single cells. On average, DNA content increased by ~250 megabases often representing a substantial fraction of cells within a given sample. DCV within individual human brains showed regional variation, with increased prevalence in the frontal cortex and less variation in the cerebellum. Further, DCV varied between individual brains. These results identify DCV as a new feature of the human brain, encompassing and further extending genomic alterations produced by aneuploidy, which may contribute to neural diversity in normal and pathophysiological states, altered functions of normal and disease-linked genes, and differences amongst individuals. PMID:20737596

  19. The brain structure correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Song, Y; Xu, M; Wang, X; Li, X; Liu, J

    2014-07-11

    Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N=247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC, but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being. PMID:24797333

  20. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Mortensen, Peter; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-09-01

    Momentary fatigue is an important variable in resistance training periodization programs. Although several studies have examined neuromuscular activity during single repetitions of resistance training, information is lacking in regard to neuromuscular fatigue indices throughout a full resistance training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study. Normalized electromyographic (nEMG) activity and median power frequency (MPF) of the upper, medial, and lower trapezius; the medial deltoid, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior was measured during 3 sets of 15RM during the exercises front raise, reverse flyes, shrugs, and lateral raise. For the majority of exercises, nEMG activity was high (>60% of maximal isometric contractions). From the first to the last repetition of each set nEMG-averaged for all muscles-increased 10. 0 ± 0.4% (p < 0.05) and MPF decreased -7.7 ± 0.5 Hz (p < 0.05). By contrast, nEMG activity and MPF were unchanged from the first to the third set (averaged for all muscles: 38.1 ± 23.6 vs. 47.6 ± 28.8% and 88.4 ± 21.3 vs. 82.1 ± 18.1 Hz, respectively). In conclusion, during a shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals using 15RM loading muscle activity of the upper, medial, and lower trapezius, the medial deltoid, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior increased, and MPF decreased within each set-indicating momentary neuromuscular fatigue. By contrast, no such change was observed between the 3 sets. This indicates that momentary neuromuscular fatigue in shoulder resistance training is induced more efficiently within a set than between sets. PMID:22067242

  1. Individual differences in toddlers' social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed

    Gross, Rebekkah L; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18-30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers' social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents' increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children's early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  2. Inter-Individual Differences in the Initial 80 Minutes of Motor Learning of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Lamoth, Claudine J.; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participants impact the outcome of a low-intensity wheelchair-practice intervention. Over a 12-minute pre-test, 39 participants were split in two groups based on a relative 10% increase in mechanical efficiency. Following the pretest the participants continued one of four different low-intensity wheelchair practice interventions, yet all performed in the same trial-setup with a total 80-minute dose at 1.11 m/s at 0.20 W/kg. Instead of focusing on the effect of the different interventions, we focused on differences in motor learning between participants over the intervention. Twenty-six participants started the pretest with a lower mechanical efficiency and a less optimal propulsion technique, but showed a fast improvement during the first 12 minutes and this effect continued over the 80 minutes of practice. Eventually these initially fast improvers benefitted more from the given practice indicated by a better propulsion technique (like reduced frequency and increased stroke angle) and a higher mechanical efficiency. The initially fast improvers also had a higher intra-individual variability in the pre and posttest, which possibly relates to the increased motor learning of the initially fast improvers. Further exploration of the common characteristics of different types of learners will help to better tailor rehabilitation to the needs of wheelchair-dependent persons and improve our understanding of cyclic motor learning processes. PMID:24586992

  3. Individual differences in toddlers’ social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Rebekkah L.; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18–30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  4. Functional DNA methylation differences between tissues, cell types, and across individuals discovered using the M&M algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Nan; Lowdon, Rebecca F.; Hong, Chibo; Nagarajan, Raman P.; Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Li, Daofeng; Stevens, Michael; Lee, Hyung Joo; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jia; Sundaram, Vasavi; Elliott, GiNell; Gu, Junchen; Shi, Taoping; Gascard, Philippe; Sigaroudinia, Mahvash; Tlsty, Thea D.; Kadlecek, Theresa; Weiss, Arthur; O’Geen, Henriette; Farnham, Peggy J.; Maire, Cécile L.; Ligon, Keith L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Tam, Angela; Moore, Richard; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A.; Zhang, Baoxue; Costello, Joseph F.; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as X chromosome inactivation, transposable element repression, genomic imprinting, and tissue-specific gene expression. Sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling provides an unprecedented opportunity to map and compare complete DNA methylomes. This includes one of the most widely applied technologies for measuring DNA methylation: methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-seq), coupled with a complementary method, methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme sequencing (MRE-seq). A computational approach that integrates data from these two different but complementary assays and predicts methylation differences between samples has been unavailable. Here, we present a novel integrative statistical framework M&M (for integration of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq) that dynamically scales, normalizes, and combines MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data to detect differentially methylated regions. Using sample-matched whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) as a gold standard, we demonstrate superior accuracy and reproducibility of M&M compared to existing analytical methods for MeDIP-seq data alone. M&M leverages the complementary nature of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data to allow rapid comparative analysis between whole methylomes at a fraction of the cost of WGBS. Comprehensive analysis of nineteen human DNA methylomes with M&M reveals distinct DNA methylation patterns among different tissue types, cell types, and individuals, potentially underscoring divergent epigenetic regulation at different scales of phenotypic diversity. We find that differential DNA methylation at enhancer elements, with concurrent changes in histone modifications and transcription factor binding, is common at the cell, tissue, and individual levels, whereas promoter methylation is more prominent in reinforcing fundamental tissue identities. PMID:23804400

  5. The role of differences in individual and community attributes in perceived air quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myounghee; Yi, Okhee; Kim, Ho

    2012-05-15

    Most epidemiological studies on the adverse effects of air pollution on health have focused on scientific measurements of air quality provided by monitoring stations. However, many studies have indicated that self-reported health status, such as disease severity and depressive symptoms, are associated with perceived air pollution rather than measured air pollution. The main goal of this study was to investigate social factors that may affect perceived local air quality using a multilevel analysis among a Korean population. We used the Seoul Citizens Health Indicator Survey (SCHIS III) and five air pollutants. The total study population was 16,041. We considered individual-level and community-level variables that may affect perceived air quality, such as the percentage of college-educated individuals aged >20 years, satisfaction with public transportation, and the percentage of individuals below the poverty line. Measured air quality showed a negative or neutral relationship with perceived air quality. We found that the degree of perceived air pollution was associated with younger age (20-34 years; OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.18-1.65), married and divorced/separated/widowed people, a higher level of education (>17 years; OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.30-2.15), and lower household income. Communities that were more economically deprived were associated with poor perceived air quality. Differences in individual and community characteristics affected perceived air quality. Perception is a key factor influencing the public acceptance of environmental policy. This study may help policymakers understand the social distribution of environmental awareness. PMID:22483745

  6. Individual differences in white matter anatomy predict dissociable components of reading skill in adults.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments. PMID:24704456

  7. Individual Differences in Infant Temperament Predict Social Relationships of Yearling Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A.R.; Capitanio, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Affiliative relationship formation in nonhuman primates is known to be influenced by kinship, rank, and sex, but such factors do not fully explain observed variation in primate social relations. Individual differences in temperament have a number of important behavioural and physiological correlates that might influence relationship formation. We observed 57 yearling rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center for 10 weeks to determine whether individual differences in temperament relate to the number and quality of affiliative relationships formed with peers. Subjects’ temperament characteristics had previously been quantified during a colony-wide biobehavioural assessment at 90–120 days of age. Yearlings that had scored high on Equability (demonstrating calmness and low levels of physical activity) as infants had fewer peer relationships compared to animals low on this dimension. Additionally, yearlings preferentially affiliated with peers that were similar to themselves in Equability as well as in Adaptability (reflecting the degree of behavioural flexibility that subjects displayed during the biobehavioural assessment). Although kinship, rank, and sex influenced relationship formation as expected, temperament remained a significant predictor of affiliative preferences even after controlling for these variables. Our findings suggest that temperament is a proximate determinant of variation in affiliative relationship formation in group-living primates. PMID:23483039

  8. Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Childhood Trauma are Associated with Individual Differences in Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Stoltenberg, Scott F.; Lehmann, Melissa K.; Anderson, Cynthia; Nag, Parthasarathi; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT) system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531), the experience of childhood trauma and decision making on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in 391 (64.5% female) healthy Caucasian adults. Homozygosity for the 5-HTTLPR L allele was associated with riskier decision making in the first block of 20 trials (i.e., decision making under ambiguity, p?=?0.004). In addition, mean IGT performance was significantly worse in blocks 3–5 (i.e., decision making under risk, p???0.05) for those participants who reported experiencing higher levels of childhood trauma. Our findings add to the growing evidence that genetic variation in the 5-HT system is associated with individual differences in decision making under ambiguity; and we report that the experience of childhood trauma is associated with relatively poor decision making under risk. PMID:22303329

