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1

Monitoring Text Comprehension: Individual Differences in Epistemological Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individual differences in the reading comprehension standards of 90 undergraduates were examined. Students were classified as having a dualistic or relativistic conception of knowledge by attitude measures. Data suggest that epistemological beliefs may dictate choice of comprehension criteria and that these epistemological standards may control…

Ryan, Michael P.

1984-01-01

2

Individual Differences: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Differential psychology refers to the objective and quantitative investigation of individual differences in behaviour. While the notion that individual differences exist can be dated back to Plato in 400 B.C., the systematic study of individual difference...

T. L. Stokes-Hendriks

2002-01-01

3

Sex Differences and Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sex differences and their relationship to individual differences were examined for Maccoby and Jacklin's sex differences summaries, for a diverse set of measures of specific cognitive abilities (including verbal ability), and for objective personality assessments of 216 school-age children. Average differences between groups appeared to be…

Plomin, Robert; Foch, Terryl T.

1981-01-01

4

Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

Singer, Sandra M.

5

Individual Differences in Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on individual differences in learning. "Novice and Expert Learning: Impact on Training" (Barbara J. Daley) reports on a study in which 20 novice and expert nurses were interviewed to identify their different learning processes and the factors that facilitated or hindered their learning. The need…

1998

6

A cognitive neuroscience-based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: Standardization and initial construct validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait

Ruben C. Gur; Jan Richard; Paul Hughett; Monica E. Calkins; Larry Macy; Warren B. Bilker; Colleen Brensinger; Raquel E. Gur

2010-01-01

7

A cognitive neuroscience based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: Standardization and initial construct validation  

PubMed Central

There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1 hour and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individual differences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multisite genetic studies and clinical trials.

Gur, Ruben C.; Richard, Jan; Hughett, Paul; Calkins, Monica E.; Macy, Larry; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen; Gur, Raquel E.

2009-01-01

8

Individual differences in dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia as a back-drop, this review discusses the issue of how indivdual differences in its behavioural manifestation should be conceptualised. It begins by reviewing ways of classifying children with dyslexia from a clinical perspective and proceeds to describe the cognitive neuropsychological approach to classification that has focused on the reading and spelling profiles of

Margaret J. Snowling; Yvonne M. Griffiths

2001-01-01

9

Individual Differences in Risk Taking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored the relation of certain individual differences in personality and motivation to individual differences in risk taking, and examined changes in these relations as a function of variations in the risk-taking situation. Ss were 72 male 12...

C. R. Gilson

1968-01-01

10

Individual Learner Differences in SLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

2011-01-01

11

Individual Differences and Effective Schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the knowledge base with relevance for researchers and practitioners in their efforts to create school environments that effectively adapt to individual learning needs. Recent theoretical and substantive developments are traced in terms of their impact on how individual differences in learning are viewed, types of information that are examined and described, and use of this information for

Margaret C. Wang

1987-01-01

12

Individual Differences in Trauma Disclosure  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Findings on disclosure and adjustment following traumatic events have been mixed. Better understanding of individual differences in disclosure may help us better understand reactions following trauma exposure. In particular, studying disclosure patterns for those with and without psychopathology and for different types of emotional experiences may help clarify the relationship between disclosure, event emotionality, trauma exposure, and PTSD. Methods In this study, 143 men and women with (n = 67) and without (n = 43) chronic PTSD and without trauma exposure (n = 33) provided information on disclosure for a traumatic/severe life event, a negative event, and a positive event. Results Individuals with PTSD reported greater difficulty disclosing their traumatic event compared to those with trauma exposure no PTSD and those with no-trauma exposure. However, individuals with PTSD reported disclosing the traumatic event a similar number of times and with similar levels of detail to those with trauma exposure but no PTSD. Both sexual and childhood trauma were associated with greater disclosure difficulty. Limitations Although control event types (positive, negative) were selected to control for the passage of time and for general disclosure style, they do not control for salience of the event and results may be limited by control events that were not highly salient. Conclusions The present findings point to a dynamic conceptualization of disclosure, suggesting that the differential difficulty of disclosing traumatic events seen in individuals with PTSD is not simply a function of the amount of disclosure or the amount of details provided.

Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Jaeger, Jeff; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen; Zoellner, Lori A.

2011-01-01

13

Individual differences in working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

2005-12-01

14

Individual differences in cognitive arithmetic.  

PubMed

Unities in the processes involved in solving arithmetic problems of varying operations have been suggested by studies that have used both factor-analytic and information-processing methods. We designed the present study to investigate the convergence of mental processes assessed by paper-and-pencil measures defining the Numerical Facility factor and component processes for cognitive arithmetic identified by using chronometric techniques. A sample of 100 undergraduate students responded to 320 arithmetic problems in a true-false reaction-time (RT) verification paradigm and were administered a battery of ability measures spanning Numerical Facility, Perceptual Speed, and Spatial Relations factors. The 320 cognitive arithmetic problems comprised 80 problems of each of four types: simple addition, complex addition, simple multiplication, and complex multiplication. The information-processing results indicated that regression models that included a structural variable consistent with memory network retrieval of arithmetic facts were the best predictors of RT to each of the four types of arithmetic problems. The results also verified the effects of other elementary processes that are involved in the mental solving of arithmetic problems, including encoding of single digits and carrying to the next column for complex problems. The relation between process components and ability measures was examined by means of structural equation modeling. The final structural model revealed a strong direct relation between a factor subsuming efficiency of retrieval of arithmetic facts and of executing the carry operation and the traditional Numerical Facility factor. Furthermore, a moderate direct relation between a factor subsuming speed of encoding digits and decision and response times and the traditional Perceptual Speed factor was also found. No relation between structural variables representing cognitive arithmetic component processes and ability measures spanning the Spatial Relations factor was found. Results of the structural modeling support the conclusion that information retrieval from a network of arithmetic facts and execution of the carry operation are elementary component processes involved uniquely in the mental solving of arithmetic problems. Furthermore, individual differences in the speed of executing these two elementary component processes appear to underlie individual differences on ability measures that traditionally span the Numerical Facility factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2955071

Geary, D C; Widaman, K F

1987-06-01

15

Individual Differences in Interacting With Hypermedia Manuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examined individual differences in interacting and learning from diagrams, multimedia presentations and hypermedia instructional manuals and how these-individual differences related to spatial abilities and knowledge. In several experiments, we found t...

M. Hegarty

2003-01-01

16

Individual Differences and Multiple Intelligences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…

Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

17

Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)|

Field, Tiffany

1989-01-01

18

Individual differences and evidence-based psychopharmacology  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in response to pharmacologic treatment limits the usefulness of mean data obtained from randomized controlled trials. These individual differences exist even in genetically uniform inbred mouse strains. While stratification can be of value in large studies, the individual patient history is the most effective currently available guide for personalized medicine in psychopharmacology.

2012-01-01

19

Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

Wilkinson, R. T.

1984-07-01

20

Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

2011-01-01

21

Individual differences in susceptibility to mindlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas a variety of research has investigated how individual differences moderate attitude change (persuasion) processes, there is a relative dearth of research investigating how such individual differences moderate behavior change (compliance) processes. The current research assessed the extent to which two well-studied personality traits predicted susceptibility to the mindlessness technique (Langer, Blank, & Chanowitz, 1978). After completing need for cognition

M. Scott Key; John E. Edlund; Brad J. Sagarin; George Y. Bizer

2009-01-01

22

Individual differences and reactions to job characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated 3 different methods of measuring individual differences as moderators of employee reactions to job characteristics. The 3 methods are urban vs rural background, strong vs weak belief in the Protestant work ethic, and high vs low strength for \\

John P. Wanous

1974-01-01

23

Individual Differences in Memory Decay and Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For nearly forty years the generally held belief has been that there were no individual differences in forgetting which were not the result of differences in original learning. This rather surprising conclusion was based on Underwood's 1954 article in whi...

R. K. Young

1992-01-01

24

Individual Differences in Arithmetic: Implications for Psychology, Neuroscience and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards in numeracy are a constant concern to educational policy-makers. However, why are differences in arithmetical performance so marked? In "Individual Differences in Arithmetic", Ann Dowker seeks to provide a better understanding of why these differences in ability exist, encouraging a more informed approach to tackling numeracy…

Dowker, Ann

2005-01-01

25

Working Memory Capacity: An Individual Differences Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article describes a research program addressing several issues about the role of individual differences in working memory and reading comprehension. The studies show a strong positive relationship between measures of working memory capacity and highe...

R. W. Engle

1989-01-01

26

IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.  

PubMed

This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2. PMID:21098629

Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

2010-11-23

27

Affective synchrony: individual differences in mixed emotions.  

PubMed

Most models of affect suggest either inverse or null associations between positivity and negativity. Recent work has highlighted situations that sometimes lead to mixed positive-negative affect. Focusing on the counterpart to these situational factors, the authors explore the individual-difference tendency toward mixed emotions, which they term affective synchrony. In five studies, the authors show that some individuals demonstrate affective synchrony (overlapping experience of positive and negative moods), others a-synchrony (positive and negative mood that fluctuate independently), and still others de-synchrony (positive and negative moods that function as bipolar opposites). These tendencies are stable over time within persons, vary broadly across individuals, and are associated with individual differences in cognitive representation of self and of emotions. PMID:17551163

Rafaeli, Eshkol; Rogers, Gregory M; Revelle, William

2007-06-05

28

Individual differences and cues to deception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extension of previous studies on deception and deception detection, the present study investigated the relations among individual differences, behavioral cues displayed when deceiving and telling the truth, and the perceptions of naive observers. 63 undergraduates were measured on the Self-Monitoring Scale, the Affective Communication Test, the Personality Research Form, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, their acting ability, and their

Ronald E. Riggio; Howard S. Friedman

1983-01-01

29

Individual Differences in Framing and Conjunction Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences on a variety of framing and conjunction problems were examined in light of Slovic and Tversky's (1974) understanding\\/acceptance principle—that more reflective and skilled reasoners are more likely to affirm the axioms that define normative reasoning and to endorse the task construals of informed experts. The predictions derived from the principle were confirmed for the much discussed framing effect

Keith E. Stanovich Richard F. West; Richard F. West

1998-01-01

30

Individual Differences in Rational Thinking Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual difference studies suggest that reasoners highest in cognitive capacity favor analytic, normative responses over fallacious, heuristic responses. The present study complemented reasoning accuracy with timing data to obtain an indication of the nature of the reasoning process underlying the response selection. A total of 199 participants were presented with a measure of working memory capacity and a syllogistic reasoning

Wim De Neys; Kristien Dieussaert

31

Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

32

Individual Differences in Basic Skills Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research and though regarding the relationship of individual difference (ID) factors to achievement in the basic skills is reviewed. Four major categories and nine subcategories of ID factors are defined and serve as the framework for the review: status factors (age, sex, and race, ethnic group, and socioeconomic status); intelligence…

Thomas, John W.

33

Individual differences in attitudes towards gossip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of individual differences in attitudes towards gossip (ATG). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses of responses to a pool of ATG items identified two factors reflecting attitudes about gossip’s Social Value (SV) and Moral Value (MV), which provided the basis for constructing a 12-item ATG scale. In Study 2, the

Jordan A. Litman; Mark V. Pezzo

2005-01-01

34

Individual Differences in Sensory Gating in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic measures consistently show that adults with sensory processing deficits (e.g., schizophrenia) have reduced abilities to gate out repetitive information. However, studies contrasting children with and without disabilities are inconclusive due to large within-group variances. Characterizing individual differences may lead to better understanding of sensory gating in children. We examined sensory gating in 22 children ages 5 to 10 years

Wen-Pin Chang; William J. Gavin; Patricia L. Davies

35

Standards for privacy of individually identifiable health information. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Department of Health and Human Services ("HHS'' or "Department'') modifies certain standards in the Rule entitled "Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information'' ("Privacy Rule''). The Privacy Rule implements the privacy requirements of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. The purpose of these modifications is to maintain strong protections for the privacy of individually identifiable health information while clarifying certain of the Privacy Rule's provisions, addressing the unintended negative effects of the Privacy Rule on health care quality or access to health care, and relieving unintended administrative burdens created by the Privacy Rule. PMID:12180470

2002-08-14

36

Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation

Kyungil Kim; Arthur B. Markman

2012-01-01

37

Individual differences in the perception of similarity and difference.  

PubMed

Thematically related concepts like coffee and milk are judged to be more similar than thematically unrelated concepts like coffee and lemonade. We investigated whether thematic relations exert a small effect that occurs consistently across participants (i.e., a generalized model), or a large effect that occurs inconsistently across participants (i.e., an individualized model). We also examined whether difference judgments mirrored similarity or whether these judgments were, in fact, non-inverse. Five studies demonstrated the necessity of an individualized model for both perceived similarity and difference, and additionally provided evidence that thematic relations affect similarity more than difference. Results suggest that models of similarity and difference must be attuned to large and consistent individual variability in the weighting of thematic relations. PMID:18721916

Simmons, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

2008-08-21

38

Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences  

PubMed Central

We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences.

Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

2010-01-01

39

Context Modulation of Facial Emotion Perception Differed by Individual Difference  

PubMed Central

Background Certain facial configurations are believed to be associated with distinct affective meanings (i.e. basic facial expressions), and such associations are common across cultures (i.e. universality of facial expressions). However, recently, many studies suggest that various types of contextual information, rather than facial configuration itself, are important factor for facial emotion perception. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine systematically how contextual information influences individuals’ facial emotion perception, the present study estimated direct observers’ perceptual thresholds for detecting negative facial expressions via a forced-choice psychophysical procedure using faces embedded in various emotional contexts. We additionally measured the individual differences in affective information-processing tendency (BIS/BAS) as a possible factor that may determine the extent to which contextual information on facial emotion perception is used. It was found that contextual information influenced observers' perceptual thresholds for facial emotion. Importantly, individuals’ affective-information tendencies modulated the extent to which they incorporated context information into their facial emotion perceptions. Conclusions/Significance The findings of this study suggest that facial emotion perception not only depends on facial configuration, but the context in which the face appears as well. This contextual influence appeared differently with individual’s characteristics of information processing. In summary, we conclude that individual character traits, as well as facial configuration and the context in which a face appears, need to be taken into consideration regarding facial emotional perception.

Lee, Tae-Ho; Choi, June-Seek; Cho, Yang Seok

2012-01-01

40

STANDARD VERSUS INDIVIDUALIZED HIERARCHIES IN DESENSITIZATION TO REDUCE TEST ANXIETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

54 TEST-ANXIOUS COLLEGE FRESHMEN WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EITHER (1) DESENSITIZATION WITH INDIVIDUALIZED ANXIETY HIERARCHIES, (2) DESENSITIZATION WITH A SINGLE STANDARD HIERARCHY, OR (3) A NO-TREATMENT CONTROL GROUP. CRITERIA CONSISTED OF SELF-RATINGS OF ANXIETY BEFORE AND DURING EXAMINATIONS, SCORES ON A TEST ANXIETY SCALE, AND FINAL EXAMINATION GRADES. IT WAS FOUND THAT: (1) STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED DESENSITIZATION RATED THEMSELVES AS

JOHN R. EMERY; JOHN D. KRUMBOLTZ

1967-01-01

41

Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences  

PubMed Central

A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.

Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

2012-01-01

42

Individual differences in the perception of similarity and difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematically related concepts like coffee and milk are judged to be more similar than thematically unrelated concepts like coffee and lemonade. We investigated whether thematic relations exert a small effect that occurs consistently across participants (i.e., a generalized model), or a large effect that occurs inconsistently across participants (i.e., an individualized model). We also examined whether difference judgments mirrored similarity

Sabrina Simmons; Zachary Estes

2008-01-01

43

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63...Public Health and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must...

2013-01-01

44

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH...the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards...

2013-07-01

45

Individual Differences in Skilled Performance Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three studies were conducted to investigate questions concerning which type of individual is most susceptible to errors in skilled (highly practiced) cognitive task performance. The first study was a small pilot project conducted with university students....

D. J. Woltz M. K. Gardner B. G. Bell

1997-01-01

46

Mathematical cognition: individual differences in resource allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals scoring higher in tests of general cognitive abilities tend to perform better on novel and familiar mathematical\\u000a tasks. It has been scarcely investigated how this superior mathematical performance relates to the amount of cognitive resources\\u000a that is invested to solve a given task. In this study we propose that, on novel tasks, individuals with high cognitive abilities\\u000a outperform less

Boris Bornemann; Manja Foth; Judith Horn; Jan Ries; Elke Warmuth; Isabell Wartenburger; Elke van der Meer

2010-01-01

47

Why do Different Individuals Progress Along Different Life Trajectories?  

PubMed Central

The core marker of progress in psychological science is the degree to which our work enhances the welfare of persons. In order to effectively enhance human welfare, one compelling challenge we face is to develop comprehensive models to explain why different individuals progress along different life trajectories. Exciting theoretical accounts that describe transitional processes from gene polymorphisms through moment-to-moment behavior are beginning to emerge. These early accounts highlight opportunities to investigate specific transitional steps along that long pathway, the need to understand the universal and the contextual aspects of psychological processes, and the need to define and measure psychological constructs with more precision and clarity. It is likely that creative new research in each of these areas will bring enormous progress over the coming decade.

Smith, Gregory T.

2008-01-01

48

Individual Differences in Optimization Problem Solving: Reconciling Conflicting Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results on human performance on the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) from different laboratories show high consistency. However, one exception is in the area of individual differences. While one research group has consistently failed to find systematic individual differences across instances of TSPs (Chronicle, MacGregor and Ormerod), another group (Vickers, Lee and associates) has found individual differences both within TSP performance

Edward P. Chronicle; James N. MacGregor; Michael Lee; Thomas C. Ormerod; Peter Hughes

2008-01-01

49

Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences

Roberts, Leah

2012-01-01

50

Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences

Roberts, Leah

2012-01-01

51

Does Computer-Assisted Instruction Reduce Individual Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interrelationship of computer assisted instruction and individual differences was investigated. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Bloom's hypothesis of decreasing individual differences under a mastery-learning strategy, and (2) the random walk interpre...

A. Flammer

1976-01-01

52

Individual differences and preference for instructional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered the Test Anxiety Questionnaire and the Omnibus Personality Inventory to 185 college students taking a psychology course in socialization. Ss were then asked to choose 1 of 3 instructional options: lecture, lecture with discussion, or independent study. Ss preferring each option differed on dimensions such as flexibility, autonomy, preference for abstract thinking, and several variables dealing with academic and

Charles E. Pascal

1973-01-01

53

The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain…

Kormos, Judit

2012-01-01

54

ARTICLES Individual differences influence collective behaviour in social caterpillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of individual differences within a population often depends on environmental conditions. We investigated, first, whether there are differences between individual group-living forest tent caterpillars, Malacosoma disstria, that are expressed only in nutritionally unbalanced environments, and second, to what extent these individual behavioural differences influence the strategies used by the group to exploit food resources. We offered groups of

A. DUSSUTOUR; S. C. NICOLIS; E. DESPLAND; S. J. SIMPSON

55

Decoding developmental differences and individual variability in response inhibition through predictive analyses across individuals.  

PubMed

Response inhibition is thought to improve throughout childhood and into adulthood. Despite the relationship between age and the ability to stop ongoing behavior, questions remain regarding whether these age-related changes reflect improvements in response inhibition or in other factors that contribute to response performance variability. Functional neuroimaging data shows age-related changes in neural activity during response inhibition. While traditional methods of exploring neuroimaging data are limited to determining correlational relationships, newer methods can determine predictability and can begin to answer these questions. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to determine which aspects of neural function predict individual differences in age, inhibitory function, response speed, and response time variability. We administered a stop-signal task requiring rapid inhibition of ongoing motor responses to healthy participants aged 9-30. We conducted a standard analysis using GLM and a predictive analysis using high-dimensional regression methods. During successful response inhibition we found regions typically involved in motor control, such as the ACC and striatum, that were correlated with either age, response inhibition (as indexed by stop-signal reaction time; SSRT), response speed, or response time variability. However, when examining which variables neural data could predict, we found that age and SSRT, but not speed or variability of response execution, were predicted by neural activity during successful response inhibition. This predictive relationship provides novel evidence that developmental differences and individual differences in response inhibition are related specifically to inhibitory processes. More generally, this study demonstrates a new approach to identifying the neurocognitive bases of individual differences. PMID:20661296

Cohen, Jessica R; Asarnow, Robert F; Sabb, Fred W; Bilder, Robert M; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Knowlton, Barbara J; Poldrack, Russell A

2010-07-02

56

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01...Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63.321 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard §...

2009-01-01

57

10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321 Section 63.321 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...and Environmental Standards Human Intrusion Standard §...

2010-01-01

58

Matching effects on eating: Do individual differences make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyads composed of unacquainted females watched a video while snacking on pizza. Their extraversion and self-monitoring scores were used to predict the extent to which individuals within dyads matched each other's food intake. Matching of intake was high irrespective of the personality composition of the dyad. We consider elements of the situation that enhanced matching and whether personality might moderate

C. Peter Herman; Stephanie Koenig-Nobert; Jordan B. Peterson; Janet Polivy

2005-01-01

59

Individual-based modelling in ecology: what makes the difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is individual-based modelling really a new approach in ecology? A large part of the uncertainty surrounding this question is a consequence of imprecisely delimited boundaries between classical and individual-based modelling. Genuine ‘individual-based’ models describe a population made up of individuals that may differ from one another; they also describe changes in numbers of individuals rather than in the population density,

Janusz Uchma?ski; Volker Grimm

1996-01-01

60

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN IMPULSIVE CHOICE AND TIMING IN RATS  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent of individual differences in a normal sample of hooded Lister rats. Three experiments utilized variations of a delay discounting task to measure the degree of variation in impulsive choice behavior across individual rats. The individual differences accounted for 22–55% of the variance in choice behavior across the three experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3, the individual differences were still apparent when behavior was measured across multiple choice points. Large individual differences in the rate of responding, and modest individual differences in timing of responding were also observed during occasional peak trials. The individual differences in timing and rate, however, did not correlate consistently with individual differences in choice behavior. This suggests that a variety of factors may affect choice behavior, response rate, and response timing.

Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

2012-01-01

61

Matching effects on eating. Individual differences do make a difference!  

PubMed

Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two expressive individuals and moderately for dyads with one expressive participant. For dyads with two unexpressive participants, there was no evidence for matching behavior. Highly expressive people seem to be able to synchronize with others and thereby allow for close matching. This is the first study to show an influence of personality on matching consumption behavior. PMID:22182829

Brunner, Thomas A

2011-12-09

62

Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…

Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

2008-01-01

63

THERMAL MODEL OF HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the methodology to quantify the individual difference in temperature regulation of human body for transient simulation of body temperature. Experiments of transient thermal exposure were conducted for four subjects and the characteristics of individual difference in themoregulatory response were observed quantitatively. As the result, the differences in core temperature and heart rate were significant. For each subject,

Satoru Takada; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Takayuki Matsushita

2007-01-01

64

Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Accuracy and Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although…

Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

2008-01-01

65

Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that,

Viren Swami; Maria Hadji-Michael; Adrian Furnham

2008-01-01

66

Investigating Inter-Individual Differences in Short-Term Intra-Individual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…

Wang, Lijuan; Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

2012-01-01

67

Reproductive Performance of Mice in Disposable and Standard Individually Ventilated Cages  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages.

Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

2013-01-01

68

Reproductive performance of mice in disposable and standard individually ventilated cages.  

PubMed

This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403

Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

2013-01-01

69

Measurement of Individual Differences in Sensitivity to Appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to measure individual differences in the use of clothing cues in impression formation, subjects wre shown slides of one model in two outfits. Three types of data were collected; 1) responses on semantic differential scales, 2) subjects' stated conditional probabilities of the likelihood of an individual wearing the particular garments given that the individual pos sessed particular traits

Franklin G. Miller; Richard A. Feinberg; Leslie L. Davis; Kathleen L. Rowold

1982-01-01

70

The Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared three ways of analyzing individual mother-infant attachment behaviors in order to test the hypothesis that success in the search for stable individual differences in attachment behavior is in part a function of the level at which behavior individuality is assessed. Fifty infants were videotaped in the Ainsworth and Wittig…

Waters, Everett

71

[Effects of individual features on the measurement of vibration perception thresholds: standard setting for healthy people].  

PubMed

The thresholds of vibration perception in healthy people may differ significantly depending on individual and constitutional features: age, weight, height, race and gender, and also on various addictions like smoking or alcohol abuse. These variables have not as yet been analyzed in setting Polish standards of vibration perception thresholds used for therapeutical and certification purposes. The aim of the study was to develop a model that could render it possible to assess the normative values of vibration perception, taking account of individual features. The study covered 187 healthy persons free from exposure to vibration. Two methods were used to determine vibration perception thresholds: the standard Polish method and the method based on the ISO 13091-1/2001 standard. The methods differed in the technical parameters (contact force of vibrating probe 1.2 N and 0.1; probe diameter 12 and 5 mm-standard method and the method according to ISO, respectively), the presentation of stimuli (ascending method versus von: Bekesy method) and their frequencies. Vibration perception thresholds were significantly influenced by age (within the range of 63-250 Hz-standard method; 4-250 Hz-method according to ISO), body mass (full range of frequencies--standard method; 4-125-method according to ISO) and height (single frequencies--both methods). A model for determining vibration perception thresholds, taking account of age, height and body mass of study subjects, was developed. The results of the study show that individual and constitutional features should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of the vibration perception examinations conducted for the purpose of occupational disease certification. PMID:12577808

Zamys?owska-Szmytke, Ewa; Sliwi?ska-Kowalska, Mariola; Szymczak, Wies?aw; Dudarewicz, Adam

2002-01-01

72

Working memory and Stroop interference: An individual differences investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the claim that individual differences in working-memory capacity reflect limitations on the ability to inhibit\\u000a task-irrelevant information and\\/or to maintain activation in the face of distracting or interfering events. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether high- and low-capacity individuals differed in their susceptibility to interference on the Stroop\\u000a task and whether high-capacity individuals employed a strategy for minimizing Stroop interference.

Debra L. Long; Chantel S. Prat

2002-01-01

73

Determinants of Individual Differences and Gender Differences in Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence

Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer

2001-01-01

74

Individual Differences in Face Cognition: Brain-Behavior Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in perceiving, learning, and recognizing faces, summarized under the term face cognition, have been shown on the behavioral and brain level, but connections between these levels have rarely been made. We used ERPs in structural equation models to determine the contributions of neurocognitive processes to individual differences in the accuracy and speed of face cognition as established by

Grit Herzmann; Olga Kunina; Werner Sommer; Oliver Wilhelm

2010-01-01

75

Ethnicity and Individual Differences in Achievement Goals in Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of ethnicity on individual differences in achievement goals in a replication of the paradigm used by P. Smiley and C. Dweck (1994) to explore individual differences in achievement goals held by young children. The emphasis was on learning goals, which focus effort on mastering new tasks, and performance goals, which…

Billings, Barbara L.

