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1

Technology and Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different

Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

1994-01-01

2

Individual Differences in Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

Haviland, Jeannette

3

A cognitive neuroscience based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: Standardization and initial construct validation  

PubMed Central

There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1 hour and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individual differences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multisite genetic studies and clinical trials. PMID:19945485

Gur, Ruben C.; Richard, Jan; Hughett, Paul; Calkins, Monica E.; Macy, Larry; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen; Gur, Raquel E.

2009-01-01

4

Individual Differences in Equity Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

Hofmans, Joeri

2012-01-01

5

Individual differences in pain responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of pain is characterized by tremendous inter-individual variability. Indeed, an identical noxious stimulus\\u000a can produce vastly different pain responses across individuals. Historically, scientists have regarded this vari-ability as\\u000a a nuisance; however, substantial data suggest that these individual differences may provide valuable informa-tion that can\\u000a be used to enhance clinical management of pain. This paper discusses several factors that

Roger B. Fillingim

2005-01-01

6

Individual Learner Differences in SLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

2011-01-01

7

Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reading comprehension was studied as a function of individual differences in extraversion-introversion, neuroticism and academic and resultant achievement motivation. Seventy-eight college students were categorized into personality or motive groups on the basis of personality test scores, dividing the distribution into top, middle and bottom thirds. Academic achievement motivation was assessed by a recently developed measure previously used with British students;

Frank H. Farley; Anthony L. Truog

1970-01-01

8

Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

2012-01-01

9

Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

Field, Tiffany

1989-01-01

10

A Short Guide to Understanding Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-part guide is designed to help community college instructors understand and respond to individual differences in their students. First, the preface lays out a framework for an in-depth examination of individual learning differences by posing the following questions: (1) Is learning a single function or a composite of different types of…

Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

11

Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

2011-01-01

12

An evolutionary ecology of individual differences  

PubMed Central

Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2014-01-01

13

Individual Differences in Numerical Abilities in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated "individual differences" in different aspects of early number concepts in preschoolers. Eighty 4-year-olds from Oxford nursery classes took part. They were tested on accuracy of counting sets of objects; the cardinal word principle; the order irrelevance principle; and predicting the results of repeated addition and…

Dowker, Ann

2008-01-01

14

Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01

15

Developing Teacher Sensitivity to Individual Learning Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is widely agreed that teacher sensitivity to individual learning differences (ILDs) is an integral component of effective teaching, little research has focused on how to develop this sensitivity in teachers. This study describes the reported effects of a year-long professional development course designed to sensitize 14 teachers to…

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2004-01-01

16

Research Article Individual Differences in Delay  

E-print Network

Research Article Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Relation to Intelligence, Working, Washington University ABSTRACT--Lower delay discounting (better self-control) is linked to higher (WM) processes, we assessed delay discounting, intelligence (g), WM (span tasks, 3-back task), and WM

17

Individual differences in response conflict adaptations  

PubMed Central

Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for conflicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive control to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modulation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity (WMC). Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, WMC showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict. PMID:24385971

Keye, Doris; Wilhelm, Oliver; Oberauer, Klaus; Stürmer, Birgit

2013-01-01

18

Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences.  

PubMed

We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E W; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E

2010-04-01

19

Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences  

PubMed Central

We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

2010-01-01

20

Individual Differences in Preference for Solitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research suggests that solitude can have either a positive or a negative impact on a person?s well-being. How time away from others affects people may depend on the person?s general preference for solitude. We present a scale to measure individual differences in preference for solitude. Experiments 1 and 2 report on the development of the Preference for Solitude Scale

Jerry M. Burger

1995-01-01

21

An individual difference perspective on student diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among various aspects of learning styles\\/strategies and personality dimensions to arrive at a “thicker” description of individual differences in functioning in general and in the school context in particular. An exploratory factor analysis of the subscales of the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised and the NEO-Personality Inventory provided evidence for convergent

E. Geisler-Brenstein; R. R. Schmeck; J. Hetherington

1996-01-01

22

PRRT: Defining the paradigm shift to achieve standardization and individualization.  

PubMed

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is a treatment for inoperable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. A key issue is the need to standardize the treatment and develop randomized controlled trials. Standardization would help define the characteristics of response, including progression-free survival; provide homogeneous phase II and III studies; delineate the position of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in the therapeutic algorithm for neuroendocrine tumors; and establish the basis for approval by the regulatory authorities. Standardization of treatments is the starting point to redefine the treatment paradigm from a one-size-fits-all to a personalized treatment. To delineate the treatment paradigm, treatments should be optimized for efficacy and minimization of long-term toxicity, through dosimetry, and adapted to each individual, including relevant patient characteristics. Although differences in therapy outcomes may be explained by the specific absorbed dose (or biologically effective dose), they may also be related to discrete tumor- and patient-specific features. In this respect, a particular area of investigation is the assessment of genetic elements regulating tumor cell proliferation, especially those involved in the response to cytotoxic therapies. PMID:25256058

Bodei, Lisa; Kidd, Mark; Baum, Richard P; Modlin, Irvin M

2014-11-01

23

Subcortical Correlates of Individual Differences in Aptitude  

PubMed Central

The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N?=?107), healthy, young (age range ?=?16–29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math – higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary – higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding – higher right thalamus volume; Foresight – lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning – higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

Jung, Rex E.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A.

2014-01-01

24

Parenteral nutrition in neonatology--to standardize or individualize?  

PubMed

Premature very low birth weight (< 1500 g) infants comprise one of the largest groups receiving parenteral nutrition. PN should be optimized to answer their high nutritional requirements and suit their metabolic status, but should also be validated pharmaceutically. PN can be provided as a standard, usually commercial, formulation, representing the average needs of a large group of patients. Alternatively, an individualized PN compound adapted to the patient's needs can be prescribed and prepared, usually on a daily basis. The main advantage of individually prescribed PN is that it is tailored to suit a specific patient, thereby assuring the best possible nutrition and biochemical control. Batch-produced standardized PN bags can be readily available as ward stocks in neonatal intensive care units, enabling initiation of early PN immediately after the delivery of a premature infant. Moreover, standard PN solutions incorporate expert nutritional knowledge and support. A combination of standardized PN bags, prepared under strict standardization criteria, for most neonates, with a small number of specifically tailored individualized PN formulations for those in need for them, could reduce pharmacy workload and costs and increase safety, while maintaining the desired clinical flexibility. For those in need of the individualized PN formulations, a computerized ordering system can save time, decrease prescription and compounding errors, and improve quality of nutritional care. PMID:17058418

Riskin, Arieh; Shiff, Yaakov; Shamir, Raanan

2006-09-01

25

Variations in cognitive maps: understanding individual differences in navigation.  

PubMed

There are marked individual differences in the formation of cognitive maps both in the real world and in virtual environments (VE; e.g., Blajenkova, Motes, & Kozhevnikov, 2005; Chai & Jacobs, 2010; Ishikawa & Montello, 2006; Wen, Ishikawa, & Sato, 2011). These differences, however, are poorly understood and can be difficult to assess except by self-report methods. VEs offer an opportunity to collect objective data in environments that can be controlled and standardized. In this study, we designed a VE consisting of buildings arrayed along 2 separated routes, allowing for differentiation of between-route and within-route representation. Performance on a pointing task and a model-building task correlated with self-reported navigation ability. However, for participants with lower levels of between-route pointing, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale (Hegarty, Richardson, Montello, Lovelace, & Subbiah, 2002) did not predict individual differences in accuracy when pointing to buildings within the same route. Thus, we confirm the existence of individual differences in the ability to construct a cognitive map of an environment, identify both the strengths and the potential weaknesses of self-report measures, and isolate a dimension that may help to characterize individual differences more completely. The VE designed for this study provides an objective behavioral measure of navigation ability that can be widely used as a research tool. PMID:24364725

Weisberg, Steven M; Schinazi, Victor R; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F; Epstein, Russell A

2014-05-01

26

Why do Different Individuals Progress Along Different Life Trajectories?  

PubMed Central

The core marker of progress in psychological science is the degree to which our work enhances the welfare of persons. In order to effectively enhance human welfare, one compelling challenge we face is to develop comprehensive models to explain why different individuals progress along different life trajectories. Exciting theoretical accounts that describe transitional processes from gene polymorphisms through moment-to-moment behavior are beginning to emerge. These early accounts highlight opportunities to investigate specific transitional steps along that long pathway, the need to understand the universal and the contextual aspects of psychological processes, and the need to define and measure psychological constructs with more precision and clarity. It is likely that creative new research in each of these areas will bring enormous progress over the coming decade. PMID:19672328

Smith, Gregory T.

2008-01-01

27

10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.  

...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards are...

2014-01-01

28

10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards are...

2013-01-01

29

10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards are...

2010-01-01

30

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable...Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are...

2013-07-01

31

10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards are...

2011-01-01

32

10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63...Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards are...

2012-01-01

33

Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several individual attributes covering prereading and oral language abilities, motor skills, personality, and home background were assessed. The best predictors of reading achievement were tasks tapping phonological processing skills, interdigital dexterity, and familiarity with the alphabetic code of English script. Peer ability was a strong…

Share, David L.; And Others

1984-01-01

34

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

2011-01-01

35

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

2012-01-01

36

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

2010-01-01

37

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

2013-01-01

38

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

2014-01-01

39

The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain variations…

Kormos, Judit

2012-01-01

40

Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems  

PubMed Central

Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way. PMID:23883107

2013-01-01

41

The Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from  

E-print Network

The Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from Childhood to Old Age: Follow of psychometric intelligence reported to date, shows that mental ability differences show substantial stability from childhood to late life. Introduction The stability of individual differences in human mental

Crawford, John R.

42

Affect Intensity: An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Affect Intensity Measurement (AIM) scale assesses the strength of the emotions with which individuals respond to an affect-laden stimulus. This study investigated the extent to which individual differences in affect intensity influence the message recipient's responses to emotional advertising appeals. In two experiments high affect intensity individuals, compared with those who scored low on the AIM scale, (1) manifested

David J. Moore; William D. Harris; Hong C. Chen

1995-01-01

43

Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).  

PubMed

Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours. PMID:20492087

English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

2010-08-01

44

Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

2013-01-01

45

EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

2014-01-01

46

Impulsivity--Reflectivity and Learning: An Individual Difference That Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive style, the impulsivity-reflectivity dimension, is reviewed as an individual difference that does significantly affect a learning/teaching situation. Relevance of impulsivity-reflectivity for learners in a problem-solving situation is established. Conclusions emphasize the importance of this individual difference. (Author)

Readence, John E.; Bean, Thomas W.

1977-01-01

47

What can individual differences reveal about face processing?  

PubMed Central

Faces are probably the most widely studied visual stimulus. Most research on face processing has used a group-mean approach that averages behavioral or neural responses to faces across individuals and treats variance between individuals as noise. However, individual differences in face processing can provide valuable information that complements and extends findings from group-mean studies. Here we demonstrate that studies employing an individual differences approach—examining associations and dissociations across individuals—can answer fundamental questions about the way face processing operates. In particular these studies allow us to associate and dissociate the mechanisms involved in face processing, tie behavioral face processing mechanisms to neural mechanisms, link face processing to broader capacities and quantify developmental influences on face processing. The individual differences approach we illustrate here is a powerful method that should be further explored within the domain of face processing as well as fruitfully applied across the cognitive sciences. PMID:25191241

Yovel, Galit; Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Duchaine, Brad

2014-01-01

48

Predicting Internet Pornography Use and Arousal: The Role of Individual Difference Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and

Bryant Paul

2009-01-01

49

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

50

Stable Individual Differences Across Images in Human Saccadic Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in eye movements during picture viewing were examined across image format, content, and foveal quality in 3 experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that an individual's fixation durations were strongly related across 3 types of scene formats and that saccade amplitudes followed the same pattern. In Experiment 2, a similar relationship was observed for fixation durations across faces and scenes,

Monica S. Castelhano; John M. Henderson

2008-01-01

51

An Individual Differences Analysis of Double-Aspect Stimulus Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any theory of information processing must address both what is processed and how that processing takes place. Most studies investigating variables which alter physical dimension utilization have ignored the large individual differences in selective attention or cue utilization. A paradigm was developed using an individual focus on information…

Forsyth, G. Alfred; Huber, R. John

52

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression  

E-print Network

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

53

Personality, Individual Differences, and Preferences for the Sexual Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which personality and individual differences predict preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media was examined. Personality (e.g., intelligence, aggression) and individual difference factors (e.g., prior sexual experience) were assessed in 160 undergraduate men. These men also indicated their preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media (e.g., “erotic,” female insatiability, violent). As

Anthony F. Bogaert

2001-01-01

54

Individual differences in plasticity and sampling when playing behavioural games.  

PubMed

When engaged in behavioural games, animals can adjust their use of alternative tactics until groups reach stable equilibria. Recent theory on behavioural plasticity in games predicts that individuals should differ in their plasticity or responsiveness and hence in their degree of behavioural adjustment. Moreover, individuals are predicted to be consistent in their plasticity within and across biological contexts. These predictions have yet to be tested empirically and so we examine the behavioural adjustment of individual nutmeg mannikins (Lonchura punctulata), gregarious ground-feeding passerines, when playing two different social foraging games: producer-scrounger (PS) and patch-choice (PC) games. We found: (i) significant individual differences in plasticity and sampling behaviour in each of the two games, (ii) individual differences in sampling behaviour were consistent over different test conditions within a game (PC) and over a six month period (PS), (iii) but neither individual plasticity nor sampling behaviour was correlated from one social foraging game to another. The rate at which birds sampled alternative tactics was positively associated with seed intake in PS trials but negatively associated in PC trials. These results suggest that games with frequency dependence of pay-offs can maintain differences in behavioural plasticity but that an important component of this plasticity is group- and/or context-specific. PMID:20943695

Morand-Ferron, Julie; Varennes, Elisabeth; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

2011-04-22

55

Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed.

Sörqvist, Patrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

2014-01-01

56

Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2011-01-01

57

Classroom competence and children's individual differences in writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempted to show that students demonstrate individual differences in the manner in which they compose text. These differences are related to the type of speech register, or verbal response pattern, students most often adopted in verbally interacting with a teacher. 83 4th graders were first classified as employing either a noncontingent, an imitative, or a contingent response register. Ss were

Peter Mosenthal

1981-01-01

58

Individual differences in human annoyance response to noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individual variations in annoyance and in susceptibility to noise were studied to establish a finer definition of the ingredients of the human annoyance response. The study involved interactions among a heterogeneous sample of human subjects, various noise stimuli, and different physical environments of exposure. Significant differences in annoyance ratings among the six noise stimuli, all equated for peak sound pressure level, were found.

Pearson, R. G.; Hart, F. D.; Obrien, J. F.

1975-01-01

59

Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in…

Barnett, Kylie J.; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E.; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P.; Newell, Fiona N.; Mitchell, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

60

Individual differences in learning a novel discrete motor task.  

PubMed

Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M; Mouton, Leonora J; Bongers, Raoul M

2014-01-01

61

Individual Differences in Learning a Novel Discrete Motor Task  

PubMed Central

Many motor learning studies focus on average performance while it is known from everyday life experience that humans differ in their way of learning new motor tasks. This study emphasises the importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning. We studied individual tool grasping profiles of individuals who learned to pick up objects with a novel tool, a pair of pliers. The pair of pliers was attached to the thumb and the index finger so that the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger were displaced to the beaks of the pair of pliers. The grasp component was manipulated by varying the location of the hinge of the pair of pliers, which resulted in different relations between beak opening and closing and finger opening and closing. The Wider Beak group had the hinge at 7 cm, the Same Beak group had the hinge at 10 cm (i.e., in the middle), and the Smaller Beak group had the hinge at 13 cm from the digits. Each group consisted of ten right-handed participants who picked up an object with one of the pairs of pliers 200 times on two subsequent days. Hand opening, plateau phase, hand closing, grasping time and maximum aperture were analyzed. To characterize individual changes over practice time, a log function was fitted on these dependent variables and the ratio of improvement was determined. Results showed that at the beginning stage of tool use learning the characteristic grasping profile consisted of three phases; hand opening, plateau phase and hand closing. Over practicing individual participants differed in the number of phases that changed, the amount of change in a phase and/or the direction of change. Moreover, with different pliers different learning paths were found. The importance of recognizing individual differences in motor learning is discussed. PMID:25386708

Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

2014-01-01

62

Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

2001-01-01

63

Individual differences in sensitivity to transient electrocutaneous stimulation  

SciTech Connect

124 subjects were tested in a procedure designed to measure sensitivity to transient currents applied cutaneously, and to assess individual characteristics accounting for sensitivity differences. College students (one male and one female group), female office workers, and male maintenance workers (electricians, carpenters, plumber, and sheet metal workers) were tested. Perception and annoyance thresholds were determined for capacitive discharged stimuli to the fingertip and forearm. Nonsensory data were taken for each individual in an attempt to account for individual sensitivity differences (occupation, sex, age, height, weight, skin temperature, finger and forearm diameter, skin hardness, customary physical activity level, and prior degree of experience with electric shock). Of these, body size was the only significant correlate of electrical sensitivity. Apparent correlations with sex and occupation were found to be artifacts of the body size relationship. A regression equation relating sensitivity to body weight is presented.

Larkin, W.D.; Reilly, J.P.; Kittler, L.B.

1986-05-01

64

Cognitive consequences of individual differences in arousal asymmetry.  

PubMed

Prior research has demonstrated that semantic organization in the right hemisphere (RH) is more diffuse and specialized for distant semantic associates than is semantic organization in the left hemisphere (LH). The present research explored individual differences in this regard. If the RH is more specialized for distant semantic associates, then individuals with a more active RH should display greater activation of distant semantic associations. Two experiments were conducted to examine this issue. In both studies a line bisection task was used to assess arousal asymmetry. In Experiment 1, greater RH activation was associated with the ability to generate remote associates to three word stimuli. In Experiment 2, relatively greater RH activation was associated with enhanced priming of distant semantic associates. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that arousal asymmetry is an individual difference variable that is related to variability in semantic organization and retrieval. PMID:23867738

Holtgraves, Thomas

2013-10-01

65

Computer-Managed Instruction: Individual Differences in Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether individual differences in student achievement and learning rate are reduced or eliminated by mastery instruction, 166 Navy trainees who had completed a computer-managed course in basic electricity and electronics were cluster-analyzed into groups, using 24 measures of cognitive characteristics. Discriminant analyses were…

Federico, Pat-Anthony

66

Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

2009-01-01

67

Individual Differences in Memory: Theory, Data, and Educational Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in memory can be studied from two theoretical perspectives: Reappearance Theory or Constructive Theory. To test the Constructive Theory, two experiments examined the retention of high and low ability students. The results of both experiments supported the hypothesis that learners who acquire information rapidly also display…

Royer, James M.; And Others

1978-01-01

68

Chapter I Individual Differences and Web-Based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers a range of individual difference variables that have potential relevance to specifi - cally designed Web-based learning packages. These include: cognitive style, working memory efficiency, anxiety, gender, and current knowledge. It discusses, in general terms, the conditions under which the variables are important, and the potential interaction between them in affecting learning performance. The roles of the

Michael Grimley; Richard Riding

69

"Frame Size" and Individual Differences in Programmed Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a study of the stimulus variable of "frame size" and a group of variables reflecting student ability and sex. Individual differences were studied by varying ability, as measured by school grades and a battery of seven "factor tests" of intelligence and varying "frame…

Kronqvist, Harry

70

Do Individual Learner Variables Contribute to Differences in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study (n = 761, 58.1% female) examined whether or not individual learner variables (gender, ethnicity, SES) contribute to differences in mathematics performance as measured by test score and mathematics grade for fifth and sixth grade mathematics students in Alabama. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and SES show…

Shores, Melanie L.; Smith, Tommy G.; Jarrell, Sasha L.

2009-01-01

71

Cultural Differences between Arabs and Americans: Individualism-Collectivism Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…

Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.

1998-01-01

72

Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

Kidd, Evan

2012-01-01

73

SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ASSESSING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance,of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, per- sonality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of

David Lubinski

74

Individual Differences in Children's Working Memory and Writing Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to address (a) whether individual differences in working memory (WM) and writing are related to a general or process-specific system, (b) whether WM tasks operate independently of phonological short-term memory (STM) on measures of writing and reading, and (c) whether working memory predicts variance in writing beyond that predicted by reading alone. The present

H. Lee Swanson; Virginia W. Berninger

1996-01-01

75

Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual training was employed to characterize individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. Training resulted in overall group improvement in the ability to identify and to discriminate the phonetic…

Golestani, Narly; Zatorre, Robert J.

2009-01-01

76

Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

Ackerman, Phillip L.

77

Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

2011-01-01

78

Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

79

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control and Children's Theory of Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschoolers. Found that IC was strongly related to ToM, even after controlling for several important factors. Inhibitory tasks requiring a novel response in face of a conflicting prepotent response and those requiring delay of a…

Carlson, Stephanie M.; Moses, Louis J.

2001-01-01

80

Individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning: A multidimensional view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between individual differences in anxiety and executive functioning was investigated in a sample of young adults. Verbal and spatial working memory, resistance to interference, negative priming, and task-switching measures were used to assess three executive functioning dimensions: updating, inhibition, and shifting. An additional index of basic psychomotor speed was added to this cognitive battery. According to the multidimensional

Laura Visu-Petra; Mircea Miclea; George Visu-Petra

2012-01-01

81

An Individual Differences Analysis of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that children learn orthographic structure of words through the experience of phonologically recoding them. The current study is an individual differences analysis of the self-teaching hypothesis. A total of 40 children in Grades 2 and 3 (7-9 years of age) completed tests of phonological recoding, word…

Conners, Frances A.; Loveall, Susan J.; Moore, Marie S.; Hume, Laura E.; Maddox, Christopher D.

2011-01-01

82

The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

Thompson, Amy S.

2009-01-01

83

Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two empirical case studies concerning the role of individual differences in searching through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Discusses information visualization in information systems; cognitive factors, including associative memory, spatial ability, and visual memory; user satisfaction; and cognitive abilities and search…

Chen, Chaomei

2000-01-01

84

Short Communication Extraversion predicts individual differences in women's face preferences  

E-print Network

Short Communication Extraversion predicts individual differences in women's face preferences Lisa L.M. Welling a,*, Lisa M. DeBruine a , Anthony C. Little b , Benedict C. Jones a a School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK b School of Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK a r t i c l

Little, Tony

85

Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

86

Individual differences during acquisition predict shifts in generalization.  

PubMed

Learning to distinguish subtle differences in objects or events can impact how one generalizes. In some cases, training can cause novel events to appear more familiar or attractive than those actually experienced during training: the peak shift effect. This study examined whether individual differences in learning led to systematic patterns of generalization. Participants were trained to identify simulated birdsongs, and then tested on their ability to identify a target song presented among several similar songs that differed in pitch. Initial analysis showed that those attaining moderate proficiency at discriminating songs during training were more likely to shift than those performing poorly or proficiently. However, a neural network trained to output individuals' gradient dynamics using only performance during training as input found an additional set of training variables that predicted shift. Specifically, one subset of shifters had highly conservative response biases accompanied by very little change to perceptual sensitivity in training. These findings suggest that discrimination learning may only lead to generalization shifts in some individuals, and that all individuals who shift may not do so for the same reason. PMID:24445021

Wisniewski, Matthew G; Church, Barbara A; Mercado, Eduardo

2014-05-01

87

Standardizing the intrinsic brain: towards robust measurement of inter-individual variation in 1000 functional connectomes.  

PubMed

As researchers increase their efforts to characterize variations in the functional connectome across studies and individuals, concerns about the many sources of nuisance variation present and their impact on resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures continue to grow. Although substantial within-site variation can exist, efforts to aggregate data across multiple sites such as the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI) datasets amplify these concerns. The present work draws upon standardization approaches commonly used in the microarray gene expression literature, and to a lesser extent recent imaging studies, and compares them with respect to their impact on relationships between common R-fMRI measures and nuisance variables (e.g., imaging site, motion), as well as phenotypic variables of interest (age, sex). Standardization approaches differed with regard to whether they were applied post-hoc vs. during pre-processing, and at the individual vs. group level; additionally they varied in whether they addressed additive effects vs. additive+multiplicative effects, and were parametric vs. non-parametric. While all standardization approaches were effective at reducing undesirable relationships with nuisance variables, post-hoc approaches were generally more effective than global signal regression (GSR). Across approaches, correction for additive effects (global mean) appeared to be more important than for multiplicative effects (global SD) for all R-fMRI measures, with the exception of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Group-level post-hoc standardizations for mean-centering and variance-standardization were found to be advantageous in their ability to avoid the introduction of artifactual relationships with standardization parameters; though results between individual and group-level post-hoc approaches were highly similar overall. While post-hoc standardization procedures drastically increased test-retest (TRT) reliability for ALFF, modest reductions were observed for other measures after post-hoc standardizations-a phenomena likely attributable to the separation of voxel-wise from global differences among subjects (global mean and SD demonstrated moderate TRT reliability for these measures). Finally, the present work calls into question previous observations of increased anatomical specificity for GSR over mean centering, and draws attention to the near equivalence of global and gray matter signal regression. PMID:23631983

Yan, Chao-Gan; Craddock, R Cameron; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Milham, Michael P

2013-10-15

88

ERP and behavioral evidence of individual differences in metaphor comprehension.  

PubMed

In two experiments, we examined individual differences in metaphor processing. In Experiment 1, the subjects judged the literal truth of literal, metaphorical, and scrambled sentences. Overall, metaphors were more difficult to judge as false, in comparison with scrambled controls, suggesting that the metaphorical meaning was being processed automatically. However, there were individual differences in that high-IQ subjects showed more interference. These effects were reflected in ERP amplitude differences at the onset of N400 and after the response. In Experiment 2, the subjects completed IQ tests and a series of working memory tests and then rated and interpreted the same set of metaphors. The results showed that IQ was correlated with working memory capacity and that low-IQ subjects had similar ratings but poorer quality interpretations than did high-IQ subjects. The results were most consistent with a constraint satisfaction approach to metaphor comprehension. PMID:12956233

Kazmerski, Victoria A; Blasko, Dawn G; Dessalegn, Banchiamlack G

2003-07-01

89

Rapid Emotion Regulation After Mood Induction: Age and Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

Previous research has suggested that emotion regulation improves with age. This study examined both age and individual differences in online emotion regulation after a negative mood induction. We found evidence that older adults were more likely to rapidly regulate their emotions than were younger adults. Moreover, older adults who rapidly regulated had lower trait anxiety and depressive symptoms and higher levels of optimism than their same-age peers who did not rapidly regulate. Measuring mood change over an extended time revealed that older rapid regulators still reported increased levels of positive affect over 20 min later, whereas young adult rapid regulators’ moods had declined. These results highlight the importance of considering individual differences when examining age differences in online emotion regulation. PMID:19808810

Larcom, Mary Jo

2009-01-01

90

Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

1991-01-01

91

Accounting for individual differences in human associative learning  

PubMed Central

Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning. PMID:24027551

Byrom, Nicola C.

2013-01-01

92

Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol and explored their relation to several psychosocial variables and to upper-respiratory symptoms. Cortisol and daily experience were assessed for 2 days in 109 healthy employed and unemployed community residents (mean age = 36.4 ± 12.1, 69% female); self-report upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms were assessed for an additional 10

Joshua M. Smyth; Margit C. Ockenfels; Amy A. Gorin; Delwyn Catley; Laura S. Porter; Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Arthur A. Stone

1997-01-01

93

Conceptions of Prose Coherence: Individual Differences in Epistemological Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and their conceptions of prose coherence was examined. Sequencing and unity were categorized as mature conceptions. Students with context-oriented beliefs about the nature of knowledge were more likely to report mature coherence conceptions than students with fact-oriented…

Ryan, Michael P.

1984-01-01

94

Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.  

PubMed

Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms. PMID:24684315

Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

2014-06-01

95

Mapping individual differences in the experience of a waiting period.  