  9. Individual differences in bodily freezing predict emotional biases in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Verena; Huys, Quentin J. M.; Stins, John F.; Roelofs, Karin; Cools, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental decision making has long been argued to be vulnerable to emotional responses. Literature on multiple decision making systems suggests that this emotional biasing might reflect effects of a system that regulates innately specified, evolutionarily preprogrammed responses. To test this hypothesis directly, we investigated whether effects of emotional faces on instrumental action can be predicted by effects of emotional faces on bodily freezing, an innately specified response to aversive relative to appetitive cues. We tested 43 women using a novel emotional decision making task combined with posturography, which involves a force platform to detect small oscillations of the body to accurately quantify postural control in upright stance. On the platform, participants learned whole body approach-avoidance actions based on monetary feedback, while being primed by emotional faces (angry/happy). Our data evidence an emotional biasing of instrumental action. Thus, angry relative to happy faces slowed instrumental approach relative to avoidance responses. Critically, individual differences in this emotional biasing effect were predicted by individual differences in bodily freezing. This result suggests that emotional biasing of instrumental action involves interaction with a system that controls innately specified responses. Furthermore, our findings help bridge (animal and human) decision making and emotion research to advance our mechanistic understanding of decision making anomalies in daily encounters as well as in a wide range of psychopathology. PMID:25071491

  10. Plasma oxytocin explains individual differences in neural substrates of social perception

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Katie; Carter, C. Sue; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Karaoli, Themistoclis; Lillard, Travis S.; Jack, Allison; Davis, John M.; Morris, James P.; Connelly, Jessica J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social cognition and behavior. A number of studies using intranasal administration have demonstrated that oxytocin improves social perception. However, little is known about the relationship between individual differences in endogenous levels of oxytocin and social cognition. In the current study, we assessed the relationship between endogenous oxytocin and brain activity during an animacy perception paradigm. Thirty-seven male participants underwent scanning and provided a blood sample for oxytocin analysis. In line with previous research, perception of animacy was associated with activations in superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Notably, participants’ levels of plasma oxytocin robustly predicted activation in areas critical for social cognitive processes, such that higher oxytocin levels were related to increased activity in dorsal mPFC, ventral mPFC, dorsolateral PFC, superior temporal gyrus, and temporoparietal junction (TPJ), suggesting differential processing of social stimuli. Together these results show that stable variations in endogenous oxytocin levels explain individual differences in social perception. PMID:25852519

  11. Geographic differences in inter-individual variability of human exposure to fine particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with short and long term adverse health effects. The amount of ambient PM2.5 that infiltrates indoor locations such as residences depends on air exchange rate (ACH), penetration factor, and deposition rate. ACH varies by climate zone and thus by geographic location. Geographic variability in the ratio of exposure to ambient concentration is estimated based on comparison of three modeling domains in different climate zones: (1) New York City; (2) Harris County in Texas, and (3) a six-county domain along the I-40 corridor in North Carolina. Inter-individual variability in exposure to PM2.5 was estimated using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model. ACH is distinguishably the most sensitive input for both ambient and nonambient exposure to PM2.5. High ACH leads to high ambient exposure indoors but lower non-ambient exposure, and vice versa. For summer, the average ratio of exposure to ambient concentration varies by 13 percent among the selected domains, mainly because of differences in housing stock, climate zone, and seasonal ACH. High daily average exposures for some individuals are mainly caused by non-ambient exposure to smoking or cooking. The implications of these results for interpretation of epidemiological studies are discussed. PMID:23060734

  12. Genetic marker of norepinephrine synthesis predicts individual differences in post-error slowing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; de Rover, Mischa; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2013-11-01

    When our brain detects the commission of an error, we slow down immediately thereafter: a phenomenon called post-error slowing (PES). Some researchers have speculated that slowing after unexpected errors or negative feedback is related to the activity of the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. In the present pilot study, we tested whether individual differences in the size of PES are related to differences in genetic predisposition related to norepinephrine synthesis. In a sample of 100 healthy adults, we studied the dependency of an individual's size of PES on the DBH5'-ins/del polymorphism-a variation in the DBH gene associated with the production of the enzyme dopamine ?-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine. DBH5'-ins/del heterozygotes, who have intermediate levels of plasma D?H activity, showed increased PES in a Simon task compared to del/del homozygotes and ins/ins homozygotes, who have low and high levels of plasma D?H activity, respectively. This outcome pattern presents preliminary evidence that the size of PES varies with D?H activity and, presumably, NE release according to an inverted U-shape: intermediate levels of D?H activity and NE release are associated with larger post-error adjustments. PMID:23962674

  13. Inferior frontal gyrus activation predicts individual differences in perceptual learning of cochlear-implant simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Frank; McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study investigated the neural plasticity associated with perceptual learning of a cochlear implant (CI) simulation. Normal-hearing listeners were trained with vocoded and spectrally-shifted speech simulating a CI while cortical responses were measured with fMRI. A condition in which the vocoded speech was spectrally inverted provided a control for learnability and adaptation. Behavioral measures showed considerable individual variability both in the ability to learn to understand the degraded speech, and in phonological working memory capacity. Neurally, left-lateralized regions in superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were sensitive to the learnability of the simulations, but only the activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with inter-individual variation in intelligibility scores and phonological working memory. A region in left angular gyrus (AG) showed an activation pattern that reflected learning over the course of the experiment, and co-variation of activity in AG and IFG was modulated by the learnability of the stimuli. These results suggest that variation in listeners' ability to adjust to vocoded and spectrally-shifted speech is partly reflected in differences in the recruitment of higher-level language processes in prefrontal cortex, and that this variability may further depend on functional links between the left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus. Differences in the engagement of left inferior prefrontal cortex, and its co-variation with posterior parietal areas, may thus underlie some of the variation in speech perception skills that have been observed in clinical populations of CI users. PMID:20505085

  14. Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability in Emergent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Stephen J.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Mason, Graeme F.; Molfese, Peter J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Fulbright, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

  15. Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: the mediating effect of metalinguistic awareness.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming. PMID:23055121

  16. Individual differences and vulnerability to drug addiction: a focus on the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Melis, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug addiction depends upon the interactions between the biological makeup of the individual, the environment, and age. These interactions are complex and difficult to tease apart. Since dopamine is involved in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, it is postulated that innate differences in mesocorticolimbic pathway can influence the response to drug exposure. In particular, higher and lower expression of dopamine D2 receptors in the ventral striatum (i.e. a marker of dopamine function) has been considered a putative protective and a risk factor, respectively, that can influence one's susceptibility to continued drug abuse as well as the transition to addiction. This phenomenon, which is phylogenetically preserved, appears to be a compensatory change to increased impulse activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Hence, dopamine neuronal excitability plays a fundamental role in the diverse stages of the drug addiction cycle. In this review, a framework for the evidence that modulation of dopamine neuronal activity plays in the context of vulnerability to drug addiction will be presented. Furthermore, since endogenous cannabinoids serve as retrograde messengers to shape afferent neuronal activity in a short- and long-lasting fashion, their role in individual differences and vulnerability to drug addiction will be discussed. PMID:25714966

  17. Module 4 ~ Viva La Difference Sunshine State Standards for Individual Activities

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    in black are explicitly addressed by this activity. Viva Presentation · LA.4.1.5.1, LA.4.1.6.1, LA.4.1.6.2, LA.4.1.6.7, LA.4.1.7.3, LA.4.2.2.1, LA.4.5.2.1, SC.4.E.6.6, SC.4.N.1.4, SS.4.C.2.1, SS.4.E.1.2 · LA.5.1.5.1, LA.5.1.6.1, LA.5.1.6.2, LA.5.1.6.7, LA.5.1.7.3, LA.5.2.2.1, LA.5.5.2.1, SC.5.L.15.1 · LA.6.1.6.1, LA

  18. Teaching Traditional and Non-Traditional Age Individuals: How Should Methods, Expectations, and Standards Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.