76

The Epigenetics of Social Defeat: A Role For Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is a ubiquitous aspect of everyday life. As such, there exists a great deal of variability in the individual response to stress, particularly as a functional cause of depression. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the mechanisms behind individual differences in response to stressful events in the attempt to explain differing levels of vulnerability to depression and

Fiona E. Hollis

2010-01-01

77

Handling of individual differences in rating-based conjoint analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a method for handling individual differences in conjoint analysis is described and discussed. This method is a combination of ANOVA and PCA\\/PLS both of which are well-known techniques that can be run in almost all statistical software packages. Main attention will be given to the way individual differences in acceptance pattern are interpreted and related to consumer

Isabella Endrizzi; Elena Menichelli; Susanne Bølling Johansen; Nina Veflen Olsen; Tormod Næs

2011-01-01

78

Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the…

Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

2012-01-01

79

Prototypes and Personal Templates: Collective Wisdom and Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article concerns individual differences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individual differences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal…

Horowitz, Leonard M.; Turan, Bulent

2008-01-01

80

Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

2006-01-01

81

People or profiles: Individual differences in online social networking use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have debated whether social networking websites provide valuable social connections or distract individuals from more rewarding real-life relationships. We propose that examining individual differences in one’s tendency to approach versus avoid the perspectives of other people can help resolve this issue: perspective curiosity and perspective defensiveness may predict different patterns of online behaviors. The present study uses a trait

Jordan M. Carpenter; Melanie C. Green; Jeff LaFlam

2011-01-01

82

Factors Influencing Susceptibility: Individual Differences and Human Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From a conceptual viewpoint, individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness are determined by differences in the following: initial reactivity (receptivity), ability to adapt to the motion, ability to retain the adaptation during abstinence p...

F. E. Guedry

1991-01-01

83

Predicting Internet Pornography Use and Arousal: The Role of Individual Difference Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and

Bryant Paul

2009-01-01

84

A capability model of individual differences in frontal EEG asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in measuring individual differences in affective style via asymmetries in frontal brain activity have depended almost exclusively upon the resting state for EEG recording. This reflects an implicit conceptualization of affective style as a response predisposition that is manifest in frontal EEG asymmetry, with the goal to describe individuals in terms of their general approach or withdrawal tendencies.

James A. Coan; John J. B. Allen; Patrick E. McKnight

2006-01-01

85

Stable Individual Differences Across Images in Human Saccadic Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in eye movements during picture viewing were examined across image format, content, and foveal quality in 3 experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that an individual's fixation durations were strongly related across 3 types of scene formats and that saccade amplitudes followed the same pattern. In Experiment 2, a similar relationship was observed for fixation durations across faces and scenes,

Monica S. Castelhano; John M. Henderson

2008-01-01

86

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

87

Individual Differences in the Biobehavioral Etiology of Drug Abuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Introduction: Individual Differences in the Biobehavioral Etiology of Drug Abuse; Genetic Factors in Drug Abuse and Dependece; Genotype-Environment Correlations and Interactions in the Etiology of Substance Abuse and Related Behaviors; A...

H. W. Gordon M. D. Glantz

1996-01-01

88

Individual Differences in Automatic and Controlled Information Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses prediction of individual differences in task performance during and subsequent to task practice. Previous literature indicates that pre-practice prediction of post-practice performance declines rapidly as time-on-task increases (for ...

P. L. Ackerman W. Schneider

1984-01-01

89

Individual Difference Theory and Research: Application to Multinational Coalition Teamwork.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A guiding principle of the work of this panel on multinational coalitions is an acknowledgement of the multitude of factors that can affect teamwork under such challenging conditions. Individual differences in cognitive processing is one such factor that ...

M. M. Thompson

2008-01-01

90

Personality, Individual Differences, and Preferences for the Sexual Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which personality and individual differences predict preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media was examined. Personality (e.g., intelligence, aggression) and individual difference factors (e.g., prior sexual experience) were assessed in 160 undergraduate men. These men also indicated their preferences for and choices of various forms of sexual media (e.g., “erotic,” female insatiability, violent). As

Anthony F. Bogaert

2001-01-01

91

Individual Differences and the Design of Educational Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the national commitment to educational opportunity, human diversity poses a major challenge to American schools. Snow reviews the state of knowledge in four categories of individual differences in aptitude for learning: cognitive abilities, achievement motivation, interests, and creativity. He also briefly notes a variety of other psychological differences and then examines how research on these differences has led

Richard E. Snow

1986-01-01

92

Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.  

PubMed

This study examined differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals on a range of personality and individual difference measures. A community sample of 540 individuals from the southern German-speaking area of central Europe completed a survey consisting of measures of the Big Five personality factors, Need for Uniqueness, Self-esteem, sensation seeking, Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Tattoos, tattoo possession, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that 22% of the total sample possessed at least one tattoo. Further analyses showed that, compared with non-tattooed (n = 420) individuals, tattooed participants (n = 120) had significantly higher scores on Extraversion, Experience Seeking, Need for Uniqueness, and held more positive Attitudes Toward Tattoos, although effect sizes of these group differences were generally small- to medium-sized. These results are considered in relation to the contemporary prevalence of tattoos in socioeconomically developed societies. PMID:23045851

Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Bertl, Bianca; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

2012-08-01

93

Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints.

Barrows, E M; Bell, W J; Michener, C D

1975-01-01

94

Mean difference vs. variability reduction: tradeoffs in aggregate measures for individual bioequivalence. FDA Individual Bioequivalence Working Group.  

PubMed

Aggregate criteria for individual bioequivalence allow a tradeoff between difference in average bioavailability and reduction in within-subject variability. That is, a large difference in the average bioavailability between a test and a reference formulation can be offset by a sufficient reduction in variability of the test formulation. This offset could allow the test formulation to pass many individual bioequivalence criteria. We have identified 4 possible approaches for dealing with this tradeoff issue: say "No problem," since a reduction in variability is desirable; use disaggregate criteria; use general weighted forms of the individual bioequivalence criteria that weight the variance terms; and change the acceptable upper limits to reduce the impact of scaling to the reference formulation's within-subject variability. A dataset with a 14% increase in average bioavailability and a 48% reduction in within-subject standard deviation is used as an example of these issues. PMID:8996848

Hauck, W W; Chen, M L; Hyslop, T; Patnaik, R; Schuirmann, D; Williams, R

1996-12-01

95

Achieving parenteral nutrition goals in the critically ill newborns: standardized better than individualized formulations?  

PubMed

Aim: The aim of this paper was to determine if the total parenteral nutrition (PN) goals for newborns in the first two weeks of lifer were better achieved with individualized prescriptions (IND-PN) or standardized formulations STD-PN prescriptions. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a 16-bed polyvalent pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital, to compare two one-year periods, before and after a move from individualized to standardized formulations. All the prescriptions for newborns who were admitted to our unit on their first day of life and required total PN were evaluated. The primary end-point was the percentage of prescriptions full filling the PN goals defined in the written policy of our unit. Results: More than 3500 prescriptions were included. The goals of PN were better achieved with STD-PN (44.0% vs. 9.4% of the prescriptions)., even after adjustment for term and birth weight. Differences between groups appeared as early as the third day of PN and remained during the first 15 days of PN. Conclusion: The goals of total PN were better achieved with STD-PN. Perhaps because standardized formulations contain fixed and proportional amounts of nutrients, their use results in less deviation from the established policy. PMID:24056376

Doublet, J; Vialet, R; Nicaise, C; Loundou, A; Martin, C; Michel, F

2013-10-01

96

Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are individual differences in reasoning which go beyond dimensions of ability. Valid models of cognition must take these differences into account, otherwise they characterise group mean phenomena which explain nobody. The gap is closing between formal cognitive models, which are designed from the ground up to explain cognitive phenomena, and statistical models, which traditionally concern the more modest task

Andrew J. B. Fugard; Keith Stenning

2012-01-01

97

Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in…

Barnett, Kylie J.; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E.; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P.; Newell, Fiona N.; Mitchell, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

98

Individual skill differences and large-scale environmental learning.  

PubMed

Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individual differences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited exposure and tested on judgments about relative locations of objects. They also performed a series of spatial and nonspatial component skill tests. With limited learning, performance after route encoding was worse than performance after survey encoding. Furthermore, performance after route and survey encoding appeared to be preferentially linked to perspective and object-based transformations, respectively. Together, the results provide clues to how different skills might be engaged by different individuals for the same goal of learning a large-scale environment. PMID:16719662

Fields, Alexa W; Shelton, Amy L

2006-05-01

99

Individual differences in susceptibility to the "irrelevant speech effect".  

PubMed

Individual differences in objective effects of noise on performance were analyzed with respect to their distribution, temporal stability, and the precision of measurement to be attained. Seventy-two subjects had to memorize sequences of visually presented digits while being exposed to one of three auditory background conditions which were randomly mixed on a trial-by-trial basis: (1) foreign speech; (2) pink noise; and (3) silence. Individual "irrelevant speech effects," operationalized by the difference in recall errors under speech and in silence, were normally distributed over a wide range extending from slight facilitation to severe disruption. When 25 subjects repeated the experiment after four weeks, the individual differences were replicated with a reliability of rtt = 0.45. Internal consistency, a measure of the precision with which individual effects can be measured in a single session, was moderate (alpha = 0.55). However, both retest, and consistency coefficients are severely attenuated by the use of (sound-minus-silence) difference scores, the reliability of which is bound to be considerably lower than that of the original error scores whenever these are correlated. Given that the original error rates in a specific auditory condition can be determined with reliabilities approaching 0.85, it may be concluded that individual performance decrements due to noise can be reliably measured in the "irrelevant speech" paradigm. Self-report measures of noise susceptibility collected to explore potential sources of the large inter-individual variation exhibited only weak relationships with the objectively measured noise effects: Subjects were quite inaccurate in assessing their individual impairment in the three auditory conditions, and a questionnaire-based measure of general noise sensitivity only accounted for a small portion of the variance in objectively measured performance decrements, although in both cases the predictive relationship was much stronger in female than in male subjects. PMID:9348677

Ellermeier, W; Zimmer, K

1997-10-01

100

Interpreting the Results of Three Different Standard Setting Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different procedures for setting cut points on achievement test scales provide the standard-setting participants with different information to support the unique judgment task associated with each procedure. This study examined how participants in standard settings used the different information from three different procedures in Kentucky in 2000.…

Green, Donald Ross

101

Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: Personality and individual difference predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individual difference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that

Viren Swami; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Stacey Bridges; Adrian Furnham

2009-01-01

102

Individual Differences among Young Children in LOGO Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study conducted with 14 preschoolers to determine (1) whether all children are competent programers functioning adequately in a LOGO environment and (2) if individual differences in learning do exist, whether they can be attributed to children's mathematical aptitude, creativity, cognitive style, and computer or computer-related…

Vaidya, Sheila Rao

1985-01-01

103

An Individual Differences Analysis of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that children learn orthographic structure of words through the experience of phonologically recoding them. The current study is an individual differences analysis of the self-teaching hypothesis. A total of 40 children in Grades 2 and 3 (7-9 years of age) completed tests of phonological recoding, word…

Conners, Frances A.; Loveall, Susan J.; Moore, Marie S.; Hume, Laura E.; Maddox, Christopher D.

2011-01-01

104

Beyond Individual Differences: Exploring School Effects on SAT Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the complex, hierarchical relation among school characteristics, individual differences in academic achievement, extracurricular activities, and socioeconomic background on performance on the verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Using multilevel structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we…

Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

2004-01-01

105

Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

2011-01-01

106

Individual Differences in the Efficiency of Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the attentional demands of word recognition covary with other measures of reading efficiency. Individual differences in efficiency were indexed by (a) speed and accuracy of lexical access, (b) obligatory activation of phonological codes, and (c) working memory capacity. The attentional demands of word recognition were measured with a dual-task

Chris M. Herdman; Jo-Anne LeFevre

1992-01-01

107

Structural and Functional Bases for Individual Differences in Motor Learning  

PubMed Central

People vary in their ability to learn new motor skills. We hypothesize that between-subject variability in brain structure and function can explain differences in learning. We use brain functional and structural MRI methods to characterize such neural correlates of individual variations in motor learning. Healthy subjects applied isometric grip force of varying magnitudes with their right hands cued visually to generate smoothly-varying pressures following a regular pattern. We tested whether individual variations in motor learning were associated with anatomically colocalized variations in magnitude of functional MRI (fMRI) signal or in MRI differences related to white and grey matter microstructure. We found that individual motor learning was correlated with greater functional activation in the prefrontal, premotor, and parietal cortices, as well as in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Structural MRI correlates were found in the premotor cortex [for fractional anisotropy (FA)] and in the cerebellum [for both grey matter density and FA]. The cerebellar microstructural differences were anatomically colocalized with fMRI correlates of learning. This study thus suggests that variations across the population in the function and structure of specific brain regions for motor control explain some of the individual differences in skill learning. This strengthens the notion that brain structure determines some limits to cognitive function even in a healthy population. Along with evidence from pathology suggesting a role for these regions in spontaneous motor recovery, our results also highlight potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to maximize plasticity for recovery of similar visuomotor skills after brain injury.

Tomassini, Valentina; Jbabdi, Saad; Kincses, Zsigmond T.; Bosnell, Rose; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Pozzilli, Carlo; Matthews, Paul M.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

2013-01-01

108

A Questionnaire Measure of Individual Differences in Dominance-Submissiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and validity data are reported for a questionnaire measure of individual differences in dominance-submissiveness. The measure was based on an initial set of 457 items which was subsequently augmented by an additional 62 rewritten and new items. The initial pool of items, which was carefully constructed to assure broad generality, contained 64 content groups representing various aspects of dominance-submissiveness.

Albert Mehrabian; Melissa Hines

1978-01-01

109

Cognitive Modeling and Task Analysis: Basic Processes and Individual Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the current research program was to select a critical subset of task conditions and individual differences variables and evaluate the joint effects of these variables on task performance in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task condi...

P. L. Ackerman

1999-01-01

110

Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

111

Developmental and Individual Differences in Pure Numerical Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined developmental and individual differences in pure numerical estimation, the type of estimation that depends solely on knowledge of numbers. Children between kindergarten and 4th grade were asked to solve 4 types of numerical estimation problems: computational, numerosity, measurement, and number line. In Experiment 1, kindergartners and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders were presented problems involving the numbers

Julie L. Booth; Robert S. Siegler

2006-01-01

112

The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

Thompson, Amy S.

2009-01-01

113

Individual Differences in the Fan Effect and Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In opposition to conceptualizing working memory (WM) in terms of a general capacity, we present four experiments that favor the view that individual differences in WM depend on attentional control. High- and low-WM participants, as assessed by the operation span task, learned unrelated sentences for which the subject and predicate of the…

Bunting, M.F.; Conway, A.R.A.; Heitz, R.P.

2004-01-01

114

Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

2012-01-01

115

Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: Cognitive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with

Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Elizabeth F. Loftus; Chongde Lin; Qinghua He; Chunhui Chen; He Li; Gui Xue; Zhonglin Lu; Qi Dong

2010-01-01

116

Some Aspects of Individual Differences in Schematic Concept Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of studies is presented in an initial attempt to address issues thought to be related to individual differences in schematic concept formation (SCF). The first two studies were concerned primarily with task development. It was found that a task w...

S. H. Evans S. H. Lane

1972-01-01

117

Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In preparation for a conference on learning and individual differences, the invited authors prepared chapters, which were distributed in draft form. Presentations were followed by discussions, which were recorded, and then edited for this volume, so that the discussion transcript follows each paper. The chapters in part 1, General Background and…

Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Roberts, Richard D.

118

Contexts and Individual Differences as Influences on Consumers' Delay Discounting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless…

Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.; Yani-de-Soriano, Mirella; Wells, Victoria K.

2011-01-01

119

Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe primary objective of the study was to challenge the notion that risk taking populations are homogenous, and that risk taking in sport necessarily reflects the expression of trait sensation seeking. A secondary objective was to examine the potential role of additional individual differences, such as self-efficacy and impulsivity, which have traditionally received limited attention.

David J. Llewellyn; Xavier Sanchez

2008-01-01

120

Individual differences in the context of smoking lapse episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on relapse has often focused either on the momentary context of lapses or on stable traits that predict who will relapse. We examine the relation between the two, analyzing how individual differences relate to characteristics of initial lapses, which were recorded nearly in real time by 105 smokers using hand-held computers. More nicotine-dependent smokers lapsed under more negative affect

Saul Shiffman; Mary Hickcox; Jean A. Paty; Maryann Gnys; Tom Richards; Jon D. Kassel

1997-01-01

121

The K-factor: Individual differences in life history strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, variations in life history strategy were studied exclusively at the species level. Although this domain of study has been extended to examine systematic differences in life history strategy among various human ethnic groupings, more recent evolutionary theories of human development and related behavioral genetic work imply substantial within-group individual variation in life history strategy. We constructed a latent

Aurelio José Figueredo; Geneva Vásquez; Barbara Hagenah Brumbach; Jon Adam Sefcek; Beth R. Kirsner; W. Jake Jacobs

2005-01-01

122

Cultural Neuroscience and Individual Differences: Implications for Augmented Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technologies that augment human cognition have the potential to enhance human performance in a wide variety of domains. However,\\u000a there are a number of individual differences in brain activity that must be taken into account during the development, validation,\\u000a and application of augmented cognition tools. A growing body of research in cultural neuroscience has shown that there are\\u000a substantial differences

Laura E. Matzen

123

Individual differences in temporal information processing in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews some of our investigations concerning individual differences in temporal information processing. Two different levels of temporal information processing are discussed, namely the low-frequency (i.e., a few seconds time range) and the high-frequency processing level (i.e., some tens of milliseconds range) of temporal information with respect to various experimental paradigms. Evidence has been obtained indicating that the processing

Elzbieta Szelag; Magdalena Kanabus; Iwona Kolodziejczyk; Joanna Kowalska; Joanna Szuchnik

2004-01-01

124

Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

125

Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.  

PubMed

To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:17638471

Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

2007-07-01

126

Systematic individual differences in sleep homeostatic and circadian rhythm contributions to neurobehavioral impairment during sleep deprivation  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation are considerable and represent a neurobiological trait. Genetic polymorphisms reported to be predictors have suggested the involvement of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep regulation in determining this trait. We applied mathematical and statistical modeling of these two processes to psychomotor vigilance performance and sleep physiological data from a laboratory study of repeated exposure to 36 h of total sleep deprivation in 9 healthy young adults. This served to quantify the respective contributions of individual differences in the two processes to the magnitudes of participants’ individual vulnerabilities to sleep deprivation. For the homeostatic process, the standard deviation for individual differences was found to be about 60% as expressed relative to its group-average contribution to neurobehavioral performance impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation period, the group-average effect of the homeostatic process was twice as big as that of the circadian process. In absolute terms, therefore, the impact of the individual differences in the homeostatic process was twice as large as the impact of the individual differences in the circadian process in this study. These modeling results indicated that individualized applications of mathematical models predicting performance on the basis of a homeostatic and a circadian process should account for individual differences in both processes.

Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Bender, Amy M.; Dinges, David F.

2011-01-01

127

Systematic individual differences in sleep homeostatic and circadian rhythm contributions to neurobehavioral impairment during sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Individual differences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation are considerable and represent a neurobiological trait. Genetic polymorphisms reported to be predictors have suggested the involvement of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep regulation in determining this trait. We applied mathematical and statistical modeling of these two processes to psychomotor vigilance performance and sleep physiological data from a laboratory study of repeated exposure to 36 h of total sleep deprivation in 9 healthy young adults. This served to quantify the respective contributions of individual differences in the two processes to the magnitudes of participants' individual vulnerabilities to sleep deprivation. For the homeostatic process, the standard deviation for individual differences was found to be about 60% as expressed relative to its group-average contribution to neurobehavioral performance impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation period, the group-average effect of the homeostatic process was twice as big as that of the circadian process. In absolute terms, therefore, the impact of the individual differences in the homeostatic process was twice as large as the impact of the individual differences in the circadian process in this study. These modeling results indicated that individualized applications of mathematical models predicting performance on the basis of a homeostatic and a circadian process should account for individual differences in both processes. PMID:22239924

Van Dongen, Hans P A; Bender, Amy M; Dinges, David F

2011-11-23

128

Measuring individual differences in sensitivities to basic emotions in faces.  

PubMed

The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions, 'sensitivities to basic emotions in faces.' We attempted to address the two major assessment issues by using morphing techniques and item response theory (IRT). We used morphing to create intermediate, mixed facial expression stimuli with various levels of recognition difficulty. Applying IRT enabled us to estimate the individual latent trait levels underlying the recognition of respective emotions (sensitivity scores), unbiased by stimulus properties that constitute difficulty. In a series of two experiments we demonstrated that the sensitivity scores successfully addressed the two major assessment issues and their concomitant individual variability. Intriguingly, correlational analyses of the sensitivity scores to different emotions produced orthogonality between happy and non-happy emotion recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the independence of happiness recognition, unaffected by stimulus difficulty. PMID:15993402

Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

2005-07-01

129

Individual differences in the impact of attentional bias training on cardiovascular responses to stress in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies show that training people to attend to negative stimuli makes them more likely to respond with greater anxiety to stress. The present study investigated this effect in students using measures of cardiovascular responses to stress and examined whether individual differences influence the impact of attention training on stress responses. Using a standard dot probe task, 30 participants underwent

Niamh M. Higgins; Brian M. Hughes

2011-01-01

130

Individual differences in the impact of attentional bias training on cardiovascular responses to stress in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies show that training people to attend to negative stimuli makes them more likely to respond with greater anxiety to stress. The present study investigated this effect in students using measures of cardiovascular responses to stress and examined whether individual differences influence the impact of attention training on stress responses. Using a standard dot probe task, 30 participants underwent

Niamh M. Higgins; Brian M. Hughes

2012-01-01

131

Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

Corbett, Michael J.

2010-01-01

132

Standardized Individuality: Cosmopolitanism and Educational Decision-Making in an Atlantic Canadian Rural Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rise of network society, consumerism, individualization, globalization and contemporary change forces, students are pressured to both perform well in standardized academic assessments while at the same time constructing a non-standard, unique project of the self. I argue that this generates a particular set of place-based tensions for…

Corbett, Michael J.

2010-01-01

133

A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and

Volker Grimm; Uta Berger; Finn Bastiansen; Sigrunn Eliassen; Vincent Ginot; Jarl Giske; John Goss-Custard; Tamara Grand; Simone K. Heinz; Geir Huse; Andreas Huth; Jane U. Jepsen; Christian Jørgensen; Wolf M. Mooij; Birgit Müller; Guy Pe’er; Cyril Piou; Steven F. Railsback; Andrew M. Robbins; Martha M. Robbins; Eva Rossmanith; Nadja Rüger; Espen Strand; Sami Souissi; Richard A. Stillman; Rune Vabø; Ute Visser; Donald L. DeAngelis

2006-01-01

134

Studies in individual differences in maze ability. IV. The constancy of individual differences: correlation between learning and relearning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were made to determine the degree of constancy of individual differences in maze ability over a long span of the rats' life period. The procedure was to run the rats for twenty trials on a 17-blind T-maze (original learning series), then to interpolate an interval of from six to eight months, after which the rats were run again for

R. C. Tryon

1931-01-01

135

Modeling individual differences in ferret external ear transfer functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual variations in head and outer ear size, as well as growth of these structures during development, can markedly alter the values of the binaural and monaural cues which form the basis for auditory localization. This study investigated individual differences in the directional component of the head-related transfer function of both adult and juvenile ferrets. In line with previous studies in humans and cats, intersubject spectral differences were found to be reduced by scaling one of the directional transfer functions on a log-frequency axis. The optimal scale factor correlated most highly with pinna cavity height. Optimal frequency scaling reduced interear spectral difference equally well for adult-juvenile comparisons as for comparisons between pairs of adult ears. This illustrates that the developmental changes in localization cue values should be at least partly predictable on the basis of the expected growth rate of the outer ear structures. Predictions of interaural time differences (ITDs) were also derived from the physical dimensions of the head. ITDs were found to be poorly fitted by the spherical head model, while much better predictions could be derived from a model based on von Mises spherical basis functions. Together, these findings show how more accurate estimates of spatial cue values can be made from knowledge of the dimensions of the head and outer ears, and may facilitate the generation of virtual acoustic space stimuli in the absence of acoustical measurements from individual subjects.

Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Booth, John; King, Andrew J.

2003-04-01

136

Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.  

PubMed

The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. PMID:23025924

Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

2012-10-01

137

Working memory and stroop interference: an individual differences investigation.  

PubMed

We investigated the claim that individual differences in working-memory capacity reflect limitations on the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information and/or to maintain activation in the face of distracting or interfering events. Specifically, we investigated whether high- and low-capacity individuals differed in their susceptibility to interference on the Stroop task and whether high-capacity individuals employed a strategy for minimizing Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, we found that high-capacity participants showed substantial interference when conflict trials were infrequent, but almost no interference when conflict trials were frequent. In contrast, low-capacity participants showed substantial interference irrespective of the proportion of conflict trials. In Experiment 2, we found that high-capacity participants experienced substantial negative priming, slow responses when the to-be-named color was the irrelevant word on the previous trial. We discuss these results and their implications for high-capacity individuals' ability to reduce Stroop interference in light of both inhibitory and noninhibitory accounts of negative priming. PMID:12035891

Long, Debra L; Prat, Chantel S

2002-03-01

138

Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: personality and individual difference predictors.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between several attitudinal constructs related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and participant demographics, personality, and individual difference variables. A sample of 332 university students completed a battery of scales comprising the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS) and measures of the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, conformity, self-assessed attractiveness, and demographics. Multiple regressions showed that the predictor variables explained a large proportion of the variance in ACSS factors (Adj. R(2) ranging between .31 and .60). In addition, structural equation modelling revealed that distal factors (sex and age) were generally associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery through the mediate influence of more proximate variables (in the first instance, the Big Five personality factors, followed by self-esteem and conformity, and finally self-assessed attractiveness). These results allow for the presentation of a preliminary model integrating personality and individual differences in predicting acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:19041287

Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Bridges, Stacey; Furnham, Adrian

2008-11-28

139

Individual Differences in Adult Decision-Making Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a set of 7 behavioral decision-making tasks, measuring different aspects of the decision-making process. The tasks were administered to individuals from diverse populations. Participants showed relatively consistent performance within and across the 7 tasks, which were then aggregated into an Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) index that showed good reliability. The validity of

Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Andrew M. Parker; Baruch Fischhoff

2007-01-01

140

Measures of Individual Differences in Taste and Creaminess Perception  

PubMed Central

Previous reports that the sensitivity to the bitter tasting substance 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is related to the sensitivity to other tastes, to chemical irritants, and to fats and oils have led to adoption of PROP as a measure of general oral sensitivity and as a predictor of dietary habits that could impact health. The results, however, have not been consistent. It was recently discovered that the ability to perceive “thermal taste” (i.e., sweetness from thermal stimulation alone) was associated with higher responsiveness to 4 prototypical taste stimuli but not to PROP. This finding implied that individual differences in taste perception are determined in large part by factors other than those related to genetic expression of the PROP receptor. The present study followed up this observation by comparing individual differences in perception of 4 prototypical taste stimuli (sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine) and PROP under conditions that also enabled assessment of the reliability of individual intensity ratings of taste. Creaminess ratings of 3 milk products that had different fat contents were also collected to investigate further the relationship between taste and oral somatosensory perception. The results showed that intensity ratings across 2 trials were significantly correlated for all 5 taste stimuli and that averaging across replicates led to significant correlations among the 4 prototypical stimuli. In contrast, the bitterness of PROP was correlated only with the bitterness of quinine. None of the taste stimuli, including PROP, was significantly correlated with ratings of creaminess. These results imply 1) that with the exception of PROP, as few as 2 intensity ratings of common taste stimuli can reveal individual differences in overall taste perception and 2) that any relationship between taste and oral sensation is too weak to be detected under the same conditions. Accordingly, the results support other evidence that the genetic factors which determine the ability to perceive PROP do not play a major role in overall taste and oral somatosensory perception.

Urban, Lenka; Green, Barry G.