PubMed

Waiting for uncertain news, such as the outcome of a job interview or medical test, is a ubiquitous and difficult but little studied experience. We conducted a longitudinal examination, guided by the predictions of the uncertainty navigation model (Sweeny & Cavanaugh, 2012), to examine broad trends and individual differences in experiences during a consequential waiting period. Fifty students preparing for the California bar exam completed questionnaires at 6 time points: shortly before and after the exam, at 2 intermediate time points during the 4-month waiting period, and immediately before and after learning whether they passed. We identified key individual differences in the overall experience of a waiting period, such that dispositional optimists reported lower levels of anxiety and rumination on average, and defensive pessimists and people uncomfortable with uncertainty reported higher levels. Longitudinal growth curve modeling analyses suggested that waiting is most difficult at the start and end of a waiting period, although people maintained hope and optimism throughout the wait. These temporal trends were generally robust, although some individual differences emerged. These findings provide the first evidence regarding when and for whom waiting periods are most difficult and thus can serve as the basis for future investigations of waiting experiences. PMID:24841102

Sweeny, Kate; Andrews, Sara E

2014-06-01

96

Individual Assessment Profile (IAP). Standardizing the assessment of substance abusers.  

PubMed

The Individual Assessment Profile (IAP), a structured intake assessment interview instrument in the public domain, was designed for use with substance-abusing populations in several large-scale and community-based drug abuse treatment projects underway in the United States. Background information is presented, including the content-based item-selection process used during the pretests and pilot testing. Validity and test-retest reliability data are also presented, along with descriptions of studies using the IAP for clinical, research, and management information purposes. Concordance between biological measures and self-reports of recent drug use, measures of internal consistency, and test-retest reliability coefficients were generally good. A computer-assisted personal interview version of the IAP and an automated reporting system were subsequently developed for clinical and management reporting purposes and used in a large-scale research demonstration project. An intreatment version of the IAP has also been developed to collect information on treatment services provided and to assess changes in behaviors after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. These instruments (the IAP intake and intreatment interviews) provide a comprehensive system to assess substance-abusing populations. PMID:7474029

Flynn, P M; Hubbard, R L; Luckey, J W; Forsyth, B H; Smith, T K; Phillips, C D; Fountain, D L; Hoffman, J A; Koman, J J

1995-01-01

97

Variable Global Dysconnectivity and Individual Differences in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background A fundamental challenge for understanding neuropsychiatric disease is identifying sources of individual differences in psychopathology, especially when there is substantial heterogeneity of symptom expression, such as is found in schizophrenia (SCZ). We hypothesized that such heterogeneity might arise in part from consistently widespread yet variably patterned alterations in the connectivity of focal brain regions. Methods We used resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging to identify variable global dysconnectivity in 23 patients with DSM-IV SCZ relative to 22 age-, gender-, and parental socioeconomic status-matched control subjects with a novel global brain connectivity method that is robust to high variability across individuals. We examined cognitive functioning with a modified Sternberg task and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition. We measured symptom severity with the Scale for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms. Results We identified a dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) region with global and highly variable dysconnectivity involving within-PFC underconnectivity and non-PFC overconnectivity in patients. Variability in this “under/over” pattern of dysconnectivity strongly predicted the severity of cognitive deficits (matrix reasoning IQ, verbal IQ, and working memory performance) as well as individual differences in every cardinal symptom domain of SCZ (poverty, reality distortion, and disorganization). Conclusions These results suggest that global dysconnectivity underlies dorsolateral PFC involvement in the neuropathology of SCZ. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the possibility that specific patterns of dysconnectivity with a given network hub region might explain individual differences in symptom presentation in SCZ. Critically, such findings might extend to other neuropathologies with diverse presentation. PMID:21496789

Cole, Michael W.; Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna

2011-01-01

98

Individual differences in situation awareness: validation of the situationism scale.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. This article concerns the construct of lay situationism-an individual's belief in the importance of a behavior's context. Study 1 identified a 13-item Situationism Scale, which demonstrated good reliability and validity. In particular, higher situationism was associated with greater situation-control (strategies to manipulate the environment in order to avoid temptation). Subsequent laboratory studies indicated that people higher on the situationism subscales used greater situation-control by sitting farther from junk food (Study 2) and choosing to drink non-alcoholic beverages before a cognitive task (Study 3). Overall, findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric validity and predictive utility of the Situationism Scale and offer this individual difference construct as a means to expand self-regulation theory. PMID:25329242

Roberts, Megan E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Klein, William M P

2015-01-01

99

Oscillation Encoding of Individual Differences in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in second language (L2) phoneme perception (within the normal population) have been related to speech perception abilities, also observed in the native language, in studies assessing the electrophysiological response mismatch negativity (MMN). Here, we investigate the brain oscillatory dynamics in the theta band, the spectral correlate of the MMN, that underpin success in phoneme learning. Using previous data obtained in an MMN paradigm, the dynamics of cortical oscillations while perceiving native and unknown phonemes and nonlinguistic stimuli were studied in two groups of participants classified as good and poor perceivers (GPs and PPs), according to their L2 phoneme discrimination abilities. The results showed that for GPs, as compared to PPs, processing of a native phoneme change produced a significant increase in theta power. Stimulus time-locked analysis event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) showed differences for the theta band within the MMN time window (between 70 and 240 ms) for the native deviant phoneme. No other significant difference between the two groups was observed for the other phoneme or nonlinguistic stimuli. The dynamic patterns in the theta-band may reflect early automatic change detection for familiar speech sounds in the brain. The behavioral differences between the two groups may reflect individual variations in activating brain circuits at a perceptual level. PMID:24992269

Colomer, Marc; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

2014-01-01

100

Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

2010-01-01

101

[Clinical investigation of individual differences in evoked otoacoustic emission].  

PubMed

Factors causing individual differences in evoked otoacoustic emission (e-OAE) were investigated in 223 ears of 159 persons with normal hearing. After recording e-OAE to click by using ILO88, the relation between the intensity of e-OAE and factors such as age, sex, small differences in hearing, volume of the external auditory canal, static compliance, developmental extent of the mastoid cavity and presence or absence of spontaneous otoacoustic emission (s-OAE) were studied. The volume of the external auditory canal and static compliance were estimated from a tympanogram measured by Teledyne TA-2C and the developmental extent of the mastoid cavity was measured with a Schüller X-ray film. A correlation was found between the intensity of e-OAE and two factors, the age and the s-OAE, but not between the intensity of e-OAE and other factors. From the fact that the percentage of s-OAE present declines with aging, the presence or absence and the characteristics of s-OAE were considered to be a factor causing individual differences in e-OAE. PMID:1560309

Endo, Y

1992-02-01

102

Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

2009-01-01

103

Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.  

PubMed

Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability. PMID:23073026

Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

2012-01-01

104

Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.  

PubMed

For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25181327

Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

2014-11-01

105

Alternative Perspectives on Risk: Individual Differences in Problem Structuring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Team decision making involves contributions of multiple players toward a common goal. While much has been written about the importance of developing shared mental models in order for teams to work together effectively, little has been done to determine the value of alternative perspectives on problem solving and decision making. Early studies of expertise contrasted experts with novices and noted that the two groups differ in the way they structure problems and in their selection of information as salient. Little attention has been given to differences among experts who differ in their specializations. A series of experiments was conducted to determine: (1) what dimensions of flight-related problem situations pilots judge to be most important when making flight-relevant decisions; and (2) whether pilots in different crew positions differ in the way they interpret problems relating to flight decisions. A sorting task was used to identify underlying dimensions judged as salient to individual pilots. Captains, first officers, and flight engineers from two major carriers participated in the study. Twenty-two flight scenarios were developed based on ASRS reports. Pilots were required to make judgments about how they would respond in each case and to sort the scenarios on the basis of similarity of decision factors. They were also asked to provide a verbal label that described each of their sorted categories. A second study required a different group of pilots (also captains, first officers and flight engineers) to sort on predetermined bases.

Orasanu, Judith; Fischer, Ute; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

106

CAN INTERMITTENT VIDEO SAMPLING CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURALISTIC DRIVING?  

PubMed Central

Summary We examined the utility and validity of intermittent video samples from black box devices for capturing individual difference variability in real-world driving performance in an ongoing study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and community controls. Three types of video clips were coded for several dimensions of interest to driving research including safety, exposure, and driver state. The preliminary findings indicated that clip types successfully captured variability along targeted dimensions such as highway vs. city driving, driver state such as distraction and sleepiness, and safety. Sleepiness metrics were meaningfully associated with adherence to PAP (positive airway pressure) therapy. OSA patients who were PAP adherent showed less sleepiness and less non-driving related gaze movements than nonadherent patients. Simple differences in sleepiness did not readily translate to improvements in driver safety, consistent with epidemiologic evidence to date. PMID:24535569

Aksan, Nazan; Schall, Mark; Anderson, Steven; Dawson, Jeffery; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

2014-01-01

107

Sustained attention in language production: An individual differences investigation.  

PubMed

Whereas it has long been assumed that most linguistic processes underlying language production happen automatically, accumulating evidence suggests that these processes do require some form of attention. Here we investigated the contribution of sustained attention: the ability to maintain alertness over time. In Experiment 1, participants' sustained attention ability was measured using auditory and visual continuous performance tasks. Subsequently, employing a dual-task procedure, participants described pictures using simple noun phrases and performed an arrow-discrimination task while their vocal and manual response times (RTs) and the durations of their gazes to the pictures were measured. Earlier research has demonstrated that gaze duration reflects language planning processes up to and including phonological encoding. The speakers' sustained attention ability correlated with the magnitude of the tail of the vocal RT distribution, reflecting the proportion of very slow responses, but not with individual differences in gaze duration. This suggests that sustained attention was most important after phonological encoding. Experiment 2 showed that the involvement of sustained attention was significantly stronger in a dual-task situation (picture naming and arrow discrimination) than in simple naming. Thus, individual differences in maintaining attention on the production processes become especially apparent when a simultaneous second task also requires attentional resources. PMID:25214187

Jongman, Suzanne R; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

2014-11-01

108

Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

2014-01-01

109

Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity.  

PubMed

The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

2014-01-01

110

Individual differences in anthropomorphic attributions and human brain structure.  

PubMed

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics or behaviour to animals, non-living things or natural phenomena. It is pervasive among humans, yet nonetheless exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability. We hypothesized that brain areas associated with anthropomorphic thinking might be similar to those engaged in the attribution of mental states to other humans, the so-called 'theory of mind' or mentalizing network. To test this hypothesis, we related brain structure measured using magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 83 healthy young adults to a simple, self-report questionnaire that measured the extent to which our participants made anthropomorphic attributions about non-human animals and non-animal stimuli. We found that individual differences in anthropomorphism for non-human animals correlated with the grey matter volume of the left temporoparietal junction, a brain area involved in mentalizing. Our data support previous work indicating a link between areas of the brain involved in attributing mental states to other humans and those involved in anthropomorphism. PMID:23887807

Cullen, Harriet; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Rees, Geraint

2014-09-01

111

A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.  

PubMed

The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

2014-02-01

112

Individual differences in chemotherapy-induced anticipatory nausea  

PubMed Central

Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a severe side effect of chemotherapy that can lead cancer patients to discontinue their treatment. This kind of nausea is usually elicited by the re-exposure of the patients to the clinical context they need to attend to be treated. There has been considerable agreement that AN represents a paradigmatic example of Pavlovian conditioning, and within this framework, several behavioral interventions have been proposed in order to prevent this phenomenon. However, some studies have questioned the validity of the Pavlovian approach, suggesting that CS-US associations are neither necessary nor sufficient for AN to occur. The data and the alternative theories behind such criticisms are discussed. Additionally, it is suggested that animal models of AN could be enriched by taking into account rats' individual differences. PMID:23950751

Rodríguez, Marcial

2013-01-01

113

Sampling Capacity Underlies Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning  

PubMed Central

Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limited generalization between distinct stimulus compounds and their constituent elements. In Experiment 2, participants pretrained to adopt global processing similarly showed strong negative patterning discrimination. These results demonstrate considerable individual difference in capacity to engage in negative patterning discrimination and suggest that the tendency toward global processing may be one factor explaining this variability. The need for models of learning to account for this variability in learning is discussed. PMID:24446699

2014-01-01

114

Smoking among Individuals with Schizophrenia in Korea: Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status. Method An anonymous self-report survey was conducted with psychiatric inpatients. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to be current smokers (p < 0.001) and more likely to be former smokers (p < 0.01). Females were also less likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001). Having more years of education (p < 0.05) and higher nicotine dependence scores (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased odds of intending to quit smoking, whereas having more previous quit attempts (p < 0.01) was associated with increased odds. These findings were significant even after adjusting for gender. Smokers were more likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001) than their non-smoking counterparts. Conclusion Nurses in Korea should play an active role in tobacco control for patients with schizophrenia by providing cessation counseling and educating the effect of caffeine use on cigarette consumption, while tailoring the service to gender differences found in this study. PMID:24070993

Kim, Sun S.; Chung, Sangkeun; Park, Jong-Il; Jung, Ae-Ja; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

115

Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties  

PubMed Central

Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric) mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing (again a right hemispheric mode). The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses, however, indicated that “nonacceptance of emotional responses’ and ‘limited access to emotion regulation strategies” facets of emotion regulation difficulties were best predicted by a preference for the global/synthetic mode of information processing. While others like difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviour, impulse control difficulties, and lack of emotional clarity were best predicted by a preference for visuo-spatial rather than the verbal mode of information processing. Conclusion: Overall, the findings imply that greater preference for right hemispheric mode of information processing as compared to the left is associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. PMID:22969178

Gupta, Garima; Dubey, Akanksha; Saxena, Prachi; Pandey, Rakesh

2011-01-01

116

Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity  

PubMed Central

Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625

Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D.; Williams, Justin H. G.

2012-01-01

117

Individual differences in adult handwritten spelling-to-dictation.  

PubMed

We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production. PMID:23882229

Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher

2013-01-01

118

Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias  

PubMed Central

The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

2011-01-01

119

Individual differences in memory search and their relation to intelligence.  

PubMed

Attempts to understand why memory predicts intelligence have not fully leveraged state-of-the-art measures of recall dynamics. Using data from a multisession free recall study, we examine individual differences in measures of recall initiation and postinitiation transitions. We identify 4 sources of variation: a recency factor reflecting variation in the tendency to initiate recall from an item near the end of the list, a primacy factor reflecting a tendency to initiate from the beginning of the list, a temporal factor corresponding to transitions mediated by temporal associations, and a semantic factor corresponding to semantically mediated transitions. Together, these 4 factors account for 83% of the variability in overall recall accuracy, suggesting they provide a nearly complete picture of recall dynamics. We also show that these sources of variability account for over 80% of the variance shared between memory and intelligence. The temporal association factor was the most influential in predicting both recall accuracy and intelligence. We outline a theory of how controlled drift of temporal context may be critical across a range of cognitive activities. PMID:24730719

Healey, M Karl; Crutchley, Patrick; Kahana, Michael J

2014-08-01

120

Individual differences and reproductive success in yellow-bellied marmots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mirror-image stimulation (MIS) was used to determine the individual behavioral phenotypes of 90 adult, 132 yearling, and 135 young yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Linear typal analysis (LTA) was used to group individuals based on similarities in their MIS scores. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the patterns of variation in behaviors and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used

K. B. Armitage; D. H. Van Vuren

2003-01-01

121

Individual differences in alpha frequency drive crossmodal illusory perception.  

PubMed

Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ?100 ms [1-5]. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ?100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived [2]. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ?100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120-60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex [6, 7]. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task [4] and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity [8] either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAF±2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF-2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions. PMID:25544613

Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

2015-01-19

122

Individual Differences in Alpha Frequency Drive Crossmodal Illusory Perception  

PubMed Central

Summary Perception routinely integrates inputs from different senses. Stimulus temporal proximity critically determines whether or not these inputs are bound together. Despite the temporal window of integration being a widely accepted notion, its neurophysiological substrate remains unclear. Many types of common audio-visual interactions occur within a time window of ?100 ms [1–5]. For example, in the sound-induced double-flash illusion, when two beeps are presented within ?100 ms together with one flash, a second illusory flash is often perceived [2]. Due to their intrinsic rhythmic nature, brain oscillations are one candidate mechanism for gating the temporal window of integration. Interestingly, occipital alpha band oscillations cycle on average every ?100 ms, with peak frequencies ranging between 8 and 14 Hz (i.e., 120–60 ms cycle). Moreover, presenting a brief tone can phase-reset such oscillations in visual cortex [6, 7]. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the duration of each alpha cycle might provide the temporal unit to bind audio-visual events. Here, we first recorded EEG while participants performed the sound-induced double-flash illusion task [4] and found positive correlation between individual alpha frequency (IAF) peak and the size of the temporal window of the illusion. Participants then performed the same task while receiving occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), to modulate oscillatory activity [8] either at their IAF or at off-peak alpha frequencies (IAF±2 Hz). Compared to IAF tACS, IAF?2 Hz and IAF+2 Hz tACS, respectively, enlarged and shrunk the temporal window of illusion, suggesting that alpha oscillations might represent the temporal unit of visual processing that cyclically gates perception and the neurophysiological substrate promoting audio-visual interactions. PMID:25544613

Cecere, Roberto; Rees, Geraint; Romei, Vincenzo

2015-01-01

123

Individual differences in cocaine's locomotor activating effects predicts reward-directed behavior.  

E-print Network

??Humans exhibit marked individual differences in susceptibility to develop drug dependence. Addiction-like behaviors have been modeled in rodents as well with similar individual variability in… (more)

Venheim, Emily R.

2011-01-01

124

Person-organization fit: Individual differences, socialization, and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent focus on person-organization fit (P-O fit), or the extent to which an individual ‘fits’ with an organization. Previously, the focus had been on the more specific notion of person-job fit (P-J fit), or the extent to which an individual ‘fits’ with a particular job. In both applied and academic settings, it is being realized that

Cynthia Anne Shantz

2003-01-01

125

Individual differences in ratings of words combined in sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the efficiency of regression-compounded group means as predictors of individual ratings of words combined in sentences, a study by Heise (1969) was replicated and extended to obtain pre- and postcombination ratings from the same subjects. Heise's model efficiently predicted group ratings for words combined in sentences (R2=0.86), but neither group-weighted (R2=0.19) nor individually weighted (R2=0.28) regression equations efficiently

Robert L. Gragg; Jeffrey E. Nash; John C. Touhey

1974-01-01

126

Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed sound analysis of the Chick-adee call of the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was performed in order to determine a basis for individual recognition and for imitation within winter flocks. During the winter of 1978–1979 members of five free-living black-capped chickadee flocks were uniquely marked for individual identification, and their calls were recorded in the field. Nested analysis of

Dorothy L. Mammen; Stephen Nowicki

1981-01-01

127

Novel methods for discriminating behavioral differences between stickleback individuals and populations in a laboratory shoaling assay  

PubMed Central

Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from different habitats have been observed to differ in shoaling behavior, both in the wild and in laboratory studies. In the present study, we surveyed the shoaling behavior of sticklebacks from a variety of marine, lake, and stream habitats throughout the Pacific Northwest. We tested the shoaling tendencies of 113 wild-caught sticklebacks from 13 populations using a laboratory assay that was based on other published shoaling assays in sticklebacks. Using traditional behavioral measures for this assay, such as time spent shoaling and mean position in the tank, we were unable to find population differences in shoaling behavior. However, simple plotting techniques revealed differences in spatial distributions during the assay. When we collapsed individual trials into population-level data sets and applied information theoretic measurements, we found significant behavioral differences between populations. For example, entropy estimates confirm that populations display differences in the extent of clustering at various tank positions. Using log-likelihood analysis, we show that these population-level observations reflect consistent differences in individual behavioral patterns that can be difficult to discriminate using standard measures. The analytical techniques we describe may help improve the detection of potential behavioral differences between fish groups in future studies. PMID:21804684

Wark, Abigail R.; Wark, Barry J.; Lageson, Tessa J.

2011-01-01

128

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2011-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

2011-07-01

129

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 24 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

2010-07-01

130

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

2014-07-01

131

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 26 ? 2012-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? true ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

2012-07-01

132

Individual Differences in Mathematical Ability: Genetic, Cognitive and Behavioural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying individuals with mathematical difficulties (MD) is becoming increasingly important in our education system. However, recognising MD is only the first stage in the provision of special educational needs (SEN). Although planning the effective remedial support is vital, there is little consensus on the interventions that are appropriate.…

Adams, John W.

2007-01-01

133

Pornography and Teenagers: The Importance of Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the effects of exposure to pornography on teenagers, particularly males, concentrating on sexually aggressive outcomes and on the characteristics of the individual as crucial in determining whether pornography consumption may or may not lead to sexually aggressive outcomes. The term ''pornography'' refers to sexually explicit media that primarily is intended to arouse the viewer sexually. Pornography

Neil Malamuth; Mark Huppin

2005-01-01

134

Individual Differences in Practical Intelligence and Success in Immigration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical overview of the relationship between nonacademic aspects of intelligence and success in immigrating is presented, and an empirical study involving 65 scientists who immigrated to Israel is reported. Findings suggest that the individual intelligence of the immigrant is a major determinant of immigration success. (SLD)

Chawarski, Mark C.; Nevo, Baruch

1997-01-01

135

Individual Differences and Information Retrieval: Implications on Web Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated effects of user variables on information seeking behavior on the Web. Among other user variables, the study focused on cognitive style and online search experience, and examined how these variables influence users' search performance and choice of navigational tools on the Web. It was found that among individuals with little or no online search experience, cognitive style

Kyung-sun Kim

2000-01-01

136

The Impact of Adapting Content for Students with Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by instructional theory and motivation models, an adaptable tutorial was designed and developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether the goals of an adaptable tutorial, which individualized instruction based on student motivation and prior knowledge, were being met (i.e.…

Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Inan, Fethi A.; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

2012-01-01

137

Investigating Individual Differences in Toddler Search with Mixture Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's performance on cognitive tasks is often described in categorical terms in that a child is described as either passing or failing a test, or knowing or not knowing some concept. We used binomial mixture models to determine whether individual children could be classified as passing or failing two search tasks, the DeLoache model room…

Berthier, Neil E.; Boucher, Kelsea; Weisner, Nina

2015-01-01

138

Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players – under 14 years, 14–17, and over 17, playing different positions – goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14–17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer. PMID:25031689

Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie; Arnon, Michal

2014-01-01

139

Individual Differences in Sentence Comprehension: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation  

E-print Network

. & INTRODUCTION Reading comprehension is a complex skill in which there are systematic individual differencesIndividual Differences in Sentence Comprehension: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Just Abstract & Language comprehension is neurally underpinned by a net- work of collaborating cortical

140

Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards  

SciTech Connect

This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; McGill, I. [Fischer and Paykel Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

1995-08-01

141

Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals  

PubMed Central

Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission–fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive ‘chur’ calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation–discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

McDonald, Paul G.

2012-01-01

142

Bilateral electrodermal activity: reliability, laterality and individual differences.  

PubMed

A first aim of the present study was to estimate the short- and long-term stability of individual response patterns in bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). A second aim was to examine the relationship of individual brain laterality to both peak amplitude and peak time based electrodermal asymmetry. Additionally, subjects were presented with verbal and spatial tasks to estimate the balance of left/right asymmetry in cerebral activation at time of testing. Finally, the influence of smoking, coffee consumption and subjective circadian phase (morningness/eveningness, subjects' rise time) on bilateral asymmetry and EDA lability was examined. Results indicated moderate to high short-term reliabilities of EDA laterality coefficients, but insufficient long-term stability. Handedness and conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEMs) were not related to asymmetry of EDA, but a significant interaction between CLEM tendency and smoking/nonsmoking on laterality of both EDA parameters was observed. Amount of coffee consumption was also significantly related to electrodermal asymmetry. Analysis of performance data demonstrated that intraindividual shifts of EDA laterality from one recording session to a following one were associated with corresponding shifts in accuracy of verbal/spatial performance. Degree of subjects' electrodermal lability differentiated significantly between speed and accuracy of performance in both verbal and spatial tasks, and was substantially related to subjects' rise time. PMID:1459877

Schulter, G; Papousek, I

1992-12-01

143

Resting-state functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis: an examination of group differences and individual differences.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, resulting in physical and cognitive disturbances. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between network integrity and composite measures of cognition and disease severity in individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), relative to healthy controls. All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data was collected. Independent component analysis and dual regression were employed to examine network integrity in individuals with MS, relative to healthy controls. The MS sample exhibited less connectivity in the motor and visual networks, relative to healthy controls, after controlling for group differences in gray matter volume. However, no alterations were observed in the frontoparietal, executive control, or default-mode networks, despite previous evidence of altered neuronal patterns during tasks of exogenous processing. Whole-brain, voxel-wise regression analyses with disease severity and processing speed composites were also performed to elucidate the brain-behavior relationship with neuronal network integrity. Individuals with higher levels of disease severity demonstrated reduced intra-network connectivity of the motor network, and the executive control network, while higher disease burden was associated with greater inter-network connectivity between the medial visual network and areas involved in visuomotor learning. Our findings underscore the importance of examining resting-state oscillations in this population, both as a biomarker of disease progression and a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23973635

Janssen, Alisha L; Boster, Aaron; Patterson, Beth A; Abduljalil, Amir; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

2013-11-01

144

October 28, 2009 Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism  

E-print Network

October 28, 2009 · Peter Mundy, Ph.D. Individual differences in autism and treatment response Peter on the nature of individual differences and diagnostic subgroups in autism. His research findings help parents and professionals understand how executive functions and temperament contribute to individual differences in autism

California at Davis, University of

145

Individual differences in political ideology are effects of adaptive error management.  

PubMed

We apply error management theory to the analysis of individual differences in the negativity bias and political ideology. Using principles from evolutionary psychology, we propose a coherent theoretical framework for understanding (1) why individuals differ in their political ideology and (2) the conditions under which these individual differences influence and fail to influence the political choices people make. PMID:24970447

Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

2014-06-01

146

DYNAMICS OF FACIAL EXPRESSION: NORMATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  

E-print Network

and around the side of the eye (AU 6). The enjoyment or Duchenne smile (AU 12 with AU 6) and the social or non-Duchenne smile (AU 12 without AU 6) are observable in different context s and under different

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

147

Research Report Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics  

E-print Network

a Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany b Center for Neuroscience, University the personality trait extraversion both to differences in reward sensitivity and to dopamine functioning-related, activations. These results demonstrate a link between stable differences in personality, genetics, and brain

Napp, Nils

148

Personalisable Groupware: Accommodating Individual Roles and Group Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

For groupware to be considered successful, it must be usable and acceptable by most, if not all, members of the group. Yet the differences present between group members-their varying roles, needs, skills-and the differences between groups as a whole are a serious obstacle to achieving uniform acceptance of the groupware product, especially when the product treats all people and groups

Saul Greenberg

1991-01-01

149

Differences in individual susceptibility affect the development of trigeminal neuralgia?  

PubMed Central

Trigeminal neuralgia is a syndrome due to dysfunctional hyperactivity of the trigeminal nerve, and is characterized by a sudden, usually unilateral, recurrent lancinating pain arising from one or more divisions of the nerve. The most accepted pathogenetic mechanism for trigeminal neuralgia is compression of the nerve at its dorsal root entry zone or in its distal course. In this paper, we report four cases with trigeminal neuralgia due to an unknown mechanism after an intracranial intervention. The onset of trigeminal neuralgia after surgical interventions that are unrelated to the trigeminal nerve suggests that in patients with greater individual susceptibility, nerve contact with the vascular structure due to postoperative pressure and changes in cerebrospinal fluid flow may cause the onset of pain. PMID:25206428

Duransoy, Yusuf Kurtulu?; Mete, Mesut; Akçay, Emrah; Selçuki, Mehmet

2013-01-01

150

Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.  

PubMed

A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

2014-05-01

151

Individual differences reveal correlates of hidden hearing deficits.  