    A study examined achievement and attitudes of traditional and nontraditional age students enrolled in an undergraduate behavioral sciences statistics course. Performance and attitude data were collected from a class of 25 traditional students (average age 22) and from a class of 15 nontraditional students (average age 35). The two groups were…

  19. Egocentric fairness perception: emotional reactions and individual differences in overt responses.

    PubMed

    Bediou, Benoit; Scherer, Klaus R

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research documents the existence of egocentric biases in the perception and application of justice norms. The origin of these biases remains poorly understood. We investigated both inter- and intra-individual differences in egocentric justice biases. Participants played an ultimatum game presumably with different anonymous players (simulated by a computer) in which they contributed differentially to the joint production of the initial endowment. We examined how contributions (low vs. high) affect proposers' offers and responders' acceptance decisions, as well as their fairness judgments and their emotional reactions to different types of offers (equal, equitable, unfair, and hyperfair). An egocentric bias in proposers' offers (indicating more flexible preferences) was found only in individualists and not in prosocials, suggesting differences in the motivations (or cognitions) underlying their choice of justice norms. Responders also showed egocentric biases in their judgments of fairness and in their emotional reactions to equal and equitable offers, but not in their acceptance decisions. Such dissociation might suggest that some form of emotion regulation occurred. Responders may evaluate offers on valence dimensions (e.g., goal conduciveness/outcome favorability and norm compatibility/justice) that are multiply interacting and potentially conflicting. The individual's acceptance/rejection decision reflects the relative weight attributed to competing appraisals. For this overt behavioral decision, the (personal) appraisal of outcome favorability that drives (analytical) acceptance of goal-conducive outcome seems to be stronger than the (social) appraisal of outcome fairness, which may trigger covert (emotional) rejection of offers that are incompatible with justice norms. Our data show that the emotional reaction patterns provide a more fine-grained readout of the overall evaluation of the proposer's action, the underlying emotional dynamics of which may, in real life, strongly determine future interactions with specific partners. Further research on the relationship between emotion and behavior in economic games is needed to explore potential dissociations and long-term effects. PMID:24586326

  20. Effects of Individualized and Standardized Interventions on Middle School Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa A.; Francis, David; Fletcher, Jack; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the effectiveness of a year-long, small-group, tertiary (Tier 3) intervention that examined 2 empirically derived but conceptually different treatments and a comparison condition. The researchers had randomly assigned all students to treatment or comparison conditions. The participants were seventh- and eighth-grade students…

  1. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  2. Individual Differences in Numeracy and Cognitive Reflection, with Implications for Biases and Fallacies in Probability Judgment

    PubMed Central

    LIBERALI, JORDANA M.; REYNA, VALERIE F.; FURLAN, SARAH; STEIN, LILIAN M.; PARDO, SETH T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in numeracy affect judgment and decision making, the precise mechanisms underlying how such differences produce biases and fallacies remain unclear. Numeracy scales have been developed without sufficient theoretical grounding, and their relation to other cognitive tasks that assess numerical reasoning, such as the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), has been debated. In studies conducted in Brazil and in the USA, we administered an objective Numeracy Scale (NS), Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS), and the CRT to assess whether they measured similar constructs. The Rational–Experiential Inventory, inhibition (go/no-go task), and intelligence were also investigated. By examining factor solutions along with frequent errors for questions that loaded on each factor, we characterized different types of processing captured by different items on these scales. We also tested the predictive power of these factors to account for biases and fallacies in probability judgments. In the first study, 259 Brazilian undergraduates were tested on the conjunction and disjunction fallacies. In the second study, 190 American undergraduates responded to a ratio-bias task. Across the different samples, the results were remarkably similar. The results indicated that the CRT is not just another numeracy scale, that objective and subjective numeracy scales do not measure an identical construct, and that different aspects of numeracy predict different biases and fallacies. Dimensions of numeracy included computational skills such as multiplying, proportional reasoning, mindless or verbatim matching, metacognitive monitoring, and understanding the gist of relative magnitude, consistent with dual-process theories such as fuzzy-trace theory. PMID:23878413

  3. A categorical approach to infants' individual differences during the Still-Face paradigm.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Casini, Erica; Provenzi, Livio; Putnam, Samuel P; Morandi, Francesco; Fedeli, Claudia; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-02-01

    Cluster analysis was used to create patterns of individual differences reflecting infant behaviors during the initial interaction episode of the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. The clusters were used as the basic unit of analysis for studying infant and maternal behavior and dyadic coordination (i.e., matching and reparation) across FFSF. Seventy-five 4-month-old infants participated with their mothers. Cluster analysis identified three patterns: a Socially Engaged cluster (33%) exhibited high levels of social engagement with their mothers; a Disengaged cluster (60%) showed a tendency to be low in social interaction and a Negatively Engaged cluster (7%) showed high negative emotionality. During the Still-Face episode, the Socially Engaged cluster reacted by reducing focus on their mother and shifting their attention elsewhere, while infants in the Disengaged cluster reduced focus on the environment. Although both the Socially Engaged and Disengaged clusters increased in negative emotionality during the Still-Face, the Socially Engaged group largely recovered during the Reunion, whereas the Disengaged group displayed more negative emotion. The Negatively Engaged cluster demonstrated high levels of negative affect throughout the entire procedure. Mothers of Negatively Engaged infants showed less positive engagement and more social monitoring than mothers in other clusters during all episodes. Dyadic interaction differed between groups, with greater levels of matching and reparations in the engaged group, less in the Disengaged group, and very little coordination in the Negatively Engaged cluster. Findings highlight the role of distinctive patterns of infants' individual differences in determining early dyadic functioning. PMID:25614241

  4. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities. PMID:25331895

  5. Individual differences in temperature perception: evidence of common processing of sensation intensity of warmth and cold.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Akirav, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The longstanding question of whether temperature is sensed via separate sensory systems for warmth and cold was investigated by measuring individual differences in perception of nonpainful heating and cooling. Sixty-two subjects gave separate ratings of the intensity of thermal sensations (warmth, cold) and nociceptive sensations (burning/stinging/pricking) produced by cooling (29 degrees C) or heating (37 degrees C) local regions of the forearm. Stimuli were delivered via a 4 x 4 array of 8 mm x 8 mm Peltier thermoelectric modules that enabled test temperatures to be presented sequentially to individual modules or simultaneously to the full array. Stimulation of the full array showed that perception of warmth and cold were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.83, p < 0.05). Ratings of nonpainful nociceptive sensations produced by the two temperatures were also correlated, but to a lesser degree (r = 0.44), and the associations between nociceptive and thermal sensations (r = 0.35 and 0.22 for 37 and 29 degrees C, respectively) were not significant after correction for multiple statistical tests. Intensity ratings for individual modules indicated that the number of responsive sites out of 16 was a poor predictor of temperature sensations but a significant predictor of nociceptive sensations. The very high correlation between ratings of thermal sensations conflicts with the classical view that warmth and cold are mediated by separate thermal modalities and implies that warm-sensitive and cold-sensitive spinothalamic pathways converge and undergo joint modulation in the central nervous system. Integration of thermal stimulation from the skin and body core within the thermoregulatory system is suggested as the possible source of this convergence. PMID:17558924

  6. Assimilation and Individual Differences in Emotion: The Dynamics of Anger and Approach Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Lechuga, Julia; Fernandez, Norma P.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who cross cultural boundaries face many challenges when trying to adapt to a receiving culture. Adaptation challenges such as learning to maneuver across societal domains may become increasingly complex if structural level factors such as discrimination are present. Researchers have conceptualized acculturation as a relatively autonomous decision indicating that four acculturation strategies exist: assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Moreover, researchers have also long debated the link between acculturation strategy, adaptation hassles and negative health outcomes. However, models seeking to explain how individual difference and structural level variables may influence each other and subsequently influence acculturation and adaptation are needed. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundation for the conceptualization of such a model. We propose that temperamental predispositions to negative emotionality, anger, and impulsivity may highlight discrimination which in turn may lead to increases in acculturative stress and negative markers of psychosocial well-being. We used SEM to test our hypothesized model. Results supported a modified model. Implications for the measurement of adaptation and interventions are discussed. PMID:21625350

  7. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  8. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration). PMID:21928067