2008-01-01

141

Individual differences in multiple types of shifting attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers consider costs in shifting attention and mental set to reflect a basic ability to use top-down goal information\\u000a to guide action. Although switch costs have been used as measures of individuals’ executive function, whether common abilities\\u000a underlie task set switching across different types of shifting tasks has not been well studied. In 249 participants, we studied\\u000a whether switch

Tor D. Wager; John Jonides; Edward E. Smith

2006-01-01

142

The relationships among individual differences, needs and equity sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to examine the influence of different facets of needs (i.e. self-achievement, power, and affiliation needs) on the relationship between individual dispositions (i.e. independence and interdependence of self) and attitudes to equity (i.e. entitled and benevolent). Data were collected from a sample of 243 Japanese university students. Structural equation analysis and simple regression analysis were

Ikushi Yamaguchi

2003-01-01

143

Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol and explored their relation to several psychosocial variables and to upper-respiratory symptoms. Cortisol and daily experience were assessed for 2 days in 109 healthy employed and unemployed community residents (mean age = 36.4 ± 12.1, 69% female); self-report upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms were assessed for an additional 10

Joshua M. Smyth; Margit C. Ockenfels; Amy A. Gorin; Delwyn Catley; Laura S. Porter; Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Arthur A. Stone

1997-01-01

144

Effects of Cognitive Training on Individual Differences in Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective attention is responsible for detecting, localizing and identifying a target while neglecting distractors [1],[2].\\u000a A superior capacity in selective attention contributes to good performance in tasks that require monitoring the environment\\u000a and searching for a target [2],[3],[4]. Since it is our goal to optimize work efficiency, understanding individual differences\\u000a in attentional capacity and whether they are mutable is important.

Jing Feng; Ian Spence

2007-01-01

145

Self-directed social learning: the role of individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine the influence of individual differences on self-directed social learning and self-efficacy. Inter-dependent self-construal, agreeableness, and extraversion were expected to predict five ways of self-directed social learning: relating, benchmarking, modeling, identifying, and distancing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The sample consisted of 356 responses from professionals to a questionnaire survey. Using step-wise regression analyses, the effect of

Svenja Tams

2008-01-01

146

Familial patterns and the origins of individual differences in synaesthesia.  

PubMed

The term synaesthesia has been applied to a range of different sensory-perceptual and cognitive experiences, yet how these experiences are related to each other is not well understood. Not only are there disparate types of synaesthesia, but even within types there are vast individual differences in the way that stimuli induce synaesthesia and in the subjective synaesthetic experience. An investigation of the inheritance patterns of different types of synaesthesia is likely to elucidate whether a single underlying mechanism can explain all types. This study is the first to systematically survey all types of synaesthesia within a familial framework. We recruited 53 synaesthetes and 42% of these probands reported a first-degree relative with synaesthesia. We then directly contacted as many first-degree relatives as possible and collected complete data on synaesthetic status for all family members for 17 families. We found that different types of synaesthesia can occur within the same family and that the qualitative nature of the experience can differ between family members. Our findings strongly indicate that various types of synaesthesia are fundamentally related at the genetic level, but that the explicit associations and the individual differences between synaesthetes are influenced by other factors. Synaesthesia thus provides a good model to explore the interplay of all these factors in the development of cognitive traits in general. PMID:17586484

Barnett, Kylie J; Finucane, Ciara; Asher, Julian E; Bargary, Gary; Corvin, Aiden P; Newell, Fiona N; Mitchell, Kevin J

2007-06-27

147

Exploring the neural dynamics underpinning individual differences in sentence comprehension.  

PubMed

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate individual differences in the neural underpinnings of sentence comprehension, with a focus on neural adaptability (dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing task demands). Twenty-seven undergraduates, with varying working memory capacities and vocabularies, read sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex under conditions of varying extrinsic working memory demands (sentences alone or preceded by to-be-remembered words or nonwords). All readers showed greater neural adaptability when extrinsic working memory demands were low, suggesting that adaptability is related to resource availability. Higher capacity readers showed greater neural adaptability (greater increase in activation with increasing syntactic complexity) across conditions than did lower capacity readers. Higher capacity readers also showed better maintenance of or increase in synchronization of activation between brain regions as tasks became more demanding. Larger vocabulary was associated with more efficient use of cortical resources (reduced activation in frontal regions) in all conditions but was not associated with greater neural adaptability or synchronization. The distinct characterizations of verbal working memory capacity and vocabulary suggest that dynamic facets of brain function such as adaptability and synchronization may underlie individual differences in more general information processing abilities, whereas neural efficiency may more specifically reflect individual differences in language experience. PMID:21148612

Prat, Chantel S; Just, Marcel Adam

2010-12-10

148

Five potential principles for understanding cultural differences in relation to individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with psychological differences between two cultures, with respect to the differences between individuals in those same cultures. Five principles are presented which describe either actual or probable empirical relationships between within- and between-culture differences, and a possible theoretical account is given for each of the presumed differences. (1) The differences between “cultures” seem “bigger” than the actual

Paul Rozin

2003-01-01

149

Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching  

PubMed Central

Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish–Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.

Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Kramer, Ulrike M.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Festman, Julia; Munte, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

150

Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).  

PubMed

Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individual differences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individual differences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individual differences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individual differences. PMID:21767008

Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B

2011-08-01

151

[Frontal evoked potentials and sensitivity to methylphenidate. Individual differences].  

PubMed

Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded from 2 sites (Cz and Fz) on 17 subjects while awake. Five sound intensities were used (40-50-60-70-80 dB). Regression slopes relating AEP amplitude (N1-P2 component) to stimulus intensity were used to describe augmentation or reduction (A/R) of amplitude with increasing intensity. The individual differences thereby obtained have been related with the individual responsiveness to methylphenidate (MPD) measured by the modifications of polygraphic sleep parameters after absorption of this substance. The sleep parameters were recorded under 3 conditions: N1, night of habituation; N2, reference night (placebo); N3, night after 20 mg of methylphenidate (MPD); nights 2 and 3 consisted of a double blind cross-over. For the placebo condition, the lower the A/R slope while awake (and particularly the Fz slope), the higher the sleep efficiency, with scarcity of nocturnal awakening and precocity of the morning awakening. Individual differences concerning MPD responsiveness measured with sleep parameter modifications are significantly correlated with the frontal A/R slopes: the wakefulness effect of MPD increases as the frontal A/R slope weakens while a paradoxal drowsiness effect is observed at the other extreme (frontal augmenters). Moreover, sleep modifications due to the first night effect show similarities with those due to MPD and are correlated in the same way with frontal A/R slopes. PMID:6463312

Bruneau, N; Laffont, F; Roux, S; Autret, A; Cathala, H P

1984-06-01

152

Amygdala-prefrontal coupling underlies individual differences in emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Despite growing evidence on the neural bases of emotion regulation, little is known about the mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive regulation of negative emotion, and few studies have used objective measures to quantify regulatory success. Using a trait-like psychophysiological measure of emotion regulation, corrugator electromyography, we obtained an objective index of the ability to cognitively reappraise negative emotion in 56 healthy men (session 1), who returned 1.3 years later to perform the same regulation task using fMRI (session 2). Results indicated that the corrugator measure of regulatory skill predicted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity. Individuals with greater ability to down-regulate negative emotion as indexed by corrugator at session 1 showed not only greater amygdala attenuation but also greater inverse connectivity between the amygdala and several sectors of the prefrontal cortex while down-regulating negative emotion at session 2. Our results demonstrate that individual differences in emotion regulation are stable over time and underscore the important role of amygdala-prefrontal coupling for successful regulation of negative emotion.

Lee, Hyejeen; Heller, Aaron S.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Nelson, Brady; Davidson, Richard J.

2012-01-01

153

45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

2011-10-01

154

45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare...standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs...

2012-10-01

155

Religion as attachment: normative processes and individual differences.  

PubMed

The authors review findings from the psychology of religion showing that believers' perceived relationships with God meet the definitional criteria for attachment relationships. They also review evidence for associations between aspects of religion and individual differences in interpersonal attachment security and insecurity. They focus on two developmental pathways to religion. The first is a "compensation" pathway involving distress regulation in the context of insecure attachment and past experiences of insensitive caregiving. Research suggests that religion as compensation might set in motion an "earned security" process for individuals who are insecure with respect to attachment. The second is a "correspondence" pathway based on secure attachment and past experiences with sensitive caregivers who were religious. The authors also discuss conceptual limitations of a narrow religion-as-attachment model and propose a more inclusive framework that accommodates concepts such as mindfulness and "nonattachment" from nontheistic religions such as Buddhism and New Age spirituality. PMID:20023208

Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

2009-12-18

156

Individual differences in melancholy gender among women: does ambivalence matter?  

PubMed

This research offers an empirical investigation inspired by Butler's theory of melancholy gender (1995) and a revision of this theory (Jay 2007a). Psychoanalytic feminist theory is drawn on to suggest that melancholy and gender are more likely to be associated in female development than in male development, and Freud's theory of melancholy (1917) is taken to suggest that ambivalence predicts individual differences in melancholy gender among women. In a longitudinal study of women's adult development, an examination of femininity, depressive symptoms, and ambivalence in attachment was conducted in order to evaluate these claims. Findings show that depressive symptoms and femininity are significantly correlated within the sample, but that individual differences in melancholy gender exist. To understand these differences, an analysis was conducted to determine whether ambivalence in attachment accounts for the relation between depressive symptoms and femininity; complementary analyses examined whether low ambivalence in attachment attenuates, or lessens, the relation between femininity and depressive symptoms. Results from these analyses support the notion that it is not the loss and internalization of the same-sex object choice per se that results in melancholy gender in women, as Butler argues; rather, it is the internalization of a lost, ambivalent same-sex attachment that forges the link between melancholy and gender. Narrative material is presented to personify melancholy and unmelancholy gender. PMID:18246763

Jay, Meg

2007-01-01

157

Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI.  

PubMed

Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None of the existing approaches were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J Bruce

2010-02-01

158

Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

2011-07-18

159

Resting electroencephalography correlates of pseudoneglect: an individual differences approach.  

PubMed

We conducted an exploratory study to examine the resting electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of pseudoneglect, a phenomenon wherein neurologically intact individuals show greater attentional bias toward the left side compared with the right side of space. We took the resting EEG of 21 college students for 5 min and then had them complete a computerized line perception task, during which we asked them to judge the midpoint of horizontal lines on the screen. We computed EEG asymmetry measures for theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands for each of eight locations (right electrode activity-left electrode activity in the analogous location) and separately regressed these onto the degree of pseudoneglect using stepwise multiple regression analyses. We found significant effects for gamma, theta, and beta bands at location F3/4, indicating greater tonic right midfrontal activation in this location. These findings show that individuals with generally greater right midfrontal resting activation across theta, beta, and gamma bands also demonstrate pseudoneglect during a line perception task. These results lend a novel finding to the pseudoneglect literature, namely an individual differences corollary to current active task observations in the field. PMID:23839306

Simon-Dack, Stephanie L; Holtgraves, Thomas; Marsh, Lindsay M; Fogle, Kelly L

2013-10-23

160

Individual differences make a difference in the trajectories of simulated schools of fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model was designed in which each individual in a group can be programmed with a different set of movement decision rules based on: the distance of others within the group, velocity of individuals, its own previous vector (momentum), and biased (leadership) or random influences. This paper focuses on the role of variability in the group composition and its

William L. Romey

1996-01-01

161

Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

Kidd, Gary R.

2001-05-01

162

Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect  

PubMed Central

Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied.

Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

2008-01-01

163

A Determination of Neurological Differences Between Individuals as Related to their Psychological/Motivational Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine if neurological differences between individuals - as measured by brain wave characteristics - are related to their psychological/motivational profiles. The hypothesis was that voltage levels produced by brain wave act...

W. A. Woods

1975-01-01

164

Individual differences and the effectiveness of different coping strategies for pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between individual differences in self-statements and response to self-instruction (SI) and attention diversion (AD) coping strategies for acute pain was investigated. Previous research suggests that an individual's cognitive activity may be an important moderator variable in determining the effectiveness of different coping strategies. Sixty-eight female volunteers were given two cold pressor arm immersions. Subjects were asked to think

Nicholas E. Heyneman; William J. Fremouw; Diane Gano; Frank Kirkland; Linda Heiden

1990-01-01

165

Individual differences in mathematical competence predict parietal brain activation during mental calculation.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individual differences in mathematical competence. Twenty-five adult students were selected from a larger pool based on their performance on standardized tests of intelligence and arithmetic and divided into groups of individuals with relatively lower and higher mathematical competence. These groups did not differ in their non-numerical intelligence or age. In an fMRI block-design, participants had to verify the correctness of single-digit and multi-digit multiplication problems. Analyses revealed that the individuals with higher mathematical competence displayed stronger activation of the left angular gyrus while solving both types of arithmetic problems. Additional correlational analyses corroborated the association between individual differences in mathematical competence and angular gyrus activation, even when variability in task performance was controlled for. These findings demonstrate that the recruitment of the left angular gyrus during arithmetic problem solving underlies individual differences in mathematical ability and suggests a stronger reliance on automatic, language-mediated processes in more competent individuals. PMID:17851092

Grabner, Roland H; Ansari, Daniel; Reishofer, Gernot; Stern, Elsbeth; Ebner, Franz; Neuper, Christa

2007-08-11

166

Standard task set for evaluating rehabilitation interventions for individuals with arm paralysis.  

PubMed

We have developed a set of upper-limb functional tasks to guide the design and test the performance of rehabilitation technologies that restore arm motion in people with high tetraplegia. Our goal was to develop a short set of tasks that would be representative of a much larger set of activities of daily living (ADLs), while also being feasible for a user of a unilateral, implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. To compile this list of tasks, we reviewed existing clinical outcome measures related to arm and hand function and were further informed by surveys of patient desires. We ultimately selected a set of five tasks that captured the most common components of movement seen in ADLs and is therefore highly relevant for assessing FES-restored unilateral arm function in individuals with high cervical spinal cord injury. The tasks are intended to be used when setting design specifications and for evaluating and standardizing rehabilitation technologies under development. While not unique, this set of tasks will provide a common basis for comparing different interventions (e.g., FES, powered orthoses, robotic assistants) and testing different user command interfaces (e.g., sip-and-puff, head joysticks, brain-computer interfaces). PMID:22773199

Cornwell, Andrew S; Liao, James Y; Bryden, Anne M; Kirsch, Robert F

2012-01-01

167

Individual Differences, Aging, and IQ in Two-Choice Tasks  

PubMed Central

The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model’s predictions and the data were examined for the “worst performance rule”, the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses.

Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

2009-01-01

168

Individual but not fragile: individual differences in task control predict Stroop facilitation.  

PubMed

The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a "fragile effect". Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individual differences in control over the task conflict (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading in the Stroop task). We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect-participants with low inhibitory control (i.e., long SSRT) had no facilitation effect or even a reversed one. These results shed new light on the "fragile" facilitation effect and highlight the necessity of awareness of task conflict, especially in the Stroop task. PMID:23416541

Kalanthroff, E; Henik, A

2013-02-15

169

Individual Differences in Persuadability in the Health Promotion Domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the behavioral consequences of individual differences in persuadability in the health promotion domain. We use a 7-item persuadability instrument to determine participants persuadability score. Based on this score two groups are created: the low and high persuadables. Subsequently, we present 2 studies that test the responses to health-related persuasive messages of both low and high persuadables. The results consistently show that high persuadables comply more to messages with a persuasive content as compared to a neutral message than low persuadables. Even more, both studies indicate lower compliance by low persuadables when persuasive messages are employed. Implications of this possible detrimental effect of the use of persuasive messages for low persuadables are discussed.

Kaptein, Maurits; Lacroix, Joyca; Saini, Privender

170

Individual differences in holistic processing predict face recognition ability.  

PubMed

Why do some people recognize faces easily and others frequently make mistakes in recognizing faces? Classic behavioral work has shown that faces are processed in a distinctive holistic manner that is unlike the processing of objects. In the study reported here, we investigated whether individual differences in holistic face processing have a significant influence on face recognition. We found that the magnitude of face-specific recognition accuracy correlated with the extent to which participants processed faces holistically, as indexed by the composite-face effect and the whole-part effect. This association is due to face-specific processing in particular, not to a more general aspect of cognitive processing, such as general intelligence or global attention. This finding provides constraints on computational models of face recognition and may elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders, such as prosopagnosia and autism, that are associated with deficits in face recognition. PMID:22222218

Wang, Ruosi; Li, Jingguang; Fang, Huizhen; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

2012-01-05

171

Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.  

PubMed

We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations. PMID:18089197

Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

2005-08-26

172

Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties  

PubMed Central

Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric) mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing (again a right hemispheric mode). The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses, however, indicated that “nonacceptance of emotional responses’ and ‘limited access to emotion regulation strategies” facets of emotion regulation difficulties were best predicted by a preference for the global/synthetic mode of information processing. While others like difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviour, impulse control difficulties, and lack of emotional clarity were best predicted by a preference for visuo-spatial rather than the verbal mode of information processing. Conclusion: Overall, the findings imply that greater preference for right hemispheric mode of information processing as compared to the left is associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions.

Gupta, Garima; Dubey, Akanksha; Saxena, Prachi; Pandey, Rakesh

2011-01-01

173

Assessment of Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus among Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Smoking cessation programs might benefit from tailoring messages to individual differences in regulatory focus (see Higgins, 1997), but there is little evidence on the stability or convergent validity of regulatory focus measures. In two studies, smokers completed four measures of regulatory focus: (a) Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ); (b) actual-ideal and actual-ought self-discrepancies; (c) response duration in naming name ideal or ought self-guides; and (d) reaction time for lexical decisions about one’s ideal or ought self-guides. Study 1 included a one-month retest. Retest reliability was adequate, but convergent validity was poor. Questionnaire and self-discrepancy measures were unrelated to each other or to the reaction time measures. To facilitate future studies of tailored health behavior change interventions, research is needed to determine whether weak convergent validity resulted from (a) invalidity of some or all of the regulatory focus measures or (b) validity of each for measuring a different aspect of the construct.

Haaga, David A. F.; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara G.; McIntosh, Elizabeth; Ahrens, Anthony H.

2008-01-01

174

Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity.  

PubMed

Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625

Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D; Williams, Justin H G

2012-10-16

175

40 CFR 124.203 - How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized permit? ...Applying for A Standardized Permit § 124.203 How may I switch from my individual RCRA permit to a standardized...

2013-07-01

176

Individual differences in the masking level difference with a narrowband masker at 500 or 2000 Hz.  

PubMed

The masking level difference (MLD) for a narrowband noise masker is associated with marked individual differences. This pair of studies examines factors that might account for these individual differences. Experiment 1 estimated the MLD for a 50 Hz wide band of masking noise centered at 500 or 2000 Hz, gated on for 400 ms. Tonal signals were either brief (15 ms) or long (200 ms), and brief signals were coincident with either a dip or peak in the masker envelope. Experiment 2 estimated the MLD for both signal and masker consisting of a 50 Hz wide bandpass noise centered on 500 Hz. Signals were generated to provide only interaural phase cues, only interaural level cues, or both. The pattern of individual differences was dominated by variability in NoSpi thresholds, and NoSpi thresholds were highly correlated across all conditions. Results suggest that the individual differences observed in Experiment 1 were not primarily driven by differences in the use of binaural fine structure cues or in binaural temporal resolution. The range of thresholds obtained for a brief NoSpi tonal signal at 500 Hz was consistent with a model based on normalized interaural correlation. This model was not consistent for analogous conditions at 2000 Hz. PMID:17297796

Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W; Grose, John H

2007-01-01

177

Cognitive Control and Individual Differences in Economic Ultimatum Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Much publicity has been given to the fact that people's economic decisions often deviate from the rational predictions of standard economic models. In the classic ultimatum game, for example, most people turn down financial gains by rejecting unequal monetary splits. The present study points to neglected individual differences in this debate. After participants played the ultimatum game we tested for individual differences in cognitive control capacity of the most and least economic responders. The key finding was that people who were higher in cognitive control, as measured by behavioral (Go/No-Go performance) and neural (No-Go N2 amplitude) markers, did tend to behave more in line with the standard models and showed increased acceptance of unequal splits. Hence, the cognitively highest scoring decision-makers were more likely to maximize their monetary payoffs and adhere to the standard economic predictions. Findings question popular claims with respect to the rejection of standard economic models and the irrationality of human economic decision-making.

De Neys, Wim; Novitskiy, Nikolay; Geeraerts, Leen; Ramautar, Jennifer; Wagemans, Johan

2011-01-01

178

Individual differences in adult handwritten spelling-to-dictation.  

PubMed

We report an investigation of individual differences in handwriting latencies and number of errors in a spelling-to-dictation task. Eighty adult participants wrote a list of 164 spoken words (presented in two sessions). The participants were also evaluated on a vocabulary test (Deltour, 1993). Various multiple regression analyses were performed (on both writing latency and errors). The analysis of the item means showed that the reliable predictors of spelling latencies were acoustic duration, cumulative word frequency, phonology-to-orthographic (PO) consistency, the number of letters in the word and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability. (Error rates were also predicted by frequency, consistency, length and the interaction between cumulative word frequency, PO consistency and imageability.) The analysis of the participant means (and trials) showed that (1) there was both within- and between-session reliability across the sets of items, (2) there was no trade-off between the utilization of lexical and non-lexical information, and (3) participants with high vocabulary knowledge were more accurate (and somewhat faster), and had a differential sensitivity to certain stimulus characteristics, than those with low vocabulary knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of orthographic word production. PMID:23882229

Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Barry, Christopher

2013-07-16

179

Individual differences and the creation of false childhood memories.  

PubMed

We investigated if college students will create false childhood memories, the role of self-knowledge in memory creation, and if there are reliable individual differences related to memory creation. Based on information obtained from parents, we asked college students about several true childhood experiences. We also asked each student about one false event and presented the false event as if it was based on parent information. We asked the students to describe all events in two interviews separated by one day. When participants could not recall an event (whether true or false), we encouraged them to think about related self-knowledge and to try to imagine the event. In an unrelated experimental session, the students were administered four cognitive/personality scales: the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS). We found that approximately 25% of the students created false childhood memories. Participants who made connections to related self-knowledge in the first interview were more likely to create false memories. We also found that the CIS and the DES were positively related to memory creation. Factors that decrease one's ability to engage in reality monitoring are related to the acceptance of false events and the creation of false memories. PMID:9640430

Hyman, I E; Billings, F J

1998-01-01

180

Individual differences in pain sensitivity: genetic and environmental contributions.  

PubMed

Large individual differences in pain sensitivity present a challenge for medical diagnosis and may be of importance for the development of chronic pain. Variance in pain sensitivity is partially mediated by genetic factors, but the extent of this contribution is uncertain. We examined cold-pressor pain and contact heat pain in 53 identical (MZ) and 39 fraternal (DZ) twin pairs, and 4 single twins to determine the heritability of the two phenotypes, and the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors affect both pain modalities. An estimated 60% of the variance in cold-pressor pain and 26% of the variance in heat pain was genetically mediated. Genetic and environmental factors were only moderately correlated across pain modalities. Genetic factors common to both modalities explained 7% of the variance in cold-pressor and 3% of the variance in heat pain. Environmental factors common to both modalities explained 5% of variance in cold-pressor and 8% of the variance in heat pain. The remaining variance was due to factors that were specific to each pain modality. These findings demonstrate that cold-pressor pain and contact heat pain are mainly distinct phenomena from both a genetic and an environmental standpoint. This may partly explain disparate results in genetic association studies and argues for caution in generalizing genetic findings from one pain modality to another. It also indicates that differences in pain scale usage account for a minor portion of the variance, providing strong support for the validity of subjective pain ratings as measures of experienced pain. PMID:17692462

Nielsen, Christopher S; Stubhaug, Audun; Price, Donald D; Vassend, Olav; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Harris, Jennifer R

2007-08-09

181

Standardized versus Individualized Parenteral Nutrition in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN) improves the growth and outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Optimal PN composition, standard (STD-PN) or individualized (IND-PN), is still controversial. Aim: To compare IND-PN and STD-PN as to nutritional and growth parameters, complications and cost. Patients and Methods: 140 VLBW infants were studied. Each of the 70 neonates from the IND-PN group was

Tatiana Smolkin; Giselle Diab; Irit Shohat; Huda Jubran; Shraga Blazer; Geila S. Rozen; Imad R. Makhoul

2010-01-01

182

The Sunk Cost Fallacy and Individual Differences in Health Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sunk Cost fallacy is a biased committed when individuals base their decisions to stop or continue a course of action solely on past irrecoverable invested costs (i.e., monetary or time-related). Individuals' susceptibility to the Sunk Cost fallacy has been justified as the need to try to avoid appearing wasteful, to avoid appearing…

Fernandez, Norma Patricia

2010-01-01

183

Different approaches of high speed data transmission standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of standards addresses the problem of high-speed data transmission on serial or serial-parallel data lines. Serial-parallel data transmission means the transmitted information is distributed on parallel data lines. Even though several standards exist, there are only a few basic techniques used in most of these standards. This paper is giving an overview of these different basic techniques used in the physical layer of today’s data transmission standards, for example DVI/HDMI, USB2.0, Infiniband, SFI5, etc. [1-9]. The main focus lies on the approaches used for physical signaling, line coding and information synchronization in serial and serialparallel systems. In addition, currently discussed techniques to improve data transmission in the future will be presented.

Ehlert, M.

2004-05-01

184

Eye blink rate predicts individual differences in pseudoneglect  

PubMed Central

Most healthy individuals display a subtle spatial attentional bias, exhibiting relative inattention for stimuli on one side of the visual field, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect. Prior work in animals and patients has implicated dopamine in spatial attention asymmetries. The current study therefore examined - in healthy individuals - the relationship between the attentional bias and spontaneous eye-blink rate (EBR), a putative measure of central dopaminergic function. We found that those individuals, who blinked more often under resting conditions, displayed greater preference for the right side of the visual display in a subsequent attention task. This finding may support the idea that the observed attentional bias in healthy individuals reflects asymmetries in dopaminergic circuits, and corroborates previous findings implicating dopamine in spatial attention.

Slagter, Heleen A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Tomer, Rachel

2010-01-01

185

A novel standard food model to analyze the individual parameters of human mastication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  INTRODUCTION: The aim of this project was to develop a standard food model, which can be used not only in experimental settings,\\u000a but also in clinical diagnosis. On the basis of the findings of a systematic literature search, an elastic food model was\\u000a created with the aim of standardizing the size and the elastic properties. Three different eatable jellied products

G. Slavicek; M. Soykher; H. Gruber; P. Siegl; M. Oxtoby

2009-01-01

186

Subgenual PFC Activity Predicts Individual Differences in HPA Activity Across Different Contexts  

PubMed Central

Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activation is adaptive in response to stress, and HPA dysregulation occurs in stress-related psychopathology. It is important to understand the mechanisms that modulate HPA output; yet, few studies have addressed the neural circuitry associated with HPA regulation in primates and humans. Using high-resolution [F-18]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in rhesus monkeys, we assessed the relation between individual differences in brain activity and HPA function across multiple contexts that varied in stressfulness. Methods Using a logical AND conjunctions analysis, we assessed cortisol and brain metabolic activity with FDG-PET in 35 adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to two threat and two home-cage conditions. To test the robustness of our findings, we used similar methods in an archival data set. In this data set, brain metabolic activity and cortisol were assessed in 17 adolescent male rhesus monkeys that were exposed to three different stress-related contexts. Results Results from the two studies, revealed that subgenual PFC metabolism (Area 25/24) consistently predicted individual differences in plasma cortisol concentrations regardless of the context in which brain activity and cortisol were assessed. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation in subgenual PFC may be related to HPA output across a variety of contexts (including familiar settings and novel or threatening situations). Individuals prone to elevated subgenual PFC activity across multiple contexts may be individuals who consistently show heightened cortisol, and may be at risk for stress-related HPA dysregulation.