PubMed

Clinical audiometry has long focused on determining the detection thresholds for pure tones, which depend on intact cochlear mechanics and hair cell function. Yet many listeners with normal hearing thresholds complain of communication difficulties, and the causes for such problems are not well understood. Here, we explore whether normal-hearing listeners exhibit such suprathreshold deficits, affecting the fidelity with which subcortical areas encode the temporal structure of clearly audible sound. Using an array of measures, we evaluated a cohort of young adults with thresholds in the normal range to assess both cochlear mechanical function and temporal coding of suprathreshold sounds. Listeners differed widely in both electrophysiological and behavioral measures of temporal coding fidelity. These measures correlated significantly with each other. Conversely, these differences were unrelated to the modest variation in otoacoustic emissions, cochlear tuning, or the residual differences in hearing threshold present in our cohort. Electroencephalography revealed that listeners with poor subcortical encoding had poor cortical sensitivity to changes in interaural time differences, which are critical for localizing sound sources and analyzing complex scenes. These listeners also performed poorly when asked to direct selective attention to one of two competing speech streams, a task that mimics the challenges of many everyday listening environments. Together with previous animal and computational models, our results suggest that hidden hearing deficits, likely originating at the level of the cochlear nerve, are part of "normal hearing." PMID:25653371

Bharadwaj, Hari M; Masud, Salwa; Mehraei, Golbarg; Verhulst, Sarah; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

2015-02-01

152

Assessing Learning from Hypertext: An Individual Differences Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an instructional perspective, it is conceivable that employing an appropriate hypertext architecture should have the advantage of facilitating learning by representing logically the interrelationships between the different pieces of information contained within the hypertext. Furthermore, there would however appear to be a sound theoretical…

Graff, Martin

2003-01-01

153

Socioeconomic Gradients Predict Individual Differences in Neurocognitive Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with childhood cognitive achievement. In previous research we found that this association shows neural specificity; specifically we found that groups of low and middle SES children differed disproportionately in perisylvian/language and prefrontal/executive abilities relative to other neurocognitive…

Noble, Kimberly G.; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Farah, Martha J.

2007-01-01

154

Research paper Individual differences in attentional modulation of cortical responses  

E-print Network

modulates cortical responses reflect differences in normal-hearing listeners' selective auditory attention, electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have demonstrated that selective auditory attention mod- ulates event (Kerlin et al., 2010; Power et al., 2011) support the theory that selective auditory attention involves

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

155

Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals  

PubMed Central

Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

2014-01-01

156

Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

1991-01-01

157

Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

158

Aging and Variability of Individual Differences: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social, Psychological, and Physiological Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relationship between age and individual differences. Two hypotheses were tested through the use of repeated measures of functioning in terms of social, psychological, and physiological parameters: (1) individual differences do not decrease with age, and (2) individuals tend to maintain the same rank in relation to age peers…

Maddox, George L.; Douglass, Elizabeth B.

159

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things  

E-print Network

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Optimism in Close Relationships: How Seeing Things to be substantially affected by the cognitive dispositions of the individuals involved. As Coleridge might say, lovers

Gross, James J.

160

Individual differences in the phenomenological impact of social stigma.  

PubMed

In an attempt to define stigmatization from the perspective of stigmatized group members, the author focused on the development and validation of a stigmatization scale. The scale's content validity was established with the assistance of experts in the field. European American, African American, and Native American students from 5 different U.S. universities completed the Stigmatization Scale. The construct validity of the scale was suggested by its convergence with similar measures of social alienation and its divergence from measures of personal subjective well-being. The finding that both the African American and Native American students reported significantly higher stigmatization scores than did the European Americans indicated the scale's known-groups validity. African American students at a predominantly Black university reported lower stigmatization than did African American students at a predominantly White university, suggesting the scale's malleability to context. PMID:11372564

Harvey, R D

2001-04-01

161

Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

2014-01-01

162

Individual differences among children in spelling and reading styles.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found differences among children in their relative reliance on spelling-sound rules and word-specific associations in reading words. Children at one end of the continuum ("Phoenicians") rely heavily on spelling-sound rules; children at the other end ("Chinese") are more likely to use specific associations. This study found evidence for a Phoenician-Chinese continuum in spelling as well as in reading. Ability to spell nonsense word (e.g., "prunt") correlated more highly with ability to spell regular words (e.g., "grunt") than with ability to spell exception words (e.g., "front"). Children who were skilled at rules tended to overgeneralize them to exception words. In addition, a measure of rule use in spelling correlated with measures of rule use in reading. PMID:6747544

Treiman, R

1984-06-01

163

Individual differences in impulsivity predict anticipatory eye movements.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

2011-01-01

164

Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Anticipatory Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology. PMID:22046334

Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

2011-01-01

165

Individual Differences in Infant Oculomotor Behavior During the Viewing of Complex Naturalistic Scenes  

PubMed Central

Little research hitherto has examined how individual differences in attention, as assessed using standard experimental paradigms, relate to individual differences in how attention is spontaneously allocated in more naturalistic contexts. Here, we analyzed the time intervals between refoveating eye movements (fixation durations) while typically developing 11-month-old infants viewed a 90-min battery ranging from complex dynamic to noncomplex static materials. The same infants also completed experimental assessments of cognitive control, psychomotor reaction times (RT), processing speed (indexed via peak look during habituation), and arousal (indexed via tonic pupil size). High test–retest reliability was found for fixation duration, across testing sessions and across types of viewing material. Increased cognitive control and increased arousal were associated with reduced variability in fixation duration. For fixations to dynamic stimuli, in which a large proportion of saccades may be exogenously cued, we found that psychomotor RT measures were most predictive of mean fixation duration; for fixations to static stimuli, in contrast, in which there is less exogenous attentional capture, we found that psychomotor RT did not predict performance, but that measures of cognitive control and arousal did. The implications of these findings for understanding the development of attentional control in naturalistic settings are discussed.

Wass, Sam V; Smith, Tim J

2014-01-01

166

Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

2009-01-01

167

Curious Eyes: Individual Differences in Personality Predict Eye Movement Behavior in Scene-Viewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual exploration is driven by two main factors--the stimuli in our environment, and our own individual interests and intentions. Research investigating these two aspects of attentional guidance has focused almost exclusively on factors common across individuals. The present study took a different tack, and examined the role played by individual

Risko, Evan F.; Anderson, Nicola C.; Lanthier, Sophie; Kingstone, Alan

2012-01-01

168

Strong personalities, not social niches, drive individual differences in social behaviours in sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms responsible for consistent individual differences in behaviour is a recent challenge for behavioural ecology. Although theory is rapidly developing in this area, there are few empirical tests. There are at least two hypotheses to explain why individuals behave differently from one another in a dynamic social environment. The social niche specialization hypothesis proposes that repeated social interactions generate consistent individual differences in social behaviour. The behavioural type hypothesis proposes that an individual’s social behaviour reflects its behavioural type. We tested these two hypotheses by manipulating the opportunity for repeated social interactions in groups of three spine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and by measuring the behavioural types of the same individuals in three contexts: when in a novel environment, when presented with an opportunity to associate with conspecifics and when confronted by an intruder. We found no evidence that repeated social interactions increased between-individual variation in social foraging behaviour. Instead, individuals’ social foraging behaviour was related to their behavioural type, specifically their shoaling behaviour. In addition, the behavioural types of the members of a group strongly influenced a group’s average foraging behaviour. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that social dynamics within groups generates individual differences in behaviour. Instead, they suggest the reverse: individual differences in behaviour drive group-level dynamics. PMID:25076789

Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

169

A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

2012-01-01

170

Individual differences in the perception of biological motion: Links to social cognition and motor imagery  

E-print Network

Individual differences in the perception of biological motion: Links to social cognition and motor: Individual differences Biological motion Social cognition Motor imagery a b s t r a c t Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor

171

Individual Differences, Parasites, and the Costs of Reproduction for Bighorn Ewes (Ovis canadensis)  

E-print Network

Individual Differences, Parasites, and the Costs of Reproduction for Bighorn Ewes (Ovis canadensis-795 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, PARASITES, AND THE COSTSOF REPRODUCTIONFOR BIGHORN EWES (OVIS CANADENSIS) BY MARCO marked bighorn ewes (Ovis canadensis)were examined over 8 years in south-western Alberta, Canada. (2

Lazzaro, Brian

172

Multilevel Models for Examining Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation and Covariation over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance--it may be of direct interest as a result of individual differences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individual differences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for…

Hoffman, Lesa

2007-01-01

173

CLASSI: A Classification Model for the Study of Sequential Processes and Individual Differences Therein  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In psychological research, one often aims at explaining individual differences in S-R profiles, that is, individual differences in the responses (R) with which people react to specific stimuli (S). To this end, researchers often postulate an underlying sequential process, which boils down to the specification of a set of mediating variables (M)…

Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

2008-01-01

174

The roles of interrogation, perception, and individual differences in producing compliant false confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized an experimental design to examine the amount of variance in false confessions that was explained by three types of variables. These variable sets were interrogation tactics, perceptions, and individual differences. The results indicated that interrogation tactics alone explained only a trivial amount of variance; whereas perceptions and individual differences each explained significant amounts of the variance in

J. P. Blair

2007-01-01

175

Using individual differences to build a common core dataset for aviation security studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In security tasks, there is much interest in individual differences as managers have a belief that ‘choosing the right person for the job’ can have a substantial effect on system performance. This programme was aimed at finding a common set of variables to characterise individual differences in performance of security inspection tasks. As part of this effort, an Access™ database

Colin G. Drury; Karen Holness; Kimberly M. Ghylin; Brian D. Green

2009-01-01

176

75 FR 47900 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OTS-2010-0006] Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal...differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the agencies. The...States Senate Regarding Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the...

2010-08-09

177

Competition avoidance drives individual differences in response to a changing food resource in sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Within the same population, individuals often differ in how they respond to changes in their environment. A recent series of models predicts that competition in a heterogeneous environment might promote between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity. We tested groups of sticklebacks in patchy foraging environments that differed in the level of competition. We also tested the same individuals across two different social groups and while alone to determine the social environment’s influence on behavioural plasticity. In support of model predictions, individuals consistently differed in behavioural plasticity when the presence of conspecifics influenced the potential payoffs of a foraging opportunity. Whether individuals maintained their level of behavioural plasticity when placed in a new social group depended on the environmental heterogeneity. By explicitly testing predictions of recent theoretical models, we provide evidence for the types of ecological conditions under which we would expect, and not expect, variation in behavioural plasticity to be favoured. PMID:23489482

Laskowski, Kate L.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

178

Individual differences and workload effects on strategy adoption in a dynamic task.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the effects of individual differences and workload on strategy adaptivity in a complex, dynamic task called the Space Fortress game (Donchin, 1989). Participants learned to use a strategy of flying a ship in circles around the fortress in a standard game environment. Once they mastered the strategy, they were assigned to different workload conditions and transferred to a nonstandard environment in which a strong wind was introduced that made it more difficult to achieve a circular orbit. About half of the participants continued with their prior circular strategy while the rest adopted a novel strategy that achieved comparable performance with less effort. With this novel strategy, rather than trying to complete orbits they flew into the wind and then allowed the wind to blow them back to achieve a pendulum-like path. Participants without a working-memory load were more likely to adopt the new strategy. Participants were also more likely to adopt the new strategy if their pattern of behavior exposed them more often to the potential of drifting with the wind. The results indicate that spontaneous changes in strategy occur when people are exposed to the potential of a new strategy and have the cognitive resources to understand its potential. PMID:23831665

Moon, Jungaa; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R

2013-09-01

179

Subjective sleepiness, simulated driving performance and blink duration: examining individual differences.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to provide subject-specific estimates of the relation between subjective sleepiness measured with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and blink duration (BLINKD) and lane drifting calculated as the standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLAT) in a high-fidelity moving base driving simulator. Five male and five female shift workers were recruited to participate in a 2-h drive (08:00-10:00 hours) after a normal night sleep and after working a night shift. Subjective sleepiness was rated on the KSS in 5-min intervals during the drive, electro-occulogram (EOG) was measured continuously to calculate BLINKD, and SDLAT was collected from the simulator. A mixed model anova showed a significant (P < 0.001) effect of the KSS for both dependent variables. A test for a quadratic trend suggests a curvilinear effect with a steeper increase at high KSS levels for both SDLAT (P < 0.001) and BLINKD (P = 0.003). Large individual differences were observed for the intercept (P < 0.001), suggesting that subjects differed in their overall driving performance and blink duration independent of sleepiness levels. The results have implications for any application that needs prediction at the subject level (e.g. driver fatigue warning systems) as well as for research design and the interpretation of group average data. PMID:16490002

Ingre, Michael; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Peters, Björn; Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran

2006-03-01

180

Do individuals with autism spectrum disorder process own- and other-race faces differently?  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process human faces in atypical ways according to previous literature. We investigated whether individuals with ASD can process face race information and respond to own- and other-race faces differentially. Chinese individuals with ASD (n=24), typically developing (TD) individuals (n=28), and individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, n=26) were asked to recognize Chinese and Caucasian faces in an old-new face paradigm using eye tracking. In terms of recognition, the ASD and ID groups did not perform differently and displayed superior own-race recognition compared with other-race faces; TD participants displayed similar recognition of the two types of faces. In terms of eye tracking, the TD, ASD, and ID groups displayed more looking on the eyes and less looking on the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces relative to Chinese faces. Overall, individuals with ASD manifested a behavioral other-race effect and displayed the same type of cross-racial differentiation in face scanning observed in TD individuals. The findings suggest that as is the case with TD individuals, face processing of individuals with ASD is influenced by differences in visual experience with different face categories. PMID:25542277

Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Feng, Cong; Li, Jiao; Ding, Haiyan; Lee, Kang

2015-02-01

181

Individual differences underlying susceptibility to addiction: Role for the endogenous oxytocin system.  

PubMed

Recent research shows that the effects of oxytocin are more diverse than initially thought and that in some cases oxytocin can directly influence the response to drugs and alcohol. Large individual differences in basal oxytocin levels and reactivity of the oxytocin system exist. This paper will review the literature to explore how individual differences in the oxytocin system arise and examine the hypothesis that this may mediate some of the individual differences in susceptibility to addiction and relapse. Differences in the oxytocin system can be based on individual factors, e.g. genetic variation especially in the oxytocin receptor, age or gender, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma. The paper addresses the factors that cause individual differences in the oxytocin system and the environmental factors that have been identified to induce long-term changes in the developing oxytocin system during different life phases. Individual differences in the oxytocin system can influence effects of drugs and alcohol directly or indirectly. The oxytocin system has bidirectional interactions with the stress-axis, autonomic nervous system, neurotransmitter systems (e.g. dopamine, serotonin and GABA/glutamate) and the immune system. These systems are all important, even vital, in different phases of addiction. It is suggested that early life adversity can change the development of the oxytocin system and the way it modulates other systems. This in turn could minimise the negative feedback loops that would normally exist. Individuals may show only minor differences in behaviour and function unless subsequent stressors or drug use challenges the system. It is postulated that at that time individual differences in oxytocin levels, reactivity of the system or interactions with other systems can influence general resilience, drug effects and the susceptibility to develop problematic drug and alcohol use. PMID:24056025

Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T A; Sumracki, Nicole M; Gordon, Jake J; Hull, Philip R; Carter, C Sue; Tops, Mattie

2014-04-01

182

Stigma on my mind: Individual differences in the experience of stereotype threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotyped individuals vary in how chronically self-conscious they are of their stigmatized status, which Pinel (1999) has dubbed stigma consciousness. The current study investigated whether individual differences in stigma consciousness moderate the impact of gender stereotypes on the math performance of women. Results indicated that, under conditions designed to evoke stereotype threat (Steele, 1997), women high in stigma consciousness scored

Ryan P. Brown; Elizabeth C. Pinel

2003-01-01

183

Experimental Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Corticosterone Reaction Norms with No Oxidative Costs  

PubMed Central

Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

Schoenle, Laura A.; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F.; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T.

2014-01-01

184

Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

Xu, Xu

2011-01-01

185

Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Need for cognition in contemporary literature refers to an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive endeavors. Individual differences in need for cognition have been the focus of investigation in over 100 empirical studies. This literature is reviewed, covering the theory and history of this variable, measures of interindividual variations in it, and empirical relationships between it and

John T. Cacioppo; Richard E. Petty; Jeffrey A. Feinstein; W. Blair G. Jarvis

1996-01-01

186

Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…

MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

187

Individual Differences in Visual Perception and Memory O.D.L. Colizoli  

E-print Network

: Individual Differences in Visual Memory and Perception Olympia Colizoli Brain and Cognition Department and memory ability are reflected in brain function and structure in related networks to a certain degree and memory abilities can be reliably predicted from brain function and structure at the individual level

van Rooij, Robert

188

Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…

Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.

2007-01-01

189

Explaining Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Via Individual and Interpersonal Variables in Different Job Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between experiencing role conflict and ambiguity and four individual and interpersonal variables. Results suggest that the underlying equations regarding the influence of individual and interpersonal variables on role perceptions vary in different job categories. Task characteristics are offered as plausible reasons for…

Randolph, W. Alan; Posner, Barry Z.

1981-01-01

190

Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.  

PubMed

In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

2015-01-01

191

Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords  

PubMed Central

Abstract In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

2015-01-01

192

Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal article "Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects", from the Journal of Applied Physiology, by David W. Degroot, W. Larry Kenny, and George Havenith.

David W DeGroot (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology); Larry W. Kenny (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology); George Havenith (Loughborough University Human Sciences)

2006-12-01

193

Spatial Selective Auditory Attention in the Presence of Reverberant Energy: Individual Differences  

E-print Network

Spatial Selective Auditory Attention in the Presence of Reverberant Energy: Individual Differences auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

194

Individual differences in fear: Isolating fear reactivity and fear recovery phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although different people respond differently to threatening events, animal research on the neural basis of fear tends to focus on typical responses. Yet there are substantial individual differences between animals exposed to identical behavioral procedures. In an effort to begin to understand the nature and causes of fear variability and resilience, we separated outbred Sprague-Dawley rats into high and low

David E. A. Bush; Francisco Sotres-Bayon; Joseph E. LeDoux

2007-01-01

195

Individual differences in heart rate variability are associated with the avoidance of negative emotional events.  

PubMed

Although the emotional outcome of a choice generally affects subsequent decisions, humans can inhibit the influence of emotion. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an objective measure of individual differences in the capacity for inhibitory control. In the present study, we investigated how individual differences in HRV at rest are associated with the emotional effects of the outcome of a choice on subsequent decision making using a decision-making task in which emotional pictures appeared as decision outcomes. We used a reinforcement learning model to characterize the observed behaviors according to several parameters, namely, the learning rate and the motivational value of positive and negative pictures. Consequently, we found that individuals with a lower resting HRV exhibited a greater negative motivational value in response to negative pictures, suggesting that these individuals tend to avoid negative pictures compared with individuals with a higher resting HRV. PMID:25457639

Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

2014-12-01

196

Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children.  

PubMed

This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness, morpho-syntactic competence, and non-verbal cognitive ability. Rhythm perception accounted for 48% of the variance in morpho-syntactic competence after controlling for non-verbal IQ, socioeconomic status, and prior musical activities. Children with higher phonological awareness scores were better able to discriminate complex rhythms than children with lower scores, but not after controlling for IQ. This study is the first to show a relation between rhythm perception skills and morpho-syntactic production in children with typical language development. These findings extend the literature showing substantial overlap of neurocognitive resources for processing music and language. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://youtu.be/_lO692qHDNg. PMID:25195623

Gordon, Reyna L; Shivers, Carolyn M; Wieland, Elizabeth A; Kotz, Sonja A; Yoder, Paul J; Devin McAuley, J

2014-09-01

197

Optimal life-history strategy differs between philopatric and dispersing individuals in a metapopulation.  

PubMed

Abundant empirical evidence for dispersal syndromes contrasts with the rarity of theoretical predictions about the evolution of life-history divergence between dispersing and philopatric individuals. We use an evolutionary model to predict optimal differences in age-specific reproductive effort between dispersing and philopatric individuals inhabiting the same metapopulation. In our model, only young individuals disperse, and their lifelong reproductive decisions are potentially affected by this initial event. Juvenile survival declines as density of adults and other juveniles increases. We assume a trade-off between reproduction and survival, so that different patterns of age-specific reproductive effort lead to different patterns of aging. We find that young immigrant mothers should allocate more resources to reproduction than young philopatric mothers, but these life-history differences vanish as immigrant and philopatric individuals get older. However, whether the higher early reproductive effort of immigrants results in higher fecundity depends on the postimmigration cost on fecundity. Dispersing individuals have consequently a shorter life span. Ultimately, these life-history differences are due to the fact that young dispersing individuals most often live in recently founded populations, where competition is relaxed and juvenile survival higher, favoring larger investment in offspring production at the expense of survival. PMID:24561601

Cotto, Olivier; Kubisch, Alexander; Ronce, Ophélie

2014-03-01

198

Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance  

PubMed Central

Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9–12, 20–25, and 65–78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity. PMID:22615692

Lövdén, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

2012-01-01

199

Quantification of Hordeins by ELISA: The Correct Standard Makes a Magnitude of Difference  

PubMed Central

Background Coeliacs require a life-long gluten-free diet supported by accurate measurement of gluten (hordein) in gluten-free food. The gluten-free food industry, with a value in excess of $6 billion in 2011, currently depends on two ELISA protocols calibrated against standards that may not be representative of the sample being assayed. Aim The factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA analysis of hordeins in beer were examined. Results A simple alcohol-dithiothreitol extraction protocol successfully extracts the majority of hordeins from barley flour and malt. Primary hordein standards were purified by FPLC. ELISA detected different classes of purified hordeins with vastly different sensitivity. The dissociation constant (Kd) for a given ELISA reaction with different hordeins varied by three orders of magnitude. The Kd of the same hordein determined by ELISA using different antibodies varied by up to two orders of magnitude. The choice of either ELISA kit or hordein standard may bias the results and confound interpretation. Conclusions Accurate determination of hordein requires that the hordein standard used to calibrate the ELISA reaction be identical in composition to the hordeins present in the test substance. In practice it is not feasible to isolate a representative hordein standard from each test food. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes which may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. PMID:23509607

Tanner, Gregory J.; Blundell, Malcolm J.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Howitt, Crispin A.

2013-01-01

200

Individual differences in radial maze performance and locomotor activity in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

Individual differences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the maze without any consistent or definable pattern); and 3) nonrunners (i.e., nonperformers of the task who remained relatively immobile in the arms of the maze). The algorithmic and nonalgorithmic voles further differed in their responses to an interference manipulation of the radial maze task. Algorithmic individuals displayed a marked performance deficit, while the nonalgorithmic individuals showed minimal disruption to a 1-min delay interruption of the maze task. Measurements of several aspects of locomotor activity using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system revealed that the algorithmic individuals also displayed significantly greater levels of activity than the nonalgorithmic or nonrunners, with no significant difference in activity between the latter two groups. These findings suggest that the algorithmic voles were relatively inflexible in their behavior, while the nonalgorithmic individuals were more flexible in their maze performance and likely in their use of spatial and nonspatial information. These individual differences in laboratory measures of learning behavior and locomotor activity in meadow voles are consistent with the polymorphism that is proposed to occur in the wild. PMID:9877423

Teskey, G C; Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M; Innis, N K; Boon, F H

1998-12-01

201

Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

2012-01-01

202

Linking Neurogenetics and Individual Differences in Language Learning: The Dopamine Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals’ genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between dopamine-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2014-01-01

203

Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.  

PubMed

Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

2010-01-01

204

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES All in the Mind's Eye? Anger Rumination and Reappraisal  

E-print Network

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES All in the Mind's Eye? Anger Rumination University Research on rumination has demonstrated that compared with distraction, rumination intensifies and prolongs negative emotion. However, rumination and distraction differ both in what one thinks about and how

Gross, James J.

205

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism Associates with Individual Differences in Sleep  

E-print Network

baseline REM sleep latency. The genotypes, however, did not differ in performance across various executiveCatechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism Associates with Individual Differences in Sleep Physiologic Responses to Chronic Sleep Loss Namni Goel1 *, Siobhan Banks1¤ , Ling Lin2 , Emmanuel Mignot2

Bushman, Frederic

206

LESBIAN COUPLES: THE IMPLICATIONS OF SEX DIFFERENCES IN SEPARATION-INDIVIDUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relational dynamic of merging in lesbian couples is addressed from an object relations perspective. Preoedipal gender differences in the intrapsychic process of separation-individuation are seen to most fully account for this pattern. Gay male couples manifest the opposite pattern: emotional distancing. The determining factor is gender not homosexuality. Different patterns in lesbian and gay male couples illustrate crucial gender

Dianne Elise

1986-01-01

207

Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

2013-01-01

208

Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

2009-01-01

209

Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Under Acute Stress: The Role of Trait Perceived Stress  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731

Lempert, Karolina M.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

210

Individual Differences in Long-Distance Calls of Male Wild Thomas Langurs (Presbytis thomasi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a variety of primate species individuals use long-distance calls. In many cases, analysis of these calls revealed acoustic differences between individuals [1-7]. It has been suggested that long-distance calls convey information with respect to territorial status or location of groups [4, 8-13]. The vocal repertoire of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) includes a long-distance call (loud call) by males.

Peter Assink

1998-01-01

211

An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

2012-01-01

212

Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological–hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs’ specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients’ own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent. PMID:24054352

Mjølstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

2013-01-01

213

Camouflage and Individual Variation in Shore Crabs (Carcinus maenas) from Different Habitats  

PubMed Central

Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this. PMID:25551233

Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Wood, Louisa E.

2014-01-01

214

Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific.  

PubMed

Natural selection often promotes a mix of behavioural phenotypes in a population. Adaptive variation in the propensity to take risks might explain individual differences in shyness and boldness in humans and other species. It is often implicitly assumed that shyness and boldness are general personality traits expressed across many situations. From the evolutionary standpoint, however, individual differences that are adaptive in one context (e.g. predator defence) may not be adaptive in other contexts (e.g. exploration of the physical environment or intraspecific social interactions). We measured the context specificity of shyness and boldness in a natural population of juvenile pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus, by exposing the fish to a potentially threatening stimulus (a red-tipped metrestick extended towards the individual) and a nonthreatening stimulus (a novel food source). We also related these measures of shyness and boldness to behaviours observed during focal observations, both before and after the introduction of a predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides). Consistent individual differences were found within both contexts, but individual differences did not correlate across contexts. Furthermore, fish that were scored as intermediate in their response to the metrestick behaved most boldly as foragers and in response to the bass predators. These results suggest that shyness and boldness are context-specific and may not exist as a one-dimensional behavioural continuum even within a single context. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790704

Coleman; Wilson

1998-10-01

215

Individual differences in the exploration of a redundant space-time motor task.  

PubMed

Individual differences in learning a motor task are rarely assessed even though they can potentially contribute to our understanding of the problem of motor redundancy-i.e., how individuals can exploit multiple different strategies to realize the task goal. This study examined individual variations in the preferred movement strategy of a redundant motor task. Thirty-two participants performed a star tracing task on a digitizing tablet with the goal of minimizing a performance score that was given as feedback. The performance score was a weighted combination of spatial error and movement time, meaning that multiple strategies could yield the same score. A cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of individuals based on their initial movement strategy preferences. These groups were not only different on their initial performance, but also exhibited differences in both local (trial-to-trial change) and global (average change) search strategies that were reflected through differential modification of spatial and temporal components. Overall, the results in this space-time task reveal that the intrinsic dynamics of the individual channel the initial exploratory solutions to learning a redundant motor task. PMID:22914583

King, Adam C; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Newell, Karl M

2012-11-01

216

Comparative Evaluation of Maximum Bite Force in Dentulous and Edentulous Individuals with Different Facial Forms  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mean maximum bite force in dentulous and edentulous individuals with Angle’s class-I occlusion and to assess the effect of different facial forms such as Square, Square-tapering, tapering and ovoid on the biting force. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 160 subjects in total. Out of these 160, 80 were dentulous subjects and remaining 80 were edentulous subjects who had received treatment for his/her missing teeth by fabrication of a complete denture. The mean maximum voluntary bite force for every subject was measured using bite force measuring device,(Process indicator 3016). Face form was divided under square, tapering, square-tapering or oval types. The shape of the face was determined using digital photographs. The effect of edentulism, gender and face form on bite force was statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Scheffe and Sample t-tests. Result: Mean maximum bite force and standard deviation (S.D.) in the dentulous sample population was 41.3(13.9) kilograms (kg) which when compared with the edentulous sample population provided highly significant statistical result. The mean maximum biting force in edentulous sample population was 4.43 (2.4) kg (p<0.001). In both dentulous and edentulous categories, the mean maximum bite force was statistically higher in male patients than female patients. Mean maximum bite force was significantly higher in patients with square facial form than in subjects with other facial forms. Conclusion: Square face form contributes to higher bite force values by obtaining higher Mechanical advantage from muscles of mastication. Result also proved that patients with complete denture with any facial form have much lower mean maximum bite force when compared to dentate subjects. PMID:25386519

A.A., Ponnanna; Rajwadha, Nishant; Chhaparia, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhishek; Anant, Mahendra

2014-01-01

217

Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress.  