  9. Predicting Individual Differences in Placebo Analgesia: Contributions of Brain Activity during Anticipation and Pain Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Leotti, Lauren A.; Rilling, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified brain correlates of placebo analgesia, but none have assessed how accurately patterns of brain activity can predict individual differences in placebo responses. We reanalyzed data from two fMRI studies of placebo analgesia (N = 47), using patterns of fMRI activity during the anticipation and experience of pain to predict new subjects’ scores on placebo analgesia and placebo-induced changes in pain processing. We used a cross-validated regression procedure, LASSO-PCR, which provided both unbiased estimates of predictive accuracy and interpretable maps of which regions are most important for prediction. Increased anticipatory activity in a frontoparietal network and decreases in a posterior insular/temporal network predicted placebo analgesia. Patterns of anticipatory activity across the cortex predicted a moderate amount of variance in the placebo response (~12% overall, ~40% for study 2 alone), which is substantial considering the multiple likely contributing factors. The most predictive regions were those associated with emotional appraisal, rather than cognitive control or pain processing. During pain, decreases in limbic and paralimbic regions most strongly predicted placebo analgesia. Responses within canonical pain-processing regions explained significant variance in placebo analgesia, but the pattern of effects was inconsistent with widespread decreases in nociceptive processing. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of emotional appraisal circuits drives individual variation in placebo analgesia, rather than early suppression of nociceptive processing. This approach provides a framework that will allow prediction accuracy to increase as new studies provide more precise information for future predictive models. PMID:21228154

  10. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation analyses controlling for general mathematics ability and general academic ability revealed that numerical and mathematical competencies were direct predictors of fraction concepts whereas domain-general competencies supported the acquisition of fraction concepts via whole-number arithmetic computations or number line estimation. Results indicate multiple pathways to fraction competence. PMID:24433246

  11. Identity motives and in-group favouritism: a new approach to individual differences in intergroup discrimination.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Moncaster, Natalie J

    2007-03-01

    Theories suggest that identity motives for self-esteem, meaning, distinctiveness and belonging are implicated in intergroup discrimination. Experimental studies have supported predictions, but correlational tests have been hindered by methodological problems. Using a new approach to measuring identity motives, we compared predictions of individual differences in in-group favouritism. Seventy British adults completed measures of identity motives, British identification and positive and negative trait typicality ratings of British and German nationalities. With greater identification, the strength of motives for distinctiveness and belonging increasingly predicted in-group favouritism: consistent with optimal distinctiveness theory, the belonging motive predicted positive ratings of the national in-group, whereas the distinctiveness motive predicted negative ratings of the national out-group. Results show the value of disentangling measures of motive strength from measures of motive satisfaction. PMID:17355720

  12. State and Trait Effects on Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Development

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Drew H.; Watts, Tyler W.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Geary, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial longitudinal relations between children's early mathematics achievement and their much later mathematics achievement are firmly established. These findings are seemingly at odds with studies showing that early educational interventions have diminishing effects on children's mathematics achievement across time. We hypothesized that individual differences in children's later mathematical knowledge are more an indicator of stable, underlying characteristics related to mathematics learning throughout development than of direct effects of early mathematical competency on later mathematical competency. We tested this hypothesis in two longitudinal data sets, by simultaneously modeling effects of latent traits (stable characteristics that influence learning across time) and states (e.g., prior knowledge) on children's mathematics achievement over time. Latent trait effects on children's mathematical development were substantially larger than state effects. Approximately 60% of the variance in trait mathematics achievement was accounted for by commonly used control variables, such as working memory, but residual trait effects remained larger than state effects. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25231900

  13. Individual and sex differences in the consequences of victimization: Moderation by approach and avoidance motivation.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D

    2014-09-01

    Peer victimization is a known risk factor for various forms of maladjustment; however, the specific type of maladjustment may depend on individual differences in youth. This 2-wave longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that social approach-avoidance motivation, together with sex, would moderate the contribution of 3rd-grade victimization to 4th-grade maladjustment. Children (N = 574, M age = 8.94, SD = 0.37) reported on their victimization exposure, social approach-avoidance motivation, and depressive symptoms. Teachers reported on students' victimization exposure and aggressive behavior. Victimization predicted aggressive behavior only in boys with moderate to high approach motivation; victimization predicted depressive symptoms only in girls with moderate to high avoidance motivation. This research elucidates the diverse consequences associated with peer victimization and informs efforts to address these consequences in a targeted manner. PMID:25019947

  14. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  15. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit. PMID:12090618

  16. Discrimination of Single Base Pair Differences Among Individual DNA Molecules Using a Nanopore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, Wenonah; DeGuzman, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The protein toxin alpha-hemolysin form nanometer scale channels across lipid membranes. Our lab uses a single channel in an artificial lipid bilayer in a patch clamp device to capture and examine individual DNA molecules. This nanopore detector used with a support vector machine (SVM) can analyze DNA hairpin molecules on the millisecond time scale. We distinguish duplex stem length, base pair mismatches, loop length, and single base pair differences. The residual current fluxes also reveal structural molecular dynamics elements. DNA end-fraying (terminal base pair dissociation) can be observed as near full blockades, or spikes, in current. This technique can be used to investigate other biological processes dependent on DNA end-fraying, such as the processing of HIV DNA by HIV integrase.

  17. Individual differences in moral judgment competence influence neural correlates of socio-normative judgments

    PubMed Central

    Wartenburger, Isabell; Mériau, Katja; Scheibe, Christina; Goodenough, Oliver R.; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the human brain, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, while 23 participants made either socio-normative or grammatical judgments. Participants with lower moral judgment competence recruited the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the left posterior superior temporal sulcus more than participants with greater competence in this domain when identifying social norm violations. Moreover, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during socio-normative relative to grammatical judgments. Greater activity in right DLPFC in participants with lower moral judgment competence indicates increased recruitment of rule-based knowledge and its controlled application during socio-normative judgments. These data support current models of the neurocognition of morality according to which both emotional and cognitive components play an important role. PMID:19015093

  18. Is reading different for deaf individuals? Reexamining the role of phonology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J

    2014-01-01

    Quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology plays in the reading process for deaf learners continues to generate much debate in the field, and little consensus exists on whether it is a necessary aspect of learning to read for this population. The present article revisits this question in terms of what is known about phonology and reading in typically developing learners, and in light of two reviews of the research from the field of deafness. The authors conclude that there is stronger empirical evidence for the argument for a relationship between phonology and reading in the population of deaf readers than for the counter-argument. PMID:25669018

  19. The Predictive Nature of Individual Differences in Early Associative Learning and Emerging Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Levitt, Pat; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Across the first year of life, infants achieve remarkable success in their ability to interact in the social world. The hierarchical nature of circuit and skill development predicts that the emergence of social behaviors may depend upon an infant's early abilities to detect contingencies, particularly socially-relevant associations. Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social, imitative, and discriminative behaviors measured across the human infant's first year. One-month learning rate was predictive of social behaviors at 5, 9, and 12 months of age as well as face-evoked discriminative neural activity at 9 months of age. Learning was not related to general cognitive abilities. These results underscore the importance of early contingency learning and suggest the presence of a basic mechanism underlying the ontogeny of social behaviors. PMID:22291971

  20. Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining.

    PubMed

    Buurmans, Inge L C; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A; Vogt, Eelco T C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2011-11-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a series of catalysts deactivated via industrial protocols, a correlation is established between Brønsted acidity and cracking activity. The generally applicable method has clear potential for catalyst diagnostics, as it determines intra- and interparticle Brønsted acidity distributions for industrial FCC materials. PMID:22024882

  1. Individual differences in motivational activation influence responses to pictures of taboo products.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Yegiyan, Narine

    2011-11-01

    In this article, the authors investigated responses to pictures of products whose use is socially or legally restricted for teens and young adults (e.g., beer, liquor, cigarettes). The authors theorized and found that these pictures are motivationally relevant and therefore elicit automatic activation in the appetitive/approach or aversive/defensive motivational systems, which leads to increased attention, arousal, emotional response, and memory for the risky products. The authors also found that these responses are mediated by individual differences in motivational reactivity. The authors suggest that placing images of these products in prevention messages may work against the prevention goal by increasing appetitive activation and positive emotion in populations more inclined to take risks. PMID:21644166

  2. Individual Differences in Nonverbal Communication: Facial and Vocal Encoding Skills. Report from the Project on Studies of Instructional Programming for the Individual Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brideau, Linda B.; Allen, Vernon L.