Jahn, Allison L.; Fox, Andrew S.; Abercrombie, Heather C.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

2009-01-01

187

Standard Errors of Equating Differences: Prior Developments, Extensions, and Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article was to extend the use of standard errors for equated score differences (SEEDs) to traditional equating functions. The SEEDs are described in terms of their original proposal for kernel equating functions and extended so that SEEDs for traditional linear and traditional equipercentile equating functions can be computed.…

Moses, Tim; Zhang, Wenmin

2011-01-01

188

Explaining Affective Linkages in Teams: Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Contagion and Individualism–Collectivism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after

Remus Ilies; David T. Wagner; Frederick P. Morgeson

2007-01-01

189

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TRUNK ENDURANCE TESTING METHODS IN COLLEGE-AGED INDIVIDUALS  

PubMed Central

Objective: Determine the reliability of two different modified (MOD1 and MOD2) testing methods compared to a standard method (ST) for testing trunk flexion and extension endurance. Participants: Twenty?eight healthy individuals (age 26.4 ± 3.2 years, height 1.75 ± m, weight 71.8 ± 10.3 kg, body mass index 23.6 ± 3.4 m/kg2). Method: Trunk endurance time was measured in seconds for flexion and extension under the three different stabilization conditions. The MOD1 testing procedure utilized a female clinician (70.3 kg) and MOD2 utilized a male clinician (90.7 kg) to provide stabilization as opposed to the ST method of belt stabilization. Results: No significant differences occurred between flexion and extension times. Intraclass correlations (ICCs3,1) for the different testing conditions ranged from .79 to .95 (p <.000) and are found in Table 3. Concurrent validity using the ST flexion times as the gold standard coefficients were .95 for MOD1 and .90 for MOD2. For ST extension, coefficients were .91 and .80, for MOD1 and MOD2 respectively (p <.01). Conclusions: These methods proved to be a reliable substitute for previously accepted ST testing methods in normal college?aged individuals. These modified testing procedures can be implemented in athletic training rooms and weight rooms lacking appropriate tables for the ST testing. Level of Evidence: 3

Krier, Amber D.; Nelson, Julie A.; Rogers, Michael A.; Stuke, Zachariah O.; Smith, Barbara S.

2012-01-01

190

Individual Differences in Cognition: Verbal Ability, Clustering, and Retrieval Speed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relationships between verbal ability, semantic category clustering, and speed of retrieval were studied. Lists of 30 words were presented individually to subjects with high- and low-verbal ability under free recall, delayed free recall, and clustering recall conditions. In the first stage of recall, high verbals displayed a significantly higher…

Goldberg, Robert A.; Grier, J. Brown

191

Exercise and Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current work we asked whether executive function, as measured by tests of working memory capacity, might benefit from an acute bout of exercise and, more specifically, whether individuals who are lower or higher in working memory to begin with would be more or less affected by an exercise manipulation. Healthy adults completed working memory measures in a nonexercise

Benjamin A. Sibley; Sian L. Beilock

2007-01-01

192

Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced

Lisa DeMarni Cromer; Rachel E. Goldsmith

2010-01-01

193

Individual differences in the ability to avoid distracting sounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to establish a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms involved in avoiding distraction from speech and nonspeech sounds. Although mixed results have been presented by research investigating the hypothesis that individuals with superior working memory abilities are better able to avoid acoustic distraction, we found that working memory correlated with some aspects of performance during distraction

Emily M. Elliott; Katie M. Barrilleaux; Nelson Cowan

2006-01-01

194

Interactions between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades educational psychologists have bemoaned the black box approach of much research on learning, that is, the focus on product rather than process, and the absence of fine-grained analysis of the learning process in the individual. One way that progress has been made on this point in the last couple of decades is through cognitive…

DeKeyser, Robert

2012-01-01

195

Individual Differences: Interplay of Learner Characteristics and Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The notion of language as a complex adaptive system has been conceived within an agent-based framework, which highlights the significance of individual-level variation in the characteristics and contextual circumstances of the learner/speaker. Yet, in spite of this emphasis, currently we know relatively little about the interplay among language,…

Dornyei, Zoltan

2009-01-01

196

Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology.Methods. Twenty-one

Devin Blair Terhune; Etzel Cardeña; Magnus Lindgren

2011-01-01

197

Individual Differences in the Behavior of Rats (Rattus norvegicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male and female hooded rats were evaluated individually for performance in burrowing, food hoarding, exploration, and insect predation in the laboratory. The results were that (a) performance in each of these behaviors was distributed over a wide range; (b) females as a group had significantly better burrowing and insect predation performance than did males; (c) there were significant correlations between

Nubio Negrão; Werner R. Schmidek

1987-01-01

198

Novel methods for discriminating behavioral differences between stickleback individuals and populations in a laboratory shoaling assay  

PubMed Central

Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from different habitats have been observed to differ in shoaling behavior, both in the wild and in laboratory studies. In the present study, we surveyed the shoaling behavior of sticklebacks from a variety of marine, lake, and stream habitats throughout the Pacific Northwest. We tested the shoaling tendencies of 113 wild-caught sticklebacks from 13 populations using a laboratory assay that was based on other published shoaling assays in sticklebacks. Using traditional behavioral measures for this assay, such as time spent shoaling and mean position in the tank, we were unable to find population differences in shoaling behavior. However, simple plotting techniques revealed differences in spatial distributions during the assay. When we collapsed individual trials into population-level data sets and applied information theoretic measurements, we found significant behavioral differences between populations. For example, entropy estimates confirm that populations display differences in the extent of clustering at various tank positions. Using log-likelihood analysis, we show that these population-level observations reflect consistent differences in individual behavioral patterns that can be difficult to discriminate using standard measures. The analytical techniques we describe may help improve the detection of potential behavioral differences between fish groups in future studies.

Wark, Abigail R.; Wark, Barry J.; Lageson, Tessa J.

2011-01-01

199

The Privacy Rule: HIPAA standards for the privacy of individually identifiable health information.  

PubMed

The main objective of the HIPAA Privacy Rule is to provide a uniform and simplified minimum standard for the privacy of individually identifiable health information. Five broad categories are covered: boundaries, security, consumer control, accountability and public responsibility. Compliance with the Privacy Rule includes appointing a security official, making some basic assessments about a fund's current policies and procedures, assessing security protocols for network systems, developing a participant complaint mechanism and creating an internal grievance procedure for employer action and employee whistle-blowing. At this writing, although the final standards are still under debate, most health care plans should accept the regulation and begin compliance procedures. Successful implementation of the Privacy Rule can streamline fund operations and give participants the added security and peace of mind they demand. PMID:12219566

Wang, Lisa W

2002-09-01

200

Perceived Self-Regulation and Individual Differences in Selective Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on R. G. Lord and P. E. Levy (1994), this study investigated the roles of conscious and unconscious suppression processes in self-regulation. As hypothesized, both action–state orientation (reflecting conscious suppression processes) and negative priming (reflecting unconscious suppression processes) had significant positive relationships with perceived self-regulatory success across multiple life domains. The results suggest that individuals who can effectively initiate

James M. Diefendorff; Robert G. Lord; Emily T. Hepburn; Joseph S. Quickle; Rosalie J. Hall; Raymond E. Sanders

1998-01-01

201

Attitude–behavior consistency: An individual difference perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the prediction that only individuals whose past behaviors have been relatively invariant (low behavioral variability) and who tend to infer their attitudes from those past behaviors (low self-monitoring) would express attitudes that summarize past behaviors and, hence, strongly predict future behaviors. In the 1st session, 103 undergraduates completed a self-monitoring scale. Ss' attitudes toward religion were also assessed, and

Mark P. Zanna; James M. Olson; Russell H. Fazio

1980-01-01

202

A Biological Basis for Individual Differences in Learning to Speak  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Children go about learning language in different ways and at different rates. Brown’s (1973) Eve had utterances averaging\\u000a more than four morphemes when she was a little over 2 years old; Adam’s utterances did not even quite reach that length when\\u000a he was 3 years and 8 months old. Are such variations due to different neurological organization, different general cognitive

Gisela E. Speidel

203

Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection.  

PubMed

People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity [RS]) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high compared to low individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or nonsocial stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N

2013-08-01

204

Individual differences in reading skill and language lateralisation: a cluster analysis.  

PubMed

Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralisation were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments and divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behaviour correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, & Leonard, 2009; Chiarello, Welcome, Halderman, Towler, et al., 2009; Welcome et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioural classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individual differences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralisation profiles. These findings generalised to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard participant variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. A total of 17 participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioural profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterise such individuals. PMID:22385144

Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E; Leonard, Christiana M

2011-07-19

205

Individual Differences in Reading Skill and Language Lateralization: A Cluster Analysis  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in reading and cerebral lateralization were investigated in 200 college students who completed reading assessments, divided visual field word recognition tasks, and received a structural MRI scan. Prior studies on this data set indicated that little variance in brain-behavior correlations could be attributed to the effects of sex and handedness variables (Chiarello, et al., 2009a,b; Welcome, et al., 2009). Here a more bottom-up approach to behavioral classification (cluster analysis) was used to explore individual differences that need not depend on a priori decisions about relevant subgroups. The cluster solution identified four subgroups of college age readers with differing reading skill and visual field lateralization profiles. These findings generalized to measures that were not included in the cluster analysis. Poorer reading skill was associated with somewhat reduced VF asymmetry, while average readers demonstrated exaggerated RVF/left hemisphere advantages. Skilled readers had either reduced asymmetries, or asymmetries that varied by task. The clusters did not differ by sex or handedness, suggesting that there are identifiable sources of variance among individuals that are not captured by these standard subject variables. All clusters had typical leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, the size of areas in the posterior corpus callosum distinguished the two subgroups with high reading skill. Seventeen participants, identified as multivariate outliers, had unusual behavioral profiles and differed from the remainder of the sample in not having significant leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. A less buffered type of neurodevelopment that is more open to the effects of random genetic and environmental influences may characterize such individuals.

Chiarello, Christine; Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.

2011-01-01

206

Child sexual abuse myths: attitudes, beliefs, and individual differences.  

PubMed

Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced 119 child sexual abuse myths, some with overlapping themes. Coders grouped myths into four categories: (a) minimizations or exaggerations of the extent of harm child sexual abuse poses, (b) denials of the extent of child sexual abuse, (c) diffusions of perpetrator blame, and (d) perpetrator stereotypes. This review provides available data regarding the prevalence for these myths, empirical research that refutes or confirms myth categories, and considerations of cultural contexts and implications. PMID:21113832

Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E

2010-11-01

207

Individual Differences in Detecting Rapidly Presented Fearful Faces  

PubMed Central

Rapid detection of evolutionarily relevant threats (e.g., fearful faces) is important for human survival. The ability to rapidly detect fearful faces exhibits high variability across individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between behavioral detection ability and brain activity, using both event-related potential (ERP) and event-related oscillation (ERO) measurements. Faces with fearful or neutral facial expressions were presented for 17 ms or 200 ms in a backward masking paradigm. Forty-two participants were required to discriminate facial expressions of the masked faces. The behavioral sensitivity index d' showed that the detection ability to rapidly presented and masked fearful faces varied across participants. The ANOVA analyses showed that the facial expression, hemisphere, and presentation duration affected the grand-mean ERP (N1, P1, and N170) and ERO (below 20 Hz and lasted from 100 ms to 250 ms post-stimulus, mainly in theta band) brain activity. More importantly, the overall detection ability of 42 subjects was significantly correlated with the emotion effect (i.e., fearful vs. neutral) on ERP (r?=?0.403) and ERO (r?=?0.552) measurements. A higher d' value was corresponding to a larger size of the emotional effect (i.e., fearful – neutral) of N170 amplitude and a larger size of the emotional effect of the specific ERO spectral power at the right hemisphere. The present results suggested a close link between behavioral detection ability and the N170 amplitude as well as the ERO spectral power below 20 Hz in individuals. The emotional effect size between fearful and neutral faces in brain activity may reflect the level of conscious awareness of fearful faces.

Zhang, Dandan; Wang, Lili; Luo, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

2012-01-01

208

Cooperative bird differentiates between the calls of different individuals, even when vocalizations were from completely unfamiliar individuals.  

PubMed

Hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative behaviour typically require differentiation between either groups of conspecifics (e.g. kin/non-kin) or, more typically, individuals (e.g. reciprocal altruism). Despite this, the mechanisms that facilitate individual or class recognition have rarely been explored in cooperative species. This study examines the individual differentiation abilities of noisy miners (Manorina melanocephala), a species with one of the most complex avian societies known. Miners permanently occupy colonies numbering into hundreds of individuals. Within these colonies, cooperative coalitions form on a fission-fusion basis across numerous contexts, from social foraging through to mobbing predators. Birds often use individually distinctive 'chur' calls to recruit others to a caller's location, facilitating coalition formation. I used the habituation-discrimination paradigm to test the ability of miners to differentiate between the chur calls of two individuals that were both either: (i) familiar, or (ii) unfamiliar to the focal subject. This technique had not, to my knowledge, been used to assess vocalization differentiation in cooperative birds previously, but here demonstrated that miners could correctly use the spectral features of signals to differentiate between the vocalizations of different individuals, regardless of their familiarity. By attending to individual differences in recruitment calls, miners have a communication system that is capable of accommodating even the most complex cooperative hypotheses based upon acoustic information. PMID:22258445

McDonald, Paul G

2012-01-18

209

Note-Taking, Individual Differences, and Memory for Lecture Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed to examine (a) the encoding function of note-taking and (b) processing differences between successful and less successful students in lecture situations. In the first experiment, subjects either took notes or listened during a lecture. Different memory patterns were found for these two groups, with note-takers recalling many more high-importance propositions than low-importance propositions and non-note-takers recalling

Gilles O. Einstein; Joy Morris; Susan Smith

1985-01-01

210

Effects of Instructional Methods and Individual Differences on the Cognitive Processing of Instruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examined achievement treatment interaction (ATI) between individual differences and instructional methods on the cognitive processing (i.e., macroprocessing) of instruction. Individual differences in reading, prior knowledge, and anxiety wer...

S. Tobias

1990-01-01

211

Individual Differences in Fornix Microstructure and Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI), within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53–93 years old). Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r?=?0.64 and r?=?0.55 respectively), relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain.

Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Baddeley, Roland J.; Jones, Derek K.; Aggleton, John P.; O'Sullivan, Michael J.

2013-01-01

212

Individual differences in gains from computer-assisted remedial reading.  

PubMed

Two hundred second- to fifth-grade students (aged approximately 7 to 11 years) spent 29 h in a computer-assisted remedial reading program that compared benefits from accurate, speech-supported reading in context, with and without explicit phonological training. Children in the "accurate-reading-in-context" condition spent 22 individualized computer hours reading stories and 7 small-group hours learning comprehension strategies. Children in the "phonological-analysis" condition learned phonological strategies in 7 small-group hours, and divided their computer time between phonological exercises and story reading. Phonologically trained children gained more in phonological skills and untimed word reading; children with more contextual reading gained more in time-limited word reading. Lower level readers gained more, and benefited more from phonological training, than higher level readers. In follow-up testing, most children maintained or improved their levels, but not their rates, of training gains. Phonologically trained children scored higher on phonological decoding, but children in both conditions scored equivalently on word reading. PMID:11023657

Wise, B W; Ring, J; Olson, R K

2000-11-01

213

Reexamining individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.  

PubMed

A growing number of investigators explore evolutionary psychological hypotheses concerning the avoidance of rape using self-report measures of behavior. Among the most recent and most ambitious, is the work of McKibbin et al. (2011). McKibbin et al. presented evidence supporting their predictions that such behaviors would vary according to the individual's physical attractiveness, relationship status, and proximity to kin. In addition, McKibbin et al. predicted, but failed to find evidence, that age would exercise a similar influence. We question McKibbin et al.'s position on both theoretical and empirical grounds, arguing that (1) two of their predictions do not rule out alternative explanations, and (2) their key supporting findings may well be artifacts of their measurement instrument, the Rape Avoidance Inventory (RAI). Employing new empirical evidence derived from a broader sample of U.S. women, we simultaneously tested McKibbin et al.'s predictions and compared the RAI to alternative dependent measures. We found that McKibbin et al.'s substantive predictions were not supported, and suggest that there may be limits to the utility of the RAI beyond one specific demographic category. PMID:22722957

Snyder, Jeffrey K; Fessler, Daniel M T

2012-06-22

214

Evacuation performance of individuals in different visibility conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate data on evacuation activities are required under visually handicapped conditions to increase the certainty of the fire performance-based designs and evacuation calculation models. This study was to analyze human behavior characteristics and evacuation performance change through the experiments under evacuation environment where smoke influences visibility. The evacuation experiment was conducted in four different visibility conditions at underground facilities with

Gyu-Yeob Jeon; Ju-Young Kim; Won-Hwa Hong; Godfried Augenbroe

2011-01-01

215

Individual Differences in Verbal and Nonverbal Fluency Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to A. R. Luria (1973) the cerebral organization of mental activity can be understood through analyzing how mental activity is altered in different local brain lesions. Recent brain function research has used this approach in locating areas of the brain involved in specific processes. This study recognized the importance of this method…

Rickman, David L.

216

Individual Difference Predictors of Creativity in Art and Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies are reported that used multiple measures of creativity to investigate creativity differences and correlates in arts and science students. The first study examined Divergent Thinking fluency, Self-Rated Creativity and Creative Achievement in matched groups of Art and Science students. Arts students scored higher than Science students…

Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Booth, Tom W.; Patel, Vikita; Lozinskaya, Dariya

2011-01-01

217

Individual Differences in Navigation between Sharable Content Objects--An Evaluation Study of a Learning Module Prototype.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individual differences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…

Gauss, Boris; Urbas, Leon

2003-01-01

218

Olfactory Event-Related Potentials Reflect Individual Differences in Odor Valence Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating the neural substrates of perceived quality in olfaction using different odorants is intrinsically difficult. By utilizing individual differences in perceived quality of the odor of androstenone, we obtained a continuum of individual differences in rated valence of the same stimulus allowing investigations of its manifestation in the olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs). In an initial group consisting of 43 individuals

Johan N. Lundstrom; Suzi Seven; Mats J. Olsson; Benoist Schaal; Thomas Hummel

2006-01-01

219

Social Dominance Orientation: Mapping a Baseline Individual Difference Component Across Self-Categorizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable debate regarding the extent to which prejudice results from individual differences versus situational factors affecting self-categorization. We provide evidence for a stable baseline level of association between one individual difference index of prejudice proneness, that of social dominance orientation (SDO), and generalized racist attitudes. Consistent with an individual difference perspective, SDO retained a baseline level of

Ryan Perry; Chris G. Sibley

2011-01-01

220

Individual differences in statistics anxiety among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated differences in statistics anxiety levels based on students' gender and age. Using the statistics anxiety scores of 246 college students, a 2×3 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on the six dependent variables (worth of statistics, interpretation anxiety, test and class anxiety, computational self-concept, fear of asking for help, and fear of statistics teachers)

Mustafa Balo?lu

2003-01-01

221

Mathematical skill in individuals with Williams Syndrome: Evidence from a standardized mathematics battery  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder associated with relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. It has also been reported that individuals with WS are impaired at mathematics. We examined mathematical skills in persons with WS using the second edition of the Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-2), which measures a wide range of skills. We administered the TEMA-2 to 14 individuals with WS and 14 children matched individually for mental age on the matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. There were no differences between groups on the overall scores on the TEMA-2. However, an item-by-item analysis revealed group differences. Participants with WS performed more poorly than controls when reporting which of two numbers was closest to a target number, a task thought to utilize a mental number line subserved by the parietal lobe, consistent with previous evidence showing parietal abnormalities in people with WS. In contrast, people with WS performed better than the control group at reading numbers, suggesting that verbal math skills may be comparatively strong in WS. These findings add to evidence that components of mathematical knowledge may be differentially damaged in developmental disorders.

O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

2007-01-01

222

Age differences among homeless individuals: adolescence through adulthood.  

PubMed

The present study examines differences between homeless adolescents, young adults, and older adults served by homeless shelters or food programs to inform service provision. Four homeless studies using the same sampling and measurement methods were pooled to permit comparisons across age groups. Results showed that homeless adolescents demonstrated greater resilience than younger and older adults. Adolescents reported the shortest duration of homelessness, lowest number of life stressors, fewest physical symptoms, largest social networks, and fewest clinically significant mental health problems. Adolescents also received fewer alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses than younger and older adults. Younger adults reported less time homeless and fewer physical symptoms than older adults, but more life stressors. Younger adults also endorsed higher levels of hostile and paranoid psychological symptoms. Implications for service provision and policy are discussed. PMID:19363770

Tompsett, Carolyn J; Fowler, Patrick J; Toro, Paul A

2009-01-01

223

Individual differences in mental animation during mechanical reasoning.  

PubMed

In three experiments we tested the effects of spatial visualization ability on performance of a motion-verification task, in which subjects were shown a diagram of a mechanical system and were asked to verify a sentence stating the motion of one of the system components. We propose that this task involves component processes of (1) sentence comprehension, (2) diagram comprehension, (3) text-diagram integration, and (4) mental animation. Subjects with low spatial ability made more errors than did subjects with high spatial ability on this task, and they made more errors on items in which more system components had to be animated to solve the problem. In contrast, the high-spatial subjects were relatively accurate on all trials. These results indicate that spatial visualization is correlated with accuracy on the motion-verification task and suggest that this correlation is primarily due to the mental animation component of the task. Reaction time and eye-fixation data revealed no differences in how the high- and low-spatial subjects decomposed the task. The data of the two groups of subjects were equally consistent with a piecemeal model of mental animation, in which components are animated one by one in order of the causal chain of events in the system. PMID:7934947

Hegarty, M; Sims, V K

1994-07-01

224

Individual Differences in Impulsivity Predict Anticipatory Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology.

Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefevre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

2011-01-01

225

Neural Correlates of Individual Performance Differences in Resolving Perceptual Conflict  

PubMed Central

Attentional mechanisms are a crucial prerequisite to organize behavior. Most situations may be characterized by a ‘competition’ between salient, but irrelevant stimuli and less salient, relevant stimuli. In such situations top-down and bottom-up mechanisms interact with each other. In the present fMRI study, we examined how interindividual differences in resolving situations of perceptual conflict are reflected in brain networks mediating attentional selection. Doing so, we employed a change detection task in which subjects had to detect luminance changes in the presence and absence of competing distractors. The results show that good performers presented increased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11), anterior cingulate (BA 25), inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and visual areas V2 and V3 but decreased activation in BA 39. This suggests that areas mediating top-down attentional control are stronger activated in this group. Increased activity in visual areas reflects distinct neuronal enhancement relating to selective attentional mechanisms in order to solve the perceptual conflict. Opposed to good performers, brain areas activated by poor performers comprised the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 39) and fronto-parietal and visual regions were continuously deactivated, suggesting that poor performers perceive stronger conflict than good performers. Moreover, the suppression of neural activation in visual areas might indicate a strategy of poor performers to inhibit the processing of the irrelevant non-target feature. These results indicate that high sensitivity in perceptual areas and increased attentional control led to less conflict in stimulus processing and consequently to higher performance in competitive attentional selection.

Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian; Pfleiderer, Bettina

2012-01-01

226

Longitudinal change and longitudinal stability of individual differences in children's emotion understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in children's emotion understanding have been intensively investigated during the past decade. Theses studies suggest that individual differences emerge quite early, are present among both preschool and school-aged children, are not restricted to the understanding of some specific components of emotions, correlate with other characteristics of the individual and his or her social network, and may persist even

Francisco Pons; Paul Harris

2005-01-01

227

Cluster Analysis and the Search for Structure Underlying Individual Differences in Psychologic Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the discussion of the relations of investigations of structure underlying individual differences in psychological phenomena to cluster analysis, emphasis was placed on the importance of clustering according to similarity of within-individual relations ...

L. R. Tucker

1967-01-01

228

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Shows Potential for Predicting Individual Differences in Fatigue Vulnerability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatigue from sleep loss exerts deleterious effects on group performance, and some individuals are more affected than others. Underlying pattern of cortical activation may partially account for such individual differences. The present research utilized fMR...

J. A. Caldwell J. K. Smith J. L. Caldwell Q. Mu M. George

2004-01-01

229

Intra-individual stability over time of standardized anti-M?llerian hormone in FMR1 premutation carriers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Carriers of a premutation (CGG repeat length 55–200) in the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene are at risk for primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level acts as a useful marker of ovarian follicle reserve and, thus, may serve to predict when this ovarian reserve becomes too low to sustain ovarian function. We investigated the intra-individual variation of AMH levels over time for premutation carriers compared with non-carriers. METHODS We determined AMH levels in blood samples from 240 women ascertained through fragile X families, of which 127 were premutation carriers and 113 were non-carriers. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of age and premutation status on AMH levels and to determine a modeled AMH value. The stability over time of the deviation of observed AMH levels from modeled levels, referred to as standardized AMH values, was assessed through correlation coefficients of 41 longitudinal samples. RESULTS At all ages, premutation carriers exhibited lower AMH levels. For all women, AMH was found to decrease by 10% per year. The added effect of having a premutation decreased AMH levels by 54%. The deviation of an individual's AMH level from the modeled value showed a reasonable intra-individual correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient of two samples taken at different ages was 0.36 (P = 0.05) for non-carriers and 0.69 (P = 0.01) for carriers. CONCLUSIONS We developed a unique standardized AMH value, taking FMR1 premutation status and the subject's age into account, which appears to be stable over time and may serve as a predictor for FXPOI after further longitudinal assessment.

Spath, M.A.; Feuth, T.B.; Allen, E.G.; Smits, A.P.T.; Yntema, H.G.; van Kessel, A. Geurts; Braat, D.D.M.; Sherman, S.L.; Thomas, C.M.G.

2011-01-01

230

Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals  

PubMed Central

Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals.

2012-01-01

231

Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals.  

PubMed

Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. The discovery of its compounds has led to the further discovery of an important neurotransmitter system called the endocannabinoid system. This system is widely distributed in the brain and in the body, and is considered to be responsible for numerous significant functions. There has been a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency, with increasing associated health concerns. A number of epidemiological research projects have shown links between dose-related cannabis use and an increased risk of development of an enduring psychotic illness. However, it is also known that not everyone who uses cannabis is affected adversely in the same way. What makes someone more susceptible to its negative effects is not yet known, however there are some emerging vulnerability factors, ranging from certain genes to personality characteristics. In this article we first provide an overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and then go on to review available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals. PMID:23983983

Atakan, Zerrin

2012-12-01

232

Group versus modified individual standard-setting on multiple-choice questions with the Angoff method for fourth-year medical students in the internal medicine clerkship  

PubMed Central

Background The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons) and conventional group method (three persons). The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation) test score was 65.35 (8.38), with a median of 64 (range 46–82). The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57) or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three). Conclusion The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors.

Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Chaowattanapanit, Suteeraporn; Limpawattana, Panita; Choonhakarn, Charoen; Sookprasert, Aumkhae

2013-01-01

233

Comparing directly measured standard gamble scores to HUI2 and HUI3 utility scores: group- and individual-level comparisons.  