PubMed

Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual's propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731

Lempert, Karolina M; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R; Tricomi, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

218

Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.  

PubMed

Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

2014-09-01

219

Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented  

PubMed Central

Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer contributions (increased free riding) as compared to the situation when punishment was not implemented. This has implications for our understanding of why some people cannot resist the temptation to free ride, even when facing possible punishment for their actions. Our findings suggest that the diminished functioning of mechanisms, associated with trait behavioural inhibition, can partly explain such behaviours. PMID:23305116

2013-01-01

220

The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter.  

PubMed

IN A SEMINAL PAPER WRITTEN FIVE DECADES AGO, CRONBACH DISCUSSED THE TWO HIGHLY DISTINCT APPROACHES TO SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between "causation" and "causes of variation" (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its "associability" provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this "new" light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals' performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D

2013-01-01

221

The causes of variation in learning and behavior: why individual differences matter  

PubMed Central

In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between “causation” and “causes of variation” (with its origins in the field of genetics) reveals the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its “associability” provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this “new” light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris water maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships. PMID:23847569

Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D.

2013-01-01

222

Individual difference in serum oxytocin concentrations of calves and the correlation with those in dams.  

PubMed

We examined individual differences in serum oxytocin concentrations (OT) of calves, and assessed whether these differences were correlated with their dams' milk and serum OT. Eight Holstein (H), nine Japanese Shorthorn (JS), and six Japanese Black (JB) calves were examined. Blood was collected three times during the first month in H calves, while their dams' blood was collected three times prior to parturition. Milk was collected twice after parturition from H cows. Blood from JS and JB calves were collected at 1 and 4 months old, while of their dams only once before parturition. Serum OT in H calves at 7 days old was significantly correlated with that at 30 days. Serum OT of JS calves at 1 month old was significantly correlated to that at 4 months, while of JB calves was also positively correlated (r = 0.70). Serum OT of calves showed significant individual differences in each breed. Serum OT of calves was not correlated with the milk OT of dams, except for 3-day-old calves that fed on their dams' milk. We concluded that although serum OT differed among individuals, this difference was stable within each individual and not affected by the serum OT of the dams. PMID:23964927

Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Oyakawa, Chisako; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

2014-01-01

223

Using eye tracking to test for individual differences in attention to attractive faces  

PubMed Central

We assessed individual differences in visual attention toward faces in relation to their attractiveness via saccadic reaction times. Motivated by the aim to understand individual differences in attention to faces, we tested three hypotheses: (a) Attractive faces hold or capture attention more effectively than less attractive faces; (b) men show a stronger bias toward attractive opposite-sex faces than women; and (c) blue-eyed men show a stronger bias toward blue-eyed than brown-eyed feminine faces. The latter test was included because prior research suggested a high effect size. Our data supported hypotheses (a) and (b) but not (c). By conducting separate tests for disengagement of attention and attention capture, we found that individual differences exist at distinct stages of attentional processing but these differences are of varying robustness and importance. In our conclusion, we also advocate the use of linear mixed effects models as the most appropriate statistical approach for studying inter-individual differences in visual attention with naturalistic stimuli.

Valuch, Christian; Pflüger, Lena S.; Wallner, Bernard; Laeng, Bruno; Ansorge, Ulrich

2015-01-01

224

Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait?like, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic?Chinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22–30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10?min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between?subject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67–0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait?like. PMID:25263200

Chua, Eric Chern?Pin; Yeo, Sing?Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian?Guang; Tan, Luuan?Chin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S.; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

225

Relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment.  

PubMed

Two studies investigate relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. Participants completed the Brief Assessment of Individual Motives 1--Revised, a measure of 15 putative evolved motives (i.e., "traits of action"). In Study 1, N = 147 adult participants also completed the Borderline Personality Questionnaire and Self-Report Psychopathy III Questionnaire (SRP III). In Study 2, N = 135 college age participants also completed the SRP III and the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62. Regression analyses suggested that individual differences in motivational traits account for moderate amounts of variance in measures of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. They also suggested that lower motivation to engage in cooperative behaviors (e.g., sharing resources and forming coalitions) is related to impaired interpersonal relationships and maladjustment. PMID:24340807

Bernard, Larry C

2013-08-01

226

Using individual differences to predict job performance: correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences, indicated by personality (FFM) and general mental ability (GMA), and job performance applying two different methods of correction for range restriction. The results, derived by analyzing meta-analytic correlations, show that the more accurate method of correcting for indirect range restriction increased the operational validity of individual differences in predicting job performance and that this increase primarily was due to general mental ability being a stronger predictor than any of the personality traits. The estimates for single traits can be applied in practice to maximize prediction of job performance. Further, differences in the relative importance of general mental ability in relation to overall personality assessment methods was substantive and the estimates provided enables practitioners to perform a correct utility analysis of their overall selection procedure. PMID:22612634

Sjöberg, Sofia; Sjöberg, Anders; Näswall, Katharina; Sverke, Magnus

2012-08-01

227

Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria  

E-print Network

Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria When by NIH, the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has announced first genomic compilation of the generalized that carry out metabolic activities, researchers estimate that the microbiome contributes some 8 million

Howitt, Ivan

228

Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…

Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

2012-01-01

229

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis  

PubMed Central

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

2014-01-01

230

Perceptual Information Processing as a Function of Spatial and Verbal Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in perceptual information processing were tested using 327 ten year old children, with verbal tasks representing successive information processing and spatial tasks representing simultaneous information processing. Three sets of tasks, (1) visual/reconstruction (V/R), (2) visual/verbal (V/VL), and (3) verbal/reconstruction…

Randhawa, Bikkar S.; Hunt, Dennis

231

Individual Differences in Mathematical Competence Modulate Brain Responses to Arithmetic Errors: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individual differences in mathematical…

Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz

2011-01-01

232

Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

2014-01-01

233

Understanding Individual Differences in Spatial Ability within Females: A Nature\\/Nurture Interactionist Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a program of research, conducted in collaboration with several of my colleagues, which examines individual differences in spatial ability from a biological\\/environmental interaction perspective. Our research strategy has been to identify the females who provide the exceptions to the male advantage in mental rotation ability. We tested a “bent twig” model, identifying a subgroup of females predicted

M. Beth Casey

1996-01-01

234

Relative Endurance and Physiological Responses: A Study of Individual Differences in Prepubescent Boys and Adult Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oxygen uptake and heart rate of men and boys were determined and compared using a continuous incremental bicycle ergometer test. Both groups had similar patterns for consistency, but the children had smaller individual difference variations for both oxygen uptake and heart rate. (FG)

Sady, Stanley P.; Katch, Victor L.

1981-01-01

235

Evolution, Convolution, Dissolution: The Rise of Individual Differences in Human Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is difficult to ascertain precisely the time at which the study of individual differences became recognized as a specialty within the psychological sciences, there appears to be much agreement among historians that its development was fostered primarily within the United States during the late 19th century. This paper examines the…

Rickman, David L.

236

Individualism, Collectivism, and Client Expression of Different Emotions: Their Relations to Perceived Counselor Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how individualism, collectivism, and counselor emphasis of different client emotions were related to perceived counselor effectiveness. Data were collected from 192 (122 women and 70 men) Korean students attending a large university in South Korea and from 170 (115 women and 55 men) American students attending a large…

Seo, Young Seok

2011-01-01

237

Introduction fMRI Task Individual Differences The Neural Correlates of Visual and Verbal Cognitive Styles  

E-print Network

Introduction fMRI Task Individual Differences The Neural Correlates of Visual and Verbal Cognitive are not well understood. · Hypothesis: Propensity for visual and verbal cognitive styles will correlate with recruitment of modlity-preferential areas (those involved in visual/verbal working memory and processing

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

238

Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

2012-01-01

239

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

2008-01-01

240

Lexical Precision in Skilled Readers: Individual Differences in Masked Neighbor Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the relationship between masked form priming and individual differences in reading and spelling proficiency among university students. Experiment 1 assessed neighbor priming for 4-letter word targets from high- and low-density neighborhoods in 97 university students. The overall results replicated previous evidence of…

Andrews, Sally; Hersch, Jolyn

2010-01-01

241

Scientific and Social Significance of Assessing Individual Differences: “Sinking Shafts at a Few Critical Points”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, per- sonality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of

David Lubinski

2000-01-01

242

Not All Skilled Readers Have Cracked the Code: Individual Differences in Masked Form Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated whether individual differences in written language proficiency among university students predict the early stages of lexical retrieval tapped by the masked form priming lexical decision task. To separate the contributions of sublexical facilitation and lexical competition to masked form priming, the effects of prime…

Andrews, Sally; Lo, Steson

2012-01-01

243

Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

2012-01-01

244

A Longitudinal Field Investigation of Gender Differences in Individual Technology Adoption Decision-Making Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated gender differences in the overlooked context of individual adoption and sustained usage of technology in the workplace using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). User reactions and technology usage behavior were studied over a 5-month period among 355 workers being introduced to a new software technology application. When compared to women's decisions, the decisions of men were

Viswanath Venkatesh; Michael G. Morris; Phillip L. Ackerman

2000-01-01

245

Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

2010-01-01

246

Symbol-Digit Substitution and Individual Differences in Visual Search Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substitution tests have a long history in psychology because of their simplicity of administration and their sensitivity to individual differences related to complex cognitive performance. Despite their widespread use there is no agreement on what the substitution test measures. The present study approached this question by applying a method of…

Gilmore, Grover C.; Royer, Fred L.; Gruhn, Joseph J.; Esson, Michael J.

2004-01-01

247

The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this model.…

Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

2012-01-01

248

Individual differences in social comparison: Development of a scale of social comparison orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and validation of a measure of individual differences in social comparison orientation (the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure (INCOM)) are described. Assuming that the ten- dency toward social comparison is universal, the scale was constructed so as to be appropriate to and comparable in 2 cultures: American and Dutch. It was then administered to several thousand people in each country.

Frederick X. Gibbons; Bram P. Buunk

1999-01-01

249

Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

Zheng, Robert

2010-01-01

250

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

2012-01-01

251

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with  

E-print Network

Space Heaters The University recognizes that individuals have different levels of comfort associated with temperature and heat. The use of electric space heaters as a temporary measure is permitted, if the following guidelines are followed: 1. Where permitted, owners/ users of space heaters are responsible

de Lijser, Peter

252

Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

2014-01-01

253

Individuals Differ in the Attentional Blink: Mental Speed and Intra-Subject Stability Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The failure to correctly report two targets ("T[subscript 1]", "T[subscript 2]") that follow each other in close temporal proximity has been called the "attentional blink" (AB). The AB has, so far, mainly been studied using experimental approaches. The present studies investigated individual differences in AB performance, revealing (among further…

Klein, Christoph; Arend, Isabel C.; Beauducel, Andre; Shapiro, Kimron L.

2011-01-01

254

The Influence of Individual Differences on Diagrammatic Communication and Problem Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the user and customizing the interface to augment cognition and usability are goals of human computer interaction research and design. Yet, little is known about the influence of individual visual-verbal information presentation preferences on visual navigation and screen element usage. If consistent differences in visual navigation…

King, Laurel A.

2009-01-01

255

Individual differences in attitude change following two acts of forced compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the consistency of individual differences in attitude change following an act of forced compliance by having 124 undergraduates write 2 counter-attitudinal essays 5 wks apart. Attitude changes were only moderately correlated (r = .47) between sessions. Larger correlations were obtained between measure of perceived freedom of choice and between choice and attitude change. Findings are consistent with statements that

John C. Touhey

1973-01-01

256

Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

Ackerman, Phillip L.

257

Individual Differences in the Relationship between Satisfaction with Job Rewards and Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research often showed a positive relationship between pay satisfaction and job satisfaction, we dispute the universality of this finding. Cluster-wise regression analyses on three samples consistently show that two types of individuals can be distinguished, each with a different job reward-job satisfaction relationship. For the…

Hofmans, Joeri; De Gieter, Sara; Pepermans, Roland

2013-01-01

258

Individual differences in schizotypal personality traits correlate with amphetamine induced dopamine release in striatal and  

E-print Network

Individual differences in schizotypal personality traits correlate with amphetamine induced.43 mg/kg) d-amphetamine. Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each subject's d-amphetamine scan and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extra-striatal brain regions. D-amphetamine induced

Park, Sohee

259

Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

260

The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

2009-01-01

261

Individual Differences and the Fundamental Similarity of Implicit and Explicit Adult Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines claims that unconscious second language learning under implicit and incidental conditions is insensitive to measures of individual differences in cognitive abilities, in contrast to learning under conscious rule-search and instructed conditions. Findings revealed that only in the incidental condition was the extent of learning and…

Robinson, Peter

1997-01-01

262

Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

2012-01-01

263

The Importance of Managing Interference for Second Language Reading Ability: An Individual Differences Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on individual differences in second language (L2) reading ability has primarily focused on factors known to contribute to first language (L1) reading ability, with little consideration of factors mediating interference between languages. In an exploratory analysis, we compared the degree to which the linguistic interference that readers…

Yamasaki, Brianna L.; Prat, Chantel S.

2014-01-01

264

Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

265

Individual Differences in the Centrality of Visual Product Aesthetics: Concept and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research conceptualizes and develops a scale to measure individual differences in the centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA), defined as the level of significance that visual aesthetics hold for a particular consumer in his\\/her relationship with products. Three related dimensions of product aesthetics centrality emerged from the research: value, acumen, and response intensity. A series of eight studies provided

2003-01-01

266

Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

2004-01-01

267

Variation in Cognitive Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation of Everyday Attention and Memory Failures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined individual differences in everyday cognitive failures assessed by diaries. A large sample of participants completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory. Furthermore, a subset of these participants also recorded everyday cognitive failures (attention, retrospective memory, and prospective memory failures)…

Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

268

The Effect of Executive Function on Biological Reasoning in Young Children: An Individual Differences Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is substantial variance in the age at which children construct and deploy their first explicit theory of biology. This study tests the hypothesis that this variance is due, at least in part, to individual differences in their executive function (EF) abilities. A group of 79 boys and girls aged 5-7 years (with a mean age of 6½ years) were…

Zaitchik, Deborah; Iqbal, Yeshim; Carey, Susan

2014-01-01

269

Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

2011-01-01

270

Research on Individual Differences within a Sociocultural Perspective: Co-Regulation and Adaptive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Research is presented on teacher-centered instruction and individual differences among students within a sociocultural perspective specifically, within a co-regulation model. Purpose of Study: To determine the utility of a co-regulation model for understanding teacher and student adaptation to the press of cultural and social…

McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg

2011-01-01

271

A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

2011-01-01

272

Understanding Teachers with Extreme Individual Learning Differences: Developing More Effective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teachers, who held extreme preferences for the ways they learn, participated in a year-long professional development course, designed to sensitize teachers to their own and colleagues' individual learning differences (ILDs). The case study focuses on their extreme learning preferences and discusses the impact of these preferences on their…

Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2008-01-01

273

Language Learning Disability and Individual Differences: Can We See between the Lines?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individual differences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of learning…

Silliman, Elaine R.

2010-01-01

274

Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

2005-01-01

275

Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

2014-01-01

276

Self-rated attractiveness predicts individual differences in women's preferences for masculine men's voices  

E-print Network

Self-rated attractiveness predicts individual differences in women's preferences for masculine men c , F.G. Smith a a Face Research Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom b Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, United Kingdom c

Little, Tony

277

Researching Task Difficulty from an Individual Differences Perspective: The Case of Goal Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study which highlighted goal orientation as an approachable individual difference (ID) variable which may further our understanding of foreign/second language learning experience. The study sought to (i) gauge the extent of goal orientation in foreign language learners' profile and (ii) examine how goal orientation affects…

Maad, Mohamed Ridha Ben

2012-01-01

278

Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

1988-01-01

279

Educational Outcomes for Children At-Risk: The Influence of Individual Differences in Children's Temperaments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in temperament can be protective or risk factors that may enhance or interfere with children's healthy development and educational success. This study examined the concurrent and predictive relationships between temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement in children at-risk. Seventy-seven children at-risk, ages…

Al-Hendawi, Maha; Reed, Evelyn

2012-01-01

280

Individual differences in the nonverbal communication of affect: The diagnostic analysis of nonverbal accuracy scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA) was designed to measure individual differences in the accurate sending and receiving of nonverbal social information. The DANVA consists of four receptive and three expressive subtests that measure nonverbal processing accuracy in children from 6 to 10 years of age. Four propositions were offered to guide the gathering of construct validity data for

Stephen Nowicki Jr; Marshall P. Duke

1994-01-01

281

Individual Differences in Discriminatory Fear Learning under Conditions of Ambiguity: A Vulnerability Factor for Anxiety Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing conditioned stimulus (CS) and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Stress (DASS-S), but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as GAD. PMID:23755030

Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Boddez, Yannick; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

2013-01-01

282

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

283

Individual Differences in Pseudohomophony Effect Relates to Auditory Categorical Perception Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined whether individual differences in the quality of phonological representations, measured by a categorical perception task (CP), are related with the use of phonological information in a lexical decision pseudohomophone task. In addition, the lexical frequency of the stimuli was manipulated. The sample consisted of…

Luque, David; Luque, Juan L.; Lopez-Zamora, Miguel

2011-01-01

284

Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.  

PubMed

Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed 136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (?Cramer?=?.02-.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

2014-01-01

285

Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (?Cramer?=?.02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

2014-01-01

286

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

287

Characterizing individual differences in functional connectivity using dual-regression and seed-based approaches.  

PubMed

A central challenge for neuroscience lies in relating inter-individual variability to the functional properties of specific brain regions. Yet, considerable variability exists in the connectivity patterns between different brain areas, potentially producing reliable group differences. Using sex differences as a motivating example, we examined two separate resting-state datasets comprising a total of 188 human participants. Both datasets were decomposed into resting-state networks (RSNs) using a probabilistic spatial independent component analysis (ICA). We estimated voxel-wise functional connectivity with these networks using a dual-regression analysis, which characterizes the participant-level spatiotemporal dynamics of each network while controlling for (via multiple regression) the influence of other networks and sources of variability. We found that males and females exhibit distinct patterns of connectivity with multiple RSNs, including both visual and auditory networks and the right frontal-parietal network. These results replicated across both datasets and were not explained by differences in head motion, data quality, brain volume, cortisol levels, or testosterone levels. Importantly, we also demonstrate that dual-regression functional connectivity is better at detecting inter-individual variability than traditional seed-based functional connectivity approaches. Our findings characterize robust-yet frequently ignored-neural differences between males and females, pointing to the necessity of controlling for sex in neuroscience studies of individual differences. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of employing network-based models to study variability in functional connectivity. PMID:24662574

Smith, David V; Utevsky, Amanda V; Bland, Amy R; Clement, Nathan; Clithero, John A; Harsch, Anne E W; McKell Carter, R; Huettel, Scott A

2014-07-15

288

Analysis of the intra-individual differences of the joint surfaces of the calcaneus.  

PubMed

Patients with calcaneus fractures experience considerable interferences with daily living activities. The quality of anatomical reconstruction is important because of its influence on functional outcome. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic algorithm based on computer tomographic (CT) images to quantify the integrity of calcaneal joint surfaces. Validation of this algorithm was done by assessing intra-individual variations of characteristic joint parameters. Bilateral hind foot CT data of 12 subjects were manually segmented, and 3D models from the calcaneus, talus and cuboid were generated. These models were implemented in a custom-made software to analyse the area, 3D orientations and bone distance of the joint surfaces of the calcaneus. Three joints were detected, and the calculated parameters were compared between right and left hind foot by the evaluation of the directional asymmetry (%DA). The results were statistically analysed with a paired t-test. The median of area (5-7 %DA) of the joint surfaces and the distance between two articulating surfaces (8-9 %DA) showed the greatest intra-individual differences. Median differences in 3D orientation were comparatively low (1-2 %DA). None of these differences was statistically significant. Inter-individual variations among subjects were several magnitudes larger than intra-individual differences. The presented computational tool provides 3D joint-specific parameters of the calcaneus, which enable to describe their respective joint integrity. The results show that only small intra-individual differences within the anatomy exist. Surgical treatment should take place with the aid of CT data from the contralateral side. Thus, a good restoration of the anatomy may be reached. The computational tool assesses the quality of reduction, and may be helpful to evaluate the outcome and quality of operative treatment based on the calculated joint-specific parameters of joint reconstructions in the hind foot. PMID:23406018

Stephan, Daniel; Panzer, Stephanie; Göttlinger, Michael; Augat, Peter

2014-11-01

289

Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.  

PubMed

Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p < 0.01, strong positive correlations were observed between extraversion and resting brain perfusion in the right caudate, brain stem, and cingulate gyrus. Significant negative correlations between neuroticism and regional cerebral perfusion were identified in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, ACC, and orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity. PMID:23771644

Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

2014-09-01

290

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Substance Use: Mediation by Individual, Family, and School Factors*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among a diverse sample of approximately 5,500 seventh and eighth graders. We also evaluated the extent to which individual, family, and school factors mediated racial/ ethnic disparities in use. Method: Students (49% male) from 16 participating middle schools in southern California reported on lifetime and past-month substance use, individual factors (expectancies and resistance self-efficacy), family factors (familism, parental respect, and adult and older sibling use), and school factors (school-grade use and perceived peer use). We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of consumption for each racial/ethnic group adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure. Path analysis models tested mediation of racial/ethnic differences through individual, family, and school factors. Results: After adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure, Hispanics reported higher and Asians reported lower lifetime and past-month substance use, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. Rates of substance use did not differ between non-Hispanic African Americans and Caucasians. Several individual factors mediated the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity and substance use, including negative expectancies and resistance self-efficacy. Higher use among Hispanics was generally not explained by family or school factors. By contrast, several factors mediated the relationship between Asian race and lower alcohol use, including individual, family (parental respect, adult and older sibling use), and school (perceived peer use, school-grade use) factors. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of targeting specific individual, family, and school factors in tailored intervention efforts to reduce substance use among young minority adolescents. PMID:20731969

Shih, Regina A.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Tucker, Joan S.; Zhou, Annie J.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

2010-01-01

291

Function in the Human Connectome: Task-fMRI and Individual Differences in Behavior  

PubMed Central

The primary goal of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to delineate the typical patterns of structural and functional connectivity in the healthy adult human brain. However, we know that there are important individual differences in such patterns of connectivity, with evidence that this variability is associated with alterations in important cognitive and behavioral variables that affect real world function. The HCP data will be a critical stepping-off point for future studies that will examine how variation in human structural and functional connectivity play a role in adult and pediatric neurological and psychiatric disorders that account for a huge amount of public health resources. Thus, the HCP is collecting behavioral measures of a range of motor, sensory, cognitive and emotional processes that will delineate a core set of functions relevant to understanding the relationship between brain connectivity and human behavior. In addition, the HCP is using task-fMRI (tfMRI) to help delineate the relationships between individual differences in the neurobiological substrates of mental processing and both functional and structural connectivity, as well as to help characterize and validate the connectivity analyses to be conducted on the structural and functional connectivity data. This paper describes the logic and rationale behind the development of the behavioral, individual difference, and tfMRI batteries and provides preliminary data on the patterns of activation associated with each of the fMRI tasks, at both a group and individual level. PMID:23684877

Barch, Deanna M.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Harms, Michael P.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Glasser, Matthew F.; Curtiss, Sandra; Dixit, Sachin; Feldt, Cindy; Nolan, Dan; Bryant, Edward; Hartley, Tucker; Footer, Owen; Bjork, James M.; Poldrack, Russ; Smith, Steve; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.

2014-01-01

292

Assimilation and differences between the settlement patterns of individual immigrants and immigrant households  

PubMed Central

Analyses of immigrant settlement patterns typically rely on counts of foreign-born individuals by neighborhood, metropolitan area, state, or region. As an alternative, this study classifies immigrants and their descendents into household types to shift attention from individuals to relationships between individuals. The study uses pooled current population survey data to identify seven household types, six of which have various degrees of immigrant or second-generation presence. The research compares distributions of first- and second-generation immigrants with different types of households that include first- and second-generation immigrants. Our analysis shows that the geography of immigration based on households differs considerably from geographies based on individuals. The spatial distribution and concentration of the foreign-stock population provides one picture of immigrant geographies, whereas the patterns of concentration by several different household types opens up the chance to tell other stories. More pointedly, we emphasize that the unit of analysis shapes assimilation research results and implies that this analytical choice cannot be thought of as independent from the politics of immigration. PMID:16230636

Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard

2005-01-01

293

Inter and intra-individual differences in steering wheel hand positions during a simulated driving task.  

PubMed

This paper describes an experimental study focusing onto the way drivers use the steering wheel while performing a 2D tracking task. The stimulus during this task was a steering wheel angle signal recorded in real situations involving turns and straight lines performed at about 30 km/h. The hand positions of 20 volunteers were recorded in 6 steering scenarios involving 7 road geometries using a 3D motion capture system. The hand movement data were analysed via a descriptive/inferential procedure: each hand was considered using nine indicators - eight membership value averages linked to eight fuzzy angle windows and a frequency value related to the off steering wheel position - while the indicators were investigated using multiple correspondence analysis and non-parametric global and post-hoc tests. Results showed that inter-individual differences were larger than intra-individual differences. Considering 2 × 9 = 18 windows, the inter-individual differences mainly appeared during two main kinds of steering hand strategies: with versus without crossing hands, the latter being the most often used (17 among 20 participants). The intra-individual data showed that some drivers maintained a nearly identical strategy for all road geometries, while other drivers changed their hand position with the direction and/or maximum angle value of the turn. PMID:25403474

Schiro, Jessica; Loslever, Pierre; Gabrielli, François; Pudlo, Philippe

2015-03-01

294

Evidence for individual differences in regulatory focus in rats, Rattus norvegicus  

PubMed Central

Regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) builds on the classic approach-avoidance distinction by identifying two important approach orientations: the promotion focus (approaching gains and attainment) and the prevention focus (approaching non-losses and safety). Though individual differences in regulatory focus have been widely studied in human psychology, it is unknown if such differences exist in other species. To explore this possibility, we designed a series of tests for laboratory rats, paralleling human regulatory focus research on risk-taking. In homecage tests, rats (N=23) were given an opportunity to prevent a loss by burying a noxious novel object. In solitary tests in a novel enclosure, the same rats had the opportunity to pursue gains (food rewards) and/or safety (darkness). Rats demonstrated stable individual differences on both tests (p’s < .001). Complementing the human research, duration with the noxious novel object was predicted by an individual’s tendency to pursue safety (p < .01) and not by its tendency to pursue gains (p > .8). Some aspects of these results were compatible with alternative approaches, such as the bold-shy axis and “if-then” personality profiles (Mischel & Shoda, 1995). Regulatory focus theory, however, was uniquely able to predict the overall pattern, which may be an indication that it could contribute to future research in animal personality, motivation, and welfare. PMID:22390620

Franks, Becca; Higgins, E. Tory; Champagne, Frances A.

2012-01-01

295

The Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Phenylthiocarbamide and Propylthiouracil Bitterness Perception  

PubMed Central

Summary Individual differences in perception are ubiquitous within the chemical senses: taste, smell, and chemical somesthesis [1–4]. A hypothesis of this fact states that polymorphisms in human sensory receptor genes could alter perception by coding for functionally distinct receptor types [1, 5–8]. We have previously reported evidence that sequence variants in a presumptive bitter receptor gene (hTAS2R38) correlate with differences in bitterness recognition of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) [9–11]. Here, we map individual psychogenomic pathways for bitter taste by testing people with a variety of psychophysical tasks and linking their individual perceptions of the compounds PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP) to the in vitro responses of their TAS2R38 receptor variants. Functional expression studies demonstrate that five different haplotypes from the hTAS2R38 gene code for operatively distinct receptors. The responses of the three haplotypes we also tested in vivo correlate strongly with individuals’ psychophysical bitter sensitivities to a family of compounds. These data provide a direct molecular link between heritable variability in bitter taste perception to functional variations of a single G protein coupled receptor that responds to compounds such as PTC and PROP that contain the N-C?S moiety. The molecular mechanisms of perceived bitterness variability have therapeutic implications, such as helping patients to consume beneficial bitter-tasting compounds—for example, pharmaceuticals and selected phytochemicals. PMID:15723792

Bufe, Bernd; Breslin, Paul A. S.; Kuhn, Christina; Reed, Danielle R.; Tharp, Christopher D.; Slack, Jay P.; Kim, Un-Kyung; Drayna, Dennis; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

2006-01-01

296

Microbes, mating, and morality: individual differences in three functional domains of disgust.  