    This study tested the hypothesis that physical attractiveness is related to social skills in nonverbal communication. The socialization environment of persons is assumed to differ as a function of their physical attractiveness. It was predicted that physically attractive individuals would have greater opportunity than physically unattractive…

  3. Neuronal generators of posterior EEG alpha reflect individual differences in prioritizing personal spirituality

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, C. E.; Kayser, J.; Miller, L.; Warner, V.; Wickramaratne, P.; Weissman, M. M.; Bruder, G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Prominent posterior EEG alpha is associated with depression and clinical response to antidepressants. Given that religious belief was protective against depression in a longitudinal study of familial risk, we hypothesized that individuals who differed by strength of spiritual beliefs might also differ in EEG alpha. Clinical evaluations and self-reports of the importance of religion or spirituality (R/S) were obtained from 52 participants, and again at 10-y followup when EEG was measured. EEG alpha was quantified using frequency PCA of current source densities (CSD-fPCA). Participants who rated R/S as highly important at initial assessment showed greater alpha compared to those who did not. Those who rated R/S important in both sessions showed greater alpha than those who changed their ratings. EEG differences were particularly well-defined for participants with lifetime depression. Findings extend the view of alpha as a marker for affective processes, suggesting an association with the ontogenesis of spirituality. PMID:23998996

  4. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens' arithmetic scores

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Wang, Yunqi; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children's arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren. PMID:24367320

  5. The Cumulative Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption, Individual Differences and Situational Perceptions on Sexual Decision Making*

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SAENZ, CHRISTOPHER; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Past alcohol administration research has produced mixed findings regarding the role of acute alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more complex theoretical model that places alcohol's acute effects in context, through the inclusion of background measures as well as affective and cognitive responses to the specific situation. Method College students (90 men, 90 women) completed a survey that included measures of individual difference characteristics and past experiences; approximately 1 month later, they participated in an alcohol administration study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three drink conditions (sober, placebo, alcohol), after which they read a story about a couple that wanted to have sex, but had no condoms available. Results In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, acute alcohol consumption significantly predicted participants’ perceived likelihood that they would have sex without a condom in such a situation; an earlier step included gender, impulsivity, self-reported alcohol expectancies, frequency of heavy drinking, lifetime number of sexual partners and frequency of condom use. There was no significant effect associated with the expectancy that one had consumed alcohol. Neither was there a significant interaction between drink condition and self-reported alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Through the inclusion of measures of individual differences and responses to the specific situation, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the factors that affect college students’ sexual decision making, compared with laboratory studies that examine the effects of acute alcohol consumption in isolation. Alcohol consumption explained a significant yet relatively small amount of variance. Researchers need to consider the broader context to understand how intoxication influences sexual decision making. PMID:15830907

  6. The Contribution of Attentional Lapses to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Adam, Kirsten C S; Mance, Irida; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-08-01

    Attentional control and working memory capacity are important cognitive abilities that substantially vary between individuals. Although much is known about how attentional control and working memory capacity relate to each other and to constructs like fluid intelligence, little is known about how trial-by-trial fluctuations in attentional engagement impact trial-by-trial working memory performance. Here, we employ a novel whole-report memory task that allowed us to distinguish between varying levels of attentional engagement in humans performing a working memory task. By characterizing low-performance trials, we can distinguish between models in which working memory performance failures are caused by either (1) complete lapses of attention or (2) variations in attentional control. We found that performance failures increase with set-size and strongly predict working memory capacity. Performance variability was best modeled by an attentional control model of attention, not a lapse model. We examined neural signatures of performance failures by measuring EEG activity while participants performed the whole-report task. The number of items correctly recalled in the memory task was predicted by frontal theta power, with decreased frontal theta power associated with poor performance on the task. In addition, we found that poor performance was not explained by failures of sensory encoding; the P1/N1 response and ocular artifact rates were equivalent for high- and low-performance trials. In all, we propose that attentional lapses alone cannot explain individual differences in working memory performance. Instead, we find that graded fluctuations in attentional control better explain the trial-by-trial differences in working memory that we observe. PMID:25811710

  7. Regional brain shrinkage over two years: individual differences and effects of pro-inflammatory genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Persson, N; Ghisletta, P; Dahle, C L; Bender, A R; Yang, Y; Yuan, P; Daugherty, A M; Raz, N

    2014-12-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N=167, age 19-79years at baseline; N=90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the Hc, CbH, In, OF, and PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants modified shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1? (IL-1? C-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ?4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC, thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  8. Individual differences in vagal regulation are related to testosterone responses to observed violence.

    PubMed

    Porges, Eric C; Smith, Karen E; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Observing violent content has been hypothesized to facilitate antisocial behaviors including interpersonal violence. Testosterone is released in response to perceived challenges of social status, often followed by an increase in aggressive behaviors and physiological activation. Prior investigations evaluating the impact of observing violence on autonomic function have focused on sympathetic measures of arousal. Measurement of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity has been neglected, although reduced PNS activity has been associated with antisocial behavior. Consistent with a hierarchical model of the autonomic nervous system (i.e., polyvagal theory), individual differences in PNS activity reflected in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were hypothesized to have an inhibitory impact on sympathetic and hormonal reactivity in subjects who were observing a violent video. Autonomic data (i.e., electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate, and RSA) were collected from forty adult males prior to and while viewing violent sports or a control video. Pre- and post-video saliva samples were assayed for cortisol and testosterone. Participants who viewed the violent video showed increased sympathetic activity compared to controls. In contrast to the sympathetic reactivity to the violent video, there were no significant RSA changes in response to the stimuli, suggesting that viewing violent sports selectively increases sympathetic activity without eliciting PNS withdrawal. However, within the group viewing the violent video, participants with lower RSA during baseline and the observation of violent videos, responded with greater increases in salivary testosterone, suggesting that high parasympathetic tone dampens testosterone reactivity. These individual differences in response to observed violence, associated with higher RSA, may account for some of the improved health, growth, and restoration outcomes across the lifespan, that this segment of the population benefits from. PMID:25759673

  9. Some Factors Underlying Individual Differences in Speech Recognition on PRESTO: A First Report

    PubMed Central

    Tamati, Terrin N.; Gilbert, Jaimie L.; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating speech recognition in adverse listening conditions have found extensive variability among individual listeners. However, little is currently known about the core, underlying factors that influence speech recognition abilities. Purpose To investigate sensory, perceptual, and neurocognitive differences between good and poor listeners on PRESTO, a new high-variability sentence recognition test under adverse listening conditions. Research Design Participants who fell in the upper quartile (HiPRESTO listeners) or lower quartile (LoPRESTO listeners) on key word recognition on sentences from PRESTO in multitalker babble completed a battery of behavioral tasks and self-report questionnaires designed to investigate real-world hearing difficulties, indexical processing skills, and neurocognitive abilities. Study Sample Young, normal-hearing adults (N = 40) from the Indiana University community participated in the current study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants’ assessment of their own real-world hearing difficulties was measured with a self-report questionnaire on situational hearing and hearing health history. Indexical processing skills were assessed using a talker discrimination task, a gender discrimination task, and a forced-choice regional dialect categorization task. Neurocognitive abilities were measured with the Auditory Digit Span Forward (verbal short-term memory) and Digit Span Backward (verbal working memory) tests, the Stroop Color and Word Test (attention/inhibition), the WordFam word familiarity test (vocabulary size), the BRIEF-A self-report questionnaire on executive function, and two performance subtests of the WASI Performance IQ (non-verbal intelligence). Scores on self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks were tallied and analyzed by listener group (HiPRESTO and LoPRESTO). Results The extreme groups did not differ overall on self-reported hearing difficulties in real-world listening environments. However, an item-by-item analysis of questions revealed that LoPRESTO listeners reported significantly greater difficulty understanding speakers in a public place. HiPRESTO listeners were significantly more accurate than LoPRESTO listeners at gender discrimination and regional dialect categorization, but they did not differ on talker discrimination accuracy or response time, or gender discrimination response time. HiPRESTO listeners also had longer forward and backward digit spans, higher word familiarity ratings on the WordFam test, and lower (better) scores for three individual items on the BRIEF-A questionnaire related to cognitive load. The two groups did not differ on the Stroop Color and Word Test or either of the WASI performance IQ subtests. Conclusions HiPRESTO listeners and LoPRESTO listeners differed in indexical processing abilities, short-term and working memory capacity, vocabulary size, and some domains of executive functioning. These findings suggest that individual differences in the ability to encode and maintain highly detailed episodic information in speech may underlie the variability observed in speech recognition performance in adverse listening conditions using high-variability PRESTO sentences in multitalker babble. PMID:24047949

  10. Research on Standard Errors of Equating Differences. Research Report. ETS RR-10-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the "standard error of equating difference" (SEED) is described in terms of originally proposed kernel equating functions (von Davier, Holland, & Thayer, 2004) and extended to incorporate traditional linear and equipercentile functions. These derivations expand on prior developments of SEEDs and standard errors of equating and…