PubMed

Directly measured standard gamble (SG) utility scores reflect the respondent's assessment and valuation of their own health status. Scores from the health utilities index (HUI) are based on self-assessed health status but valued using community preferences obtained using the SG. Our objectives were to find if mean directly measured utility scores agree with mean HUI mark 2 (HUI2) and mean HUI mark 3 (HUI3) scores. Also, if individual directly measured utility scores agree with HUI2 and HUI3 scores, and whether HUI2 and HUI3 scores agree. Questionnaires based on the HUI2 and HUI3 health-status classification systems were administered by interviewers to 140 teenage survivors of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) and 124 control group teens. Respondents were asked to think about their own usual health states using six dimensions from HUI2 and value that state using the SG. Mean SG scores are compared with mean HUI2 and mean HUI3 scores using paired sample t-tests. Mean HUI2 scores are compared with mean HUI3 scores. Agreement among scores is assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The effect of severity of health-state morbidity on agreement was assessed using three approaches. ELBW cohort mean (standard deviation) SG, HUI2, and HUI3 scores were 0.90 (0.20), 0.89 (0.14), and 0.80 (0.22). Results for controls were 0.93 (0.11), 0.95 (0.09), and 0.89 (0.13). Mean SG and HUI2 scores did not differ; mean SG and HUI3 did differ; mean HUI2 and HUI3 also differed. At the individual level for ELBW, the ICCs between SG and HUI2, SG and HUI3, and HUI2 and HUI3 scores were 0.13, 0.28, and 0.64. For controls the ICCs were 0.14, 0.24, and 0.56. HUI2 scores appear to match directly measured utility scores reasonably well at the group level. HUI2 and HUI3 scores differ systematically. At the individual level, however, HUI2 and HUI3 scores are poor substitutes for directly measured scores. PMID:14672594

Feeny, David; Furlong, William; Saigal, Saroj; Sun, Jian

2004-02-01

234

Evolutionary biology and personality psychology: Toward a conception of human nature and individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although personality psychology sub- sumes the study of both individual differences and species-typical characteristics, the field has not yet resolved several key concerns: (a) what are the most important species-typical characteristics; (b) what are the most important ways in which individuals differ; and (c) how can species-typical characteristics and individual differences be reconciled within a general theory of personality. Evolutionary

David M. Buss

1984-01-01

235

Individual differences in reactions towards color in simulated healthcare environments: The role of stimulus screening ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that the physical healthcare environment can affect our mood and behavior is well established. Despite this, individual differences in sensitivity to environmental stimuli have not received much attention. With the current research showing the importance of individual differences in sensitivity towards color, these may explain the contradictory effects found in color research. Two experiments focused on differences in

K. Dijkstra; M. E. Pieterse; A. Th. H. Pruyn

2008-01-01

236

Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

2009-01-01

237

Individual Differences in Cortisol Responses to Fear and Frustration during Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in prepubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA axis functioning. After a 30-min…

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

2009-01-01

238

What can individual differences tell us about the specialization of function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can the study of individual differences inform debates about modularity and the specialization of function? In this article, we consider the implications of a highly replicated, robust finding known as positive manifold: Individual differences in different cognitive domains tend to be positively intercorrelated. Prima facie, this fact, which has generally been interpreted as reflecting the influence of a domain-general cognitive

Cristina D. Rabaglia; Gary F. Marcus

2011-01-01

239

COMT Val158Met Genotype and Individual Differences in Executive Function in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

The Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may be related to individual differences in cognition, likely via modulation of prefrontal dopamine catabolism. However, the available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly in part because they do not consistently account for other genes that affect cognition. We hypothesized that COMT Met allele homozygosity, which is associated with higher levels of prefrontal dopamine, would predict better executive function as measured using standard neuropsychological testing, and that other candidate genes might interact with COMT to modulate this effect. Participants were 95 healthy, right-handed adults who underwent genotyping and cognitive testing. COMT genotype predicted executive ability as measured by the Trail-Making Test, even after covarying for demographics and APOE, BDNF and ANKK1 genotype. There was a COMT-ANKK1 interaction in which individuals having both the COMT Val allele and the ANKK1 T allele showed the poorest performance. This study suggests the heterogeneity in COMT effects reported in the literature may be due in part to gene-gene interactions that influence central dopaminergic systems.

Wishart, Heather A.; Roth, Robert M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Rhodes, C. Harker; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Pattin, Kristine A.; Moore, Jason H.; Mcallister, Thomas W.

2011-01-01

240

Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit.  

PubMed

Background: Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods: In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs' specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients' own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results: Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion: We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent. PMID:24054352

Mjølstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

2013-09-20

241

Standardization meets stories: Contrasting perspectives on the needs of frail individuals at a rehabilitation unit  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated encounters over time enable general practitioners (GPs) to accumulate biomedical and biographical knowledge about their patients. A growing body of evidence documenting the medical relevance of lifetime experiences indicates that health personnel ought to appraise this type of knowledge and consider how to incorporate it into their treatment of patients. In order to explore the interdisciplinary communication of such knowledge within Norwegian health care, we conducted a research project at the interface between general practice and a nursing home. Methods In the present study, nine Norwegian GPs were each interviewed about one of their patients who had recently been admitted to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. A successive interview conducted with each of these patients aimed at both validating the GP's information and exploring the patient's life story. The GP's treatment opinions and the patient's biographical information and treatment preferences were condensed into a biographical record presented to the nursing home staff. The transcripts of the interviews and the institutional treatment measures were compared and analysed, applying a phenomenological–hermeneutical framework. In the present article, we compare and discuss: (1) the GPs’ specific recommendations for their patients; (2) the patients’ own wishes and perceived needs; and (3) if and how this information was integrated into the institution's interventions and priorities. Results Each GP made rehabilitation recommendations, which included statements regarding both the patient's personality and life circumstances. The nursing home staff individualized their selection of therapeutic interventions based on defined standardized treatment approaches, without personalizing them. Conclusion We found that the institutional voice of medicine consistently tends to override the voice of the patient's lifeworld. Thus, despite the institution's best intentions, their efforts to provide appropriate rehabilitation seem to have been jeopardized to some extent.

Mj?lstad, Bente Prytz; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Getz, Linn; Hetlevik, Irene

2013-01-01

242

Tactical use of the T area in squash by players of differing standard.  

PubMed

The importance of dominating the T in squash is recognized by coaches and players but there has been little formal investigation of this aspect of tactical play. Consequently, the aim of this research was to analyse player occupancy of a T area, to establish whether there are differences between winners and losers of games at different playing standards. An automated player-tracking system, with operator supervision and intervention, captured players' movements during matches at the World Team Championships (n = 11), the Slovenian National Championships (n = 11), and a local tournament (n = 15). Frequency of occupying the T area at the moment opponents played their shot best discriminated playing standard. Winners spent a greater proportion of total playing time in the T area than losers (P < 0.001), except during closely contested games. The results suggest that time in the T area indicates dominance of rallies. Future studies need to consider both between-group (playing standard) and within-game (individual player standard) differences, as both were shown to influence the time players spent in the T area. PMID:19551552

Vuckovi?, Goran; Pers, Janez; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike

2009-06-01

243

Standardization Versus Adaptation in Global Markets: Is Channel Strategy Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argument over standardization versus adaptation of marketing strategy in international markets has raged for several decades. This argument has generally taken place at the aggregate level to include all four strategic areas of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place) taken together. This article disaggregates the standardization-versus-adaptation argument by focusing on just one strategic area of the marketing

Boryana Dimitrova; Bert Rosenbloom

2010-01-01

244

Are variations among right-handed individuals in perceptual asymmetries caused by characteristic arousal differences between hemispheres?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the hypothesis that much of the variance among right-handed Ss in perceptual asymmetries on standard behavioral measures of laterality arises from individual differences in characteristic patterns of asymmetric hemispheric arousal using 32 undergraduates. Dextrals with large right-visual-field (RVF) advantages on a tachistoscopic syllable-identification task outperformed those having weak or no visual-field asymmetries. The 2 groups were equal, however, in

Jerre Levy; Wendy Heller; Marie T. Banich; Leslie A. Burton

1983-01-01

245

A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

2012-01-01

246

Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural selection often promotes a mix of behavioural phenotypes in a population. Adaptive variation in the propensity to take risks might explain individual differences in shyness and boldness in humans and other species. It is often implicitly assumed that shyness and boldness are general personality traits expressed across many situations. From the evolutionary standpoint, however, individual differences that are adaptive

KRISTINE COLEMAN; DAVID SLOAN WILSON

1998-01-01

247

The Richness Imperative and Cognitive Style: The Role of Individual Differences in Media Choice Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes a new thesis about the role of individual differences in managers' media choice behavior. Argues that individual differences influence media choice only under conditions of low message equivocality. Reports that the findings of an exploratory study provide some support for this theoretical notion. (MG)|

Trevino, Linda Klebe; And Others

1990-01-01

248

CLASSI: A Classification Model for the Study of Sequential Processes and Individual Differences Therein  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In psychological research, one often aims at explaining individual differences in S-R profiles, that is, individual differences in the responses (R) with which people react to specific stimuli (S). To this end, researchers often postulate an underlying sequential process, which boils down to the specification of a set of mediating variables (M)…

Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

2008-01-01

249

Individual Differences in Category Learning: Sometimes Less Working Memory Capacity Is Better than More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined whether individual differences in working memory influence the facility with which individuals learn new categories. Participants learned two different types of category structures: "rule-based" and "information-integration." Successful learning of the former category structure is thought to be based on explicit hypothesis testing…

DeCaro, Mari S.; Thomas, Robin D.; Beilock, Sian L.

2008-01-01

250

CLASSI: A Classification Model for the Study of Sequential Processes and Individual Differences Therein  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In psychological research, one often aims at explaining individual differences in S-R profiles, that is, individual differences in the responses (R) with which people react to specific stimuli (S). To this end, researchers often postulate an underlying sequential process, which boils down to the specification of a set of mediating variables (M)…

Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

2008-01-01

251

Multilevel Models for Examining Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation and Covariation over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance--it may be of direct interest as a result of individual differences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individual differences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for…

Hoffman, Lesa

2007-01-01

252

Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

2008-01-01

253

Affects on visual search performance of individual differences in fixation time and number of fixations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for improving individual visual performance of inspectors. The relationship between the correct count rate and eye movements of subjects when they counted dots arranged on samples presented for different lengths of time were analysed mainly to determine individual differences. Subjects' eye movements were measured with a corneal reflectance eye camera

H. TOGAMI

1984-01-01

254

Individual Differences and MIS Success: A Review of the Empirical Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the numerous factors believed to influence MIS success, the area of individual differences has by far been the most extensively studied. This paper synthesizes the findings of empirical investigations of the manner in which individual differences impact MIS success. Suggestions are made regarding those aspects which would benefit most from future research.

Robert W. Zmud

1979-01-01

255

Some Like It Vigorous: Measuring Individual Differences in the Preference for and Tolerance of Exercise Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals differ in the intensity of exercise they prefer and the intensity they can tolerate. The purpose of this project was to develop a measure of individual differences in the preference for and tolerance of exercise intensity. The steps involved in (a) item generation and face validation, (b) exploratory factor analysis and item selection, (c) structural validation, (d) examination of

Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Eric E. Hall; Steven J. Petruzzello

2005-01-01

256

DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION BY USING TWO-NODE MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology to describe the individual difference in temperature regulation of human body in transient state is proposed in this paper. In order to clarify the individual difference experimentally, the change in skin and core temperatures was measured for four subjects exposed to a thermal transient condition including stepwise air temperature change of coming and going to lower and higher

Satoru Takada; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Takayuki Matsushita

257

Individual differences in sugar consumption predict amphetamine-induced dopamine overflow in nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats exhibit individual differences in their consumption of sugar and in their response to amphetamine treatments. Intrinsic variation in the functioning of the mesolimbic dopamine system is one potential mechanism underlying the expression of these individual differences. The present experiment examined the relationship between sugar consumption and the dopaminergic response to amphetamine. In vivo microdialysis was used to assess amphetamine-stimulated

Terrence L. Sills; Jacqueline N. Crawley

1996-01-01

258

Individual Differences in Mediators and Reactions to a Personal Safety Threat Message  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in processing information about a personal threat message about bisphenol A (BPA) risk were examined using the threat orientation model (Thompson & Schlehofer, 2008). Adults (N = 448) read a risk message concerning BPA in plastics. Threat orientations, intentions to protect oneself from BPA risk, and emotional and cognitive reactions to the message were measured. Individuals with different approaches to

Michèle M. Schlehofer; Suzanne C. Thompson

2011-01-01

259

Sex Differences in Managerial Style: From Individual Leadership to Organisational Labour Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with sex differences in managerial behaviour, by testing the extent to which such differences match those expected from gender stereotypes. Unlike previous research on the topic, always based on opinions about individual managers, this investigation uses firm-level evidence from the British 1998 Workplace Employment Relationship Survey (WERS 98). This means that some problems usually present in individual-level

Eduardo Melero Martín

2004-01-01

260

Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and mother rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing is an adaptive defensive behavior that is expressed in response to an imminent threat. In prior studies with rhesus monkeys, stable individual differences in animals' propensities to freeze have been demonstrated. To understand the factors associated with these individual differences, freezing behavior was examined in infant rhesus monkeys and their mothers, in conjunction with levels of the stress-related hormone

Ned H. Kalin; Steven E. Shelton; Maureen Rickman; Richard J. Davidson

1998-01-01

261

A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

2012-01-01

262

Analysis of an Altered Simple Silicate Glass Using Different Mineral and Glass Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantitative analyses of alteration products formed during the aqueous corrosion of glass were performed using four different sets of standards: relevant mineral standards, an NBS glass standard, and the unreacted center of the reacted glass. A simple sil...

J. J. Mazer J. K. Bates

1989-01-01

263

Individual Differences in Arousal and Their Relationship to Short- and Long-Term Retention. Report From the Project on Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning and Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In two separate paired-associate learning experiments each employing 40 university students as subjects, the contribution of individual differences (IDs) in arousal to short- and long-term retention was investigated using IDs in salivary response to lemon juice stimulation as an index of arousal. Experimental subjects were pre-selected out of 184…

Osborne, John W.; Farley, Frank H.

264

Individual Differences in the Real-Time Comprehension of Children with ASD.  

PubMed

Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate deficits in language comprehension, but little is known about how they process spoken language as it unfolds. Real-time lexical comprehension is associated with language and cognition in children without ASD, suggesting that this may also be the case for children with ASD. This study adopted an individual differences approach to characterizing real-time comprehension of familiar words in a group of 34 three- to six-year-olds with ASD. The looking-while-listening paradigm was employed; it measures online accuracy and latency through language-mediated eye movements and has limited task demands. On average, children demonstrated comprehension of the familiar words, but considerable variability emerged. Children with better accuracy were faster to process the familiar words. In combination, processing speed and comprehension on a standardized language assessment explained 63% of the variance in online accuracy. Online accuracy was not correlated with autism severity or maternal education, and nonverbal cognition did not explain unique variance. Notably, online accuracy at age 5½ was related to vocabulary comprehension 3 years earlier. The words typically learned earliest in life were processed most quickly. Consistent with a dimensional view of language abilities, these findings point to similarities in patterns of language acquisition in typically developing children and those with ASD. Overall, our results emphasize the value of examining individual differences in real-time language comprehension in this population. We propose that the looking-while-listening paradigm is a sensitive and valuable methodological tool that can be applied across many areas of autism research. Autism Res 2013, ??: ??-??. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23696214

Venker, Courtney E; Eernisse, Elizabeth R; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

2013-05-20

265

Metabolic Rates Can Drive Individual Differences in Information and Insurance Use under the Risk of Starvation.  

PubMed

Abstract Variation in how individuals invest in acquiring information (sampling) and in insuring themselves against potential negative consequences of uncertainty (e.g., by storing energy reserves) has been suggested to underlie consistent individual differences in suites of behavioral traits. However, the key drivers of individual differences in information use remain poorly understood. We use dynamic programming to explore how existing variation in metabolic rates (MRs) affects the use of sampling and insurance under starvation risk. Our analysis reveals nonlinear effects of MRs on diurnal patterns of sampling and insurance. Individuals with low MRs accrue reserves quickly, because they invest in sampling and are able to exploit profitable options when they arise. Individuals with intermediate MRs initially lose reserves, because sampling, while optimal, is relatively expensive; however, they later build reserves due to efficient exploitation of alternative foraging options. Sampling rarely pays for individuals with the highest MRs, which show relatively constant levels of energy reserves throughout the foraging period. Thus, individual variation in MRs on the scale observed in natural populations can lead to important differences in investment in sampling and insurance and may underpin consistent individual differences in suites of other behavioral traits, including individual differences in behavioral responsiveness. PMID:24107368

Mathot, Kimberley J; Dall, Sasha R X

2013-09-23

266

The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  

PubMed

Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

2012-01-01

267

Performance Standards: Utility for Different Uses of Assessments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggest that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Discusses variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by status for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (SLD)

Linn, Robert L.

2003-01-01

268

Tinnitus: Standard of Care, Personality Differences, Genetic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We comment on three areas related to tinnitus. The standard of care should include counseling that is collaborative and that addresses the overall emotional well-being of the patient. Utilizing management and coping strategies is desirable. Our new tinnitus activities treatment is an example of such a protocol. We believe that the notions of fearfulness and acceptance have the potential to

Richard S. Tyler; Claudia Coelho; William Noble

2006-01-01

269

Temporal symmetry of individual filaments in different spatial symmetry filaments pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge  

SciTech Connect

The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.

Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

2010-10-15

270

Cultural differences in how individuals explain their lying and truth-telling tendencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how cultural differences between Korea and the United States in attitudinal and normative components affect individuals’ explanation of their intentions to lie or tell the truth. Study 1 examined individuals’ intentions to base their lying or truth-telling tendencies on attitude-related reasons (i.e., attitudinal reasons) and subjective norm-related reasons (i.e., normative reasons). Study 2 examined individuals’ evaluation of

Hye Jeong Choi; Hee Sun Park; Ju Yeon Oh

271

Individual differences and setting as determinants of acute adverse reactions to psychoactive drugs.  

PubMed

The relationship between setting and individual differences in determining acute adverse reactions to psychoactive drugs was examined using retrospective data from 483 drug users. Five dimensions of setting were identified. Although there were some small setting main effects, these effects failed to reach significance when shared variance with individual difference variables was considered. For acute adverse reactions to LSD, however, there were seven independent interaction effects between setting and individual difference variables. There were two interaction effects of smaller magnitude related to acute adverse reactions to marijuana. The significance of these results for the current controversy over the relative importance of situational vs. personality determinants of behavior was discussed. PMID:1185154

Naditch, M P; Alker, P C; Joffe, P

1975-11-01

272

Individualism: A Valid and Important Dimension of Cultural Differences Between Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyserman, Coon, and Kemmelmeier's (2002) meta-analysis suggested problems in the measurement of individualism and collectivism. Studies using Hofstede's individ- ualism scores show little convergent validity with more recent measures of individual- ism and collectivism. We propose that the lack of convergent validity is due to national differences in response styles. Whereas Hofstede statistically controlled for response styles, Oyserman et al.'s

Ulrich Schimmack; Shigehiro Oishi; Ed Diener

2005-01-01

273

Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…

MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

274

Individual behavioural differences in pigs: intra-and inter-test consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in behavioural responses are of increasing interest in the behavioural sciences. There could be enormous benefits for animal husbandry if a test could be developed that would identify categories or types of individuals unlikely to cope with subsequent challenges. The present study compared the behavioural responses of two series of 16 groups (n = 6 or 7 gilts)

Hans A. M. Spoolder; Jackie A. Burbidge; Alistair B. Lawrence; P. Howard Simmins; Sandra A. Edwards

1996-01-01

275

Families, schools, individual characteristics, and young adults’ outcomes: Social and cultural group differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderation-mediation model was developed to investigate relationships among adolescents’ family, school learning environments, individual characteristics, and measures of the academic, affective, and social outcomes of young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth. The findings indicated that: (1) adolescents’ family backgrounds, family and school capital, and individual characteristics combined

Kevin Marjoribanks

2004-01-01

276

Individual Differences in Perceiving and Recognizing Faces—One Element of Social Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing faces swiftly and accurately is of paramount importance to humans as a social species. Individual differences in the ability to perform these tasks may therefore reflect important aspects of social or emotional intelligence. Although functional models of face cognition based on group and single case studies postulate multiple component processes, little is known about the ability structure underlying individual

Oliver Wilhelm; Grit Herzmann; Olga Kunina; Vanessa Danthiir; Annekathrin Schacht; Werner Sommer

2010-01-01

277

Stigma on my mind: Individual differences in the experience of stereotype threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotyped individuals vary in how chronically self-conscious they are of their stigmatized status, which Pinel (1999) has dubbed stigma consciousness. The current study investigated whether individual differences in stigma consciousness moderate the impact of gender stereotypes on the math performance of women. Results indicated that, under conditions designed to evoke stereotype threat (Steele, 1997), women high in stigma consciousness scored

Ryan P. Brown; Elizabeth C. Pinel

2003-01-01

278

Self-Reflection, Insight, and Individual Differences in Various Language Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the relationships of self-reflection and insight with individuals' performances on various language tasks. The Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS; Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) assessed individual differences in three factors: engagement in reflection, need for reflection, and insight. A high need for reflection was…

Xu, Xu

2011-01-01

279

Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each of the 3 ex-Gaussian parameters and for 3 parameters central to the diffusion model

Florian Schmiedek; Klaus Oberauer; Oliver Wilhelm; Heinz-Martin Sü?; Werner W. Wittmann

2007-01-01

280

The Reliability and Stability of Individual Differences in Infant-Mother Attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

50 infants were seen twice in the Ainsworth and Wittig Strange Situation to assess individual differences in the quality of infant-mother attachment at 12 and at 18 months of age. Evidence for the stability of individual dif- ferences was clearly a function of the level of analysis. The reliability of discrete-behavior variables was typi- cally very low, and there was

Everett Waters

1978-01-01

281

Individual differences in general intelligence correlate with brain function during nonreasoning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain imaging can help identify the functional neuroanatomy of general intelligence (i.e., “g”) and indicate how brain areas salient to g relate to information processing. An important question is whether individual differences in g among subjects are related to brain function even when nonreasoning tasks are studied. If so, this would imply that individuals with high g scores may process

Richard J. Haier; Nathan S. White; Michael T. Alkire

2003-01-01

282

Animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on

Cornelius R. Pawlak; Ying-Jui Ho; Rainer K. W. Schwarting

2008-01-01

283

Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…

Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

2005-01-01

284

Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…

Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.

2007-01-01

285

A Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Standard Versus Enhanced Risk Reduction and Adherence Counseling for Individuals Receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Following Sexual Exposures to HIV  

PubMed Central

Background.?The National HIV/AIDS Strategy proposes to scale-up post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Intensive risk reduction and adherence counseling appear to be effective but are resource intensive. Identifying simpler interventions that maximize the HIV prevention potential of PEP is critical. Methods.?A randomized noninferiority study comparing 2 (standard) or 5 (enhanced) risk reduction counseling sessions was performed. Adherence counseling was provided in the enhanced arm. We measured changes in unprotected sexual intercourse acts at 12 months, compared with baseline; HIV acquisition; and PEP adherence. Outcomes were stratified by degree of baseline risk. Results.?We enrolled 457 individuals reporting unprotected intercourse within 72 h with an HIV-infected or at-risk partner. Participants were 96% male and 71% white. There were 1.8 and 2.3 fewer unprotected sex acts in the standard and enhanced groups. The maximum potential risk difference, reflected by the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval, was 3.9 acts. The difference in the riskier subset may have been as many as 19.6 acts. The incidence of HIV seroconversion was 2.9% and 2.6% among persons randomized to standard and enhanced counseling, respectively, with a maximum potential difference of 3.4%. The absolute and maximal HIV seroconversion incidence was 9.9% and 20.4% greater in the riskier group randomized to standard, compared with enhanced, counseling. Adherence outcomes were similar, with noninferiority in the lower risk group and concerning differences among the higher-risk group. Conclusions.?Risk assessment is critical at PEP initiation. Standard counseling is only noninferior for individuals with lower baseline risk; thus, enhanced counseling should be targeted to individuals at higher risk.

Neilands, Torsten B.; Krone, Melissa R.; Coates, Thomas J.; Franses, Karena; Chesney, Margaret A.; Kahn, James S.; Martin, Jeffrey N.

2011-01-01

286

Establishment of a Standardized Liver Fibrosis Model with Different Pathological Stages in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective. To establish a standardized animal model for liver fibrosis with the same assessment criteria for liver fibrosis studies that have been established on a unified platform. Methods. The standardized liver fibrosis model was established using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that either received an intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in small dosages or ingested an ethanol solution. Results. The definite corresponding rules among modeling of different weeks and corresponding serology indices as well as different pathological staging can be observed by modeling with small dosages and slow, individualized, and combined administrations. Conclusion. This method can be used for the standardized establishment of a liver fibrosis model in rats across 5 pathological stages, ranging from S0 to S4, with a high success rate (89.33%) and low death rate (17.3%) because of the application of multiple hypotoxic chemicals for modeling. We refer to the criteria of Histological Grading and Staging of Chronic Hepatitis for Fibrosis established by the 10th World Digestive Disease Academic Conference in Los Angeles in September 1994 (revised in November 2000).

Li, Li; Hu, Zongqiang; Li, Wen; Hu, Mingdao; Ran, Jianghua; Chen, Peng; Sun, Qiangming

2012-01-01

287

Individual Differences in Adaptive Processing in Complex Learning and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theories of intelligence and learning ability emphasize individual differences in adaptation of information processing during performance on novel, changing tasks, but measures of adaptation have been lacking. This research sought to develop and evaluate ...

D. Jackson R. E. Snow R. L. Chastain

1992-01-01

288

Perceptual Information Processing as a Function of Spatial and Verbal Individual Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individual differences in perceptual information processing were tested using 327 ten year old children, with verbal tasks representing successive information processing and spatial tasks representing simultaneous information processing. Three sets of tas...

B. S. Randhawa D. Hunt

1976-01-01

289

TMFA: A FORTRAN Program for Three-Mode Factor Analysis and Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)

Redfield, Joel

1978-01-01

290

Cognitive, perceptual-speed, and psychomotor determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition.  

PubMed

The authors describe a series of experiments that explore 3 major ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition in the context of prior theory (e.g., P.L. Ackerman, 1988) and subsequent empirical and theoretical research. Experiment 1 assessed the predictability of individual differences in asymptotic skill levels on the Kanfer-Ackerman Air Traffic Controller (ATC) task. Experiment 2 provided an exploration of the construct space underlying perceptual-speed abilities. Experiment 3 concerned an evaluation of theoretical predictions for individual differences in performance over skill development in a complex air traffic control simulation task (TRACON) and the ATC task, with an extensive battery of general and perceptual-speed measures, along with a newly developed PC-based suite of psychomotor ability measures. Evidence addressing the predictability of individual differences in performance at early, intermediate, and asymptotic levels of practice is presented. PMID:11218338

Ackerman, P L; Cianciolo, A T

2000-12-01

291

TMFA: A FORTRAN Program for Three-Mode Factor Analysis and Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)|

Redfield, Joel

1978-01-01

292

Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal article "Responses to Mild Cold Stress Are Predicted by Different Individual Characteristics in Young and Older Subjects", from the Journal of Applied Physiology, by David W. Degroot, W. Larry Kenny, and George Havenith.