PubMed

What is the function of disgust? Whereas traditional models have suggested that disgust serves to protect the self or neutralize reminders of our animal nature, an evolutionary perspective suggests that disgust functions to solve 3 qualitatively different adaptive problems related to pathogen avoidance, mate choice, and social interaction. The authors investigated this 3-domain model of disgust across 4 studies and examined how sensitivity to these functional domains relates to individual differences in other psychological constructs. Consistent with their predictions, factor analyses demonstrated that disgust sensitivity partitions into domains related to pathogens, sexuality, and morality. Further, sensitivity to the 3 domains showed predictable differentiation based on sex, perceived vulnerability to disease, psychopathic tendencies, and Big 5 personality traits. In exploring these 3 domains of disgust, the authors introduce a new measure of disgust sensitivity. Appreciation of the functional heterogeneity of disgust has important implications for research on individual differences in disgust sensitivity, emotion, clinical impairments, and neuroscience. PMID:19586243

Tybur, Joshua M; Lieberman, Debra; Griskevicius, Vladas

2009-07-01

297

Individual Differences in Expert Motor Coordination Associated with White Matter Microstructure in the Cerebellum  

PubMed Central

Recent investigations into the neural basis of elite sporting performance have focused on whether cortical activity might characterize individual differences in ability. However, very little is understood about how changes in brain structure might contribute to individual differences in expert motor control. We compared the behavior and brain structure of healthy controls with a group of karate black belts, an expert group who are able to perform rapid, complex movements that require years of training. Using 3D motion tracking, we investigated whether the ability to control ballistic arm movements was associated with differences in white matter microstructure. We found that karate experts are better able than novices to coordinate the timing of inter-segmental joint velocities. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed significant differences between the groups in the microstructure of white matter in the superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs) and primary motor cortex—brain regions that are critical to the voluntary control of movement. Motor coordination, the amount of experience, and the age at which training began were all associated with individual differences in white matter integrity in the cerebellum within the karate groups. These findings suggest a role for the white matter pathways of the SCPs in motor expertise. PMID:22892425

Roberts, R.E.; Bain, P.G.; Day, B.L.; Husain, M.

2013-01-01

298

Activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala underlies individual differences in prosocial and individualistic economic choices.  

PubMed

Much decision-making requires balancing benefits to the self with benefits to the group. There are marked individual differences in this balance such that individualists tend to favor themselves whereas prosocials tend to favor the group. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this difference has important implications for society and its institutions. Using behavioral and fMRI data collected during the performance of the ultimatum game, we show that individual differences in social preferences for resource allocation, so-called "social value orientation," is linked with activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala elicited by inequity, rather than activity in insula, ACC, and dorsolateral pFC. Importantly, the presence of cognitive load made prosocials behave more prosocially and individualists more individualistically, suggesting that social value orientation is driven more by intuition than reflection. In parallel, activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in response to inequity, tracked this behavioral pattern of prosocials and individualists. In addition, we conducted an impunity game experiment with different participants where they could not punish unfair behavior and found that the inequity-correlated activity seen in prosocials during the ultimatum game disappeared. This result suggests that the accumbens and amygdala activity of prosocials encodes "outcome-oriented emotion" designed to change situations (i.e., achieve equity or punish). Together, our results suggest a pivotal contribution of the nucleus accumbens and amygdala to individual differences in sociality. PMID:24564471

Haruno, Masahiko; Kimura, Minoru; Frith, Christopher D

2014-08-01

299

Risk, individual differences, and environment: an Agent-Based Modeling approach to sexual risk-taking.  

PubMed

Risky sexual behaviors, including the decision to have unprotected sex, result from interactions between individuals and their environment. The current study explored the use of Agent-Based Modeling (ABM)-a methodological approach in which computer-generated artificial societies simulate human sexual networks-to assess the influence of heterogeneity of sexual motivation on the risk of contracting HIV. The models successfully simulated some characteristics of human sexual systems, such as the relationship between individual differences in sexual motivation (sexual excitation and inhibition) and sexual risk, but failed to reproduce the scale-free distribution of number of partners observed in the real world. ABM has the potential to inform intervention strategies that target the interaction between an individual and his or her social environment. PMID:22042161

Nagoski, Emily; Janssen, Erick; Lohrmann, David; Nichols, Eric

2012-08-01

300

Investigation on the photoconductive behaviors of an individual AlN nanowire under different excited lights  

PubMed Central

Ultra-long AlN nanowire arrays are prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and the photoconductive performances of individual nanowires are investigated in our self-built measurement system. Individual ultra-long AlN nanowire (UAN) exhibits a clear photoconductive effect under different excited lights. We attribute the positive photocurrent response of individual UAN to the dominant molecular sensitization effect. It is found that they have a much faster response speed (a rise and decay time of about 1 ms), higher photocurrent response (2.7×106), and more reproductive working performance (the photocurrent fluctuation is lower than 2%) in the air environment. Their better photoconductive performances are comparable to many nanostructures, which are suggested to be a candidate for building promising photosensitive nanodevices in the future. PMID:22883472

2012-01-01

301

Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload.  

PubMed

Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

302

Individual variation in habituation: behaviour over time toward different stimuli in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

PubMed Central

Habituation, or the relatively permanent waning of a response as a result of repeated stimulation, is a form of behavioural plasticity that allows animals to filter out irrelevant stimuli and to focus selectively on important stimuli. Individuals that fail to habituate might be at a disadvantage if they continue to respond to irrelevant stimuli; therefore, habituation can have adaptive significance. In this study we compared rates of behaviour over time toward three different ecologically-relevant stimuli (food, a male intruder and a gravid female) in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We detected evidence for habituation to the stimuli, and males in this study were especially aggressive toward both male and female conspecifics. Although there were some clear temporal patterns that could be detected by looking at average behaviour, not all individuals behaved in the same ‘average’ way. We detected substantial inter-individual variation in behaviour toward all three stimuli, inter-individual variation in rates of habituation to both male and female conspecifics, but no evidence for correlations between behaviours across stimuli (behavioural syndromes). These results suggest that individual animals vary in rates of habituation, and prompt hypotheses about the causes and consequences of variation in rates of habituation.

Bell, Alison M.; Peeke, Harman V.S.

2014-01-01

303

Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload  

PubMed Central

Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct “slots” in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

304

Individual Differences and Social Influences on the Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Abused Drugs  

PubMed Central

The interaction of drugs with biologic targets is a critical area of research, particularly for the development of medications to treat substance use disorders. In addition to understanding these drug-target interactions, however, there is a need to understand more fully the psychosocial influences that moderate these interactions. The first section of this review introduces some examples from human behavioral pharmacology that illustrate the clinical importance of this research. The second section covers preclinical evidence to characterize some of the key individual differences that alter drug sensitivity and abuse vulnerability, related primarily to differences in response to novelty and impulsivity. Evidence is presented to indicate that critical neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with these individual differences involve integrated neurocircuits underlying stress, reward, and behavioral inhibitory processes. The third section covers social influences on drug abuse vulnerability, including effects experienced during infancy, adolescence, and young adulthood, such as maternal separation, housing conditions, and social interactions (defeat, play, and social rank). Some of the same neurocircuits involved in individual differences also are altered by social influences, although the precise neurochemical and cellular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated fully. Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. PMID:23343975

Neisewander, J. L.; Kelly, T. H.

2013-01-01

305

A neural trait approach to exploring individual differences in social preferences  

PubMed Central

Research demonstrates that social preferences are characterized by significant individual differences. An important question, often overlooked, is from where do these individual differences originate? And what are the processes that underlie such differences? In this paper, we outline the neural trait approach to uncovering sources of individual differences in social preferences, particularly as evidenced in economic games. We focus on two primary methods—resting-state electroencephalography and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—used by researchers to quantify task-independent, brain-based characteristics that are stable over time. We review research that has employed these methods to investigate social preferences with an emphasis on a key psychological process in social decision-making; namely, self-control. We then highlight future opportunities for the neural trait approach in cutting-edge decision-making research. Finally, we explore the debate about self-control in social decision-making and the potential role neural trait research could play in this issue. PMID:25642176

Nash, Kyle; Gianotti, Lorena R. R.; Knoch, Daria

2015-01-01

306

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

2012-01-01

307

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve. PMID:22673360

Rosvall, K A; Bergeon Burns, C M; Barske, J; Goodson, J L; Schlinger, B A; Sengelaub, D R; Ketterson, E D

2012-09-01

308

Does Individualism Help Explain Differences in Employers' Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Disability Across Chinese and American Cities?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. PMID:21171794

Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2011-01-01

309

Male great bowerbirds create forced perspective illusions with consistently different individual quality  

PubMed Central

Males often produce elaborate displays that increase their attractiveness to females, and some species extend their displays to include structures or objects that are not part of their body. Such “extended phenotypes” may communicate information that cannot be transmitted by bodily signals or may provide a more reliable signal than bodily signals. However, it is unclear whether these signals are individually distinct and whether they are consistent over long periods of time. Male bowerbirds construct and decorate bowers that function in mate choice. Bower display courts constructed by male great bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) induce a visual illusion known as forced perspective for the female viewing the male’s display over the court, and the quality of illusion is associated with mating success. We improved the quality of the forced perspective to determine whether males maintained it at the new higher level, decreased the perspective quality back to its original value, or allowed it to decay at random over time. We found that the original perspective quality was actively recovered to individual original values within 3 d. We measured forced perspective over the course of one breeding season and compared the forced perspective of individual males between two successive breeding seasons. We found that differences in the quality of visual illusion among males were consistent within and between two breeding seasons. This suggests that forced perspective is actively and strongly maintained at a different level by each individual male. PMID:23213203

Kelley, Laura A.; Endler, John A.

2012-01-01

310

Motor and Tactile-Perceptual Skill Differences between Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Typically Developing Individuals Ages 5-21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined motor and tactile-perceptual skills in individuals with high-functioning autism (IHFA) and matched typically developing individuals (TDI) ages 5-21 years. Grip strength, motor speed and coordination were impaired in IHFA compared to matched TDI, and the differences between groups varied with age. Although tactile-perceptual skills of…

Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Holm, Margo B.; Rogers, Joan C.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

311

Feature Extraction for Mental Fatigue and Relaxation States Based on Systematic Evaluation Considering Individual Difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature extraction for mental fatigue and relaxation states is helpful to understand the mechanisms of mental fatigue and search effective relaxation technique in sustained work environments. Experiment data of human states are often affected by external and internal factors, which increase the difficulties to extract common features. The aim of this study is to explore appropriate methods to eliminate individual difference and enhance common features. Mental fatigue and relaxation experiments are executed on 12 subjects. An integrated and evaluation system is proposed, which consists of subjective evaluation (visual analogue scale), calculation performance and neurophysiological signals especially EEG signals. With consideration of individual difference, the common features of multi-estimators testify the effectiveness of relaxation in sustained mental work. Relaxation technique can be practically applied to prevent accumulation of mental fatigue and keep mental health. The proposed feature extraction methods are widely applicable to obtain common features and release the restriction for subjection selection and experiment design.

Chen, Lanlan; Sugi, Takenao; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

312

Ecological rationality or nested sets? Individual differences in cognitive processing predict Bayesian reasoning.  

PubMed

The presentation of a Bayesian inference problem in terms of natural frequencies rather than probabilities has been shown to enhance performance. The effect of individual differences in cognitive processing on Bayesian reasoning has rarely been studied, despite enabling us to test process-oriented variants of the two main accounts of the facilitative effect of natural frequencies: The ecological rationality account (ERA), which postulates an evolutionarily shaped ease of natural frequency automatic processing, and the nested sets account (NSA), which posits analytical processing of nested sets. In two experiments, we found that cognitive reflection abilities predicted normative performance equally well in tasks featuring whole and arbitrarily parsed objects (Experiment 1) and that cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions (analytical vs. intuitive) predicted performance with single-event probabilities, as well as natural frequencies (Experiment 2). Since these individual differences indicate that analytical processing improves Bayesian reasoning, our findings provide stronger support for the NSA than for the ERA. PMID:23794254

Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie; Hagmayer, York

2014-02-01

313

Developing Standards-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many special education professionals perceive a dilemma created by what seems to be conflicting mandates of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2002. Teachers and IEP (Individualized Education Program) teams serving students with significant disabilities are confronted with the challenge of designing programs that assure access to the general curriculum while at…

Lynch, Sharon; Adams, Paula

2008-01-01

314

Individual Differences in Radial Maze Performance and Locomotor Activity in the Meadow Vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the

G. Campbell Teskey; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp; Martin Kavaliers; Nancy K. Innis; Francis H. Boon

1998-01-01

315

Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the side effect of an action involves moral considerations (e.g. when a chairman’s pursuit of profits harms the environment) it tends to influence theory-of-mind judgments. On average, bad side effects are judged intentional whereas good side effects are judged unintentional. In a series of two experiments, we examined the largely uninvestigated roles of individual differences in this judgment asymmetry.

Edward T. Cokely; Adam Feltz

2009-01-01

316

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and daughters during mathematics homework interactions, with effects moderated by mothers' gender-role attitudes and mathematics education. Traditional mothers, especially those with

Sara M. Lindberg; Janet Shibley. Hyde; Liza M. Hirsch

2008-01-01

317

Individual Differences in Stroop and Local-Global Processing: A Possible Role of Interhemispheric Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments are reported examining individual differences in the processing of centrally presented stimuli containing two dimensions of information lateralized to opposite cerebral hemispheres. Left-handers, arising from (a) their lesser degree of functional lateralization and (b) their greater degree of callosal connectivity, were hypothesized to exhibit greater interdimensional (and presumably interhemispheric) interaction. Experiment 1 utilized local-global stimuli, and left-handers were

Stephen D. Christman

2001-01-01

318

A New Tool for Measuring and Understanding Individual Differences in the Component Processes of Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new measure of individual differences in reading comprehension ability that is theoretically motivated, is easy to administer, and that has high predictive power. Participants read 3-sentence paragraphs that describe the relations among a set of real and artificial terms, and then they respond to true–false statements that assess their ability to access and integrate long-term memory knowledge

Brenda Hannon; Meredyth Daneman

2001-01-01

319

Relationship functioning and home and work demands predict individual differences in diurnal cortisol patterns in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 70 middle-class mothers of 2-year-old children, individual differences in mothers' morning cortisol levels, cortisol decreases across the day and average cortisol levels were predicted from demographic and medical control variables, maternal relationship functioning and home and work demands. For two days, salivary cortisol levels were measured in the morning immediately after wakeup, four times in the afternoon, and in

Emma K. Adam; Megan R. Gunnar

2001-01-01

320

Effortful Control Among Low-Income Preschoolers in Three Cities: Stability, Change, and Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing developmental models of effortful control focus more on the roles of child characteristics and parenting and focus less on the contributions of poverty-related stressors to individual differences in children's self-regulatory competence. Using a representative sample of low-income, predominantly African American and Latino children (n = 439), the author examined effortful control at ages 2–4 and again 16 months later.

Christine P. Li-Grining

2007-01-01

321

One factor underlies individual differences in auditory informational masking within and across age groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masked threshold for a pure-tone signal can be substantially elevated whenever the listener is uncertain about the spectral\\u000a or temporal properties of the masker, an effect referred to asauditory informational masking. Individual differences in the effect are large, with young children being most susceptible. When masker uncertainty is introduced\\u000a by randomizing the frequencies of a multitone masker on each presentation,

Robert A. Lutfi; Doris J. Kistler; Eunmi L. Oh; Frederic L. Wightman; Michael R. Callahan

2003-01-01

322

Notice of Proposed Rule Making for Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 3, 1999 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published the first-ever set of proposed national standards to protect personal health information. According to the HHS, "the Administration standards will apply to health information created by health care providers, hospitals, health plans and health care clearinghouses that is either transmitted or maintained electronically." Users can read the 150 pages of proposed rules by chapter or section in either HTML or .pdf format. A link is provided for users who wish to submit comments electronically until February 17, 2000.

1999-01-01

323

Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

2010-01-01

324

Individual differences in resting heart rate variability and cognitive control in posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly cognitive control. Moreover, these deficits are thought to play a critical role in the etiology and maintenance of core PTSD symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and memories. However, the psychophysiological concomitants of cognitive control remain largely unexamined. In this article, we suggest that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological index of self-regulatory capacity, may underlie the association between cognitive control ability and intrusive cognitions in PTSD. We review evidence showing that individual differences in HRV at rest are related to prefrontal cortical activity and performance on a broad range of cognitive control tasks. We highlight the importance of inhibition as a mechanism by which HRV promotes successful cognitive control. In addition, we summarize recent research linking individual differences in HRV to performance on laboratory tasks that assess the ability to control unwanted memories and intrusive thoughts. We conclude by suggesting that future studies should examine the role of low HRV as a risk factor for developing PTSD. PMID:25076929

Gillie, Brandon L.; Thayer, Julian F.

2014-01-01

325

The emergence of leaders and followers in foraging pairs when the qualities of individuals differ  

PubMed Central

Background Foraging in groups offers animals a number of advantages, such as increasing their likelihood of finding food or detecting and avoiding predators. In order for a group to remain together, there has to be some degree of coordination of behaviour and movement between its members (which may in some cases be initiated by a decision-making leader, and in other cases may emerge as an underlying property of the group). For example, behavioural synchronisation is a phenomenon where animals within a group initiate and then continue to conduct identical behaviours, and has been characterised for a wide range of species. We examine how a pair of animals should behave using a state-dependent approach, and ask what conditions are likely to lead to behavioural synchronisation occurring, and whether one of the individuals is more likely to act as a leader. Results The model we describe considers how the energetic gain, metabolic requirements and predation risks faced by the individuals affect measures of their energetic state and behaviour (such as the degree of behavioural synchronisation seen within the pair, and the value to an individual of knowing the energetic state of its colleague). We explore how predictable changes in these measures are in response to changes in physiological requirements and predation risk. We also consider how these measures should change when the members of the pair are not identical in their metabolic requirements or their susceptibility to predation. We find that many of the changes seen in these measures are complex, especially when asymmetries exist between the members of the pair. Conclusion Analyses are presented that demonstrate that, although these general patterns are robust, care needs to be taken when considering the effects of individual differences, as the relationship between individual differences and the resulting qualitative changes in behaviour may be complex. We discuss how these results are related to experimental observations, and how the model and its predictions could be extended. PMID:18282297

2008-01-01

326

Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing–systemizing cognitive styles in male adults  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in cognitive style can be characterized along two dimensions: ‘systemizing’ (S, the drive to analyze or build ‘rule-based’ systems) and ‘empathizing’ (E, the drive to identify another's mental state and respond to this with an appropriate emotion). Discrepancies between these two dimensions in one direction (S > E) or the other (E > S) are associated with sex differences in cognition: on average more males show an S > E cognitive style, while on average more females show an E > S profile. The neurobiological basis of these different profiles remains unknown. Since individuals may be typical or atypical for their sex, it is important to move away from the study of sex differences and towards the study of differences in cognitive style. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined how neuroanatomy varies as a function of the discrepancy between E and S in 88 adult males from the general population. Selecting just males allows us to study discrepant E-S profiles in a pure way, unconfounded by other factors related to sex and gender. An increasing S > E profile was associated with increased gray matter volume in cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal areas which have been implicated in processes related to cognitive control, monitoring, error detection, and probabilistic inference. An increasing E > S profile was associated with larger hypothalamic and ventral basal ganglia regions which have been implicated in neuroendocrine control, motivation and reward. These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style. PMID:22446488

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Sadek, Susan A.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

327

Individual differences in 10-month-olds' performance on the A-not-B task.  

PubMed

This study used the classical A-not-B task (Piaget, ) to explore individual differences in cognitive flexibility in 10-month-old infants by: (1) examining how differences in search performance during A trials relate to search performance during B trials; (2) studying the relation between temperamental dimensions and A-not-B performance; and (3) investigating differences in search performance between looking and reaching responses within the same task. Forty infants were tested on a fixed-design-version of the A-not-B task, not allowing for training or individual adjustment, but instead eliciting additional search behaviors than the common correct responses in A trials and perseverative errors in B trials. Infants were also rated by their parents on the temperamental scales Activity level and Attention span. The main findings were: (1) performance on A trials affected B trial performance, with infants being more correct on A trials having more incorrect and less 'no search' responses on B trials; (2) activity level, but not attention span, was related to performance on the A-not-B task, with infants performing better on A trials having a lower activity level; and (3) there were a few differences in performance with regard to modality, indicating that responding correctly by looking may be less cognitively demanding than doing so by reaching. This study demonstrated that 10-month-olds show a wide variation of search behaviors on this A-not-B task, resulting in individual differences in performance. These differences are suggested to reflect variation in temperamental activity level as well as maturity of short term/working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. PMID:24646045

Johansson, Maria; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

2014-04-01

328

Reduced Neural Integration of Letters and Speech Sounds in Dyslexic Children Scales with Individual Differences in Reading Fluency  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n?=?20), dysfluent (n?=?18) and severely dysfluent (n?=?18) dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter ‘a’ was presented either simultaneously (AV0), or 200 ms before (AV200) vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN) and late negativity (LN) responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200) led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers. PMID:25329388

Žari?, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bonte, Milene

2014-01-01

329

10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.  

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards...following annual dose from releases from the undisturbed Yucca Mountain disposal system: (1) 0.15 mSv (15 mrem) for...

2014-01-01

330

10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards...following annual dose from releases from the undisturbed Yucca Mountain disposal system: (1) 0.15 mSv (15 mrem) for...

2011-01-01

331

10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards...following annual dose from releases from the undisturbed Yucca Mountain disposal system: (1) 0.15 mSv (15 mrem) for...

2012-01-01

332

10 CFR 63.311 - Individual protection standard after permanent closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards...following annual dose from releases from the undisturbed Yucca Mountain disposal system: (1) 0.15 mSv (15 mrem) for...

2013-01-01

333

Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227

Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

2013-01-01

334

A virtual trajectory model predicts differences in vocal fold kinematics in individuals with vocal hyperfunction1  

PubMed Central

A simple, one degree of freedom virtual trajectory model of vocal fold kinematics was developed to investigate whether kinematic features of vocal fold movement confirm increased muscle stiffness. Model simulations verified that increases in stiffness were associated with changes in kinematic parameters, suggesting that increases in gesture rate would affect kinematic features to a lesser degree in vocal hyperfunction patients given the increased levels of muscle tension they typically employ to phonate. This hypothesis was tested experimentally in individuals with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD; N=10) and vocal nodules (N=10) relative to controls with healthy normal voice (N=10) who were examined with trans-nasal endoscopy during a simple vocal fold abductory-adductory task. Kinematic measures in MTD patients were less affected by increased gesture rate, consistent with the hypothesis that these individuals have elevated typical laryngeal muscle tension. Group comparisons of the difference between medium and fast gesture rates (Mann–Whitney, one-tailed) showed statistically significant differences between the control and MTD individuals on the two kinematic features examined (p<0.05). Results in nodules participants were mixed and are discussed independently. The findings support the potential use of vocal fold kinematics as an objective clinical assay of vocal hyperfunction. PMID:21117765

Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

2010-01-01

335

Do Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Show Different Daily Physical Activity Patterns From Healthy Individuals?  

PubMed

Background. Reduced physical activity is an important consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about the real quantity and type of daily activities that people with MS perform in their own home environment. Objective. To gain insight into differences in the amount and patterns of physical activities performed over a 24-hour period in the own community environment of patients with MS and healthy individuals. Methods. A total of 43 ambulatory patients with MS and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals participated. Physical activity recorded with an ambulatory activity monitor was classified into postures and motions. Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate whether the pattern of physical activities across daily periods (morning, afternoon, and evening) was dependent on the group (MS vs healthy individuals). Results. Results showed a significant overall lower amount of dynamic activity as compared with a group of healthy controls (P < .001). Patients with MS started with lower physical activity levels already in the morning (P < .001), and this difference persisted in the afternoon (P = .002) and evening (P = .032). Conclusion. Activity monitoring gives insight into real-world daily physical behavior. Our findings suggest that patients with MS may adopt a deliberate anticipatory strategy of lower activity in the morning, which persists throughout the day. Future trials evaluating daily changes in physical activity behavior should simultaneously sample self-report measures of energy levels and fatigue to elucidate the complex interaction between symptoms and physical activity. PMID:24515924

Rietberg, Marc B; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Kwakkel, Gert

2014-02-10

336

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

337

Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

Lieberman, Matthew D.

2010-01-01

338

Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation  

PubMed Central

Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports. PMID:19929909

Jacobsen, Thomas

2010-01-01

339

Psychosocial problems and recruitment of incentive neurocircuitry: exploring individual differences in healthy adolescents.  

PubMed

Maturational differences in brain responsiveness to rewards have been implicated in the increased rates of injury and death in adolescents from behavior-related causes. However, much of this morbidity is related to drug intoxication or other externalizing behaviors, and may be concentrated in a subset of adolescents who are at psychosocial or neurobiological risk. To examine whether individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral symptomatology relate to activation of motivational neurocircuitry, we scanned 26 psychiatrically healthy adolescents using fMRI as they performed a monetary incentive delay task. Overall Problem Density on the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-OPD) correlated positively with activation of ventral mesofrontal cortex (mFC) during anticipation of responding for rewards (vs responding for no incentive). In addition, DUSI-OPD correlated positively with right ventral striatum recruitment during anticipation of responding to win rewards (vs responding for no incentive or to avoid losses of identical magnitudes). Finally, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis indicated that increased connectivity between nucleus accumbens and portions of anterior cingulate and mFC as a function of reward prospects also correlated with DUSI-OPD. These findings extend previous reports demonstrating that in adolescents, individual differences in reactivity of motivational neurocircuitry relate to different facets of impulsivity or externalizing behaviors. PMID:21927631

Bjork, James M; Smith, Ashley R; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W

2011-10-01

340

Psychosocial problems and recruitment of incentive neurocircuitry: Exploring individual differences in healthy adolescents  

PubMed Central

Maturational differences in brain responsiveness to rewards have been implicated in the increased rates of injury and death in adolescents from behavior-related causes. However, much of this morbidity is related to drug intoxication or other externalizing behaviors, and may be concentrated in a subset of adolescents who are at psychosocial or neurobiological risk. To examine whether individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral symptomatology relate to activation of motivational neurocircuitry, we scanned 26 psychiatrically-healthy adolescents using fMRI as they performed a monetary incentive delay task. Overall Problem Density on the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-OPD) correlated positively with activation of ventral mesofrontal cortex (mFC) during anticipation of responding for rewards (versus responding for no incentive). In addition, DUSI-OPD also correlated positively with right ventral striatum recruitment during anticipation of responding to win rewards (versus responding for no incentive or to avoid losses of identical magnitudes). Finally, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis indicated that increased connectivity between nucleus accumbens and portions of anterior cingulate and mFC as a function of reward prospects also correlated with DUSI-OPD. These findings extend previous reports demonstrating that in adolescents, individual differences in reactivity of motivational neurocircuitry relate to different facets of impulsivity or externalizing behaviors. PMID:21927631

Bjork, James M.; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W.