  11. Graphic 4 There are at least eight different awards that individuals with a research doctorate should

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    of their research program. Individuals interested in Stem Cell research or Quantitative Methods in Stem Cell Research (K18) the Academic Career Award (K07), the Mentored with a research doctorate should consider. Most of these awards support individuals

  12. Relationship Status and Relationship Instability, but Not Dominance, Predict Individual Differences in Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Wilson, M. Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes. PMID:24358324

  13. Age related differences in individual quality of life domains in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A Wagner; Gina Abbott; Syretta Lett

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating individual, as opposed to predetermined, quality of life domains may yield important information about quality of life. This study investigated the individual quality of life domains nominated by youth with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Eighty young people attending a diabetes summer camp completed the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting interview, which allows respondents

  14. Calorimetric thermal voltage converter as a wideband calculable standard of AC-DC difference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr S. Filipski; Richard F. Clark; David C. Paulusse

    1999-01-01

    A calorimetric thermal voltage converter is used at the National Research Council of Canada as a high-frequency reference standard of the Ac-DC transfer difference. This paper describes its redesigned realization with an optimized frequency characteristic. Results presented in the paper show that it can be used as a standard of AC-DC difference in the 1 Hz to 100 MHz frequency

  15. Convergence and divergence across construction methods for human brain white matter networks: An assessment based on individual differences.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Gong, Gaolang

    2015-05-01

    Using diffusion MRI, a number of studies have investigated the properties of whole-brain white matter (WM) networks with differing network construction methods (node/edge definition). However, how the construction methods affect individual differences of WM networks and, particularly, if distinct methods can provide convergent or divergent patterns of individual differences remain largely unknown. Here, we applied 10 frequently used methods to construct whole-brain WM networks in a healthy young adult population (57 subjects), which involves two node definitions (low-resolution and high-resolution) and five edge definitions (binary, FA weighted, fiber-density weighted, length-corrected fiber-density weighted, and connectivity-probability weighted). For these WM networks, individual differences were systematically analyzed in three network aspects: (1) a spatial pattern of WM connections, (2) a spatial pattern of nodal efficiency, and (3) network global and local efficiencies. Intriguingly, we found that some of the network construction methods converged in terms of individual difference patterns, but diverged with other methods. Furthermore, the convergence/divergence between methods differed among network properties that were adopted to assess individual differences. Particularly, high-resolution WM networks with differing edge definitions showed convergent individual differences in the spatial pattern of both WM connections and nodal efficiency. For the network global and local efficiencies, low-resolution and high-resolution WM networks for most edge definitions consistently exhibited a highly convergent pattern in individual differences. Finally, the test-retest analysis revealed a decent temporal reproducibility for the patterns of between-method convergence/divergence. Together, the results of the present study demonstrated a measure-dependent effect of network construction methods on the individual difference of WM network properties. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1995-2013, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641208

  16. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. PMID:22940641

  17. Gender differences in steady-state levels of oxidative damage to DNA in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Proteggente, Anna R; England, Timothy G; Rehman, Almas; Rice-Evans, Catherine A; Halliwell, Barry

    2002-02-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has often been used as a biomarker for oxidative stress and more specifically for cancer risk. Indeed, the measurement of oxidative damage to DNA, particularly of 8-hydroxyguanine (8OHG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), has been adopted as a method for establishing the effects of antioxidant supplementation towards protection from certain cancers, cardiovascular and neuro-degenerative diseases, both in patients and healthy individuals. However, reported levels of 8OHdG or 8OHG vary considerably, possibly due to the different methodologies used, and only few data are available for the non-smoking and the female population. In this paper, steady-state levels of oxidative damage to DNA measured in a group of 20 males and 19 females are reported. Significant gender differences in levels of modified DNA bases such as 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FAPy guanine), 8-hydroxyadenine (8OHA) and 5-hydroxycytosine (5OHC), measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were observed. The results are discussed in relation to the Vitamin C and iron status of the subjects and to the existing, yet limited, literature data. The role of gender in predisposition to oxidative damage to DNA needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11999383

  18. Prism adaptation power on spatial cognition: adaptation to different optical deviations in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Michel, Carine; Cruz, Remy

    2015-03-17

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the minimal optical deviation responsible for cognitive after-effects in healthy individuals and to explore whether there was a relationship between the degree of optical deviation and cognitive after-effects. Therefore different leftward optical deviations (8°, 10° and 15°) were used in three different groups of healthy participants. Sensorimotor after-effects (evaluating the visuo-manual realignment) were assessed using an open-loop pointing task and cognitive after-effects (evaluating changes in spatial representation) were assessed using manual and perceptual (landmark) line bisection tasks. Results revealed that exposure to 8°, 10° and 15° optical shifts produced sensorimotor after-effects. In contrast, the occurrence of cognitive after-effects depended on the optical deviation. Adaptation to an 8° leftward optical deviation did not produce cognitive after-effects. Adaptation to a 10° leftward optical deviation was responsible for after-effects in the manual line bisection task only. Adaptation to a 15° leftward optical deviation produced after-effects in both the manual and perceptual line bisection tasks. All cognitive after-effects were rightward and were similar to mild, neglect-like manifestations. Both sensorimotor and cognitive after-effects were correlated with the degree of optical deviation. Our results are of methodological and theoretical interest to those interested in sensorimotor plasticity and spatial cognition. PMID:25660233

  19. Explaining interindividual differences in toddlers' collaboration with unfamiliar peers: individual, dyadic, and social factors

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmacher, Nils; Kärtner, Joscha

    2015-01-01

    During their third year of life, toddlers become increasingly skillful at coordinating their actions with peer partners and they form joint commitments in collaborative situations. However, little effort has been made to explain interindividual differences in collaboration among toddlers. Therefore, we examined the relative influence of distinct individual, dyadic, and social factors on toddlers' collaborative activities (i.e., level of coordination and preference for joint activity) in joint problem-solving situations with unfamiliar peer partners (n = 23 dyads aged M = 35.7 months). We analyzed the dyadic nonindependent data with mixed models. Results indicated that mothers' expectations regarding their children's social behaviors significantly predicted toddlers' level of coordination. Furthermore, the models revealed that toddlers' positive mutual experiences with the unfamiliar partner assessed during an initial free play period (Phase 1) and their level of coordination in an obligatory collaboration task (Phase 2) promoted toddlers' preference for joint activity in a subsequent optional collaboration task (Phase 3). In contrast, children's mastery motivation and shyness conflicted with their collaborative efforts. We discuss the role of parents' socialization goals in toddlers' development toward becoming active collaborators and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the differences in toddlers' commitment to joint activities, namely social preferences and the trust in reliable cooperation partners. PMID:25983696

  20. Individual Differences in Automatic Emotion Regulation Affect the Asymmetry of the LPP Component

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP) when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS). Two participant groups were categorized by the Emotion Regulation-Implicit Association Test which has been used in previous research to identify two groups of participants with automatic emotion control and with automatic emotion express. The main finding was that automatic emotion express group showed a right dominance of the LPP component at posterior electrodes, especially in high arousal conditions. But no right dominance of the LPP component was observed for automatic emotion control group. We also found the group with automatic emotion control showed no differences in the right posterior LPP amplitude between high- and low-arousal emotion conditions, while the participants with automatic emotion express showed larger LPP amplitude in the right posterior in high-arousal conditions compared to low-arousal conditions. This result suggested that AER (Automatic emotion regulation) modulated the hemispheric asymmetry of LPP on posterior electrodes and supported the right hemisphere hypothesis. PMID:24523881

  1. Phenotypic differences in individuals with autism spectrum disorder born preterm and at term gestation.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Katherine; Wink, Logan K; Pottenger, Amy; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the phenotype of males and females with autism spectrum disorder born preterm versus those born at term. Descriptive statistical analyses identified differences between male and female autism spectrum disorder subjects born preterm compared to term for several phenotypic characteristics and comorbidities. Of the 115 (13.0% of 883) born preterm, a greater percentage of males had sleep apnea (13.8% vs 2.5%, p?differences were observed, especially among males. The results may have implications for understanding the underpinnings of a subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and contribute to the development of focused treatments for autism spectrum disorder among children born preterm. PMID:25192860

  2. The detrimental effect of interference in multiplication facts storing: typical development and individual differences.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-12-01