David W DeGroot (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology); Larry W. Kenny (Pennsylvania State University Kinesiology); George Havenith (Loughborough University Human Sciences)

2006-12-01

293

The logic of message design: Individual differences in reasoning about communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that there are systematic individual differences in the premises used to generate messages through ends to means reasoning. Reliance on these alternative sets of premises and beliefs—referred to as “message design logics\\

Barbara J. OKeefe

1988-01-01

294

Universal Design for Learning: meeting the challenge of individual learning differences through a neurocognitive perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional “one-size-fits-all” approach to curriculum denies the vast individual differences in learning strengths, challenges,\\u000a and interests. The focus of this article is a novel approach, called Universal Design for Learning, to addressing the challenge\\u000a of individual learner differences. Cognitive science research suggests the joint action of three broad sets of neural networks\\u000a in cognition and learning: one that recognizes

David H. Rose; Nicole Strangman

2007-01-01

295

Multilevel Models for Examining Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation and Covariation Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity of variance may be more than a statistical nuisance—it may be of direct interest as a result of individual differences. In studies of short-term fluctuation, individual differences may relate to the magnitude of within-person variation as well as to level of an outcome or its covariation with other processes. Although models for heterogeneous variances have been utilized in group

Lesa Hoffman

2007-01-01

296

Neuroscientific Approaches to the Study of Individual Differences in Cognition and Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the particular field of the psychology of individual differences, the one that deals with cognitive performance probably\\u000a has the longest and maybe the most comprehensive research tradition. Individual differences in cognitive ability, viz. intelligence,\\u000a now span more than 100 years of research tradition, if we start from Francis Galton’s (1883) notion of intelligence as an\\u000a inherited feature of an

Aljoscha C. Neubauer; Andreas Fink

297

Modeling multimodal integration patterns and performance in seniors: toward adaptive processing of individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal interfaces are designed with a focus on flexibility, although very few currently are capable of adapting to major sources of user, task, or environmental variation. The development of adaptive multimodal processing techniques will require empirical guidance from quantitative modeling on key aspects of individual differences, especially as users engage in different types of tasks in different usage contexts. In

Benfang Xiao; Rebecca Lunsford; Rachel Coulston; Matt Wesson; Sharon L. Oviatt

2003-01-01

298

Nature and stability of individual differences in early lexical development of Italian-speaking children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to identify individual differences in both rate and style of language acquisition in a sample of 15 Italian- speaking children, observed at 16 and 20 months of age. The nature as well as the stability of such differences over time were investigated, and the usefulness of different criteria for defining stylistic tendencies was evaluated. Fifteen middle-high

Luigia Camaioni; Emiddia Longobardi

1995-01-01

299

Enantiomeric compositions of monoterpene hydrocarbons in different tissues of four individuals of Pinus sylvestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative amounts of volatiles, mainly monoterpene hydrocarbons, were determined in eight different tissues of each of four individuals of Pinus sylvestris. The four trees represented widely different monoterpene compositions. Two-dimensional gas chromatography, using columns with stationary phases containing functionalized cyclodextrins, allowed the determination of the enantiomeric compositions of seven major chiral monoterpene hydrocarbons. Large differences in the relative amounts

Kristina Sjödin; Monika Persson; Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson; Torbjörn Norin

1996-01-01

300

Are Some Negotiators Better Than Others? Individual Differences in Bargaining Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The authors address the long-standing mystery of stable individual differences in negotiation performance, on which intuition and conventional wisdom have clashed with inconsistent empirical findings. The present study used the Social Relations Model to examine individual differences directly via consistency in performance across multiple negotiations and to disentangle the roles of both parties within these inherently dyadic interactions. Individual differences explained a substantial 46% of objective performance and 19% of subjective performance in a mixed-motive bargaining exercise. Previous work may have understated the influence of individual differences because conventional research designs require specific traits to be identified and measured. Exploratory analyses of a battery of traits revealed few reliable associations with consistent individual differences in objective performance—except for positive beliefs about negotiation, positive affect, and concern for one's outcome, each of which predicted better performance. Findings suggest that the field has large untapped potential to explain substantial individual differences. Limitations, areas for future research, and practical implications are discussed.

Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Curhan, Jared R.; Eisenkraft, Noah; Shirako, Aiwa; Baccaro, Lucio

2008-01-01

301

Vive les differences! Individual variation in neural mechanisms of executive control.  

PubMed

Investigations of individual differences have become increasingly important in the cognitive neuroscience of executive control. For instance, individual variation in lateral prefrontal cortex function (and that of associated regions) has recently been used to identify contributions of executive control processes to a number of domains, including working memory capacity, anxiety, reward/motivation, and emotion regulation. However, the origins of such individual differences remain poorly understood. Recent progress toward identifying the genetic and environmental sources of variation in neural traits, in combination with progress in identifying the causal relationships between neural and cognitive processes, will be essential for developing a mechanistic understanding of executive control. PMID:20381337

Braver, Todd S; Cole, Michael W; Yarkoni, Tal

2010-04-08

302

Principles of Standardizing the Microclimate of Individual Gas-Defense Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In ensuring safe working conditions at enterprises of the chemical, mining, petroleum, atomic, and other branches of industry, as well as in the exploration of underwater areas and outer space an important role is played by individual gas-defense devices....

S. M. Gorodinskii G. V. Bavro E. I. Kuznets Y. G. Pletenskii S. P. Raykhman

1973-01-01

303

Developing Standards-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many special education professionals perceive a dilemma created by what seems to be conflicting mandates of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2002. Teachers and IEP (Individualized Education Program) teams serving students with significant disabilities are confronted with the challenge of designing programs that assure access to the general curriculum while at…

Lynch, Sharon; Adams, Paula

2008-01-01

304

Predicting and preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): the need for individualized not standardized treatment  

PubMed Central

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious complication of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) as part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). While the safety and efficacy of ART is well established, physicians should always be aware of the risk of OHSS in patients undergoing COS, as it can be fatal. This article will briefly present the pathophysiology of OHSS, including the key role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), to provide the foundation for an overview of current techniques for the prevention of OHSS. Risk factors and predictive factors for OHSS will be presented, as recognizing these risk factors and individualizing the COS protocol appropriately is the key to the primary prevention of OHSS, as the benefits and risks of each COS strategy vary among individuals. Individualized COS (iCOS) could effectively eradicate OHSS, and the identification of hormonal, functional and genetic markers of ovarian response will facilitate iCOS. However, if iCOS is not properly applied, various preventive measures can be instituted once COS has begun, including cancelling the cycle, coasting, individualizing the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger dose or using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (for those using a GnRH antagonist protocol), the use of intravenous fluids at the time of oocyte retrieval, and cryopreserving/vitrifying all embryos for subsequent transfer in an unstimulated cycle. Some of these techniques have been widely adopted, despite the scarcity of data from randomized clinical trials to support their use.

2012-01-01

305

Another source of individual differences: strategy adaptivity to changing rates of success.  

PubMed

This article explores an alternative approach to the study of individual differences of cognitive function-- that people may have the same strategies but differential ability to adaptively select among them in response to success and failure feedback from the environment. Three studies involving the complex and dynamic Kanfer-Ackerman Air Traffic Control Task (P. L. Ackerman & R. Kanfer, 1994) demonstrate (a) that individuals do differ systematically along this strategy adaptivity dimension, (b) that those differences have important consequences for overall task performance, and (c) that the differences are primarily associated with reasoning ability and working-memory capacity. PMID:11293460

Schunn, C D; Reder, L M

2001-03-01

306

Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.  

PubMed

Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains. PMID:19776422

Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

2009-09-23

307

Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume  

PubMed Central

Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were “individualizing” (values of harm/care and fairness), and “binding” (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex volume, and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

Lewis, G. J.; Kanai, R.; Bates, T. C.; Rees, G.

2012-01-01

308

Estimation of insulin secretion rates from C-peptide levels. Comparison of individual and standard kinetic parameters for C-peptide clearance.  

PubMed

Insulin secretion rates can be accurately estimated from plasma C-peptide levels with a two-compartment model for C-peptide distribution and degradation. In previous studies, the kinetic parameters of C-peptide clearance were derived in each subject from the decay curve observed after bolus intravenous injection of biosynthetic human C-peptide. To determine whether standard parameters for C-peptide clearance could be defined and used to calculate insulin secretion without obtaining a decay curve in each subject, we analyzed 200 decay curves of biosynthetic human C-peptide obtained in normal, obese, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects studied in our laboratory. This analysis showed that the volume of distribution and kinetic parameters of C-peptide distribution and metabolism vary by less than 30% in a population highly heterogeneous in terms of age, sex, degree of obesity, and degree of glucose tolerance. The volume of distribution correlated with the degree of obesity as quantified by body surface area (BSA). This dependence of C-peptide distribution volume on BSA was more marked in men than in women. The long half-life was slightly longer in elderly subjects than in younger adults. When effects of BSA, sex, and age were taken into account, the parameters of C-peptide kinetics were very similar in normal, obese, and diabetic subjects. Based on these findings, a simple procedure to derive standard parameters for C-peptide clearance taking into account degree of obesity, sex, and age was defined. These standard parameters resulted in estimations of mean insulin secretion rates, which differed in each subject by only 10-12% from those obtained with individual parameters. The approach of using standard rather than individual parameters did not systematically underestimate or overestimate insulin secretion so that group values for the fasting secretion rate, the mean 24-h secretion rate, and the number and the amplitude of secretory pulses obtained with standard parameters differed by only 1-2% from the values obtained with individual parameters. Furthermore, the accuracy of measurements based on standard parameters was not different from that associated with replicate determinations of the parameters of C-peptide clearance in the same subject. We conclude that it is possible to estimate insulin secretion rates from plasma C-peptide levels with standard parameters for C-peptide clearance rather than individually derived parameters without significant loss of accuracy. PMID:1551497

Van Cauter, E; Mestrez, F; Sturis, J; Polonsky, K S

1992-03-01

309

Individual differences in radial maze performance and locomotor activity in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

PubMed

Individual differences in the radial maze performance and locomotor activity of wild-caught and first-generation laboratory-born meadow voles are described. Based on their patterns of response in an eight-arm radial maze the essentially wild voles fell into three behavioral categories: 1) strict algorithmic (i.e., they systematically chose the next adjacent arm to their previous choice); 2) nonalgorithmic (i.e., they ran the maze without any consistent or definable pattern); and 3) nonrunners (i.e., nonperformers of the task who remained relatively immobile in the arms of the maze). The algorithmic and nonalgorithmic voles further differed in their responses to an interference manipulation of the radial maze task. Algorithmic individuals displayed a marked performance deficit, while the nonalgorithmic individuals showed minimal disruption to a 1-min delay interruption of the maze task. Measurements of several aspects of locomotor activity using the automated Digiscan activity monitoring system revealed that the algorithmic individuals also displayed significantly greater levels of activity than the nonalgorithmic or nonrunners, with no significant difference in activity between the latter two groups. These findings suggest that the algorithmic voles were relatively inflexible in their behavior, while the nonalgorithmic individuals were more flexible in their maze performance and likely in their use of spatial and nonspatial information. These individual differences in laboratory measures of learning behavior and locomotor activity in meadow voles are consistent with the polymorphism that is proposed to occur in the wild. PMID:9877423

Teskey, G C; Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M; Innis, N K; Boon, F H

1998-12-01

310

Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work.

Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

2012-01-01

311

Linking neurogenetics and individual differences in language learning: the dopamine hypothesis.  

PubMed

Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals' genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine (DA)-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between DA-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. PMID:22565204

Wong, Patrick C M; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2012-03-30

312

Evidence-based practice for individuals or groups: let's make a difference.  

PubMed

The aim of applying science into practice is to deliver high-quality health care. Thinking about teaching the necessary accompanying skills, a distinction can be made between using evidence for individual patient care and using scientific knowledge for the development of protocols or guidelines for groups of patients or professionals. In this paper, these two ways of applying science into practice are being considered. We plea for explicating the differences between the individual patient and a group of patients or professionals when applying scientific knowledge in the decision-making process. The acknowledgment of these differences facilitates the teaching of the accompanying competences and different CanMEDS roles. PMID:24101580

de Groot, M; van der Wouden, J M; van Hell, E A; Nieweg, M B

2013-09-01

313

Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.  

PubMed

Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

2010-01-01

314

Differences in Social Vulnerability among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although individuals with disabilities are at increased risk of victimization, few studies examine persons with different disability conditions to determine whether distinctive cognitive-behavioral profiles are associated with different levels of social vulnerability. To determine the differences in social vulnerability and experiences of victimization, caregiver responses to a Social Vulnerability Questionnaire were examined for 103 caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and Down syndrome (DS). Although all three groups experienced similar rates and types of victimization, the specific correlates of social vulnerability differed by disability. Individuals with ASD displayed less risk awareness and had less social protection; those with WS were rated higher on risk factors related to perceived vulnerability and parental independence; and those with DS had less risk awareness and were perceived to be more vulnerable. Safety interventions should be tailored to address each group's specific correlates of social vulnerability. PMID:23745132

Fisher, Marisa H; Moskowitz, Andrew L; Hodapp, Robert M

2013-08-01

315

Effects of Individual Differences in Size and Mobility of the Middle Ear on Hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size of the tympanic membrane and ossicles and the stiffness of the middle-ear ligaments and joint are different between individuals, and the effects of these differences on middle-ear transfer function have not been clarified. In this study, using finite-element middle-ear models, the effects of individual differences in the size and mobility of the middle ear on its transmission characteristics were analyzed. The individual differences in the size of the normal middle ear were found to affect the transfer function by up to 10dB. The effects of the Young’s moduli of the stapedial annular ligaments and the incudostapedial joint on the transfer function were large compared to the effects of the Young’s moduli of the other parts of the middle ear.

Koike, Takuji; Shinozaki, Masaki; Murakami, Sayuri; Homma, Kyoji; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Wada, Hiroshi

316

From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade's research on gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performed an analysis of recent research on sex and gender in terms of 3 major approaches: (a) sex as an S variable; (b) individual differences in masculinity, femininity, and androgyny; and (c) sex as a social category. The variance accounted for by main effect differences of S sex was found to be small in most cases. The unique contribution of

Kay Deaux

1984-01-01

317

Beyond Quantity: Individual Differences in Working Memory and the Ordinal Understanding of Numerical Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two different contexts, we examined the hypothesis that individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity are related to the tendency to infer complex, ordinal relationships "between" numerical symbols. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether this tendency arises in a learning context that involves mapping novel symbols to quantities by…

Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.

2009-01-01

318

Behavioural differences between individuals and two populations of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural syndromes are correlations between behaviours in different functional contexts. Behavioural syndromes are attracting the attention of evolutionary biologists because they mean that different behaviours might not be free to evolve independently of one another. In a landmark study, Huntingford (1976) showed that individual stickleback which were bold toward predators were also aggressive toward conspecifics and active in an unfamiliar

A. M. BELL

2005-01-01

319

Individual differences in face memory and eye fixation patterns during face learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between individual differences in face memory and eye fixation patterns during face learning. Participants watched short movies of 20 faces and were divided into high and low face memory groups based on their performance in a recognition memory test. No qualitative difference was observed in the eye fixation distribution between high and low groups. Both

Takahiro Sekiguchi

2011-01-01

320

Individual Differences in the Onset of Tense Marking: A Growth-Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at…

Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K.

2006-01-01

321

Reliance on Visible Speech Cues During Multimodal Language Processing: Individual and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study demonstrates that when a strong inhibition process is invoked during multimodal (auditory-visual) language understanding: older adults perform worse than younger adults, visible speech does not benefit language-processing performance, and individual differences in measures of working memory for language do not predict performance. In contrast, in a task that does not invoke inhibition: adult age differences in performance

L. Thompson; E. Garcia; D. Malloy

2007-01-01

322

Individual Difference in Repetition Priming and Its Relationship to Declarative Knowledge Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies involving 274 Air Force recruits and 163 college students, respectively, investigated the relationship between priming effects and declarative knowledge acquisition within repetitive practice models. Individual differences in repetition-priming effects uniquely predicted learning differences relative to other cognitive measures.…

Woltz, Dan J.; Shute, Valerie J.

1993-01-01

323

Individual Differences in Anterior Brain Asymmetry and Fundamental Dimensions of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed whether individual differences in anterior brain asymmetry are linked to differences in basic dimensions of emotion. In each of 2 experimental sessions, separated by 3 weeks, resting electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded from female adults during 8 60-s baselines. Mean alpha power asymmetry across both sessions was extracted in mid-frontal and anterior temporal sites. Across both regions,

Andrew J. Tomarken; Richard J. Davidson; Robert E. Wheeler; Robert C. Doss

1992-01-01

324

Bayesian Nonparametric Modeling of Individual Differences: A Case Study Using Decision-Making on Bandit Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop and compare two non-parametric Bayesian ap- proaches for modeling individual differences in cognitive pro- cesses. These approaches both allow major discrete differ- ences between groups of people to be modeled, without mak- ing strong prior assumptions about how many groups are re- quired. Instead, the number of groups can naturally grow as more information about the behavior of

Matthew D. Zeigenfuse; Michael D. Lee

325

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of

Lisa Feldman Barrett; Michele M. Tugade; Randall W. Engle

2004-01-01

326

Individual and Cultural Differences On Status DifferentiationThe Status Differentiation Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of status differentiation is introduced along with a description of the development and initial validation of an individual-difference measure called the Status Differentiation Scale (SDS). This is followed by reports of cross-cultural differences on the SDS in three countries. Study 1 used American participants and established the scoring procedure for the SDS, its internal reliability and structural relationships,

David Matsumoto

2007-01-01

327

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory…

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

2004-01-01

328

Psychosocial problems and recruitment of incentive neurocircuitry: Exploring individual differences in healthy adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturational differences in brain responsiveness to rewards have been implicated in the increased rates of injury and death in adolescents from behavior-related causes. However, much of this morbidity is related to drug intoxication or other externalizing behaviors, and may be concentrated in a subset of adolescents who are at psychosocial or neurobiological risk. To examine whether individual differences in psychosocial

James M. Bjork; Ashley R. Smith; Gang Chen; Daniel W. Hommer

2011-01-01

329

Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

2009-01-01

330

Etiology of individual differences in reading performance: A test of sex limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that the etiology of individual differences in reading performance differs in males and females, reading performance data from twin pairs tested in the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center were fitted to structural equation models of sex limitation. The sample included 513 pairs of twins in which at least one member of each pair has a positive

Maricela Alarcón; J. C. DeFries; D. W. Fulker

1995-01-01

331

Individual Differences in Infant Fixation Duration: Dominance of Global versus Local Stimulus Properties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the dominance of global versus local visual properties in four-month-old infants as a function of individual differences in fixation duration. Suggests that long-looking infants process visual information more slowly than short-looking infants, and there may be qualitative differences in the manner in which the two groups of infants…

Colombo, John; And Others

1995-01-01

332

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in interference-rich contexts, it is unclear whether corresponding differences exist in neural responses that arise

A. Eve Miller; Jason M. Watson; David L. Strayer

2012-01-01

333

Routine cognitive errors: A trait-like predictor of individual differences in anxiety and distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies (N=361) sought to model a class of errors—namely, those in routine tasks—that several literatures have suggested may predispose individuals to higher levels of emotional distress. Individual differences in error frequency were assessed in choice reaction-time tasks of a routine cognitive type. In Study 1, it was found that tendencies toward error in such tasks exhibit trait-like stability over

Adam K. Fetterman; Michael D. Robinson

2011-01-01

334

An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these.

Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

2012-01-01

335

Individual differences on immunostimulatory activity of raw and black garlic extract in human primary immune cells.  

PubMed

The immunostimulatory activities of garlic extract using a cell line or animal models have been reported; however, no previous studies have evaluated individual differences in regards to the immunostimulatory activities. The immunostimulatory activities such as cell proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and nitric oxides (NO) production of raw garlic and black garlic extracts on individual primary lymphocytes or macrophages isolated from the blood of 21 volunteers were evaluated. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of raw garlic and black garlic ethanol extract was measured to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The 70% ethanol black garlic extracts at 70°C for 12?h (70% BGE) showed the strongest antioxidant and anticancer activities. Immunostimulatory activities of garlic extracts extracted under optimal condition on primary immune cells obtained from 21 volunteers were analyzed. Results showed that the cell proliferation, TNF-? and NO production of primary immune cells treated with 70% raw garlic extract (70% RGE) were significantly different; however, little difference was observed for the 70% BGE treatment. BGE showed stronger immunostimulatory activities than RGE. These results indicate that the immunostimulatory activities of RGE and BGE can be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and anticancer activities. Determination of immunostimulatory activities of different types of garlic using immune cells isolated from volunteers was dependent on the individual constituents due to changes in the composition of garlic during processing. Individual primary immune cells might be used as important tools to determine individual differences in all food ingredients for the development of personalized immunostimulatory active foods. PMID:22260639

Purev, Uranchimeg; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

2012-01-20

336

Standardization versus individualization: how each contributes to managing dose in computed tomography.  

PubMed

Dose management in medical imaging is about using the right dose for the specific patient and the specific diagnostic task; since patients and diagnostic tasks vary widely, the applied doses must also vary widely. Thus, a large amount of the variation observed in the computed tomography (CT) doses applied in medical imaging is appropriate. However, unacceptable sources of variations also exist. For similar sized patients and similar diagnostic tasks, variations in the applied doses should be small. It is the responsibility of the medical professionals in the imaging community, therefore, to ensure appropriate variations while minimizing unacceptable variations. That is, imaging professionals must make it standard practice to optimize scan parameters in a way that is specific to both patient size and diagnostic task. PMID:24077044

McCollough, Cynthia H

2013-11-01

337

Individual differences in trajectories of arithmetical development in typically achieving 5- to 7-year-olds.  

PubMed

The arithmetical performance of typically achieving 5- to 7-year-olds (N=29) was measured at four 6-month intervals. The same seven tasks were used at each time point: exact calculation, story problems, approximate arithmetic, place value, calculation principles, forced retrieval, and written problems. Although group analysis showed mostly linear growth over the 18-month period, analysis of individual differences revealed a much more complex picture. Some children exhibited marked variation in performance across the seven tasks, including evidence of difficulty in some cases. Individual growth patterns also showed differences in developmental trajectories between children on each task and within children across tasks. The findings support the idea of the componential nature of arithmetical ability and underscore the need for further longitudinal research on typically achieving children and of careful consideration of individual differences. PMID:19296965

Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerry; Wylie, Judith

2009-03-17

338

Inter-individual differences in empathy are reflected in human brain structure  

PubMed Central

Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individual differences in grey matter volume and individual differences in empathy traits. We found that individual differences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy.

Banissy, Michael J.; Kanai, Ryota; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint

2012-01-01

339

Inter-individual differences in empathy are reflected in human brain structure.  

PubMed

Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individual differences in grey matter volume and individual differences in empathy traits. We found that individual differences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy. PMID:22683384

Banissy, Michael J; Kanai, Ryota; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint

2012-06-06

340

Individual Differences in the Multisensory Temporal Binding Window Predict Susceptibility to Audiovisual Illusions  

PubMed Central

Human multisensory systems are known to bind inputs from the different sensory modalities into a unified percept, a process that leads to measurable behavioral benefits. This integrative process can be observed through multisensory illusions, including the McGurk effect and the sound-induced flash illusion, both of which demonstrate the ability of one sensory modality to modulate perception in a second modality. Such multisensory integration is highly dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory inputs, with perceptual binding occurring within a limited range of asynchronies known as the temporal binding window (TBW). Previous studies have shown that this window is highly variable across individuals, but it is unclear how these variations in the TBW relate to an individual’s ability to integrate multisensory cues. Here we provide evidence linking individual differences in multisensory temporal processes to differences in the individual’s audiovisual integration of illusory stimuli. Our data provide strong evidence that the temporal processing of multiple sensory signals and the merging of multiple signals into a single, unified perception, are highly related. Specifically, the width of right side of an individuals’ TBW, where the auditory stimulus follows the visual, is significantly correlated with the strength of illusory percepts, as indexed via both an increase in the strength of binding synchronous sensory signals and in an improvement in correctly dissociating asynchronous signals. These findings are discussed in terms of their possible neurobiological basis, relevance to the development of sensory integration, and possible importance for clinical conditions in which there is growing evidence that multisensory integration is compromised.

Stevenson, Ryan A.; Zemtsov, Raquel K.; Wallace, Mark T.

2013-01-01

341

Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress.  

PubMed

Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual's propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731

Lempert, Karolina M; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R; Tricomi, Elizabeth

2012-07-19

342

Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction Strength Can Explain Different Collective Feeding Behaviours  

PubMed Central

Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when the population density increases. Our predictions are testable and qualitatively reproduce the different feeding behaviours observed in filter-feeding ducks, for example. We suggest that considering two-way interactions between feeding individuals and resource landscapes could help to explain fine-scale movement dynamics.

Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Delcourt, Johann

2013-01-01

343

Accentuation of Individual Differences in Social Competence During the Transition to Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Using a sample of individuals (277 males, 315 females) studied since birth in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the present study investigated how early pubertal maturation and school transition alter youth trajectories of social competence during the transition to adolescence. Social competence showed strong continuity, with the most socially competent children remaining so in adolescence. Early pubertal maturation and school transitions accentuate individual differences, increasing social competence among more competent youth, but further diminishing social competence among less competent individuals. In essence, facing challenges that require social competence may further separate competent individuals from less competent peers. Thus, the psychosocially rich become richer, while the psychosocially poor become poorer.

Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

2010-01-01

344

Toxicity of a standardized mistletoe extract in immunocompromised and healthy individuals.  

PubMed

Iscador is being used by many patients as unconventional anticancer and immunomodulating therapy. To determine the toxicity profile and biochemical effects of Iscador Qu Spezial (Weleda AG Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and healthy controls, we performed a phase I/II study. Escalating doses of Iscador Qu Spezial, standardized for its lectin and viscotoxin content, were administered to 16 HIV-positive patients and 8 healthy subjects during a period of 6 to 8 months. Iscador Qu Spezial preparations were administered twice per week subcutaneously in increasing doses (ie, 0.01 mg, 0.1 mg, 1.0 mg, 2.0 mg, 5.0 mg, and 0.1 mg/kg for 2-6 weeks per dose). Drug-related adverse effects were flulike symptoms, gingivitis, fever, local erythema, and eosinophilia. These side effects were never severe. The incidence of systemic adverse events was highest in HIV-positive patients. Furthermore, increased urea levels and slightly decreased total protein caused by a minor decrease in albumin were observed. None of the HIV-positive patients progressed in disease stage. Iscador Qu Spezial can be administered safely to immunocompromised patients. PMID:10423645

van Wely, M; Stoss, M; Gorter, R W

1999-01-01

345

Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented  

PubMed Central

Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer contributions (increased free riding) as compared to the situation when punishment was not implemented. This has implications for our understanding of why some people cannot resist the temptation to free ride, even when facing possible punishment for their actions. Our findings suggest that the diminished functioning of mechanisms, associated with trait behavioural inhibition, can partly explain such behaviours.

2013-01-01

346

Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer  

PubMed Central

Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality.

Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

2008-01-01

347

Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Human Effort-Based Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Preferences for different combinations of costs and benefits are a key source of variability in economic decision-making. However, the neurochemical basis of individual differences in these preferences is poorly understood. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that direct manipulation of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) significantly impacts cost/benefit decision-making, but less is known about how naturally occurring variation in DA systems may relate to individual differences in economic behavior. In the present study, 25 healthy volunteers completed a dual-scan PET imaging protocol with [18F]fallypride and d-amphetamine to measure DA responsivity, and separately completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making in humans. We found that individual differences in DA function in the left striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex were correlated with a willingness to expend greater effort for larger rewards, particularly when probability of reward receipt was low. Additionally, variability in DA responses in the bilateral insula was negatively correlated with willingness to expend effort for rewards, consistent with evidence implicating this region in the processing of response costs. These findings highlight the role of DA signaling in striatal, prefrontal and insular regions as key neurochemical mechanisms underlying individual differences in cost/benefit decision-making.