2011-01-01

341

Visual attention is not enough: Individual differences in statistical word-referent learning in infants  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence shows that infants can learn words and referents by aggregating ambiguous information across situations to discern the underlying word-referent mappings. Here, we use an individual difference approach to understand the role of different kinds of attentional processes in this learning: 12-and 14-month-old infants participated in a cross-situational word-referent learning task in which the learning trials were ordered to create local novelty effects, effects that should not alter the statistical evidence for the underlying correspondences. The main dependent measures were derived from frame-by-frame analyses of eye gaze direction. The fine- grained dynamics of looking behavior implicates different attentional processes that may compete with or support statistical learning. The discussion considers the role of attention in binding heard words to seen objects, individual differences in attention and vocabulary development, and the relation between macro-level theories of word learning and the micro-level dynamic processes that underlie learning. PMID:24403867

Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

2013-01-01

342

Rigidity, chaos and integration: hemispheric interaction and individual differences in metaphor comprehension  

PubMed Central

Neurotypical individuals cope flexibly with the full range of semantic relations expressed in human language, including metaphoric relations. This impressive semantic ability may be associated with distinct and flexible patterns of hemispheric interaction, including higher right hemisphere (RH) involvement for processing novel metaphors. However, this ability may be impaired in specific clinical conditions, such as Asperger syndrome (AS) and schizophrenia. The impaired semantic processing is accompanied by different patterns of hemispheric interaction during semantic processing, showing either reduced (in Asperger syndrome) or excessive (in schizophrenia) RH involvement. This paper interprets these individual differences using the terms Rigidity, Chaos and Integration, which describe patterns of semantic memory network states that either lead to semantic well-being or are disruptive of it. We argue that these semantic network states lie on a rigidity-chaos semantic continuum. We define these terms via network science terminology and provide network, cognitive and neural evidence to support our claim. This continuum includes left hemisphere (LH) hyper-rigid semantic memory state on one end (e.g., in persons with AS), and RH chaotic and over-flexible semantic memory state on the other end (e.g., in persons with schizophrenia). In between these two extremes lie different states of semantic memory structure which are related to individual differences in semantic creativity. We suggest that efficient semantic processing is achieved by semantic integration, a balance between semantic rigidity and semantic chaos. Such integration is achieved via intra-hemispheric communication. However, impairments to this well-balanced and integrated pattern of hemispheric interaction, e.g., when one hemisphere dominates the other, may lead to either semantic rigidity or semantic chaos, moving away from semantic integration and thus impairing the processing of metaphoric language. PMID:25071534

Faust, Miriam; Kenett, Yoed N.

2014-01-01

343

Individual variation in cone photoreceptor density in house sparrows: implications for between-individual differences in visual resolution and chromatic contrast.  

PubMed

Between-individual variation has been documented in a wide variety of taxa, especially for behavioral characteristics; however, intra-population variation in sensory systems has not received similar attention in wild animals. We measured a key trait of the visual system, the density of retinal cone photoreceptors, in a wild population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We tested whether individuals differed from each other in cone densities given within-individual variation across the retina and across eyes. We further tested whether the existing variation could lead to individual differences in two aspects of perception: visual resolution and chromatic contrast. We found consistent between-individual variation in the densities of all five types of avian cones, involved in chromatic and achromatic vision. Using perceptual modeling, we found that this degree of variation translated into significant between-individual differences in visual resolution and the chromatic contrast of a plumage signal that has been associated with mate choice and agonistic interactions. However, there was no evidence for a relationship between individual visual resolution and chromatic contrast. The implication is that some birds may have the sensory potential to perform "better" in certain visual tasks, but not necessarily in both resolution and contrast simultaneously. Overall, our findings (a) highlight the need to consider multiple individuals when characterizing sensory traits of a species, and (b) provide some mechanistic basis for between-individual variation in different behaviors (i.e., animal personalities) and for testing the predictions of several widely accepted hypotheses (e.g., honest signaling). PMID:25372039

Ensminger, Amanda L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

2014-01-01

344

Individual molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in myelin turn over at different rates.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) of the myelin membrane exhibit heterogeneity with respect to metabolic turnover rate (Miller, S. L., Benjamins, J. A., and Morell, P. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 4025-4037). To test the hypothesis that this is due to differential turnover of individual molecular species (which differ in acyl chain composition), we have examined the relative turnover of individual molecular species of myelin PC and PE. Phospholipids were labeled by injection of [2-3H]glycerol into the brains of young rats. Myelin was isolated at 1, 15, and 30 days post-injection, lipids were extracted, and phospholipid classes were separated by thin-layer chromatography. The PC and PE fractions were hydrolyzed with phospholipase C, and the resulting diacylglycerols were dinitrobenzoylated and fractionated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The distribution of radioactivity among individual molecular species was determined. The labeled molecular species of myelin PC were 16:0-16:0, 16:0-18:0, 16:0-18:1, and 18:0-18:1, with most of the label present in 16:0-18:1 and 18:0-18:1. Changes in distribution of label with time after injection indicated that 16:0-18:1 turned over more rapidly than 18:0-18:1. The labeled molecular species of myelin PE were 18:0-20:4, 18:1-18:1, 16:0-18:1, 18:0-18:2, and 18:0-18:1. As with myelin PC, 16:0-18:1 (and 18:1-18:1) turned over more rapidly than 18:0-18:1. The relative turnover of individual molecular species of PC in the microsomal fraction from forebrain was also examined. The molecular species profile was different from myelin PC, but again, 16:0-18:1 turned over more rapidly than the other molecular species. Thus, within the same membrane, individual molecular species of a phospholipid class are metabolized at different rates. Comparison of our results with previous studies of turnover of molecular classes of phospholipids indicates that in addition to polar head group composition (Miller et al., 1977), fatty acid composition is very important in determining the metabolic fate of a phospholipid. PMID:1587822

Ousley, A H; Morell, P

1992-05-25

345

Individual differences in syntactic ambiguity resolution: Readers vary in their use of plausibility information  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated the relation between individual differences in working memory capacity and differences in the efficiency of syntactic processing. In one experiment, readers comprehended sentences containing main-verb/reduced-relative ambiguities that all resolved to the reduced-relative interpretation. High-span (but not low-span) readers processed sentences more slowly when the sentences were biased to the preferred, main-verb interpretation than when they were biased to the reduced-relative interpretation. Moreover, high-span (but not low-span) readers used information about the plausibility of the different interpretations even though low-span readers appeared to possess the requisite knowledge. In Experiment 2, readers received intensive exposure to sentences with main-verb/reduced-relative ambiguities. Exposure enhanced low-span readers’ use of plausibility information. Moreover, the effect of exposure generalized to sentences that were not included in the training materials. PMID:18426067

Long, Debra L.; Prat, Chantel S.

2009-01-01

346

Secular changes in standards of bodily attractiveness in American women: different masculine and feminine ideals.  

PubMed

Silverstein, Peterson, and Perdue (1986) studied changes in curvaceousness of the models in Vogue magazine over time and found that curvaceousness was inversely correlated with American women's participation in higher education and the professions. In the present study, it was predicted that the male standard for women's bodily attractiveness would differ from the female standard and would change differently over time, based on evolutionary theory. Published data on the bodily curvaceousness of models in Playboy and Vogue and on Miss America winners were used to test this hypothesis. Although they did not differ on average, the male and female standards changed differently over time. There was less variation in the male standard, represented by Playboy and by Miss America winners, than in the female standard, represented by Vogue. Results suggest that cultural standards of attractiveness are influenced by an evolved psychology of mate selection that has implications for understanding changes in the standard of attractiveness and its relation to eating disorders. PMID:9447727

Barber, N

1998-01-01

347

Neural activity tied to reading predicts individual differences in extended-text comprehension  

PubMed Central

Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400–500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID:24223540

Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.; Suzuki, Satoru

2013-01-01

348

Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory  

PubMed Central

Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues (e.g., Colombo & Mitchell, 1990) found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during subsequent stimulus exposure than infants that demonstrate long visual fixations (i.e., long lookers). The current study utilized event-related potentials to examine possible neural mechanisms associated with individual differences in visual attention and recognition memory for 6- and 7.5-month-old infants. Short- and long-looking infants viewed images of familiar and novel objects during ERP testing. There was a stimulus type by looker type interaction at temporal and frontal electrodes on the late slow wave (LSW). Short lookers demonstrated a LSW that was significantly greater in amplitude in response to novel stimulus presentations. No significant differences in LSW amplitude were found based on stimulus type for long lookers. These results indicate deeper processing and recognition memory of the familiar stimulus for short lookers. PMID:21666833

Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

2010-01-01

349

Individual differences in the morphometry and activation of time perception networks are influenced by dopamine genotype.  

PubMed

Individual participants vary greatly in their ability to estimate and discriminate intervals of time. This heterogeneity of performance may be caused by reliance on different time perception networks as well as individual differences in the activation of brain structures utilized for timing within those networks. To address these possibilities we utilized event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while human participants (n=25) performed a temporal or color discrimination task. Additionally, based on our previous research, we genotyped participants for DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a, a single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with a 30-40% reduction in striatal D2 density and associated with poorer timing performance. Similar to previous reports, a wide range of performance was found across our sample; crucially, better performance on the timing versus color task was associated with greater activation in prefrontal and sub-cortical regions previously associated with timing. Furthermore, better timing performance also correlated with increased volume of the right lateral cerebellum, as demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. Our analysis also revealed that A1 carriers of the Taq1a polymorphism exhibited relatively worse performance on temporal, but not color discrimination, but greater activation in the striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as reduced volume in the cerebellar cluster. These results point to the neural bases for heterogeneous timing performance in humans, and suggest that differences in performance on a temporal discrimination task are, in part, attributable to the DRD2/ANKK1 genotype. PMID:24269802

Wiener, Martin; Lee, Yune-Sang; Lohoff, Falk W; Coslett, H Branch

2014-04-01

350

Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory.  

PubMed

Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues (e.g., Colombo & Mitchell, 1990) found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during subsequent stimulus exposure than infants that demonstrate long visual fixations (i.e., long lookers). The current study utilized event-related potentials to examine possible neural mechanisms associated with individual differences in visual attention and recognition memory for 6- and 7.5-month-old infants. Short- and long-looking infants viewed images of familiar and novel objects during ERP testing. There was a stimulus type by looker type interaction at temporal and frontal electrodes on the late slow wave (LSW). Short lookers demonstrated a LSW that was significantly greater in amplitude in response to novel stimulus presentations. No significant differences in LSW amplitude were found based on stimulus type for long lookers. These results indicate deeper processing and recognition memory of the familiar stimulus for short lookers. PMID:21666833

Reynolds, Greg D; Guy, Maggie W; Zhang, Dantong

2011-07-01

351

The influence of persistent individual differences and age at maturity on effective population size  

PubMed Central

Ratios of effective populations size, Ne, to census population size, N, are used as a measure of genetic drift in populations. Several life-history parameters have been shown to affect these ratios, including mating system and age at sexual maturation. Using a stochastic matrix model, we examine how different levels of persistent individual differences in mating success among males may affect Ne/N, and how this relates to generation time. Individual differences of this type are shown to cause a lower Ne/N ratio than would be expected when mating is independent among seasons. Examining the way in which age at maturity affects Ne/N, we find that both the direction and magnitude of the effect depends on the survival rate of juveniles in the population. In particular, when maturation is delayed, lowered juvenile survival causes higher levels of genetic drift. In addition, predicted shifts in Ne/N with changing age at maturity are shown to be dependent on which of the commonly used definitions of census population size, N, is employed. Our results demonstrate that patterns of mating success, as well as juvenile survival probabilities, have substantial effects on rates of genetic drift. PMID:21436183

Lee, Aline Magdalena; Engen, Steinar; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

2011-01-01

352

Individual differences in anxiety predict neural measures of visual working memory for untrustworthy faces.  

PubMed

When facing strangers, one of the first evaluations people perform is to implicitly assess their trustworthiness. However, the underlying processes supporting trustworthiness appraisal are poorly understood. We hypothesized that visual working memory (VWM) maintains online face representations that are sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, and that differences among individuals in representing untrustworthy faces are associated with individual differences in anxiety. Participants performed a change detection task that required encoding and maintaining for a short interval the identity of one face parametrically manipulated to be either trustworthy or untrustworthy. The sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), an event-related component (ERP) time-locked to the onset of the face, was used to index the resolution of face representations in VWM. Results revealed greater SPCN amplitudes for trustworthy faces when compared with untrustworthy faces, indicating that VWM is sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, even in the absence of explicit trustworthiness appraisal. In addition, differences in SPCN amplitude between trustworthy and untrustworthy faces correlated with participants' anxiety, indicating that healthy college students with sub-clinical high anxiety levels represented untrustworthy faces in greater detail compared with students with sub-clinical low anxiety levels. This pattern of findings is discussed in terms of the high flexibility of aversive/avoidance and appetitive/approach motivational systems. PMID:24493843

Meconi, Federica; Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola

2014-12-01

353

Does Cytokine-Induced Depression Differ from Idiopathic Major Depression in Medically Healthy Individuals?  

PubMed Central

Background Cytokines of the innate immune response may contribute to behavioral alterations that resemble major depression as manifested in medically healthy individuals. Methods To explore potential similarities and differences between cytokine-induced depression and idiopathic major depression in healthy subjects, dimensional analyses comparing specific symptom dimensions of depression were conducted in 20 patients with malignant melanoma administered the innate immune cytokine, interferon (IFN)-alpha, and 28 medically healthy subjects with major depression of similar age and gender distribution. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to assess severity of individual depressive symptoms. Results Severity of symptoms of anxiety, depressed mood, and impaired work/activities were comparable between patients with IFN-alpha-induced depression and medically healthy depressed patients. Interestingly, however, compared to medically healthy patients with major depression, patients with IFN-alpha-induced depression reported significantly greater psychomotor retardation and weight loss and significantly less severe feelings of guilt. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited statistical power to detect small differences in symptom expression among groups. Conclusions The data suggest that there is considerable overlap in symptom expression between cytokine-induced depression and idiopathic depression in medically healthy subjects. Nevertheless, differences in isolated symptom domains suggest that cytokines may preferentially target neurocircuits relevant to psychomotor activity (e.g. basal ganglia), while having a limited effect on cognitive distortions regarding self-appraisal. PMID:19269036

Capuron, Lucile; Fornwalt, Fiona B; Knight, Bettina T.; Harvey, Philip D.; Ninan, Philip T.; Miller, Andrew H.

2009-01-01

354

Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children  

PubMed Central

Now, more than ever, the ability to acquire mathematical skills efficiently is critical for academic and professional success, yet little is known about the behavioral and neural mechanisms that drive some children to acquire these skills faster than others. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural predictors of individual differences in arithmetic skill acquisition in response to 8-wk of one-to-one math tutoring. Twenty-four children in grade 3 (ages 8–9 y), a critical period for acquisition of basic mathematical skills, underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans pretutoring. A significant shift in arithmetic problem-solving strategies from counting to fact retrieval was observed with tutoring. Notably, the speed and accuracy of arithmetic problem solving increased with tutoring, with some children improving significantly more than others. Next, we examined whether pretutoring behavioral and brain measures could predict individual differences in arithmetic performance improvements with tutoring. No behavioral measures, including intelligence quotient, working memory, or mathematical abilities, predicted performance improvements. In contrast, pretutoring hippocampal volume predicted performance improvements. Furthermore, pretutoring intrinsic functional connectivity of the hippocampus with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and the basal ganglia also predicted performance improvements. Our findings provide evidence that individual differences in morphometry and connectivity of brain regions associated with learning and memory, and not regions typically involved in arithmetic processing, are strong predictors of responsiveness to math tutoring in children. More generally, our study suggests that quantitative measures of brain structure and intrinsic brain organization can provide a more sensitive marker of skill acquisition than behavioral measures. PMID:23630286

Supekar, Kaustubh; Swigart, Anna G.; Tenison, Caitlin; Jolles, Dietsje D.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

2013-01-01

355

A neural network model of individual differences in task switching abilities.  

PubMed

We use a biologically grounded neural network model to investigate the brain mechanisms underlying individual differences specific to the selection and instantiation of representations that exert cognitive control in task switching. Existing computational models of task switching do not focus on individual differences and so cannot explain why task switching abilities are separable from other executive function (EF) abilities (such as response inhibition). We explore hypotheses regarding neural mechanisms underlying the "Shifting-Specific" and "Common EF" components of EF proposed in the Unity/Diversity model (Miyake & Friedman, 2012) and similar components in related theoretical frameworks. We do so by adapting a well-developed neural network model of working memory (Prefrontal cortex, Basal ganglia Working Memory or PBWM; Hazy, Frank, & O'Reilly, 2007) to task switching and the Stroop task, and comparing its behavior on those tasks under a variety of individual difference manipulations. Results are consistent with the hypotheses that variation specific to task switching (i.e., Shifting-Specific) may be related to uncontrolled, automatic persistence of goal representations, whereas variation general to multiple EFs (i.e., Common EF) may be related to the strength of PFC representations and their effect on processing in the remainder of the cognitive system. Moreover, increasing signal to noise ratio in PFC, theoretically tied to levels of tonic dopamine and a genetic polymorphism in the COMT gene, reduced Stroop interference but increased switch costs. This stability-flexibility tradeoff provides an explanation for why these two EF components sometimes show opposing correlations with other variables such as attention problems and self-restraint. PMID:24791709

Herd, Seth A; O'Reilly, Randall C; Hazy, Tom E; Chatham, Christopher H; Brant, Angela M; Friedman, Naomi P

2014-09-01

356

Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children.  

PubMed

Now, more than ever, the ability to acquire mathematical skills efficiently is critical for academic and professional success, yet little is known about the behavioral and neural mechanisms that drive some children to acquire these skills faster than others. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural predictors of individual differences in arithmetic skill acquisition in response to 8-wk of one-to-one math tutoring. Twenty-four children in grade 3 (ages 8-9 y), a critical period for acquisition of basic mathematical skills, underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans pretutoring. A significant shift in arithmetic problem-solving strategies from counting to fact retrieval was observed with tutoring. Notably, the speed and accuracy of arithmetic problem solving increased with tutoring, with some children improving significantly more than others. Next, we examined whether pretutoring behavioral and brain measures could predict individual differences in arithmetic performance improvements with tutoring. No behavioral measures, including intelligence quotient, working memory, or mathematical abilities, predicted performance improvements. In contrast, pretutoring hippocampal volume predicted performance improvements. Furthermore, pretutoring intrinsic functional connectivity of the hippocampus with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and the basal ganglia also predicted performance improvements. Our findings provide evidence that individual differences in morphometry and connectivity of brain regions associated with learning and memory, and not regions typically involved in arithmetic processing, are strong predictors of responsiveness to math tutoring in children. More generally, our study suggests that quantitative measures of brain structure and intrinsic brain organization can provide a more sensitive marker of skill acquisition than behavioral measures. PMID:23630286

Supekar, Kaustubh; Swigart, Anna G; Tenison, Caitlin; Jolles, Dietsje D; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

2013-05-14

357

The brain structure correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness: a voxel-based morphometry study.  

PubMed

Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N=247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC, but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being. PMID:24797333

Lu, H; Song, Y; Xu, M; Wang, X; Li, X; Liu, J

2014-07-11

358

Neuronal DNA content variation (DCV) with regional and individual differences in the human brain  

PubMed Central

It is widely assumed that the human brain contains genetically identical cells through which post-genomic mechanisms contribute to its enormous diversity and complexity. The relatively recent identification of neural cells throughout the neuraxis showing somatically generated mosaic aneuploidy indicates that the vertebrate brain can be genomically heterogeneous (Rehen et al., 2001; Rehen et al., 2005; Westra et al., 2008; Yurov et al., 2007). The extent of human neural aneuploidy is currently unknown because of technically limited sample sizes, but is reported to be small (Iourov et al., 2006). During efforts to interrogate larger cell populations using DNA content analyses, a surprising result was obtained: human frontal cortex brain cells were found to display “DNA content variation (DCV)” characterized by an increased range of DNA content both in cell populations and within single cells. On average, DNA content increased by ~250 megabases often representing a substantial fraction of cells within a given sample. DCV within individual human brains showed regional variation, with increased prevalence in the frontal cortex and less variation in the cerebellum. Further, DCV varied between individual brains. These results identify DCV as a new feature of the human brain, encompassing and further extending genomic alterations produced by aneuploidy, which may contribute to neural diversity in normal and pathophysiological states, altered functions of normal and disease-linked genes, and differences amongst individuals. PMID:20737596

Westra, Jurjen W.; Rivera, Richard R.; Bushman, Diane M.; Yung, Yun C.; Peterson, Suzanne E.; Barral, Serena; Chun, Jerold

2010-01-01

359

Ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity is associated with individual differences in behavioral disinhibition  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling, alongside addictive and antisocial disorders, forms part of a broad psychopathological spectrum of externalizing disorders, which share an underlying genetic vulnerability. The shared externalizing propensity is a highly heritable, continuously varying trait. Disinhibitory personality traits such as impulsivity and novelty seeking (NS) function as indicators of this broad shared externalizing tendency, which may reflect, at the neurobiological level, variation in the reactivity of dopaminergic (DAergic) brain reward systems centered on the ventral striatum (VS). Here, we examined whether individual differences in ventral striatal dopamine (DA) synthesis capacity were associated with individual variation in disinhibitory personality traits. Twelve healthy male volunteers underwent 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to measure striatal DA synthesis capacity, and completed a measure of disinhibited personality (NS). We found that levels of ventral, but not dorsal, striatal DA synthesis capacity were significantly correlated with inter-individual variation in disinhibitory personality traits, particularly a propensity for financial extravagance and irresponsibility. Our results are consistent with preclinical models of behavioral disinhibition and addiction proneness, and provide novel insights into the neurobiology of personality based vulnerability to pathological gambling and other externalizing disorders. PMID:24672449

Lawrence, Andrew D.; Brooks, David J.

2014-01-01

360

Inter-Individual Differences in the Initial 80 Minutes of Motor Learning of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion  

PubMed Central

Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participants impact the outcome of a low-intensity wheelchair-practice intervention. Over a 12-minute pre-test, 39 participants were split in two groups based on a relative 10% increase in mechanical efficiency. Following the pretest the participants continued one of four different low-intensity wheelchair practice interventions, yet all performed in the same trial-setup with a total 80-minute dose at 1.11 m/s at 0.20 W/kg. Instead of focusing on the effect of the different interventions, we focused on differences in motor learning between participants over the intervention. Twenty-six participants started the pretest with a lower mechanical efficiency and a less optimal propulsion technique, but showed a fast improvement during the first 12 minutes and this effect continued over the 80 minutes of practice. Eventually these initially fast improvers benefitted more from the given practice indicated by a better propulsion technique (like reduced frequency and increased stroke angle) and a higher mechanical efficiency. The initially fast improvers also had a higher intra-individual variability in the pre and posttest, which possibly relates to the increased motor learning of the initially fast improvers. Further exploration of the common characteristics of different types of learners will help to better tailor rehabilitation to the needs of wheelchair-dependent persons and improve our understanding of cyclic motor learning processes. PMID:24586992

Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Lamoth, Claudine J.; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

2014-01-01

361

Stress and success: Individual differences in the glucocorticoid stress response predict behavior and reproductive success under high predation risk.  

PubMed

A fundamental element of how vertebrates respond to stressors is by rapidly elevating circulating glucocorticoid hormones. Individual variation in the magnitude of the glucocorticoid stress response has been linked with reproductive success and survival. But while the adaptive value of this response is believed to stem in part from changes in the expression of hormone-mediated behaviors, it is not clear how the behavior of stronger and weaker glucocorticoid responders differs during reproduction, or during exposure to ecologically relevant stressors. Here we report that in a population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) experiencing high rates of nest predation, circulating levels of corticosterone (the primary avian glucocorticoid) during exposure to a standardized stressor predict aspects of subsequent behavior and fitness. Individuals that mounted a stronger corticosterone stress response during the early reproductive period did not differ in clutch size, but fledged fewer offspring. Parents with higher stress-induced corticosterone during the early reproductive period later provisioned their nestlings at lower rates. Additionally, in the presence of a model predator stress-induced corticosterone was positively associated with the latency to return to the nest, but only among birds that were observed to return. Model comparisons revealed that stress-induced hormones were better predictors of the behavioral and fitness effects of exposure to transient, ecologically relevant stressors than baseline corticosterone. These findings are consistent with functional links between individual variation in the hormonal and behavioral response to stressors. If such links occur, then selection on the heritable components of the corticosterone stress response could promote adaptation to novel environments or predation regimes. PMID:25461975

Vitousek, Maren N; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

2014-11-01

362

Functional DNA methylation differences between tissues, cell types, and across individuals discovered using the M&M algorithm  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as X chromosome inactivation, transposable element repression, genomic imprinting, and tissue-specific gene expression. Sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling provides an unprecedented opportunity to map and compare complete DNA methylomes. This includes one of the most widely applied technologies for measuring DNA methylation: methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-seq), coupled with a complementary method, methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme sequencing (MRE-seq). A computational approach that integrates data from these two different but complementary assays and predicts methylation differences between samples has been unavailable. Here, we present a novel integrative statistical framework M&M (for integration of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq) that dynamically scales, normalizes, and combines MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data to detect differentially methylated regions. Using sample-matched whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) as a gold standard, we demonstrate superior accuracy and reproducibility of M&M compared to existing analytical methods for MeDIP-seq data alone. M&M leverages the complementary nature of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq data to allow rapid comparative analysis between whole methylomes at a fraction of the cost of WGBS. Comprehensive analysis of nineteen human DNA methylomes with M&M reveals distinct DNA methylation patterns among different tissue types, cell types, and individuals, potentially underscoring divergent epigenetic regulation at different scales of phenotypic diversity. We find that differential DNA methylation at enhancer elements, with concurrent changes in histone modifications and transcription factor binding, is common at the cell, tissue, and individual levels, whereas promoter methylation is more prominent in reinforcing fundamental tissue identities. PMID:23804400

Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Nan; Lowdon, Rebecca F.; Hong, Chibo; Nagarajan, Raman P.; Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Li, Daofeng; Stevens, Michael; Lee, Hyung Joo; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jia; Sundaram, Vasavi; Elliott, GiNell; Gu, Junchen; Shi, Taoping; Gascard, Philippe; Sigaroudinia, Mahvash; Tlsty, Thea D.; Kadlecek, Theresa; Weiss, Arthur; O’Geen, Henriette; Farnham, Peggy J.; Maire, Cécile L.; Ligon, Keith L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Tam, Angela; Moore, Richard; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A.; Zhang, Baoxue; Costello, Joseph F.; Wang, Ting

2013-01-01

363

Cross-cultural investigation into cognitive underpinnings of individual differences in early arithmetic.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic - operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were small, 13% of the variance in arithmetic skills could be explained by the sample, replicating the pattern, previously found with older children in PISA. Furthermore, the same cognitive skills were related to early arithmetic in these diverse populations. Only understanding of symbolic number explained variation in mathematical performance in all samples. We discuss the results in terms of potential influences of socio-demographic, linguistic and genetic factors on individual differences in mathematics. PMID:24976482

Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

2015-01-01

364

Developmental and Individual Differences in the Neural Processing of Dynamic Expressions of Pain and Anger  

PubMed Central

We examined the processing of facial expressions of pain and anger in 8-month-old infants and adults by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and frontal EEG alpha asymmetry. The ERP results revealed that while adults showed a late positive potential (LPP) to emotional expressions that was enhanced to pain expressions, reflecting increased evaluation and emotional arousal to pain expressions, infants showed a negative component (Nc) to emotional expressions that was enhanced to angry expressions, reflecting increased allocation of attention to angry faces. Moreover, infants and adults showed opposite patterns in their frontal asymmetry responses to pain and anger, suggesting developmental differences in the motivational processes engendered by these facial expressions. These findings are discussed in the light of associated individual differences in infant temperament and adult dispositional empathy. PMID:24705497

Missana, Manuela; Grigutsch, Maren; Grossmann, Tobias

2014-01-01

365

Individual differences in social dominance orientation predict support for the use of cognitive ability tests.  

PubMed

This study investigates the personality processes involved in the debate surrounding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions. In Study 1, 108 undergraduates (Mage ?=?18.88 years, 60 women, 80 Whites) completed measures of social dominance orientation (SDO), testing self-efficacy, and attitudes regarding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions; SAT/ACT scores were collected from the registrar. Sixty-seven undergraduates (Mage ?=?19.06 years, 39 women, 49 Whites) completed the same measures in Study 2, along with measures of endorsement of commonly presented arguments about test use. In Study 3, 321 American adults (Mage ?=?35.58 years, 180 women, 251 Whites) completed the same measures used in Study 2; half were provided with facts about race and validity issues surrounding cognitive ability tests. Individual differences in SDO significantly predicted support for the use of cognitive ability tests in all samples, after controlling for SAT/ACT scores and test self-efficacy and also among participants who read facts about cognitive ability tests. Moreover, arguments for and against test use mediated this effect. The present study sheds new light on an old debate by demonstrating that individual differences in beliefs about hierarchy play a key role in attitudes toward cognitive ability test use. PMID:24219574

Kim, Anita; Berry, Christopher M

2015-02-01

366

Neuroimaging self-esteem: a fMRI study of individual differences in women.  