    The difficulty in memorizing arithmetic facts is a general and persistent hallmark of math learning disabilities. It has recently been suggested that hypersensitivity to interference could prevent a person from storing arithmetic facts. The similarity between arithmetic facts would provoke interference, and learners who are hypersensitive to interference would therefore encounter difficulties in storing arithmetic facts in long-term memory. In this study, we created a measure of the interference weight for each multiplication by measuring the overlap of digits between multiplications. First, we tested whether the interference parameter could predict performance across multiplications by analyzing the data from undergraduates published by Campbell (1997). The interference parameter substantially predicted performance across multiplications. Similarly, the performance across multiplications was substantially determined by the interference parameter in 3rd-grade children, 5th-grade children, and undergraduates we tested. Second, we tested whether people with poor arithmetic facts abilities were particularly sensitive to the interference parameter. We tested this hypothesis in typical development by analyzing the data from the 3rd-grade children, 5th-grade children, and undergraduates. We analyzed data with regard to atypical development from a published case study of dyscalculia as well as from 4th-grade children, with either poor or good multiplication skills, tested twice 1 year apart. Results showed that the individual sensitivity to the interference parameter determined part of the individual differences in multiplication performance in all data sets. These findings show that the learning of multiplications is particularly interference prone because of feature overlap and that people who are sensitive to this parameter therefore encounter difficulties in memorizing arithmetic facts. PMID:25347536

  3. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar Pammi, V S; Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-04-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. PMID:25923684

  4. The Effects of Subjective Time Pressure and Individual Differences on Hypotheses Generation and Action Prioritization in Police Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alison, Laurence; Doran, Bernadette; Long, Matthew L.; Power, Nicola; Humphrey, Amy

    2013-01-01

    When individuals perceive time pressure, they decrease the generation of diagnostic hypotheses and prioritize information. This article examines whether individual differences in (a) internal time urgency, (b) experience, and (c) fluid mental ability can moderate these effects. Police officers worked through a computer-based rape investigative…

  5. Individual Differences in the Effects of Perceived Controllability on Pain Perception: Critical Role of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim V. Salomons; Tom Johnstone; Misha-miroslav Backonja; Alexander J. Shackman; Richard J. Davidson

    2007-01-01

    The degree to which perceived controllability alters the way a stressor is experienced varies greatly among individuals. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activation associated with individual differences in the impact of perceived controllability on self-reported pain perception. Subjects with greater activation in response to uncontrollable (UC) rather than controllable (C) pain in the pregenual anterior

  6. Transient Increase in Homocysteine but Not Hyperhomocysteinemia during Acute Exercise at Different Intensities in Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Egan, Brendan; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel Enrique; Peñalvo, José Luis; González-Medina, Antonio; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; O’Gorman, Donal J.; Úbeda, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B12, and B6) in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18–27 yr) took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI) and 80% VO2peak (high intensity, HI). Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h), during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min), and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h). Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0–10.1) µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0) and HI (9.4 (8.2–10.6) µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0), coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B12, and B6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations. PMID:23236449

  7. Black–White Differences in Severity of Coronary Artery Disease Among Individuals with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Jeff; Conigliaro, Joseph; Good, C Bernie; Hanusa, Barbara H; Macpherson, David S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the extent of coronary obstructive disease is similar among black and white patients with acute coronary syndromes. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS We used administrative discharge data to identify white and black male patients, 30 years of age or older, who were discharged between October 1, 1989 and September 30, 1995 from 1 of 6 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable angina (UnA) and who underwent coronary angiography during the admission. We excluded patients if they did not meet standard clinical criteria for AMI or UnA or if they had had prior percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Physician reviewers classified the degree of coronary obstruction from blinded coronary angiography reports. Obstruction was considered significant if there was at least 50% obstruction of the left main coronary artery, or if there was 70% obstruction in 1 of the 3 major epicardial vessels or their main branches. Of the 628 eligible patients, 300 (48%) had AMI. Among patients with AMI, blacks were more likely than whites to have no significant coronary obstructions (28/145, or 19%, vs 10/155 or 7%, P = .001). Similarly, among patients with UnA, 33% (56/168) of blacks but just 17% (27/160) of whites had no significant stenoses (P = .012). There were no racial differences in severity of coronary disease among veterans with at least 1 significant obstruction. Racial differences in coronary obstructions remained after correcting for coronary disease risk factors and characteristics of the AMI. CONCLUSIONS Black veterans who present with acute coronary insufficiency are less likely than whites to have significant coronary obstruction. Current understanding of coronary disease does not provide an explanation for these differences.

  8. Age-related differences in plumage characteristics of male tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor : hue and brightness signal different aspects of individual quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Paul Bitton; Russell D. Dawson

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in plumage characteristics of birds can be the result of differential survival of more ornamented individuals, within-individual changes in plumage attributes with age, or a combination of both. In this study, we investigated age-class related differences in plumage attributes of male tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor by performing both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Male tree swallows in their first

  9. Otolith signals contribute to inter-individual differences in the perception of gravity-centered space.

    PubMed

    Cian, C; Barraud, P A; Paillard, A C; Hidot, S; Denise, P; Ventre-Dominey, J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate (1) the relative contribution of the egocentric reference as well as body orientation perception to visual horizon percept during tilt or during increased gravito-inertial acceleration (GiA, hypergravity environment) conditions and (2) the role of vestibular signals in the inter-individual differences observed in these perceptual modalities. Perceptual estimates analysis showed that backward tilt induced (1) an elevation of the visual horizon, (2) an elevation of the egocentric estimation (visual straight ahead) and (3) an overestimation of body tilt. The increase in the magnitude of GiA induced (1) a lowering of the apparent horizon, (2) a lowering of the straight ahead and (3) a perception of backward tilt. Overall, visual horizon percept can be expressed as the combination of body orientation perception and egocentric estimation. When assessing otolith reactivity using off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), only visual egocentric estimation was significantly correlated with horizontal OVAR performance. On the one hand, we found a correlation between a low modulation amplitude of the otolith responses and straight ahead accuracy when the head axis was tilted relative to gravity. On the other hand, the bias of otolith responses was significantly correlated with straight ahead accuracy when subjects were submitted to an increase in the GiA. Thus, straight ahead sense would be dependent to some extent to otolith function. These results are discussed in terms of the contribution of otolith inputs in the overall multimodal integration subtending spatial constancy. PMID:24430025

  10. How is phonological processing related to individual differences in children's arithmetic skills?

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present hypothesis that there exists a highly specific association between phonological awareness and single-digit arithmetic with relatively small problem sizes. The present study examined this association in 37 typically developing fourth and fifth grade children. Regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was specifically and uniquely related to arithmetic problems with a small but not large problem size. Further analysis indicated that problems with a high probability of being solved by retrieval, but not those typically associated with procedural problem-solving strategies, are correlated with phonological awareness. The specific association between phonological awareness and arithmetic problems with a small problem size and those for which a retrieval strategy is most common was maintained even after controlling for general reading ability and phonological short-term memory. The present findings indicate that the quality of children's long-term phonological representations mediates individual differences in single-digit arithmetic, suggesting that more distinct long-term phonological representations are related to more efficient arithmetic fact retrieval. PMID:20443971

  11. Individual differences in acute alcohol impairment of inhibitory control predict ad libitum alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Research has begun to examine how acute cognitive impairment from alcohol could contribute to alcohol abuse. Specifically, alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control could compromise the drinker’s ability to stop the self-administration of alcohol, increasing the risk of binge drinking. Objective The present study was designed to test this hypothesis by examining the relation between acute alcohol impairment of inhibitory control and alcohol consumption during a single drinking episode. Materials and methods Twenty-six healthy adults performed a cued go/no-go task that measured inhibitory control. The study tested the degree to which their inhibitory control was impaired by a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) versus a placebo and the extent to which individual differences in this impairment predicted levels of alcohol consumption as assessed by ad lib drinking in the laboratory. Results In accord with the hypothesis, greater impairment of inhibitory control from alcohol was associated with increased ad lib consumption. Conclusion Acute impairment of inhibitory control might be an important cognitive effect that contributes to abuse in addition to the positive rewarding effects of the drug. PMID:18758758

  12. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Individual Workplace Injury Risk Trajectories: 1988–1998

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. I examined workplace injury risk over time and across racial/ethnic and gender groups to observe patterns of change and to understand how occupational characteristics and job mobility influence these changes. Methods. I used hierarchical generalized linear models to estimate individual workplace injury and illness risk over time (“trajectories”) for a cohort of American workers who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988–1998). Results. Significant temporal variation in injury risk was observed across racial/ethnic and gender groups. At baseline, White men had a high risk of injury relative to the other groups and experienced the greatest decline over time. Latino men demonstrated a pattern of lower injury risk across time compared with White men. Among both Latinos and non-Latino Whites, women had lower odds of injury than did men. Non-Latino Black women's injury risk was similar to Black men's and greater than that for both Latino and non-Latino White women. Occupational characteristics and job mobility partly explained these differences. Conclusions. Disparities between racial/ethnic and gender groups were dynamic and changed over time. Workplace injury risk was associated with job dimensions such as work schedule, union representation, health insurance, job hours, occupational racial segregation, and occupational environmental hazards. PMID:18235072