Treadway, Michael T.; Buckholtz, Joshua W.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Woodward, Neil D.; Li, Rui; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Schwartzman, Ashley N.; Kessler, Robert M.; Zald, David H.

2012-01-01

348

Individual Differences in the Neurophysiology of Reward and the Obesity Epidemic  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic has unfolded in a matter of decades, not millennia, and cannot therefore be attributed to a drift in the genome. Rather, the temporal characteristics of the epidemic more closely track environmental and lifestyle changes, such as reduced physical activity, increased availability of palatable and caloric foods and drinks, and increased acceptance of eating outside of meal time (among others). One important observation is that not everyone is becoming obese. This suggests that individual factors interact with recent environmental changes to predispose some to overeat (1). One hypothesis that has been gaining traction in the neuroscience community is that individual differences in the neural encoding of foods may predispose some to overeat in the presence of a surplus of caloric palatable foods and drinks (2-6). The aim of this paper is to highlight several possible ways by which individual differences in the neurophysiology of food reward may lead to overeating.

Small, Dana M

2009-01-01

349

Corticostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control.  

PubMed

Why are some individuals more susceptible to the formation of inflexible habits than others? In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate that brain connectivity predicts individual differences in relative goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in humans. Specifically, vulnerability to habitual "slips of action" toward no-longer-rewarding outcomes was predicted by estimated white matter tract strength in the premotor cortex seeded from the posterior putamen (as well as by gray matter density in the posterior putamen as determined with voxel-based morphometry). In contrast, flexible goal-directed action was predicted by estimated tract strength in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seeded from the caudate. These findings suggest that integrity of dissociable corticostriatal pathways underlies individual differences in action control in the healthy population, which may ultimately mediate vulnerability to impulse control disorders. PMID:22933790

de Wit, Sanne; Watson, Poppy; Harsay, Helga A; Cohen, Michael X; van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

2012-08-29

350

Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-01-01

351

Individual Differences in the Lexical Development of French–English Bilingual Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large and rapidly expanding body of literature on bilingual acquisition is mostly comprised of either single-case or cross-sectional studies. While these studies have made major contributions to our understanding of bilingual children's language development, they do not allow researchers to compare and contrast results with regard to individual differences over time. This paper aims to investigate the issue of

Annabelle David; Li Wei

2008-01-01

352

Individual Differences and Text Genre in L2 French Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in another language (L2) is a complex, multidimensional process dependent upon both reader-based and text-based factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of reader-based individual difference variables and of the text-based variable of genre in reading comprehension in French. The sample included 153 adult learners…

Foss, Julie A.

2009-01-01

353

Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

2011-01-01

354

Structural Model of Employee Involvement in Skill Development Activity: The Role of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…

Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.

2008-01-01

355

Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in…

Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

2010-01-01

356

Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

2012-01-01

357

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION: JOINT ATTENTION AND TEMPERAMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social communication is an important skill that emerges during infancy. We examined individual differences in this skill as a function of temperament and neural activity in nine-month-old infants. We found that maternal ratings of temperament were associated with joint attention, an important index of early social communication. More specifically, maternal ratings of pleasure were associated with joint attention bids that

Kate E. NICHOLS; Jennifer N. MARTIN; Nathan A. FOX

358

Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Reply to O'Sullivan (2008) and Pigott and Wu (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individual differences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…

Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

2008-01-01

359

A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

2011-01-01

360

Evolution, Convolution, Dissolution: The Rise of Individual Differences in Human Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although it is difficult to ascertain precisely the time at which the study of individual differences became recognized as a specialty within the psychological sciences, there appears to be much agreement among historians that its development was fostered primarily within the United States during the late 19th century. This paper examines the…

Rickman, David L.

361

Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

2011-01-01

362

Individual Differences and Early School Adjustment: Teacher Appraisals of Young Children with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individual differences in temperament and personality influence children's development of self-regulation, social relationships, and adaptation within varied contexts. For young children with disabilities and/or family poverty, early school experiences provide both significant challenges and opportunities. In this study, teachers rated the…

Reed-Victor, Evelyn

2004-01-01

363

Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

364

The role of working memory capacity in autobiographical retrieval: Individual differences in strategic search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remembering previous experiences from one's personal past is a principal component of psychological well-being, personality, sense of self, decision making, and planning for the future. In the current study the ability to search for autobiographical information in memory was examined by having college students recall their Facebook friends. Individual differences in working memory capacity manifested itself in the search of

Nash Unsworth; Gregory J. Spillers; Gene A. Brewer

2012-01-01

365

A neural network reflecting individual differences in cognitive processing of emotions during perceptual decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even simple perceptual decisions are influenced by the emotional content of a stimulus. Recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence about the neural mechanisms of perceptual decision making on emotional stimuli. However, the effect of individual differences in cognitive processing of emotions on perceptual decision making remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated how changes in the fMRI signal during perceptual decision making

Katja Mériau; Isabell Wartenburger; Philipp Kazzer; Kristin Prehn; Claas-Hinrich Lammers; Elke van der Meer; Arno Villringer; Hauke R. Heekeren

2006-01-01

366

An Historical Perspective on Key Measurement Issues: Individual Differences, Errors of Measurement, and Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the wide individual differences among any group of students and since measurements are always accompanied by errors, the question of how tests should be used in assessing the quality of an educational program is considered. The ways in which educators have dealt with this problem are reviewed, from the systematic examinations of the question…

Coffman, William E.

367

Understanding Individual Differences in Spatial Ability within Females: A Nature\\/Nurture Interactionist Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a program of research, conducted in collaboration with several of my colleagues, which examines individual differences in spatial ability from a biological\\/environmental interaction perspective. Our research strategy has been to identify the females who provide the exceptions to the male advantage in mental rotation ability. We tested a “bent twig” model, identifying a subgroup of females predicted

M. Beth Casey

1996-01-01

368

Individualism, Collectivism, and Client Expression of Different Emotions: Their Relations to Perceived Counselor Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how individualism, collectivism, and counselor emphasis of different client emotions were related to perceived counselor effectiveness. Data were collected from 192 (122 women and 70 men) Korean students attending a large university in South Korea and from 170 (115 women and 55 men) American students attending a large…

Seo, Young Seok

2011-01-01

369

Memory Failures Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults: Role of Individual Difference and Event Outcome Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the role of individual difference and event outcome variables in younger and older adults' memory failures appraisal. Participants read vignettes that described fictitious younger characters (in their 20s-30s) or older characters (in their 60s-70s) who had experienced a minor or severe consequence of their forgetfulness. The…

Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan

2005-01-01

370

Exploring Individual Differences in Marital Change Across the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Violated Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the determination of individual differences in marital change across the transition to parenthood. Results indicated parents whose postnatal experiences turned out less positive and more negative than anticipated experienced more negative change in marriage. Prenatal expectations of well-educated parents generally matched their…

Belsky, Jay

1985-01-01

371

Similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels.  

PubMed

The similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels provide one starting point for carrying out studies that attempt to discover correspondences between dream content and various types of waking cognition. Hobson and Kahn's (Hobson, J. A., & Kahn, D. (2007). Dream content: Individual and generic aspects. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 850-858.) conclusion that dream content may be more generic than most researchers realize, and that individual differences are less salient than usually thought, provides the occasion for a review of findings based on the Hall and Van de Castle (Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) coding system for the study of dream content. Then new findings based on a computationally intensive randomization strategy are presented to show the minimum sample sizes needed to detect gender and individual differences in dream content. Generally speaking, sample sizes of 100-125 dream reports are needed because most dream elements appear in less than 50% of dream reports and the magnitude of the differences usually is not large. PMID:18835727

William Domhoff, G; Schneider, Adam

2008-10-04

372

Individual differences in authenticity and mindfulness as predictors of verbal defensiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent to which individual differences in authenticity and mindfulness predicted verbal defensiveness. Participants first completed measures of authenticity [Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2006). A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity: Theory and research. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 38 (pp. 283–357).] and mindfulness [Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M.

Chad E. Lakey; Michael H. Kernis; Whitney L. Heppner; Charles E. Lance

2008-01-01

373

Language Experience Interviews: What Can They Tell Us about Individual Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While language learners and teachers have long known that individual differences (IDs) among students result in differential learning, we still do not know how traditional ID variables interact or the specific impact each one has on language learning. The present study proposes that instead of looking at isolated variables, researchers should…

Polat, Brittany

2013-01-01

374

Individual differences in vocal activity rhythm: Fourier analysis of cyclicity in amount of talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speakers in informal conversations tend to alternate regularly between lower and higher amounts of talking; the periods of these low\\/high activity cycles are on the order of 3, 6, and 15 minutes. Statistically significant periodicities occurred in 55% of the conversations studied. The periodograms that describe the partition of variance among periodic components whow consistent individual differences in the cyclic

Rebecca M. Warner; Kim Mooney

1988-01-01

375

Using social learning theory to explain individual differences in human sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explain individual differences in human sexual expression, investigators most often stress either physiological or experiential determinants. Psychologists commonly espouse some variant of learning theory (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or social learning theory) as an explanatory framework and a source of hypotheses and methodology. The historical use of social learning theory is described in this article, and we review its

Matthew Hogben; Donn Byrne

1998-01-01

376

Individual Differences in the Centrality of Visual Product Aesthetics: Concept and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research conceptualizes and develops a scale to measure individual differences in the centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA), defined as the level of significance that visual aesthetics hold for a particular consumer in his\\/her relationship with products. Three related dimensions of product aesthetics centrality emerged from the research: value, acumen, and response intensity. A series of eight studies provided

2003-01-01

377

Individual Differences in Judging Deception: Reply to O'Sullivan (2008) and Pigott and Wu (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individual differences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct…

Bond, Charles F., Jr.; DePaulo, Bella M.

2008-01-01

378

Individual Differences in Self-Efficacy Development: The Effects of Goal Orientation and Affectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the moderating role of the individual differences of goal orientation and affectivity on self-efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive…

Gerhardt, Megan W.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2006-01-01

379

Free Ranging Rhesus Monkeys: Age and Sex Differences in Individual Activity Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred thirty of the feral rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago were observed individually for postural adjustments, locomotor behavior, manipulation, and other nonsocial activities. Both form and frequency of activity were influenced strongly by age; sex differences were minimal. Most activities decreased with age, but head movements, presumably reflecting visual scanning, were more frequent in adults.

William A. Draper

1966-01-01

380

Individual Differences in Children's Ability to Profit from Picture Adjunct Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individual differences in fourth grade students' abilities to profit from experimenter-provided picture adjunct aids on prose recall tasks were examined. It was hypothesized that poor paired associate learners would benefit from picture adjunct aids to a greater extent than good paired associate learners. A secondary aim was to assess the effects…

Hughes, Jan N.; Hall, Donald M.

381

Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

2008-01-01

382

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

2008-01-01

383

Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

2012-01-01

384

The Influence of Individual Differences on Diagrammatic Communication and Problem Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding the user and customizing the interface to augment cognition and usability are goals of human computer interaction research and design. Yet, little is known about the influence of individual visual-verbal information presentation preferences on visual navigation and screen element usage. If consistent differences in visual navigation…

King, Laurel A.

2009-01-01

385

Individual differences in arousability: Implications for understanding immediate and lingering emotional reactions to frightening mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recent studies in mass communication have investigated emotional responses to frightening movies and television programs. However, little research has been directed toward documenting and explaining the occurrence of enduring fright reactions that linger on, in one form or another, long after exposure to the media stimulus. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in “arousability”; (as measured

Glenn G. Sparks; Melissa M. Spirek; Kelly Hodgson

1993-01-01

386

Individual Differences in Mathematical Competence Modulate Brain Responses to Arithmetic Errors: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the left inferior parietal cortex in calculation. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the neural responses associated with the commission of calculation errors and how the processing of arithmetic errors is modulated by individual differences in mathematical…

Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz

2011-01-01

387

Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

1988-01-01

388

Individual Difference Relations in Psychometric and Experimental Cognitive Tasks. Final Report. No. 163.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty-five recent studies of individual differences (IDs) in elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs) are reviewed. Twenty-five data sets are examined, analyzed, or reanalyzed by factor analysis. The following promising dimensions are identified: basic perceptual processes, reaction and movement times, mental comparison and recognition tasks, retrieval…

Carroll, John B.

389

Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

2012-01-01

390

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

2008-01-01

391

A Study of Two Methods for Adapting Self-Instructional Materials to Individual Differences. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two-phase study compared two methods of adapting self-instructional materials to individual differences among learners. The methods were compared with each other and with a control condition involving only minimal adaptation. The first adaptation procedure was based on subjects' performances on a learning task in Phase I of the study; the…

Melaragno, Ralph J.

392

Individual Differences in Children's Ability to Profit from Picture Adjunct Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in fourth grade students' abilities to profit from experimenter-provided picture adjunct aids on prose recall tasks were examined. It was hypothesized that poor paired associate learners would benefit from picture adjunct aids to a greater extent than good paired associate learners. A secondary aim was to assess the effects…

Hughes, Jan N.; Hall, Donald M.

393

Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

2010-01-01

394

Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

395

Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students' postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than…

Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

2012-01-01

396

Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

2012-01-01

397

Efficiency Under Record Performance Demands: Exertion Control—An Individual Difference Variable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiprofessional players ran basketball circuits under either normal or record performance demands. Lactate concentration and heart rate were measured as indexes of exertion. Number of dribbling errors, attempted shots, hits, and hit rate served as measures of performance and efficiency. Several individual difference measures were taken in order to identify those athletes who were capable of moderating the extent of

Heinz Heckhausen; Hanno Strang

1988-01-01

398

Individual differences in positive affect moderate age-related declines in episodic long-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have attributed declining episodic memory in increased adult age to less efficient contextual markers that are typically associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex function (e.g., Allen et al., 2005). However, this previous research found the link only for negative affect. Ashby, Isen, and Turken (1999) predicted that individual differences in positive affect should also have an impact on cognitive

Philip A. Allen; Kevin Kaut; Elsa Baena; Mei-Ching Lien; Eric Ruthruff

2011-01-01

399

Individual Consumer Differences and Design Implications for Web-Based Decision Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a study as to whether individual differences are significant factors that should affect the design of consumer decision support over the web. Our study postulates two orthogonal dimensions appear to be of relevance - Need for Cognition and Purchase Preference (ie, lifestyle vs. utilitarian), and that consumers can be sorted into one of 4 cells of a

Barry G. Silverman; Gnana Bharathy; John Pourdehnad; Melanie Green; Dave Lowe; Doug Riley; Joyce Salisbury

400

Individual differences in effects of secondary cognitive activity during driving on temperature at the nose tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several researches have pointed out that the temperature at the nose tip is possibly effective for evaluating driver mental condition. In order to establish methods for driver monitoring, whether a method should be adapted to each person or not is an important question. This paper investigates individual differences in effects of performing a cognitively distracting subtask during driving on the

Makoto Itoh

2009-01-01

401

Language Learning Disability and Individual Differences: Can We See between the Lines?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In honor of Dr. Katherine Butler's extraordinary leadership of "Topics in Language Disorders," this article takes up her 1982 challenge to reach toward greater understanding of individual differences in the use of oral and written language by children with language learning disability. The article focuses on 3 interconnected dimensions of…

Silliman, Elaine R.

2010-01-01

402

Quantitative Media Literacy: Individual Differences in Dealing with Numbers in the News  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test of arithmetic aptitude was developed and validated. The consequences of individual differences in this aspect of quantitative literacy were then determined for attention to, and dependent recall of, numeric quantities embedded in printed news reports. It was found that persons of high arithmetic aptitude recalled frequencies and ratios more correctly, both in precise and approximate terms, than did

Dolf Zillmann; Coy Callison; Rhonda Gibson

2009-01-01

403

Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

2012-01-01

404

Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

2005-01-01

405

Relative Endurance and Physiological Responses: A Study of Individual Differences in Prepubescent Boys and Adult Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oxygen uptake and heart rate of men and boys were determined and compared using a continuous incremental bicycle ergometer test. Both groups had similar patterns for consistency, but the children had smaller individual difference variations for both oxygen uptake and heart rate. (FG)

Sady, Stanley P.; Katch, Victor L.

1981-01-01

406

Structural model of employee involvement in skill development activity: The role of individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We tested both mediated and direct effects of the variables. The sequence of relationships observed in the

Todd J. Maurer; Michael Lippstreu; Timothy A. Judge

2008-01-01

407

Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

2012-01-01

408

Multimedia Learning: Cognitive Individual Differences and Display Design Techniques Predict Transfer Learning with Multimedia Learning Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individual differences and display design manipulations on…

Austin, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

409

Individual differences in the feeding response to CCK B antagonists: Role of the nucleus accumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholecystokinin (CCK) decreases food intake in a variety of species when administered systemically or centrally. Moreover, both CCKA and CCKB receptor mechanisms have been implicated in CCK's effects on feeding. Previous work done in our laboratory has shown that rats exhibit significant individual differences in the consumption of sugar. Moreover, intra-nucleus accumbens (Acc) administration of CCK reduced sugar consumption in

Terrence L. Sills; Franco J. Vaccarino

1996-01-01

410

Individual Differences in Driver Inattention: The Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Driver inattention is one of the most common causes of traffic collisions. The aim of this work was to study the reliability and validity of the Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale (ARDES), a novel self-report measure that assesses individual differences in driving errors resulting from failures of attention. The relationship between driver inattention and general psychological variables that could be

Rubén D. Ledesma; Silvana A. Montes; Fernando M. Poó; María F. López-Ramón

2010-01-01

411

Individual differences in mathematical competence predict parietal brain activation during mental calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that parietal brain circuits subserve arithmetic problem solving and that their recruitment dynamically changes as a function of training and development. The present study investigated whether the brain activation during mental calculation is also modulated by individual differences in mathematical competence. Twenty-five adult students were selected from a larger pool based on their performance on

Roland H. Grabner; Daniel Ansari; Gernot Reishofer; Elsbeth Stern; Franz Ebner; Christa Neuper

2007-01-01

412

The Complexities of Complex Span: Explaining Individual Differences in Working Memory in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are presented that investigated the constraints underlying working memory performance in children and adults. In each case, independent measures of processing efficiency and storage capacity are assessed to determine their relative importance in predicting performance on complex span tasks, which measure working memory capacity. Results show that complex span performance was independently constrained by individual differences in domain-general

Donna M. Bayliss; Christopher Jarrold; Deborah M. Gunn; Alan D. Baddeley

2003-01-01

413

Investigating the Missing Link in Flexible Work Arrangement Utilization: An Individual Difference Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences and flexible work arrangement use. Three need-based motivational factors (need for affiliation at work, need for segmentation of work from other life roles, need for occupational achievement) were examined in relation to extent of flextime and flexplace use.…

Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

2010-01-01

414

Multimedia Learning and Individual Differences: Mediating the Effects of Working Memory Capacity with Segmentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…

Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.

2009-01-01

415

A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

2011-01-01

416

Variations in metabolism of the soy isoflavonoid daidzein by human intestinal microfloras from different individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavonoids found in legumes, such as soybeans, are converted by intestinal bacteria to metabolites that might have increased or decreased estrogenic activity. Variation in the effects of dietary isoflavonoids among individuals has been attributed to differences in their metabolism by intestinal bacteria. To investigate this variation, the metabolism of the isoflavonoid daidzein by bacteria from ten fecal samples, provided at

Fatemeh Rafii; Christy Davis; Thomas M. Heinze; Richard D. Beger

2003-01-01

417

Individual Differences in the Relationship between Satisfaction with Job Rewards and Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although previous research often showed a positive relationship between pay satisfaction and job satisfaction, we dispute the universality of this finding. Cluster-wise regression analyses on three samples consistently show that two types of individuals can be distinguished, each with a different job reward-job satisfaction relationship. For the…

Hofmans, Joeri; De Gieter, Sara; Pepermans, Roland

2013-01-01

418

Studying Individual Differences in Predictability With Gamma Regression and Nonlinear Multilevel Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical prediction remains an important tool for decisions in a variety of disciplines. An equally important issue is identifying factors that contribute to more or less accurate predictions. The time series literature includes well developed methods for studying predictability and volatility over time. This article develops distribution-appropriate methods for studying individual differences in predictability for settings in psychological research. Specifically,

Steven Andrew Culpepper

2010-01-01

419

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Printed Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in printed word recognition and related skills in identical and fraternal twin 8- to 18-year-olds. Found evidence for moderate genetic influences common between IQ, phoneme awareness, and word-reading skills and for stronger IQ-independent genetic influences that were common…

Gayan, Javier; Olson, Richard K.

2003-01-01

420

Individual Differences in Handedness and Specific Speech and Language Impairment: Evidence Against a Genetic Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from two twin studies were used to address two related questions. First, is there any association between handedness and specific speech and language impairment (SSLI) in children? Second, is there genetic influence on individual differences in handedness and, if so, are the same genes implicated in the cause of SSLI? The first study used data from 58 MZ and

D. V. M. Bishop

2001-01-01

421

Individual Differences and the C reation of False C hildhood M emories  

Microsoft Academic Search

W e investigated if college students will create false childhood m em ories, the role of self-knowledge in mem ory creation, and if there are reliable individual differences related to memory creation. Based on information obtained from parents, we asked college students about several true childhood experiences. W e also asked each student about one false event and presented the

Ira E. Hyman; F. James Billings

422

Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

2012-01-01

423

A note on alleged individual differences in reminiscence and extraversion-introversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replies to H. J. Eysenck's (see PA, Vol. 51:Issue 3) contention that Peters was incorrect in suggesting that there are no individual differences in reminiscence. It is argued that the relationship between motor performance and extraversion provides evidence for interpreting the reported relationship between reminiscence and extraversion as an artifact.

Edward N. Peters

1973-01-01

424

Racemization in enamel among different types of teeth from the same individual  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the quantity of D-aspartic acid (degree of racemization of aspartic acid) in the enamel of different types of teeth from the same individual. We studied the correlation between the degree of racemization and the time of formation of each particular tooth, as well as the applicability of the degree of racemization to estimation of chronological age. If the

Susumu Ohtani; Rei Ito; Szilvia Arany; Toshiharu Yamamoto

2005-01-01

425

Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

2012-01-01

426

Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

2011-01-01

427

Differences Between Always Obese Individuals and Those Who Have Become Thin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that individuals who were never heavy, were once heavy but lost weight, or who are currently obese can be differentiated by physical self concept, number of hours spent in various activities, and the hierarchial reinforcement value of different behaviors. Subjects (N=99) completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Test, the Self-Control…

Jacobs, Sharon B.; Wagner, Mervyn K.

428

The Onion Model: Myth or Reality in the Field of Individual Differences Psychology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To bring order in concepts related to individual learner differences, Curry (1983) designed the three-layered onion model. As this model provides an interesting way to distinguish related concepts--such as cognitive styles and approaches to studying--on the basis of their stability in learning situations, ample studies build further on this…

Cools, Eva; Bellens, Kim

2012-01-01

429

Individual differences in self-efficacy development: The effects of goal orientation and affectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the moderating role of the individual differences of goal orientation and affectivity on self-efficacy development. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicate that both positive and negative affectivity moderate the impact of an enactive mastery training program on efficacy development, with those higher in positive affectivity having greater change in self-efficacy as a result of training than those lower

Megan W. Gerhardt; Kenneth G. Brown

2006-01-01

430

Individual differences in servant leadership: the roles of values and personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to address the lack of empirical research on servant leadership by investigating relationships between servant leadership and four individual differences – values of empathy, integrity, and competence and the five-factor model's personality factor of agreeableness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Dennis and Winston's servant leadership scale (a revision of Page and Wong's servant leadership instrument), Braithwaite and Law's

Charlotte D. Sutton; Hubert S. Feild

2006-01-01

431

Identifying Individual Differences among Doctoral Candidates: A Framework for Understanding Problematic Candidature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding how candidates cope with the demands of PhD candidature is important for institutions, supervisors and candidates. Individual differences in affective and metacognitive disposition were explored in 263 PhD candidates from two Australian universities. Several questionnaires relating to affective and metacognitive beliefs were…

Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.; Bourke, Sid; Holbrook, Allyson

2012-01-01

432

Exploration of Instructional Strategies and Individual Difference within the Context of Web-based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences have been identified as important factors that might have significant impact on students' learning. This study investigated the effect of student's cognitive styles, achievement motivation, prior knowledge, and attitudes on student's achievement in web-based learning. A web-based course was designed for second year university students in an educational psychology class. Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA), Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS),

Hesham Alomyan; Wing Au

433

Evaluating the Power of Latent Growth Curve Models to Detect Individual Differences in Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individual differences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both…

Hertzog, Christopher; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

2008-01-01

434

Individual differences in cortisol responses to fear and frustration in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in the activation and regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis in pre-pubertal children after exposure to two different stress modalities, and to evaluate the utility of an individual differences approach to the examination of HPA-axis functioning. After a 30 minute controlled baseline period, 73 seven-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to a validity check condition, or one of two experimental tasks designed to elicit fear or frustration. This was followed by a 60-minute controlled regulation phase. A total of 17 saliva samples were collected, including 12 post-stress samples at 5-minute intervals. There was a significant stress modality effect, with children exposed to the fear condition reaching peak cortisol levels at 25 minutes post-stress, while those exposed to the frustration condition reached peak levels at 45 minutes post-stress. There was no difference in peak cortisol levels between the stress modalities. Individual variability across conditions was significant with subjects reaching peak levels as early as 10 minutes post-stress and as late as 60 minutes post-stress. Our data suggest that analysis of individual curves prior to making group level comparisons may improve the explanatory power of HPA-axis-behavior models.

Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

2009-01-01

435

The Role of Individual Differences in a Study Abroad Experience: The Case of Erasmus Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the extent to which a study abroad (SA) experience has an effect on the L2 written and oral performance of a group of Spanish undergraduates, studying English as a second language (L2) in a university in the UK. This article also examines the role that individual differences, such as the participants' motivation, attitudes,…

Llanes, Angels; Tragant, Elsa; Serrano, Raquel

2012-01-01

436

Genetic basis of individual differences in the response to small-molecule drugs in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual response to small-molecule drugs is variable; a drug that provides a cure for some may confer no therapeutic benefit or trigger an adverse reaction in others. To begin to understand such differences systematically, we treated 104 genotyped segregants from a cross between two yeast strains with a collection of 100 diverse small molecules. We used linkage analysis to identify

Ethan O Perlstein; Douglas M Ruderfer; David C Roberts; Stuart L Schreiber; Leonid Kruglyak

2007-01-01

437

Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

2012-01-01

438

Individual Differences in Pseudohomophony Effect Relates to Auditory Categorical Perception Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined whether individual differences in the quality of phonological representations, measured by a categorical perception task (CP), are related with the use of phonological information in a lexical decision pseudohomophone task. In addition, the lexical frequency of the stimuli was manipulated. The sample consisted of…

Luque, David; Luque, Juan L.; Lopez-Zamora, Miguel

2011-01-01

439

Developing effective teacher beliefs about learners: the role of sensitizing teachers to individual learning differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective teacher beliefs about students are an integral part of effective teaching. Teachers with interventionist beliefs about students (‘I can intervene to help a learner with difficulties’) show more effective practice than teachers with pathognomonic beliefs (‘I blame the learner for his difficulties’). A professional development (PD) course sensitized teachers (N = 234) to individual learning differences (ILDs), using five

Melodie Rosenfeld; Sherman Rosenfeld

2008-01-01

440

Individual differences in distraction by motion predicted by neural activity in MT/V5  

PubMed Central

Individuals differ substantially in their susceptibility to distraction by irrelevant visual information. Previous research has uncovered how individual variability in the goal-driven component of attentional control influences distraction, yet it remains unknown whether other sources of variability between individuals also predict distraction. In this fMRI study, we showed that an individual's inherent sensitivity to passively viewed visual motion predicts his/her susceptibility to distraction by motion. Bilateral MT/V5 was localized in participants during passive viewing of moving stimuli, affording a baseline measure of motion sensitivity. Next, participants performed a visual search task with an irrelevant motion singleton distractor, and both behavioral and neural indices of distraction were recorded. Results revealed that both of these indices were predicted by the independent index of motion sensitivity. An additional analysis of moment-to-moment fluctuations in distraction within individuals revealed that distraction could be predicted by pretrial fMRI activity in several brain regions, including MT+, which likely reflected the observer's momentary propensity to process motion. Together, these results shed light on how variability in factors other than goal-driven processing, both within and between individuals, affects attentional control and one's perception of the visual world.