PubMed

Although neuroimaging studies strongly implicate the medial prefrontal cortex (ventral and dorsal), cingulate gyrus (anterior and posterior), precuneus and temporoparietal cortex in mediating self-referential processing (SRP), little is known about the neural bases mediating individual differences in valenced SRP, that is, processes intrinsic to self-esteem. This study investigated the neural correlates of experimentally engendered valenced SRP via the Visual-Verbal Self-Other Referential Processing Task in 20 women with fMRI. Participants viewed pictures of themselves or unknown other women during separate trials while covertly rehearsing 'I am' or 'She is', followed by reading valenced trait adjectives, thus variably associating the self/other with positivity/negativity. Response within dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal cortex varied with individual differences in both pre-task rated self-descriptiveness of the words, as well as task-induced affective responses. Results are discussed as they relate to a social cognitive and affective neuroscience view of self-esteem. PMID:22403154

Frewen, Paul A; Lundberg, Erica; Brimson-Théberge, Melanie; Théberge, Jean

2013-06-01

367

Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers.  

PubMed

Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Stephen J; Rothman, Douglas L; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Mason, Graeme F; Molfese, Peter J; Mencl, W Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S; Fulbright, Robert K

2014-03-12

368

Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability in Emergent Readers  

PubMed Central

Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability. PMID:24623786

Frost, Stephen J.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Mason, Graeme F.; Molfese, Peter J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Fulbright, Robert K.

2014-01-01

369

Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

2011-01-01

370

Egocentric fairness perception: emotional reactions and individual differences in overt responses.  

PubMed

Extensive research documents the existence of egocentric biases in the perception and application of justice norms. The origin of these biases remains poorly understood. We investigated both inter- and intra-individual differences in egocentric justice biases. Participants played an ultimatum game presumably with different anonymous players (simulated by a computer) in which they contributed differentially to the joint production of the initial endowment. We examined how contributions (low vs. high) affect proposers' offers and responders' acceptance decisions, as well as their fairness judgments and their emotional reactions to different types of offers (equal, equitable, unfair, and hyperfair). An egocentric bias in proposers' offers (indicating more flexible preferences) was found only in individualists and not in prosocials, suggesting differences in the motivations (or cognitions) underlying their choice of justice norms. Responders also showed egocentric biases in their judgments of fairness and in their emotional reactions to equal and equitable offers, but not in their acceptance decisions. Such dissociation might suggest that some form of emotion regulation occurred. Responders may evaluate offers on valence dimensions (e.g., goal conduciveness/outcome favorability and norm compatibility/justice) that are multiply interacting and potentially conflicting. The individual's acceptance/rejection decision reflects the relative weight attributed to competing appraisals. For this overt behavioral decision, the (personal) appraisal of outcome favorability that drives (analytical) acceptance of goal-conducive outcome seems to be stronger than the (social) appraisal of outcome fairness, which may trigger covert (emotional) rejection of offers that are incompatible with justice norms. Our data show that the emotional reaction patterns provide a more fine-grained readout of the overall evaluation of the proposer's action, the underlying emotional dynamics of which may, in real life, strongly determine future interactions with specific partners. Further research on the relationship between emotion and behavior in economic games is needed to explore potential dissociations and long-term effects. PMID:24586326

Bediou, Benoit; Scherer, Klaus R

2014-01-01

371

Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Head Motion during Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides valuable data for understanding the human mind and brain disorders, but in-scanner head motion introduces systematic and spurious biases. For example, differences in MRI measures (e.g., network strength, white matter integrity) between patient and control groups may be due to the differences in their head motion. To determine whether head motion is an important variable in itself, or just simply a confounding variable, we explored individual differences in psychological traits that may predispose some people to move more than others during an MRI scan. In the first two studies, we demonstrated in both children (N ?=? 245) and adults (N ?=? 581) that head motion, estimated from resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, was reliably correlated with impulsivity scores. Further, the difference in head motion between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children was largely due to differences in impulsivity. Finally, in the third study, we confirmed the observation that the regression approach, which aims to deal with motion issues by regressing out motion in the group analysis, would underestimate the effect of interest. Taken together, the present findings provide empirical evidence that links in-scanner head motion to psychological traits. PMID:25148416

Li, Xueting; Lu, Huan-hua; Wang, Ruosi; Liu, Ling; He, Yong; Zang, Yufeng; Liu, Jia

2014-01-01

372

Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

2012-01-01

373

Comparison of Medical and Forensic Profiling Potential of Volatile Biomarkers from Different Biological Specimens from Individuals and Across Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited scientific knowledge on the composition of human odor from different biological specimens and the effect that physiological and psychological health conditions could have on them. There is currently no direct comparison of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from different biological specimens collected from healthy individuals as well as individuals with certain diagnosed medical conditions. Therefore the

Maiko Kusano

2010-01-01

374

Comparison of medical and forensic profiling potential of volatile biomarkers from different biological specimens from individuals and across populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited scientific knowledge on the composition of human odor from different biological specimens and the effect that physiological and psychological health conditions could have on them. There is currently no direct comparison of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from different biological specimens collected from healthy individuals as well as individuals with certain diagnosed medical conditions. Therefore the

Maiko Kusano

2010-01-01

375

Do Personality Traits Predict Individual Differences in Excitatory and Inhibitory Learning?  

PubMed Central

Conditioned inhibition (CI) is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behavior – and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioral deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. CI by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores) were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n?=?176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion). The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically based personality theories, Gray’s (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory and Eysenck and Eysenck (1991) psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism theory. Following the behavioral tasks, participants completed the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scales and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS). Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale) and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively. PMID:23658551

He, Zhimin; Cassaday, Helen J.; Bonardi, Charlotte; Bibby, Peter A.

2013-01-01

376

Do personality traits predict individual differences in excitatory and inhibitory learning?  

PubMed

Conditioned inhibition (CI) is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behavior - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioral deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. CI by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores) were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n?=?176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion). The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically based personality theories, Gray's (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory and Eysenck and Eysenck (1991) psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism theory. Following the behavioral tasks, participants completed the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scales and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS). Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale) and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively. PMID:23658551

He, Zhimin; Cassaday, Helen J; Bonardi, Charlotte; Bibby, Peter A

2013-01-01

377

Differences and similarities between gay and straight individuals involved in the sadomasochistic subculture.  

PubMed

Results from some new analyses as well as a selective review of the results of six empirical studies on a self-identified sample of sadomasochistically-oriented individuals (22 women and 162 men) with an emphasis on differences between gay and straight participants are presented. The gay male respondents seemed to be better educated, to hold white-collar occupations and to be more sadistically oriented. The gay male respondents became aware of their sadomasochistic preferences and had their first experiences at an older age. They showed a preference for leather outfits, anal intercourse, rimming, dildos, wrestling, special equipment and uniform scenes, and the straight male respondents for verbal humiliation, mask and blindfold, gags, rubber outfits, cane whipping, vaginal intercourse, cross dressing, and straitjackets, and different role plays except for uniform scenes. Four separate sexual themes were identified: hypermasculinity; administration and receiving of pain; physical restriction and psychological humiliation. Gay male participants showed a preference for hypermasculinity and straight men respondents for humiliation. The number of lesbian respondents was too low to draw any definite conclusions. Differences between gay and straight male sadomasochists in the present sample were found. Clearly, sadomasochism cannot be thought of as a unitary phenomenon: People who identify themselves as sadomasochists mean different things by these identifications. PMID:16803758

Nordling, Niklas; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka; Alison, Laurence

2006-01-01

378

Individual differences in impulsive and risky choice: effects of environmental rearing conditions.  

PubMed

The present experiment investigated early-rearing environment modulation of individual differences in impulsive and risky choice. Rats were reared in an isolated condition (IC; n=12), in which they lived alone without novel stimuli, or an enriched condition (EC; n=11), in which they lived among conspecifics with novel stimuli. The impulsive choice task involved choices between smaller-sooner (SS) versus larger-later (LL) rewards. The risky choice task involved choices between certain-smaller (C-S) versus uncertain-larger (U-L) rewards. Following choice testing, incentive motivation to work for food was measured using a progressive ratio task and correlated with choice behavior. HPLC analyses were conducted to determine how monoamine concentrations within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) related to behavior in different tasks. IC rats were more impulsive than EC rats, but they did not differ in risky choice behavior. However, choice behavior across tasks was significantly correlated (i.e., the more impulsive rats were also riskier). There were no group differences in monoamine levels, but noradrenergic and serotonergic concentrations were significantly correlated with impulsive and risky choice. Furthermore, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in the NAC significantly correlated with incentive motivation and the timing of the reward delays within the choice tasks. These results suggest a role for domain general processes in impulsive and risky choice and indicate the importance of the NAC and/or PFC in timing, reward processing, and choice behavior. PMID:24769268

Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T; Smith, Aaron P; Koci, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

2014-08-01

379

The Cognitive Mechanisms of the SNARC Effect: An Individual Differences Approach  

PubMed Central

Access to mental representations of smaller vs. larger number symbols is associated with leftward vs. rightward spatial locations, as represented on a number line. The well-replicated SNARC effect (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes) reveals that simple decisions about small numbers are facilitated when stimuli are presented on the left, and large numbers facilitated when on the right. We present novel evidence that the size of the SNARC effect is relatively stable within individuals over time. This enables us to take an individual differences approach to investigate how the SNARC effect is modulated by spatial and numerical cognition. Are number-space associations linked to spatial operations, such that those who have greater facility in spatial computations show the stronger SNARC effects, or are they linked to number semantics, such that those showing stronger influence of magnitude associations on number symbol decisions show stronger SNARC effects? Our results indicate a significant correlation between the SNARC effect and a 2D mental rotation task, suggesting that spatial operations are at play in the expression of this effect. We also uncover a significant correlation between the SNARC effect and the distance effect, suggesting that the SNARC is also related to access to number semantics. A multiple regression analysis reveals that the relative contributions of spatial cognition and distance effects represent significant, yet distinct, contributions in explaining variation in the size of the SNARC effect from one individual to the next. Overall, these results shed new light on how the spatial-numerical associations of response codes are influenced by both number semantics and spatial operations. PMID:24760048

Viarouge, Arnaud; Hubbard, Edward M.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

2014-01-01

380

The cognitive mechanisms of the SNARC effect: an individual differences approach.  

PubMed

Access to mental representations of smaller vs. larger number symbols is associated with leftward vs. rightward spatial locations, as represented on a number line. The well-replicated SNARC effect (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes) reveals that simple decisions about small numbers are facilitated when stimuli are presented on the left, and large numbers facilitated when on the right. We present novel evidence that the size of the SNARC effect is relatively stable within individuals over time. This enables us to take an individual differences approach to investigate how the SNARC effect is modulated by spatial and numerical cognition. Are number-space associations linked to spatial operations, such that those who have greater facility in spatial computations show the stronger SNARC effects, or are they linked to number semantics, such that those showing stronger influence of magnitude associations on number symbol decisions show stronger SNARC effects? Our results indicate a significant correlation between the SNARC effect and a 2D mental rotation task, suggesting that spatial operations are at play in the expression of this effect. We also uncover a significant correlation between the SNARC effect and the distance effect, suggesting that the SNARC is also related to access to number semantics. A multiple regression analysis reveals that the relative contributions of spatial cognition and distance effects represent significant, yet distinct, contributions in explaining variation in the size of the SNARC effect from one individual to the next. Overall, these results shed new light on how the spatial-numerical associations of response codes are influenced by both number semantics and spatial operations. PMID:24760048

Viarouge, Arnaud; Hubbard, Edward M; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-01-01

381

Cerebral Perfusion Differences Between Drowsy and Nondrowsy Individuals After Acute Sleep Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute sleep restriction. To investigate the extent to which changes in CBF after sleep restriction are related to drowsiness as manifested in eye-video. Design: Participants were scanned for 5 min using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging after both sleep-restricted and rested nights. Participants were rated for visual signs of drowsiness in the eye-video recorded during the scan. Setting: Lying supine in a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Participants: Twenty healthy adults (age 20–37 yr) with no history of neurologic, psychiatric, or sleep disorder, and with usual time in bed of 7.0–8.5 h. Interventions: In the night before the sleep-restricted session, participants were restricted to 4 h time in bed. Results: There was an overall reduction in CBF in the right-lateralized fronto-parietal attentional network after acute sleep restriction, although this was largely driven by participants who showed strong signs of drowsiness in the eye-video after sleep restriction. Change in CBF correlated with change in drowsiness in the basal forebrain-cingulate regions. In particular, there was a pronounced increase in CBF in the basal forebrain and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex of participants who remained alert after sleep restriction. Conclusions: The pattern of cerebral activity after acute sleep restriction is highly dependent on level of drowsiness. Nondrowsy individuals are able to increase activity in the arousal-promoting brain regions and maintain activity in attentional regions. In contrast, drowsy individuals are unable to maintain arousal and show decreased activity in both arousal-promoting and attentional regions. Citation: Poudel GR; Innes CRH; Jones RD. Cerebral perfusion differences between drowsy and nondrowsy individuals after acute sleep restriction. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1085-1096. PMID:22851804

Poudel, Govinda R.; Innes, Carrie R. H.; Jones, Richard D.

2012-01-01

382

Inter-individual differences in response to dietary intervention: Integrating omics platforms toward personalised dietary recommendations  

PubMed Central

Technologic advances now make it possible to collect large amounts of genetic, epigenetic, metabolomic, and gut microbiome data. These data have the potential to transform approaches toward nutrition counseling by allowing us to recognize and embrace the metabolic, physiologic and genetic differences among individuals. The ultimate goal is to be able to integrate these multi-dimensional data so as to characterize the health status and disease risk of an individual and to provide personalised recommendations to maximize health. To this end, accurate and predictive systems-based measures of health are needed that incorporate molecular signatures of genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites, and microbes. Although we are making progress within each of these omics arenas, we have yet to integrate effectively multiple sources of biologic data so as to provide comprehensive phenotypic profiles. Observational studies have provided some insights into associative interactions between genetic or phenotypic variation and diet and their impact on health; however, few human experimental studies have addressed these relationships. Dietary interventions that test prescribed diets in well-characterized study populations and that monitor system-wide responses (ideally using several omics platforms) are needed to make correlation-causation connections and to characterize phenotypes under controlled conditions. Given the growth in our knowledge, there is the potential to develop personalised dietary recommendations. However, developing these recommendations assumes that an improved understanding of the phenotypic complexities of individuals and their responses to the complexities of their diets will lead to a sustainable, effective approach to promote health and prevent disease — therein lies our challenge. PMID:23388096

Lampe, Johanna W.; Navarro, Sandi L.; Hullar, Meredith A.J.; Shojaie, Ali

2013-01-01

383

Homeopathic constitutional type questionnaire correlates of conventional psychological and physical health scales: individual difference characteristics of young adults.  

PubMed

This study examined associations between scores for 19 different remedies on the constitutional type questionnaire (CTQ) and scores on standardized psychological and medical trait and state scales from health psychology research. Subjects were 104 young adult American college students (mean age 20 years; 67% female). Scales included the chemical intolerance index (CII) for environmental sensitivity, the NEO personality inventory, Marlowe-Crowne social desirability (MCSD) Scale for defensiveness, Harvard parental caring scale (HPCS) for perceived mother and father traits, Profile of Mood State (POMS) scale, Pennebaker symptom checklist (PSC), and a 3-item global health rating scale. The majority of CTQ constitutional type scores correlated significantly with greater NEO neuroticism, lower MCSD defensiveness, and greater psychological distress on the POMS subscales. NEO Extraversion and Openness subscales correlated with specific CTQ scores in directions consistent with clinical remedy pictures. CTQ Carcinosin differed from other remedies, showing no significant correlations with other scales. As hypothesized (a) persons high on CTQ scores for Carcinosin and low in parental caring (HPCS) had the highest symptom score; (b) those high on CTQ scores for Sulphur and low on HPCS had the poorest global health ratings; (c) individuals high on four different CTQ type scores (Carcinosin, Lachesis, Nux vomica, Sulphur) and high on environmental sensitivity (CII) exhibited the highest symptom scores. Taken together, the data offer additional validation of the CTQ and provide a foundation for studying interactions of constitutional type with both psychosocial and physicochemical environmental factors in homeopathic provers and patients. PMID:12371459

Bell, Iris R; Baldwin, C M; Schwartz, G E; Davidson, J R T

2002-04-01

384

Individual Differences in the Neurobiology of Social Stress: Implications for Depression-Cardiovascular Disease Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Stress initiates a cascade of complex neural and peripheral changes that promote healthy adaption to stress, but when unabated, leads to pathology. Fascinating individual differences arise in the ability to cope with a stressor, rendering an individual more or less likely to develop stress-induced pathologies such as depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular disease. In this review we evaluate recent findings that investigate the neural underpinnings of adopting a passive or active coping response during social defeat stress. Because passive coping is associated with vulnerability to stress-related pathologies and active coping confers resiliency, understanding neurobiological adaptations associated with these diverse coping strategies may reveal biomarkers or targets impacting stress susceptibility. The co-occurrence of stress-induced depression and cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly clear. Therefore this review focuses on the central mechanisms capable of contributing to psychopathology and cardiovascular disease such as corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, monoamines, cytokines and oxidative stress. The impetus for this review is to highlight neurobiological systems that warrant further evaluation for their contribution to the pathophysiology of depression-cardiovascular disease comorbidity. PMID:24669213

Wood, Susan K

2014-01-01

385

Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC), and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP). Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ? 0.012) and muscle strength (P ? 0.038) in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029), and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ? 0.049). Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change. PMID:23114092

2012-01-01

386

Individual differences in the ability to recognise facial identity are associated with social anxiety.  

PubMed

Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Cambridge Face Memory Test) was correlated with a small but significant increase in social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale) but not general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). The correlation was also independent of general visual memory (Cambridge Car Memory Test) and IQ. Theoretically, the correlation could arise because correct identification of people, typically achieved via faces, is important for successful social interactions, extending evidence that individuals with clinical-level deficits in face identity recognition (prosopagnosia) often report social stress due to their inability to recognise others. Equally, the relationship could arise if social anxiety causes reduced exposure or attention to people's faces, and thus to poor development of face recognition mechanisms. PMID:22194916

Davis, Joshua M; McKone, Elinor; Dennett, Hugh; O'Connor, Kirsty B; O'Kearney, Richard; Palermo, Romina

2011-01-01

387

Assimilation and Individual Differences in Emotion: The Dynamics of Anger and Approach Motivation.  

PubMed

Individuals who cross cultural boundaries face many challenges when trying to adapt to a receiving culture. Adaptation challenges such as learning to maneuver across societal domains may become increasingly complex if structural level factors such as discrimination are present. Researchers have conceptualized acculturation as a relatively autonomous decision indicating that four acculturation strategies exist: assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Moreover, researchers have also long debated the link between acculturation strategy, adaptation hassles and negative health outcomes. However, models seeking to explain how individual difference and structural level variables may influence each other and subsequently influence acculturation and adaptation are needed. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundation for the conceptualization of such a model. We propose that temperamental predispositions to negative emotionality, anger, and impulsivity may highlight discrimination which in turn may lead to increases in acculturative stress and negative markers of psychosocial well-being. We used SEM to test our hypothesized model. Results supported a modified model. Implications for the measurement of adaptation and interventions are discussed. PMID:21625350

Lechuga, Julia; Fernandez, Norma P

2011-03-01

388

Competing physiological pathways link individual differences in weight and abdominal adiposity to white matter microstructure.  

PubMed

Being overweight or obese is associated with reduced white matter integrity throughout the brain. It is not yet clear which physiological systems mediate the association between inter-individual variation in adiposity and white matter. We tested whether composite indicators of cardiovascular, lipid, glucose, and inflammatory factors would mediate the adiposity-related variation in white matter microstructure, measured with diffusion tensor imaging on a group of neurologically healthy adults (N=155). A composite factor representing adiposity (comprised of body mass index and waist circumference) was associated with smaller fractional anisotropy and greater radial diffusivity throughout the brain, a pattern previously linked to myelin structure changes in non-human animal models. A similar global negative association was found for factors representing inflammation and, to a lesser extent, glucose regulation. In contrast, factors for blood pressure and dyslipidemia had positive associations with white matter in isolated brain regions. Taken together, these competing influences on the diffusion signal were significant mediators linking adiposity to white matter and explained up to fifty-percent of the adiposity-white matter variance. These results provide the first evidence for contrasting physiological pathways, a globally distributed immunity-linked negative component and a more localized vascular-linked positive component, that associate adiposity to individual differences in the microstructure of white matter tracts in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:23639257

Verstynen, Timothy D; Weinstein, Andrea; Erickson, Kirk I; Sheu, Lei K; Marsland, Anna L; Gianaros, Peter J

2013-10-01

389

Similarities and Differences between Exome Sequences Found in a Variety of Tissues from the Same Individual  

PubMed Central

DNA is the most stable nucleic acid and most important store of genetic information. DNA sequences are conserved in virtually all the cells of a multicellular organism. To analyze the sequences of various individuals with distinct pathological disorders, DNA is routinely isolated from blood, independently of the tissue that is the target of the disease. This approach has proven useful for the identification of familial diseases where mutations are present in parental germinal cells. With the capacity to compare DNA sequences from distinct tissues or cells, present technology can be used to study whether DNA sequences in tissues are invariant. Here we explored the presence of specific SNVs (Single Nucleotide Variations) in various tissues of the same individual. We tested for the presence of tissue-specific exonic SNVs, taking blood exome as a control. We analyzed the chromosomal location of these SNVs. The number of SNVs per chromosome was found not to depend on chromosome length, but mainly on the number of protein-coding genes per chromosome. Although similar but not identical patterns of chromosomal distribution of tissue-specific SNVs were found, clear differences were detected. This observation supports the notion that each tissue has a specific SNV exome signature. PMID:24984015

Gómez-Ramos, Alberto; Sanchez-Sanchez, Rafael; Muhaisen, Ashraf; Rábano, Alberto; Soriano, Eduardo; Avila, Jesús

2014-01-01

390

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2011-11-01

391

Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.  

PubMed

Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration). PMID:21928067

Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

2011-11-01

392

Visual memory after epilepsy surgery in children: a standardized regression-based analysis of group and individual outcomes.  

PubMed

Visual memory is vulnerable to epilepsy surgery in adults, but studies in children suggest no change or small improvements. We investigated visual memory after epilepsy surgery, both group-wise and in individual children, using two techniques to assess change: 1) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 2) an empirically based technique for detecting cognitive change [standardized regression-based (SRB) analysis]. A prospective cohort consisting of 21 children completed comprehensive assessments of memory both before surgery (T0) and 6 (T1), 12 (T2), and 24 months (T3) after surgery. For each patient, two age- and gender-matched controls were assessed with the same tests at the same intervals. Repeated measures ANOVA replicated the results of previous studies reporting no change or minor improvements after surgery. However, group analysis of SRB results eliminated virtually all improvements, indicating that the ANOVA results were confounded by practice effects. Standardized regression-based group results showed that in fact patients scored lower after surgery than would be predicted based on their presurgical performance. Analysis of individual SRB results showed that per visual memory measure, an average of 18% of patients obtained a significantly negative SRB score, whereas, on average, only 2% obtained a significantly positive SRB score. At T3, the number of significantly negative SRB scores outweighed the number of significantly positive SRB scores in 62% of patients. There were no clear associations of clinical variables (including side and site of surgery and postsurgical seizure freedom) with memory outcome. The present analysis revealed that given their individual presurgical functioning, many children obtained disappointing results on some visual memory tests after epilepsy surgery. Comparison of the SRB analysis with ANOVA results emphasizes the importance of empirically based techniques for detecting cognitive effects of epilepsy surgery in childhood. PMID:24857810

Meekes, Joost; Braams, Olga B; Braun, Kees P J; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag; van Rijen, Peter C; Alpherts, Willem C J; Hendriks, Marc P H; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno

2014-07-01

393

Liquid conservation in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and humans (Homo sapiens): individual differences and perceptual strategies.  

PubMed

Four orangutans (1 juvenile, 2 subadults, and 1 adult) and ten 6-8-year-old children were tested in 4 liquid conservation tasks of increasing levels of difficulty. Task difficulty depended on the type of transformation (continuous vs. discontinuous quantities) and the relative contrast between the shapes of the containers. Results indicate that orangutans did not display conservation in the strict sense; instead they showed "partial" conservation (intermediate reactions according to J. Piaget & B. Inhelder, 1941). In contrast, some of the children provided evidence of conservation in all 4 tasks, showing "true" or logically necessary conservation in the original sense proposed by J. Piaget and B. Inhelder (1941). Although orangutans did not show conservation in the strict sense, as J. Piaget (1955) and others have generally agreed it should be defined, orangutans behaved as individual and creative problem solvers, adopting different perceptual strategies depending on the task. PMID:8858844

Call, J; Rochat, P

1996-09-01

394

State and Trait Effects on Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Development  

PubMed Central

Substantial longitudinal relations between children's early mathematics achievement and their much later mathematics achievement are firmly established. These findings are seemingly at odds with studies showing that early educational interventions have diminishing effects on children's mathematics achievement across time. We hypothesized that individual differences in children's later mathematical knowledge are more an indicator of stable, underlying characteristics related to mathematics learning throughout development than of direct effects of early mathematical competency on later mathematical competency. We tested this hypothesis in two longitudinal data sets, by simultaneously modeling effects of latent traits (stable characteristics that influence learning across time) and states (e.g., prior knowledge) on children's mathematics achievement over time. Latent trait effects on children's mathematical development were substantially larger than state effects. Approximately 60% of the variance in trait mathematics achievement was accounted for by commonly used control variables, such as working memory, but residual trait effects remained larger than state effects. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25231900

Bailey, Drew H.; Watts, Tyler W.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Geary, David C.

2015-01-01

395

Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical Framework for Individual Differences in Affective Forecasting  

PubMed Central

Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally-evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed. PMID:22251053

Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

2011-01-01

396

Individual differences in cognitive strategy and personality traits as measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.  

PubMed

The relationship between personality and preference for use of the right or left hemisphere of the brain in cognitive processing was investigated. Lateral eye movements were recorded as 50 female and 20 male right-handed subjects considered questions requiring reflection. The questions were not obviously "verbal" or "spatial" in nature but did require differing levels of reflection. Questions requiring higher levels of reflection produced a higher rate of lateral eye movement responses. Percent right eye movement for individual subjects was then correlated with scores on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, using both first-order factors and the second-order factor Cortertia, which has some face validity as describing the personality generally ascribed to those who produce mostly right lateral eye movements. No correlation was found between the preferred directions of eye movements and 16 PF factors, which suggests that the lateral eye movements reflect thinking and problem-solving strategies but are not associated with personality styles. PMID:3226853

Kerr, C E; Brown, W S

1988-12-01

397

Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a series of catalysts deactivated via industrial protocols, a correlation is established between Brønsted acidity and cracking activity. The generally applicable method has clear potential for catalyst diagnostics, as it determines intra- and interparticle Brønsted acidity distributions for industrial FCC materials.

Buurmans, Inge L. C.; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V.; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A.; Vogt, Eelco T. C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

2011-11-01

398

Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining.  

PubMed

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a series of catalysts deactivated via industrial protocols, a correlation is established between Brønsted acidity and cracking activity. The generally applicable method has clear potential for catalyst diagnostics, as it determines intra- and interparticle Brønsted acidity distributions for industrial FCC materials. PMID:22024882

Buurmans, Inge L C; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A; Vogt, Eelco T C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

2011-11-01

399

Discrimination of Single Base Pair Differences Among Individual DNA Molecules Using a Nanopore  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The protein toxin alpha-hemolysin form nanometer scale channels across lipid membranes. Our lab uses a single channel in an artificial lipid bilayer in a patch clamp device to capture and examine individual DNA molecules. This nanopore detector used with a support vector machine (SVM) can analyze DNA hairpin molecules on the millisecond time scale. We distinguish duplex stem length, base pair mismatches, loop length, and single base pair differences. The residual current fluxes also reveal structural molecular dynamics elements. DNA end-fraying (terminal base pair dissociation) can be observed as near full blockades, or spikes, in current. This technique can be used to investigate other biological processes dependent on DNA end-fraying, such as the processing of HIV DNA by HIV integrase.