  13. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    PubMed Central

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; King, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality. PMID:12379153

  14. The Perennial Debate: Nature, Nurture, or Choice? Black and White Americans' Explanations for Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Gelman, Susan A.; Feldbaum, Merle; Sheldon, Jane P.; Petty, Elizabeth M.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three common explanations for human characteristics: genes, the environment, and choice. Based on data from a representative sample of White and Black Americans, respondents indicated how much they believed each factor influenced individual differences in athleticism, nurturance, drive, math ability, violence, intelligence, and sexual orientation. Results show that across traits: 1) Black respondents generally favor choice and reject genetic explanations, whereas White respondents indicate less causal consistency; 2) although a sizeable subset of respondents endorse just one factor, most report multiple factors as at least partly influential; and 3) among White respondents greater endorsement of genetic explanations is associated with less acceptance of choice and the environment, although among Black respondents a negative relationship holds only between genes and choice. The social relevance of these findings is discussed within the context of the attribution, essentialism and lay theory literature. The results underscore the need to consider more complex and nuanced issues than are implied by the simplistic, unidimensional character of the nature/nurture and determinism/free will debates — perennial controversies that have significance in the current genomic era. PMID:20072661

  15. Individual Differences in Amygdala Activity Predict Response Speed during Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Alexandre; Braver, Todd S.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Yarkoni, Tal; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    The human amygdala has classically been viewed as a brain structure primarily related to emotions and dissociated from higher cognition. We report here findings suggesting that the human amygdala also has a role in supporting working memory (WM), a canonical higher cognitive function. In a first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study (n = 53), individual differences in amygdala activity predicted behavioral performance in a 3-back WM task. Specifically, higher event-related amygdala amplitude predicted faster response time (RT; r = ?0.64), with no loss of accuracy. This relationship was not contingent on mood state, task content, or personality variables. In a second fMRI study (n = 21), we replicated the key finding (r = ?0.47) and further showed that the correlation between the amygdala and faster RT was specific to a high working memory load condition (3-back) compared with a low working memory load condition (1-back). These results support models of amygdala function that can account for its involvement not only in emotion but also higher cognition. PMID:17021168

  16. Individual differences in trait motivational reactivity influence children and adolescents' responses to pictures of taboo products.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Lee, Sungkyoung

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how children and adolescents respond to pictures of products whose use, for them, is socially or legally restricted (e.g., beer, liquor, cigarettes). It was theorized and found that these pictures, referred to as taboo, elicit an automatic motivational activation whose direction and intensity are influenced by age and individual differences in defensive system activation. Results show that 11-12-year-old children demonstrate primarily aversive responses to taboo products, 13-15-year-old children have less aversive responses, and 16-17-year-old children have mixed appetitive and aversive motivational responses. Further, those with high defensive system activation show larger aversive and smaller appetitive responses across the age groups. These results suggest that placing pictures of these products in prevention messages may work for the prevention goal of reduced experimentation and risk in younger children but against the prevention goal for the older children who may be more likely to be exposed to opportunities for experimentation and use. PMID:24730592

  17. Beetle adhesive hairs differ in stiffness and stickiness: in vivo adhesion measurements on individual setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James M. R.; Federle, Walter

    2011-05-01

    Leaf beetles are able to climb on smooth and rough surfaces using arrays of micron-sized adhesive hairs (setae) of varying morphology. We report the first in vivo adhesive force measurements of individual setae in the beetle Gastrophysa viridula, using a smooth polystyrene substrate attached to a glass capillary micro-cantilever. The beetles possess three distinct adhesive pads on each leg which differ in function and setal morphology. Visualisation of pull-offs allowed forces to be measured for each tarsal hair type. Male discoidal hairs adhered with the highest forces (919 ± 104 nN, mean ± SE), followed by spatulate (582 ± 59 nN) and pointed (127 ± 19 nN) hairs. Discoidal hairs were stiffer in the normal direction (0.693 ± 0.111 N m-1) than spatulate (0.364 ± 0.039 N m-1) or pointed (0.192 ± 0.044 N m-1) hairs. The greater adhesion on smooth surfaces and the higher stability of discoidal hairs help male beetles to achieve strong adhesion on the elytra of females during copulation. A comparison of pull-off forces measured for single setae and whole pads (arrays) revealed comparable levels of adhesive stress. This suggests that beetles are able to achieve equal load sharing across their adhesive pads so that detachment through peeling is prevented.

  18. The effects of different types of individually ventilated caging systems on growing male mice.

    PubMed

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Alexakos, Pavlos; Eleni, Konsolaki; Doulou, Athanasia; Paschidis, Kostantinos; Baumans, Vera

    2012-07-01

    Ventilation rate and turnover rate of dry air vary among different types of ventilation systems used with individually ventilated cages (IVCs) and can affect the well-being of rodents housed in these cages. The authors compared the effects of two types of IVC systems, forced-air IVCs and motor-free IVCs, on 4-week-old C57Bl/6J male mice. The mice were acclimatized to the cages for 8 d and then monitored for 87 d. Their body weights, food and water consumption and preferred resting areas were recorded. Mice that were housed in motor-free IVCs had a significantly greater increase in body weight than those housed in forced-air IVCs, despite having similar food consumption. Mice in forced-air IVCs had greater water consumption than mice in motor-free IVCs. In addition, mice in forced-air IVCs were more frequently located in the front halves of their cages, whereas mice in motor-free IVCs were located with similar frequency in the front and back halves of their cages, perhaps because of the higher ventilation rate or the location of the air inlets and outlets in the rear of the cage. These results suggest that body weight, food and water consumption and intracage location of growing male mice are influenced by the type of ventilation system used in the cages in which the mice are housed. PMID:22718240

  19. Comparison of Atlantic salmon individuals with different outcomes of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) associated with significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry. CMS is diagnosed with a severe inflammation and degradation of myocardial tissue caused by a double-stranded RNA virus named piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), with structural similarities to the Totiviridae family. In the present study we characterized individual host responses and genomic determinants of different disease outcomes. Results From time course studies of experimentally infected Atlantic salmon post-smolts, fish exhibited different outcomes of infection and disease. High responder (HR) fish were characterized with sustained and increased viral load and pathology in heart tissue. Low responder (LR) fish showed declining viral load from 6–10?weeks post infection (wpi) and absence of pathology. Global gene expression (SIQ2.0 oligonucleotide microarray) in HR and LR hearts during infection was compared, in order to characterize differences in the host response and to identify genes with expression patterns that could explain or predict the different outcomes of disease. Virus-responsive genes involved in early antiviral and innate immune responses were upregulated equally in LR and HR at the first stage (2–4 wpi), reflecting the initial increase in virus replication. Repression of heart muscle development was identified by gene ontology enrichment analyses, indicating the early onset of pathology. By six weeks both responder groups had comparable viral load, while increased pathology was observed in HR fish. This was reflected by induced expression of genes implicated in apoptosis and cell death mechanisms, presumably related to lymphocyte regulation and survival. In contrast, LR fish showed earlier activation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways. At the late stage of infection, increased pathology and viral load in HR was accompanied by a broad activation of genes involved in adaptive immunity and particularly T cell responses, probably reflecting the increased infiltration and homing of virus-specific T cells to the infected heart. This was in sharp contrast to LR fish, where recovery and reduced viral load was associated with a significantly reduced transcription of adaptive immunity genes and activation of genes involved in energy metabolism. Conclusions In contrast to LR, a stronger and sustained expression of genes involved in adaptive immune responses in heart tissue of HR at the late stage of disease probably reflected the increased lymphocyte infiltration and pathological outcome. In addition to controlled adaptive immunity and activation of genes involved in cardiac energy metabolism in LR at the late stage, recovery of this group could also be related to an earlier activation of NOD-like receptor signaling and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathways. PMID:22646522

  20. A meta-analysis of differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-07-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did individuals with HFA; (b) individuals with AspD had significantly higher VIQ than PIQ; and (c) VIQ was similar to PIQ in individuals with HFA. These findings seem to suggest that AspD and HFA are two different subtypes of Autism. The implications of the present findings to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed. PMID:24362849