Lechak, Jennifer R.; Leber, Andrew B.

2011-01-01

441

Two Distinct Visual Motion Mechanisms for Smooth Pursuit: Evidence from Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Smooth-pursuit eye velocity to a moving target is more accurate after an initial catch-up sac- cade than before, an enhancement that is poorly understood. We present an individual- differences-based method for identifying mechanisms underlying a physiological response and use it to test whether visual motion signals driving pursuit differ pre- and postsaccade. Correlating moment-to-moment measurements of pursuit over time

Jeremy B. Wilmer; Ken Nakayama

2007-01-01

442

Inter-individual differences in the human circadian system: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews studies that have dealt with interindividual differences revealed by measurements of physiological, biochemical, and psychological variables at 2 or more times of day in terms of the morningness-eveningness, personality (introversion-extraversion [I-E]), age, or sex of their Ss. Studies of individual differences in the response of the circadian system to disturbance (e.g., shift work) are also discussed. The most reliable

G. A. Kerkhof

1985-01-01

443

Individual Differences in Puberty Onset in Girls: Bayesian Estimation of Heritabilities and Genetic Correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

   We report heritabilities for individual differences in female pubertal development at the age of 12. Tanner data on breast\\u000a and pubic hair development in girls and data on menarche were obtained from a total of 184 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic\\u000a twins. Genetic correlations were estimated to determine to what extent the same genes are involved in different aspects of

Stéphanie M. van den Berg; Adi Setiawan; Meike Bartels; Tinca J. C. Polderman; Aad W. van der Vaart; Dorret I. Boomsma

2006-01-01

444

Individual Differences in Preschoolers’ Self-Regulation and Theory of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-regulation, or the ability to control one’s actions and responses, is essential for healthy development across varied contexts. Self-regulation comes in several forms, including emotional, behavioral, and cognitive. The present study sought to examine whether individual differences in one form of self-regulation was related to children’s regulation in another domain. In addition, we explored whether different forms of self-regulation were

Laudan B. Jahromi; Cynthia A. Stifter

2008-01-01

445

Food intake of individuals with and without diabetes across different countries and ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Given the importance of nutrition therapy in diabetes management, we hypothesized that food intake differs between individuals with and without diabetes. We investigated this hypothesis in two large prospective studies including different countries and ethnic groups.Subjects\\/Methods:Study populations were the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC) and the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). Dietary intake was assessed by food

U Nöthlings; H Boeing; G Maskarinec; D Sluik; B Teucher; R Kaaks; A Tjønneland; J Halkjaer; C Dethlefsen; K Overvad; P Amiano; E Toledo; B Bendinelli; S Grioni; R Tumino; C Sacerdote; A Mattiello; J W J Beulens; J A Iestra; A M W Spijkerman; D L van der A; P Nilsson; E Sonestedt; O Rolandsson; P W Franks; A-C Vergnaud; D Romaguera; T Norat; L N Kolonel

2011-01-01

446

Decision-making competence: External validation through an individual-differences approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study asks to what extent (a) individuals show consistent performance differences across typical behavioral decision-making tasks, and (b) how those differences correlate with plausible real-world correlates of good decision making. Seven tasks, chosen to span the domain of decision-making skills, were administered to participants in an ongoing longitudinal study providing extensive social, psychological, and behavioral measures. Performance scores on

Andrew M. Parker; Baruch Fischhoff

2005-01-01

447

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

448

Individual differences in timing of discrete and continuous movements: a dimensional approach.  

PubMed

This study investigated aspects of individual differences in timing of continuous and discontinuous movements to different pacing signals (auditory or visual), pacing intervals (500, 650, 800, 950 ms), and across effectors (dominant versus non-dominant hand). Correlation and principal component analysis demonstrated that a single statistical dimension accounted for up to 60 % of the explained variance in discontinuous tasks and 25 % of the variance in continuous tasks, when applied to performance obtained from tasks conducted with different effectors and at different pacing rates. Correlation analysis of factor scores representing effector and rate independent task performances showed that timing of discrete or continuous movements can be associated with modality independent mechanisms. Timing variability from discrete and continuous trials was not significantly correlated. This study goes beyond previous correlational work on individual differences in discrete and continuous movements, demonstrating that individual differences in discrete (event-based) or continuous (emergent) motor timing tasks can be modeled as distinctive statistical components with dissimilar capability to capture effector, rate, and modality independent variance. PMID:23712334

Lorås, H; Stensdotter, A K; Ohberg, F; Sigmundsson, H

2013-05-28

449

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Substance Use: Mediation by Individual, Family, and School Factors*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among a diverse sample of approximately 5,500 seventh and eighth graders. We also evaluated the extent to which individual, family, and school factors mediated racial/ ethnic disparities in use. Method: Students (49% male) from 16 participating middle schools in southern California reported on lifetime and past-month substance use, individual factors (expectancies and resistance self-efficacy), family factors (familism, parental respect, and adult and older sibling use), and school factors (school-grade use and perceived peer use). We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of consumption for each racial/ethnic group adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure. Path analysis models tested mediation of racial/ethnic differences through individual, family, and school factors. Results: After adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure, Hispanics reported higher and Asians reported lower lifetime and past-month substance use, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. Rates of substance use did not differ between non-Hispanic African Americans and Caucasians. Several individual factors mediated the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity and substance use, including negative expectancies and resistance self-efficacy. Higher use among Hispanics was generally not explained by family or school factors. By contrast, several factors mediated the relationship between Asian race and lower alcohol use, including individual, family (parental respect, adult and older sibling use), and school (perceived peer use, school-grade use) factors. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of targeting specific individual, family, and school factors in tailored intervention efforts to reduce substance use among young minority adolescents.

Shih, Regina A.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Tucker, Joan S.; Zhou, Annie J.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

2010-01-01

450

Assimilation and differences between the settlement patterns of individual immigrants and immigrant households  

PubMed Central

Analyses of immigrant settlement patterns typically rely on counts of foreign-born individuals by neighborhood, metropolitan area, state, or region. As an alternative, this study classifies immigrants and their descendents into household types to shift attention from individuals to relationships between individuals. The study uses pooled current population survey data to identify seven household types, six of which have various degrees of immigrant or second-generation presence. The research compares distributions of first- and second-generation immigrants with different types of households that include first- and second-generation immigrants. Our analysis shows that the geography of immigration based on households differs considerably from geographies based on individuals. The spatial distribution and concentration of the foreign-stock population provides one picture of immigrant geographies, whereas the patterns of concentration by several different household types opens up the chance to tell other stories. More pointedly, we emphasize that the unit of analysis shapes assimilation research results and implies that this analytical choice cannot be thought of as independent from the politics of immigration.

Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard

2005-01-01

451

The impact of individual differences on the neural circuitry underlying sadness.  

PubMed

Several functional neuroimaging studies have been carried out in healthy subjects to investigate the neural correlates of sadness. Importantly, there is little consistency among the results of these studies. Hypothesizing that individual differences may account for the discrepancies among these investigations, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to identify the neural circuitry underlying this basic emotion. In these two methodologically identical studies, two different groups (n = 10 for each study) of healthy female subjects were scanned while they were experiencing a transient state of sadness induced by viewing sad film excerpts. In the first of these studies, sadness was correlated with significant loci of activation in the anterior temporal pole and insula (P < 0.05, corrected). In the second study, however, sadness was correlated with significant activation in the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (P < 0.05, corrected). In addition, individual statistical parametric maps revealed a marked degree of interindividual variability in both Study 1 and Study 2. These results strongly support the view that individual differences may be responsible for the inconsistencies found in the literature regarding the neural substrates of sadness and of other basic emotions. These findings also suggest that individual data should be reported in addition to group data, because they provide useful information about the variability present in the subjects investigated and, thus, about the typicality and generalizability of the results. PMID:12814585

Eugène, Fanny; Lévesque, Johanne; Mensour, Boualem; Leroux, Jean-Maxime; Beaudoin, Gilles; Bourgouin, Pierre; Beauregard, Mario

2003-06-01

452

The role of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertisements and individual differences in getting people to talk to physicians.  

PubMed

In this study, 384 respondents provided quantitative and descriptive information about direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements and factors related to message reception and drug adoption. The authors applied M. Booth-Butterfield's ( 2008 ) Standard Model to explain how DTC advertising is used in getting individuals to talk to their doctors about pharmaceutical drugs. The researchers predicted that individuals who talked with their physicians about a pharmaceutical drug (referred to as talkers) would differ from those who did not talk with their physicians (referred to as nontalkers) in a number of meaningful ways. Findings from this data set indicate that individuals who talked with their physician about a specific medication were more likely to be female, older, higher in need for cognition, and reported higher physician satisfaction. Total number of channels (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet) was negatively associated with talking to a physician about a specific medication, as was exposure to DTC advertisement on television. The authors offer explanations for these findings along with descriptive accounts of how talkers and nontalkers differed in their recall of DTC advertisement information. PMID:21512934

Krezmien, Elyse; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

2011-05-24

453

Individual differences in the multisensory temporal binding window predict susceptibility to audiovisual illusions.  

PubMed

Human multisensory systems are known to bind inputs from the different sensory modalities into a unified percept, a process that leads to measurable behavioral benefits. This integrative process can be observed through multisensory illusions, including the McGurk effect and the sound-induced flash illusion, both of which demonstrate the ability of one sensory modality to modulate perception in a second modality. Such multisensory integration is highly dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory inputs, with perceptual binding occurring within a limited range of asynchronies known as the temporal binding window (TBW). Previous studies have shown that this window is highly variable across individuals, but it is unclear how these variations in the TBW relate to an individual's ability to integrate multisensory cues. Here we provide evidence linking individual differences in multisensory temporal processes to differences in the individual's audiovisual integration of illusory stimuli. Our data provide strong evidence that the temporal processing of multiple sensory signals and the merging of multiple signals into a single, unified perception, are highly related. Specifically, the width of right side of an individuals' TBW, where the auditory stimulus follows the visual, is significantly correlated with the strength of illusory percepts, as indexed via both an increase in the strength of binding synchronous sensory signals and in an improvement in correctly dissociating asynchronous signals. These findings are discussed in terms of their possible neurobiological basis, relevance to the development of sensory integration, and possible importance for clinical conditions in which there is growing evidence that multisensory integration is compromised. PMID:22390292

Stevenson, Ryan A; Zemtsov, Raquel K; Wallace, Mark T

2012-03-05

454

Investigation on the photoconductive behaviors of an individual AlN nanowire under different excited lights  

PubMed Central

Ultra-long AlN nanowire arrays are prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and the photoconductive performances of individual nanowires are investigated in our self-built measurement system. Individual ultra-long AlN nanowire (UAN) exhibits a clear photoconductive effect under different excited lights. We attribute the positive photocurrent response of individual UAN to the dominant molecular sensitization effect. It is found that they have a much faster response speed (a rise and decay time of about 1 ms), higher photocurrent response (2.7×106), and more reproductive working performance (the photocurrent fluctuation is lower than 2%) in the air environment. Their better photoconductive performances are comparable to many nanostructures, which are suggested to be a candidate for building promising photosensitive nanodevices in the future.

2012-01-01

455

Risk, individual differences, and environment: an Agent-Based Modeling approach to sexual risk-taking.  

PubMed

Risky sexual behaviors, including the decision to have unprotected sex, result from interactions between individuals and their environment. The current study explored the use of Agent-Based Modeling (ABM)-a methodological approach in which computer-generated artificial societies simulate human sexual networks-to assess the influence of heterogeneity of sexual motivation on the risk of contracting HIV. The models successfully simulated some characteristics of human sexual systems, such as the relationship between individual differences in sexual motivation (sexual excitation and inhibition) and sexual risk, but failed to reproduce the scale-free distribution of number of partners observed in the real world. ABM has the potential to inform intervention strategies that target the interaction between an individual and his or her social environment. PMID:22042161

Nagoski, Emily; Janssen, Erick; Lohrmann, David; Nichols, Eric

2011-11-01

456

Comparing methods of measurement: why plotting difference against standard method is misleading  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryWhen comparing a new method of measurement with a standard method, one of the things we want to know is whether the difference between the measurements by the two methods is related to the magnitude of the measurement. A plot of the difference against the standard measurement is sometimes suggested, but this will always appear to show a relation between

J Martin Bland; Douglas G Altman

1995-01-01

457

Differences between domestic accounting standards and IAS: Measurement, determinants and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes determinants and effects of differences between Domestic Accounting Standards (DAS) and International Accounting Standards (IAS). We use an extensive list of differences between DAS and IAS to create two indices, absence and divergence. Absence measures the extent to which the rules regarding certain accounting issues are missing in DAS but are covered in IAS. Divergence applies in

Yuan Ding; Ole-Kristian Hope; Thomas Jeanjean; Hervé Stolowy

2007-01-01

458

Salivary concentration of progesterone and cortisol significantly differs across individuals after correcting for blood hormone values.  

PubMed

Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18-34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between- individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O'Connor, Kathleen A

2012-07-24

459

A model-driven approach to quantify migration patterns: individual, regional and yearly differences.  

PubMed

1.?Animal migration has long intrigued scientists and wildlife managers alike, yet migratory species face increasing challenges because of habitat fragmentation, climate change and over-exploitation. Central to the understanding migratory species is the objective discrimination between migratory and nonmigratory individuals in a given population, quantifying the timing, duration and distance of migration and the ability to predict migratory movements. 2.?Here, we propose a uniform statistical framework to (i) separate migration from other movement behaviours, (ii) quantify migration parameters without the need for arbitrary cut-off criteria and (iii) test predictability across individuals, time and space. 3.?We first validated our novel approach by simulating data based on established theoretical movement patterns. We then formulated the expected shapes of squared displacement patterns as nonlinear models for a suite of movement behaviours to test the ability of our method to distinguish between migratory movement and other movement types. 4.?We then tested our approached empirically using 108 wild Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose Alces alces in Scandinavia as a study system because they exhibit a wide range of movement behaviours, including resident, migrating and dispersing individuals, within the same population. Applying our approach showed that 87% and 67% of our Swedish and Norwegian subpopulations, respectively, can be classified as migratory. 5.?Using nonlinear mixed effects models for all migratory individuals we showed that the distance, timing and duration of migration differed between the sexes and between years, with additional individual differences accounting for a large part of the variation in the distance of migration but not in the timing or duration. Overall, the model explained most of the variation (92%) and also had high predictive power for the same individuals over time (69%) as well as between study populations (74%). 6.?The high predictive ability of the approach suggests that it can help increase our understanding of the drivers of migration and could provide key quantitative information for understanding and managing a broad range of migratory species. PMID:21105872

Bunnefeld, Nils; Börger, Luca; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer M; Dettki, Holger; Solberg, Erling Johan; Ericsson, Göran

2010-11-25

460

Theory of mind, emotion understanding, language, and family background: individual differences and interrelations.  

PubMed

Individual differences in young children's social cognition were examined in 128 urban preschoolers from a wide range of backgrounds. comprehensive assessments were made of children's false-belief understanding, emotion understanding, language abilities, and family background information was collected via parent interview. Individual differences in children's understanding of false-belief and emotion were associated with differences in language ability and with certain aspects of family background, in particular, parental occupational class and mothers' education. The number of siblings that children had did not relate to their social cognition. Individual differences in false-belief and emotion understanding were correlated, but these domains did not contribute to each other independently of age, language ability, and family background. In fact, variance in family background only contributed uniquely to false-belief understanding. The results suggest that family background has a significant impact on the development of theory of mind. The findings also suggest that understanding of false-belief and understanding of emotion may be distinct aspects of social cognition in young children. PMID:10446724

Cutting, A L; Dunn, J

461

The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

2013-06-08

462

Attentional control constrains visual short-term memory: insights from developmental and individual differences.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which attentional control biases mnemonic representations have attracted much interest but remain poorly understood. As attention and memory develop gradually over childhood and variably across individuals, assessing how participants of different ages and ability attend to mnemonic contents can elucidate their interplay. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults were asked to report whether a probe item had been part of a previously presented four-item array. The initial array could either be uncued, be preceded ("precued"), or followed ("retrocued") by a spatial cue orienting attention to one of the potential item locations. Performance across groups was significantly improved by both cue types, and individual differences in children's retrospective attentional control predicted their visual short-term and working memory span, whereas their basic ability to remember in the absence of cues did not. Experiment 2 imposed a variable delay between the array and the subsequent orienting cue. Cueing benefits were greater in adults than in 10-year-olds, but they persisted even when cues followed the array by nearly 3 seconds, suggesting that orienting operated on durable short-term representations for both age groups. The findings indicate that there are substantial developmental and individual differences in the ability to control attention to memory and that in turn these differences constrain visual short-term memory capacity. PMID:20680889

Astle, Duncan E; Nobre, Anna C; Scerif, Gaia

2011-06-24

463

How does variation in the environment and individual cognition explain the existence of consistent behavioral differences?  

PubMed Central

According to recent studies on animal personalities, the level of behavioral plasticity, which can be viewed as the slope of the behavioral reaction norm, varies among individuals, populations, and species. Still, it is conceptually unclear how the interaction between environmental variation and variation in animal cognition affect the evolution of behavioral plasticity and expression of animal personalities. Here, we (1) use literature to review how environmental variation and individual variation in cognition explain population and individual level expression of behavioral plasticity and (2) draw together empirically yet nontested, conceptual framework to clarify how these factors affect the evolution and expression of individually consistent behavior in nature. The framework is based on simple principles: first, information acquisition requires cognition that is inherently costly to build and maintain. Second, individual differences in animal cognition affect the differences in behavioral flexibility, i.e. the variance around the mean of the behavioral reaction norm, which defines plasticity. Third, along the lines of the evolution of cognition, we predict that environments with moderate variation favor behavioral flexibility. This occurs since in those environments costs of cognition are covered by being able to recognize and use information effectively. Similarly, nonflexible, stereotypic behaviors may be favored in environments that are either invariable or highly variable, since in those environments cognition does not give any benefits to cover the costs or cognition is not able to keep up with environmental change, respectively. If behavioral plasticity develops in response to increasing environmental variability, plasticity should dominate in environments that are moderately variable, and expression of animal personalities and behavioral syndromes may differ between environments. We give suggestions how to test our hypothesis and propose improvements to current behavioral testing protocols in the field of animal personality.

Niemela, Petri T; Vainikka, Anssi; Forsman, Jukka T; Loukola, Olli J; Kortet, Raine

2013-01-01

464

Empathy matters: ERP evidence for inter-individual differences in social language processing  

PubMed Central

When an adult claims he cannot sleep without his teddy bear, people tend to react surprised. Language interpretation is, thus, influenced by social context, such as who the speaker is. The present study reveals inter-individual differences in brain reactivity to social aspects of language. Whereas women showed brain reactivity when stereotype-based inferences about a speaker conflicted with the content of the message, men did not. This sex difference in social information processing can be explained by a specific cognitive trait, one’s ability to empathize. Individuals who empathize to a greater degree revealed larger N400 effects (as well as a larger increase in ?-band power) to socially relevant information. These results indicate that individuals with high-empathizing skills are able to rapidly integrate information about the speaker with the content of the message, as they make use of voice-based inferences about the speaker to process language in a top-down manner. Alternatively, individuals with lower empathizing skills did not use information about social stereotypes in implicit sentence comprehension, but rather took a more bottom-up approach to the processing of these social pragmatic sentences.

Van Berkum, Jos J.A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C.M.; Tesink, Cathelijne M.J.Y.; Kos, Miriam; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hagoort, Peter

2012-01-01

465

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications for behavioural evolution  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured aggressiveness during staged intrusions in free-living male and female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). We compared aggressiveness to plasma T levels and to the abundance of androgen receptor (AR), aromatase (AROM) and oestrogen receptor alpha (OR?) mRNA in behaviourally relevant brain areas (avian medial amygdala, hypothalamus and song control regions). We also asked whether patterns of covariation among behaviour and endocrine parameters differed in males and females, anticipating that circulating T may be a better predictor of behaviour in males than in females. We found that circulating T related to aggressiveness only in males, but that gene expression for OR?, AR and AROM covaried with individual differences in aggressiveness in both sexes. These findings are among the first to show that individual variation in neural gene expression for three major sex steroid-processing molecules predicts individual variation in aggressiveness in both sexes in nature. The results have broad implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour may evolve.

Rosvall, K. A.; Bergeon Burns, C. M.; Barske, J.; Goodson, J. L.; Schlinger, B. A.; Sengelaub, D. R.; Ketterson, E. D.

2012-01-01

466

Differences in the chemical reactivity of individual molecules of an enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUCH attention has been focused recently on the detection and physical characterization of individual molecules1-11. Using such methods to study the chemical properties, such as reactivity, of single molecules offers the potential to investigate how these might vary from molecule to molecule, and for individual molecules as a function of time. The complex structures of biomolecules such as enzymes make them particularly attractive targets for studying how subtle changes or differences at the molecular level might influence chemical reactivity. We have shown previously12,13 that very small (zeptomole) amounts of enzymes can be studied using a fluorescence microassay; single enzyme molecules have also been detected in oil-dispersed droplets by fluorescence microscopy14,15. Here we report the observation of reactions of individual molecules of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-1), which produces NADH from lactate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). When they are present at very low concentrations in a narrow capillary, each enzyme molecule produces a discrete zone of NADH; these can be manipulated electrophoretically and monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. We find that the activity of individual electrophoretically pure enzyme molecules can vary by up to a factor of four, and that these activities remain unchanged over a two-hour period. We suggest that the origin of the activity differences may lie in the presence of several stable forms of the enzyme.

Xue, Qifeng; Yeung, Edward S.

1995-02-01

467

Brain Structure Correlates of Individual Differences in the Acquisition and Inhibition of Conditioned Fear  

PubMed Central

Research employing aversive conditioning paradigms has elucidated the neurocircuitry involved in acquiring and diminishing fear responses. However, the factors underlying individual differences in fear acquisition and inhibition are not presently well understood. In this study, we explored whether the magnitude of individuals' acquired fear responses and the modulation of these responses via 2 fear reduction methods were correlated with structural differences in brain regions involved in affective processing. Physiological and structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from experiments exploring extinction retention and intentional cognitive regulation. Our results identified 2 regions in which individual variation in brain structure correlated with subjects' fear-related arousal. Confirming previous results, increased thickness in ventromedial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the degree of extinction retention. Additionally, subjects with greater thickness in the posterior insula exhibited larger conditioned responses during acquisition. The data suggest a trend toward a negative correlation between amygdala volume and fear acquisition magnitude. There was no significant correlation between fear reduction via cognitive regulation and thickness in our prefrontal regions of interest. Acquisition and regulation measures were uncorrelated, suggesting that while certain individuals may have a propensity toward increased expression of conditioned fear, these responses can be diminished via both extinction and cognitive regulation.

Hartley, Catherine A.; Fischl, Bruce

2011-01-01

468

Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements.

Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

1995-09-01

469

Male great bowerbirds create forced perspective illusions with consistently different individual quality  

PubMed Central

Males often produce elaborate displays that increase their attractiveness to females, and some species extend their displays to include structures or objects that are not part of their body. Such “extended phenotypes” may communicate information that cannot be transmitted by bodily signals or may provide a more reliable signal than bodily signals. However, it is unclear whether these signals are individually distinct and whether they are consistent over long periods of time. Male bowerbirds construct and decorate bowers that function in mate choice. Bower display courts constructed by male great bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) induce a visual illusion known as forced perspective for the female viewing the male’s display over the court, and the quality of illusion is associated with mating success. We improved the quality of the forced perspective to determine whether males maintained it at the new higher level, decreased the perspective quality back to its original value, or allowed it to decay at random over time. We found that the original perspective quality was actively recovered to individual original values within 3 d. We measured forced perspective over the course of one breeding season and compared the forced perspective of individual males between two successive breeding seasons. We found that differences in the quality of visual illusion among males were consistent within and between two breeding seasons. This suggests that forced perspective is actively and strongly maintained at a different level by each individual male.

Kelley, Laura A.; Endler, John A.

2012-01-01

470

Ochratoxin A in human serum samples collected in Isparta-Turkey from healthy individuals and individuals suffering from different urinary disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochratoxin A (OA) is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxin porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease called endemic nephropathy. In this paper OA levels in the human serum samples collected from healthy individuals and individuals suffering from different urinary disorders in Isparta-Turkey are presented. OA was measured

Nurten Özçelik; Alim Ko?ar; Demet Soysal

2001-01-01

471

Amygdala volume predicts inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli. PMID:24009767

Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Fu, Xiaolan

2013-08-29

472

Amygdala Volume Predicts Inter-Individual Differences in Fearful Face Recognition  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the relationship between inter-individual differences in fearful face recognition and amygdala volume. Thirty normal adults were recruited and each completed two identical facial expression recognition tests offline and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Linear regression indicated that the left amygdala volume negatively correlated with the accuracy of recognizing fearful facial expressions and positively correlated with the probability of misrecognizing fear as surprise. Further exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship did not exist for any other subcortical or cortical regions. Nor did such a relationship exist between the left amygdala volume and performance recognizing the other five facial expressions. These mind-brain associations highlight the importance of the amygdala in recognizing fearful faces and provide insights regarding inter-individual differences in sensitivity toward fear-relevant stimuli.

Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Fu, Xiaolan

2013-01-01

473

Individual and Organizational Well-Being of Female Physicians -- An Assessment of Three Different Management Programs  

PubMed Central

Management programs have become a popular method to develop future leaders. There is, however, a lack of controlled studies assessing the long-term effects of such programs on participants' career development, organizational influence, and mental and physical well-being. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to assess the possible impact from 3 different structured management development programs on the individual and organizational well-being of female physicians. One year after the end of the 1-year intervention program, the intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in ratings of organizational influence, management feed back, perception of the organizational leadership, contact with one's immediate supervisor, and personal skills development as compared with the reference group. There were no statistically significant differences, however, between the groups with regard to individual health and well-being or career development. These results give rise to many questions, both concerning the effects of these 3 management programs and the career possibilities for female physicians.

von Vultee, Pia Jansson; Axelsson, Runo; Arnetz, Bengt

2004-01-01

474

The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Most studies of animal cognition focus on group performance and neglect individual differences and the correlational structure of cognitive abilities. Moreover, no previous studies have compared the correlational structure of cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals and humans. We compared the structure of individual differences of 106 chimpanzees and 105 two-year-old human children using 15 cognitive tasks that posed problems about the physical or social world. We found a similar factor of spatial cognition for the two species. But whereas the chimpanzees had only a single factor in addition to spatial cognition, the children had two distinct additional factors: one for physical cognition and one for social cognition. These findings, in combination with previous research, support the proposal that humans share many cognitive skills with nonhuman apes, especially for dealing with the physical world, but in addition have evolved some specialized skills of social cognition. PMID:20424030

Herrmann, Esther; Hernández-Lloreda, Maria Victoria; Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Tomasello, Michael

2009-12-18