Vercoutere, Wenonah; DeGuzman, Veronica

2003-01-01

400

The Predictive Nature of Individual Differences in Early Associative Learning and Emerging Social Behavior  

PubMed Central

Across the first year of life, infants achieve remarkable success in their ability to interact in the social world. The hierarchical nature of circuit and skill development predicts that the emergence of social behaviors may depend upon an infant's early abilities to detect contingencies, particularly socially-relevant associations. Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social, imitative, and discriminative behaviors measured across the human infant's first year. One-month learning rate was predictive of social behaviors at 5, 9, and 12 months of age as well as face-evoked discriminative neural activity at 9 months of age. Learning was not related to general cognitive abilities. These results underscore the importance of early contingency learning and suggest the presence of a basic mechanism underlying the ontogeny of social behaviors. PMID:22291971

Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Levitt, Pat; Fox, Nathan A.

2012-01-01

401

Biochemical tracers reveal intra-specific differences in the food webs utilized by individual seabirds.  

PubMed

Food web structure regulates the pathways and flow rates of energy, nutrients, and contaminants to top predators. Ecologically and physiologically meaningful biochemical tracers provide a means to characterize and quantify these transfers within food webs. In this study, changes in the ratios of stable N isotopes (e.g., delta(15)N), fatty acids (FA), and persistent contaminants were used to trace food web pathways utilized by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) breeding along the shores of the St Lawrence River, Canada. Egg delta(15)N values varied significantly among years and were used as an indicator of gull trophic position. Temporal trends in egg delta(15)N values were related to egg FA profiles. In years when egg delta(15)N values were greater, egg FA patterns reflected the consumption of more aquatic prey. Egg delta(15)N values were also correlated with annual estimates of prey fish abundance. These results indicated that temporal changes in aquatic prey availability were reflected in the gull diet (as inferred from ecological tracer profiles in gull eggs). Analysis of individual eggs within years confirmed that birds consuming more aquatic prey occupied higher trophic positions. Furthermore, increases in trophic position were associated with increased concentrations of most persistent organic contaminants in eggs. However, levels of highly brominated polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners, e.g, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromoDE (BDE-209), showed a negative relationship with trophic position. These contrasting findings reflected differences among contaminant groups/homologs in terms of their predominant routes of transfer, i.e., aquatic versus terrestrial food webs. High trophic level omnivores, e.g., herring gulls, are common in food webs. By characterizing ecological tracer profiles in such species we can better understand spatial, temporal, and individual differences in pathways of contaminant, energy, and nutrient flow. PMID:19219461

Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip; Gauthier, Lewis T; Arts, Michael T; Letcher, Robert J

2009-05-01

402

Regional brain shrinkage over two years: individual differences and effects of pro-inflammatory genetic polymorphisms.  

PubMed

We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N=167, age 19-79years at baseline; N=90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the Hc, CbH, In, OF, and PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants modified shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1? (IL-1? C-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ?4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC, thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

Persson, N; Ghisletta, P; Dahle, C L; Bender, A R; Yang, Y; Yuan, P; Daugherty, A M; Raz, N

2014-12-01

403

Genetic Variation Is the Major Determinant of Individual Differences in Leukocyte Endothelial Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the genetic contribution to leukocyte endothelial adhesion. Methods Leukocyte endothelial adhesion was assessed through a novel cell-based assay using human lymphoblastoid cell lines. A high-throughput screening method was developed to evaluate the inter-individual variability in leukocyte endothelial adhesion using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from different donors. To assess heritability, ninety-two lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from twenty-three monozygotic twin pairs and twenty-three sibling pairs were compared. These lymphoblastoid cell lines were plated with the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 and labeled with Calcein AM dye. Fluorescence was assessed to determine endothelial cell adhesion to each lymphoblastoid cell line. Intra-pair similarity was determined for monozygotic twins and siblings using Pearson pairwise correlation coefficients. Results A leukocyte endothelial adhesion assay for lymphoblastoid cell lines was developed and optimized (CV?=?8.68, Z?-factor?=?0.67, SNR?=?18.41). A higher adhesion correlation was found between the twins than that between the siblings. Intra-pair similarity for leukocyte endothelial adhesion in monozygotic twins was 0.60 compared to 0.25 in the siblings. The extent to which these differences are attributable to underlying genetic factors was quantified and the heritability of leukocyte endothelial adhesion was calculated to be 69.66% (p-value<0.0001). Conclusions There is a heritable component to leukocyte endothelial adhesion. Underlying genetic predisposition plays a significant role in inter-individual variability of leukocyte endothelial adhesion. PMID:24520339

Grassi, Michael A.; Rao, Vidhya; Winkler, Kathryn P.; Zhang, Wei; Bogaard, Joseph D.; Chen, Siquan; LaCroix, Bonnie; Lenkala, Divya; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.; Cox, Nancy J.; Huang, R. Stephanie

2014-01-01

404

Individual differences in the hotplate test and effects of habituation on sensitivity to morphine.  

PubMed

Hotplate studies rarely match subjects into groups and often use high temperatures that are less sensitive to the effects of mild analgesics. Subjects may not be matched into groups because it has not been clearly demonstrated that there are reliable and robust individual differences in performance on the hotplate, and out of concern that the testing required to match subjects into groups might reduce the sensitivity of the task to mild analgesics by producing 'behavioral tolerance'. Higher hotplate temperatures may be preferred because they reduce variability in response latencies, and it may be assumed that this precludes the need to match subjects into groups. The results of the present study demonstrate that there are reliable and robust differences among individuals tested on the hotplate, regardless of whether the hotplate is 50 degrees C or 55 degrees C (alpha's > 0.90). The present results also confirm that lower hotplate temperatures are much more sensitive to the effects of mild analgesics: increased response latencies following a low dose of morphine (3 mg/kg) could be reliably detected with only 8 rats at 50 degrees C, while the same dose would not be detected reliably at 55 degrees C unless more than 55 rats were tested. Finally, there was no evidence that habituation to the hotplate produced 'behavioral tolerance' or reduced the sensitivity of the test to the effects of morphine. These findings suggest that hotplate studies should match subjects into groups and use lower hotplate temperatures in order to increase the sensitivity of the test, but also out of an ethical obligation to minimize the intensity of the noxious stimulus and the number of animals exposed to it. PMID:8880849

Plone, M A; Emerich, D F; Lindner, M D

1996-08-01

405

The experiences of Taiwanese older individuals at different stages of Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition, usually occurring among older individuals. Along with increasing handicaps in daily life, patients with PD also face problems with psychosocial adjustment. This study explored the experiences of older Taiwanese individuals at different stages of PD. Qualitative design with in-depth interviews was conducted with participants being treated at the neurology outpatient department in a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. The study included nine men and six women, aged 65-80 years, with PD at stages 1-4. Comparative analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: ignorance of symptoms, loss of control, gradual deterioration, and a deep sense of helplessness. In stage 1, symptoms were not significant at the onset of PD. For most participants, others first detected the symptoms, rather than themselves. During stage 2, although they could still care for themselves, they became very anxious when the effects of medication disappeared and their reactions slowed before they took the next dose. During stage 3, the physical capacity of the body decreased gradually and affected the patient's participation in social activities. In stage 4, older patients gradually became dependent on others in their daily lives. They were upset and worried that the symptoms would worsen and make them become a burden for their children. By understanding the perceptions of elderly patients at different stages of PD, this study has organized the key care requirements into four stages. These include the following: (1) provide more information on the disease in stage 1, (2) increase guidance on regular medication usage and establish a support system in stage 2, (3) highlight the importance of a safe living environment and encourage participation in support groups in stage 3, and (4) assist patients to find the meaning of life and value of existence in stage 4. PMID:24217147

Liao, Ying-Chun; Wu, Yih-Ru; Tsao, Lee-Ing; Lin, Hung-Ru

2013-12-01

406

Who are those "risk-taking adolescents"? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents) or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents). These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence) by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research. PMID:25176616

Bjork, James M; Pardini, Dustin A

2015-02-01

407

Simulating Fiction: Individual Differences in Literature Comprehension Revealed with fMRI  

PubMed Central

When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others’ beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods. PMID:25671708

Nijhof, Annabel D.; Willems, Roel M.

2015-01-01

408

The association of food characteristics and individual differences with ratings of craving and liking.  

PubMed

Craving and liking are related to eating-related problems, but less is known about the association of specific food characteristics (e.g., sugar, fat) with craving/liking. The relation of individual differences in eating behavior with these craving and liking patterns is also relatively unknown. We examine the nomothetic impact of sugar, fat and processing on food craving and liking and the moderation of these effects by idiographic factors (e.g., Body Mass Index [BMI], hunger). One hundred and five overweight and obese women completed craving and liking ratings on 180 foods that differed in levels of sugar, fat and processing. Food craving was linked positively to fat content, but negatively to sugar. Food liking was associated negatively with sugar content and processing level. Addictive-like eating predicted elevated overall food craving and liking, and increased craving and liking for processed foods. Attempted restriction efforts were unrelated to craving and liking. BMI was associated with less craving for fattier foods and lower liking for the average food. Hunger was associated with increased craving for the average food. These findings highlight the role of fat in cravings and differences in craving and liking based on BMI, loss of control over eating, and hunger. These findings are relevant to theories of problematic eating and the development of eating-related interventions. PMID:24768936

Gearhardt, Ashley N; Rizk, Marianne T; Treat, Teresa A

2014-08-01

409

Individual differences in the perception of biological motion and fragmented figures are not correlated  

PubMed Central

We live in a cluttered, dynamic visual environment that poses a challenge for the visual system: for objects, including those that move about, to be perceived, information specifying those objects must be integrated over space and over time. Does a single, omnibus mechanism perform this grouping operation, or does grouping depend on separate processes specialized for different feature aspects of the object? To address this question, we tested a large group of healthy young adults on their abilities to perceive static fragmented figures embedded in noise and to perceive dynamic point-light biological motion figures embedded in dynamic noise. There were indeed substantial individual differences in performance on both tasks, but none of the statistical tests we applied to this data set uncovered a significant correlation between those performance measures. These results suggest that the two tasks, despite their superficial similarity, require different segmentation and grouping processes that are largely unrelated to one another. Whether those processes are embodied in distinct neural mechanisms remains an open question. PMID:24198799

Jung, Eunice L.; Zadbood, Asieh; Lee, Sang-Hun; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Blake, Randolph

2013-01-01

410

Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.  

PubMed

The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ?60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium populations from hospitalized patients and from community-based individuals differ, with a predominance of certain clonal lineages, often in association with elderly individuals, occurring in the hospital setting. PMID:25548052

Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

2015-03-01

411

Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-? responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-? production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-? production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-? production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively different humoral and cellular immune responses as compared to infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. PMID:24916787

2014-01-01

412

Graphic 4 There are at least eight different awards that individuals with a research doctorate should  

E-print Network

of their research program. Individuals interested in Stem Cell research or Quantitative Methods in Stem Cell Research (K18) the Academic Career Award (K07), the Mentored with a research doctorate should consider. Most of these awards support individuals

Farritor, Shane

413

Individual differences and preference for dietary fat using the Fat Preference Questionnaire(©) in a UK sample.  

PubMed

Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to the selection of food largely due to its pleasant orosensory characteristics. Consequently high fat foods are often over eaten leading to weight gain and in severe cases, obesity. This paper presents two studies investigating preference for fat. Study 1 is a large-scale questionnaire study which produced both UK normative data for the Fat Preference Questionnaire(©) and the first normative data for males. The results suggest that the Fat Preference Questionnaire(©) is a reliable and valid measure of fat preference in a UK population, although some changes to the measure are recommended. Female data was found to closely mirror the existing US data. Sex differences were established in scores of preference for high fat foods and quantities eaten. Study 2 investigated the extent to which individual difference in eating behaviour, body mass and personality predict preference for dietary fat. High scores in Dietary Restraint were found to be the best predictor of high fat intake, especially dietary restraint specific to fat. Personality weakly predicted preference for dietary fat, and high BMI was associated with high intake of fat. PMID:22222563

Day, Catherine J; McHale, Sue; Francis, John

2012-04-01

414

Individual differences in information order effects: the importance of right-hemisphere access in belief updating.  

PubMed

The order in which information is received alters the evaluation of causal hypotheses. Specifically, research suggests that the last piece of information oftentimes has the greatest impact on the evaluation and that the difference in subjective value between two pieces of information is an important factor influencing the magnitude of this recency effect. The present paper extends this line of work by exploring individual differences in this phenomenon via one's degree of handedness. Two hundred and five participants were given two hypothetical scenarios and related causal hypotheses accompanied by two pieces of additional information and asked to revise their belief in each hypothesis as information accumulated. Results confirmed predictions that 1) inconsistent/mixed-handers (those who use their non-dominant hand for at least some activities) show a larger effect with two pieces of inconsistent weak or strong information, and 2) neither mixed-handers nor consistent/strong-handers (those who use their dominant hand for almost all activities) show an effect with strong and weak pieces of consistent information. Mixed-handers' susceptibility to persuasive arguments and Ramachandran's (1995; Ramachandran and Blakeslee, 1998) belief-updating theory centered around communication between the two halves of the brain and functional access to the right hemisphere are used to account for these data. PMID:24513628

Jasper, John D; Kunzler, J Scott; Prichard, Eric C; Christman, Stephen D

2014-05-01

415

Individual Differences in Automatic Emotion Regulation Affect the Asymmetry of the LPP Component  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP) when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS). Two participant groups were categorized by the Emotion Regulation-Implicit Association Test which has been used in previous research to identify two groups of participants with automatic emotion control and with automatic emotion express. The main finding was that automatic emotion express group showed a right dominance of the LPP component at posterior electrodes, especially in high arousal conditions. But no right dominance of the LPP component was observed for automatic emotion control group. We also found the group with automatic emotion control showed no differences in the right posterior LPP amplitude between high- and low-arousal emotion conditions, while the participants with automatic emotion express showed larger LPP amplitude in the right posterior in high-arousal conditions compared to low-arousal conditions. This result suggested that AER (Automatic emotion regulation) modulated the hemispheric asymmetry of LPP on posterior electrodes and supported the right hemisphere hypothesis. PMID:24523881

Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Renlai

2014-01-01

416

FKBP5 and Emotional Neglect Interact to Predict Individual Differences in Amygdala Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in physiological responsiveness to stress mediates risk for mental illness and is influenced by both experiential and genetic factors. Common polymorphisms in the human gene for FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), which is involved in transcriptional regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have been shown to interact with childhood abuse and trauma to predict stress-related psychopathology. In the current study, we examined if such gene-environment interaction effects may be related to variability in the threat-related reactivity of the amygdala, which plays a critical role in mediating physiological and behavioral adaptions to stress including modulation of the HPA axis. To this end 139 healthy, Caucasian youth completed a BOLD fMRI probe of amygdala reactivity and self-report assessments of emotional neglect (EN) and other forms of maltreatment. These individuals were genotyped for six FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9296158, rs3800373, rs9470080, and rs9394309) previously associated with psychopathology and/or HPA axis function. Interactions between each SNP and EN emerged such that risk alleles predicted relatively increased dorsal amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN, even after correcting for multiple testing. Two different haplotype analyses confirmed this relationship as haplotypes with risk alleles also exhibited increased amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN. Our results suggest that increased threat-related amygdala reactivity may represent a mechanism linking psychopathology to interactions between common genetic variants affecting HPA axis function and childhood trauma. PMID:22979952

White, Michael G.; Bogdan, Ryan; Fisher, Patrick M.; Muñoz, Karen; Williamson, Douglas E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

417

Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading  

PubMed Central

Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A.; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R.; Titone, Debra

2015-01-01

418

Constructing personality and social reality through music: Individual differences among fans of punk and heavy metal music  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relationship of popular music preferences to individual differences in social judgments and to personality characteristics. Individuals who expressed liking for heavy metal music were higher in machiavellianism and machismo and lower in need for cognition than nonfans. Heavy metal fans also made higher estimates than nonfans of consensus among young people for sexual, drug?related, occult, and

Christine Hall Hansen; Ranald D. Hansen

1991-01-01

419

Individual differences in the phenomenology of mental time travel: The effect of vivid visual imagery and emotion regulation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals

Arnaud D’Argembeau; Martial Van der Linden

2006-01-01

420

The Effects of Subjective Time Pressure and Individual Differences on Hypotheses Generation and Action Prioritization in Police Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When individuals perceive time pressure, they decrease the generation of diagnostic hypotheses and prioritize information. This article examines whether individual differences in (a) internal time urgency, (b) experience, and (c) fluid mental ability can moderate these effects. Police officers worked through a computer-based rape investigative…

Alison, Laurence; Doran, Bernadette; Long, Matthew L.; Power, Nicola; Humphrey, Amy

2013-01-01

421

Individual differences in attributional style but not in interoceptive sensitivity, predict subjective estimates of action intention  

PubMed Central

The debate on the existence of free will is on-going. Seminal findings by Libet et al. (1983) demonstrate that subjective awareness of a voluntary urge to act (the W-judgment) occurs before action execution. Libet’s paradigm requires participants to perform voluntary actions while watching a clock hand rotate. On response trials, participants make a retrospective judgment related to awareness of their urge to act. This research investigates the relationship between individual differences in performance on the Libet task and self-awareness. We examined the relationship between W-judgment, attributional style (AS; a measure of perceived control) and interoceptive sensitivity (IS; awareness of stimuli originating from one’s body; e.g., heartbeats). Thirty participants completed the AS questionnaire (ASQ), a heartbeat estimation task (IS), and the Libet paradigm. The ASQ score significantly predicted performance on the Libet task, while IS did not – more negative ASQ scores indicated larger latency between W-judgment and action execution. A significant correlation was also observed between ASQ score and IS. This is the first research to report a relationship between W-judgment and AS and should inform the future use of electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the relationship between AS, W-judgment and RP onset. Our findings raise questions surrounding the importance of one’s perceived control in determining the point of conscious intention to act. Furthermore, we demonstrate possible negative implications associated with a longer period between conscious awareness and action execution. PMID:25191254

Penton, Tegan; Thierry, Guillaume L.; Davis, Nick J.

2014-01-01

422

Age-related changes in reading comprehension: an individual-differences perspective.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors show that Hannon and Daneman's (2001, Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 103-128) component processes task can be used to investigate individual differences in older readers' comprehension performance, and to determine which components of comprehension are most susceptible to declines with normal aging. Results revealed that the ability to remember new text information, to make inferences about new text information, to access prior knowledge in long-term memory, and to integrate prior knowledge with new text information all accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in older adults' reading comprehension performance. Although there were age-related declines in all of these component processes, the components associated with new learning were more susceptible to age-related declines than were the components associated with accessing what already is known. The findings suggest that age-related declines in reading comprehension might be a consequence of declines in a number of component processes rather than one specific process. PMID:20183100

Hannon, Brenda; Daneman, Meredyth

2009-10-01

423

The Perennial Debate: Nature, Nurture, or Choice? Black and White Americans' Explanations for Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

This paper examines three common explanations for human characteristics: genes, the environment, and choice. Based on data from a representative sample of White and Black Americans, respondents indicated how much they believed each factor influenced individual differences in athleticism, nurturance, drive, math ability, violence, intelligence, and sexual orientation. Results show that across traits: 1) Black respondents generally favor choice and reject genetic explanations, whereas White respondents indicate less causal consistency; 2) although a sizeable subset of respondents endorse just one factor, most report multiple factors as at least partly influential; and 3) among White respondents greater endorsement of genetic explanations is associated with less acceptance of choice and the environment, although among Black respondents a negative relationship holds only between genes and choice. The social relevance of these findings is discussed within the context of the attribution, essentialism and lay theory literature. The results underscore the need to consider more complex and nuanced issues than are implied by the simplistic, unidimensional character of the nature/nurture and determinism/free will debates — perennial controversies that have significance in the current genomic era. PMID:20072661

Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Gelman, Susan A.; Feldbaum, Merle; Sheldon, Jane P.; Petty, Elizabeth M.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.

2009-01-01

424

International Journal of Industrial Engineering (2012), vol 42(1), 816 P300 Amplitude Reflects Individual Differences of  

E-print Network

of wrong turns was the most widely accepted one (Dingus et al., 1997; Uang and Hwang, 2003). In this paper with previous study of navigation performance (Dingus et al., 1997). Individual differences in navigational

Wu, Changxu (Sean)

425

Individual Differences in Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity are Associated with Evaluation Speed and Psychological Well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether individual differences in amygdala activation in re- sponse to negative relative to neutral information are related to differences in the speed with which such information is evaluated, the extent to which such differences are associated with medial prefrontal cortex function, and their relationship with measures of trait anxiety and psychological well-being (PWB).

Carien M. Van Reekum; Heather L. Urry; Tom Johnstone; Marchell E. Thurow; Corrina J. Frye; Cory A. Jackson; Hillary S. Schaefer; Andrew L. Alexander; Richard J. Davidson

2007-01-01

426

Is Flanker-Based Inhibition Related to Age? Identifying Specific Influences of Individual Differences on Neurocognitive Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers frequently attempt to identify the specific neurocognitive processes that might be responsible for differences in performance associated with neurological status or other individual difference characteristics by administering two or more conditions of an experimental task to different groups of participants, and focusing on the…

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

427

Individual differences in social information gathering revealed through Bayesian hierarchical models  

PubMed Central

As studies of the neural circuits underlying choice expand to include more complicated behaviors, analysis of behaviors elicited in laboratory paradigms has grown increasingly difficult. Social behaviors present a particular challenge, since inter- and intra-individual variation are expected to play key roles. However, due to limitations on data collection, studies must often choose between pooling data across all subjects or using individual subjects' data in isolation. Hierarchical models mediate between these two extremes by modeling individual subjects as drawn from a population distribution, allowing the population at large to serve as prior information about individuals' behavior. Here, we apply this method to data collected across multiple experimental sessions from a set of rhesus macaques performing a social information valuation task. We show that, while the values of social images vary markedly between individuals and between experimental sessions for the same individual, individuals also differentially value particular categories of social images. Furthermore, we demonstrate covariance between values for image categories within individuals and find evidence suggesting that magnitudes of stimulus values tend to diminish over time. PMID:24062635

Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Klein, Jeffrey T.; Ebitz, R. Becket; Platt, Michael L.

2013-01-01

428

Through a Different Lens: Spirituality in the Lives of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirituality is an important component in the lives of many individuals. Very little information is available on how spirituality impacts individuals with Asperger's syndrome, a high functioning form of autism. This article presents an overview of Asperger's syndrome and discusses how cognition is reflected in their development of existential theory of mind, their propensity toward the sciences, and their understanding

Nick Dubin; Janet E. Graetz

2009-01-01

429

Individual differences in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-related cues: Implications for addiction  

E-print Network

: Implications for addiction Shelly B. Flagel a,*, Huda Akil a , Terry E. Robinson b a Molecular and Behavioral Received in revised form 10 June 2008 Accepted 14 June 2008 Keywords: Addiction Autoshaping Goal on predispositions of the individual. Those individuals who become addicted are unable to shift their thoughts

Cooper, Robin L.

430

Age-related differences in plumage characteristics of male tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor : hue and brightness signal different aspects of individual quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related differences in plumage characteristics of birds can be the result of differential survival of more ornamented individuals, within-individual changes in plumage attributes with age, or a combination of both. In this study, we investigated age-class related differences in plumage attributes of male tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor by performing both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Male tree swallows in their first

Pierre-Paul Bitton; Russell D. Dawson

2008-01-01

431

Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Nebivolol Compared with Standard Care in Elderly Patients with Heart Failure: An Individual Patient-Based Simulation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: The SENIORS trial demonstrated that nebivolol is effective in the treatment of heart failure in elderly patients (e.g. >=70 years). This analysis evaluates the cost effectiveness of nebivolol compared with standard treatment. Methods: An individual patient-simulation model based on a Markov modelling framework was developed to compare costs and outcomes for nebivolol and standard care in patients

Guiqing Yao; Nick Freemantle; Marcus Flather; Puvan Tharmanathan; Andrew Coats; Philip A. Poole-Wilson

2008-01-01

432

Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music  

PubMed Central

Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

2014-01-01

433

Individual differences in cortical face selectivity predict behavioral performance in face recognition  

PubMed Central

In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, object selectivity is defined as a higher neural response to an object category than other object categories. Importantly, object selectivity is widely considered as a neural signature of a functionally-specialized area in processing its preferred object category in the human brain. However, the behavioral significance of the object selectivity remains unclear. In the present study, we used the individual differences approach to correlate participants' face selectivity in the face-selective regions with their behavioral performance in face recognition measured outside the scanner in a large sample of healthy adults. Face selectivity was defined as the z score of activation with the contrast of faces vs. non-face objects, and the face recognition ability was indexed as the normalized residual of the accuracy in recognizing previously-learned faces after regressing out that for non-face objects in an old/new memory task. We found that the participants with higher face selectivity in the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), but not in the posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), possessed higher face recognition ability. Importantly, the association of face selectivity in the FFA and face recognition ability cannot be accounted for by FFA response to objects or behavioral performance in object recognition, suggesting that the association is domain-specific. Finally, the association is reliable, confirmed by the replication from another independent participant group. In sum, our finding provides empirical evidence on the validity of using object selectivity as a neural signature in defining object-selective regions in the human brain. PMID:25071513

Huang, Lijie; Song, Yiying; Li, Jingguang; Zhen, Zonglei; Yang, Zetian; Liu, Jia

2014-01-01

434

Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption.  

PubMed

Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability of individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly's ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614

Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V; Burnham, Melissa M; Shaw, Paul J

2014-10-30

435

Relationship Status and Relationship Instability, but Not Dominance, Predict Individual Differences in Baseline  

E-print Network

functioning and cortisol, however, is important from a theoretical perspective because stress ho had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use

Maestripieri, Dario

436

Understanding religious and spiritual influences on adjustment to cancer: individual patterns and differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher levels of religious and spiritual engagement have been shown to be associated with better adjustment in dealing with\\u000a serious illness. Nevertheless, the pattern of such engagement may vary substantially among individuals. This paper presents\\u000a exploratory research with the goal of identifying subgroups of individuals with non-terminal cancer who vary along multiple\\u000a dimensions of religious\\/spiritual (R\\/S) involvement and well-being. Cluster

Jean L. Kristeller; Virgil Sheets; Tom Johnson; Betsy Frank

437

Inter-individual discount factor differences in reward prediction are topographically associated with caudate activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, humans tend to devalue a delayed reward. Such delay discounting is a theoretical and computational concept in\\u000a which the discount factor influences the time scale of the trade-off between delay of reward and amount of reward. The discount\\u000a factor relies on the individual’s ability to evaluate the future reward. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated\\u000a brain mechanisms

Keiichi OnodaYasumasa; Yasumasa Okamoto; Yoshihiko Kunisato; Siori Aoyama; Kazuhiro Shishida; Go Okada; Saori C. Tanaka; Nicolas Schweighofer; Shuhei Yamaguchi; Kenji Doya; Shigeto Yamawaki

2011-01-01

438

25 CFR 900.48 - If the Indian tribe or tribal organization does not propose different standards, what basic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false If the Indian tribe or tribal organization does not propose different standards...standards shall the Indian tribe or tribal organization follow? 900.48 Section 900...ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Procurement...

2010-04-01

439

Comparison of RFFIT tests with different standard sera and testing procedures.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining antibody level is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and is used to determine the degree of immunity after vaccination against rabies. To compare the difference in RFFIT results between the laboratories of The National Institute of Infectious Disease in Japan (NIID) and the Chinese Centre for Disease Control (CCDC) as well the influence of the choice of standard serum (STD) for the detection, the two laboratories detection methods were simultaneously manipulated by RFFIT. The reference serums used in NIID and the WHO standard serum used in CCDC were compared in the same RFFIT detection to determine the titer of four sera samples C1, S1, S2 and S4 in parallel, and the titers of the detected sera samples were calculated using the standard formula for neutralizing antibody titer. No significant difference was found in RFFIT methods from the two laboratories and the RFFIT testing procedures of the two laboratories have good consistency. However, different titers were obtained with the tentative internal standard serum (TI-STD) produced by adjusting to 2.0 IU of WHO standard serum in NIID and the WHO STD. The titer determined with the TI-STD was higher than that determined with WHO STD, This difference appears to be significant and requires further investigation. PMID:22684473

Yu, Peng-cheng; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Liang, Guo-dong

2012-06-01

440

Standards of research publication: Differences between the physical sciences and the social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines differences in standards of research publications between the physical sciences and the social sciences. The results of the first two hypotheses tested indicate that the predominant form of publication in the physical sciences are articles, whereas books predominate in the social sciences. Furthermore, differences were found in the relevant dimension of publication between faculties in more prestigious

Yoram Neumann

1977-01-01