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Sample records for individual episodic memory

  1. Decoding individual episodic memory traces in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Hassabis, Demis; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2010-03-23

    In recent years, multivariate pattern analyses have been performed on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, permitting prediction of mental states from local patterns of blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal across voxels. We previously demonstrated that it is possible to predict the position of individuals in a virtual-reality environment from the pattern of activity across voxels in the hippocampus. Although this shows that spatial memories can be decoded, substantially more challenging, and arguably only possible to investigate in humans, is whether it is feasible to predict which complex everyday experience, or episodic memory, a person is recalling. Here we document for the first time that traces of individual rich episodic memories are detectable and distinguishable solely from the pattern of fMRI BOLD signals across voxels in the human hippocampus. In so doing, we uncovered a possible functional topography in the hippocampus, with preferential episodic processing by some hippocampal regions over others. Moreover, our results imply that the neuronal traces of episodic memories are stable (and thus predictable) even over many re-activations. Finally, our data provide further evidence for functional differentiation within the medial temporal lobe, in that we show the hippocampus contains significantly more episodic information than adjacent structures. PMID:20226665

  2. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  3. The contribution of executive functions deficits to impaired episodic memory in individuals with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Noël, Xavier; Van der Linden, Martial; Brevers, Damien; Campanella, Salvatore; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul

    2012-06-30

    Individuals with alcoholism commonly exhibit impaired performance on episodic memory tasks. However, the contribution of their impaired executive functioning to poor episodic memory remains to be clarified. Thirty-six recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcoholic men and 36 matched non-alcoholic participants were tested for processing speed, prepotent response inhibition, mental flexibility, coordination of dual-task and a verbal episodic memory task. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals, the alcoholic patients showed impaired executive functions combined with below normal performance on both free and delayed recall. In contrast, processing speed, cued recall and recognition were preserved. Regression analyses revealed that 47% of alcoholics' episodic memory's free recall performance was predicted by mental flexibility and that 49% of their delayed recall performance was predicted by mental flexibility, manipulation of dual-task and prepotent response inhibition. Regarding participants' executive predictors of episodic memory performance, the slopes of β coefficients were significantly different between the two groups, with alcoholics requiring more their executive system than non-alcoholics. Once detoxified, alcoholic patients showed episodic memory deficits mainly characterized by impaired effortful (executive) processes. Compared with controls, patients used effortful learning strategies, which are nonetheless less efficient. PMID:22377577

  4. Donepezil Improves Episodic Memory in Young Individuals Vulnerable to the Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Lisa Y.M.; Chong, Delise L.; Chen, Annette K.; Rekshan, William R.; Tan, Jiat-Chow; Zheng, Hui; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated if donepezil, a long-acting orally administered cholinesterase inhibitor, would reduce episodic memory deficits associated with 24 h of sleep deprivation. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving 7 laboratory visits over 2 months. Participants underwent 4 functional MRI scans; 2 sessions (donepezil or placebo) followed a normal night's sleep, and 2 sessions followed a night of sleep deprivation. Setting: The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants: 26 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. Interventions: 5 mg of donepezil was taken once daily for approximately 17 days. Measurements and Results: Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic judgment task and tested for word recognition outside the scanner 45 minutes later. Sleep deprivation increased the frequency of non-responses at encoding and impaired delayed recognition. No benefit of donepezil was evident when participants were well rested. When sleep deprived, individuals who showed greater performance decline improved with donepezil, whereas more resistant individuals did not benefit. Accompanying these behavioral effects, there was corresponding modulation of task-related activation in functionally relevant brain regions. Brain regions identified in relation to donepezil-induced alteration in non-response rates could be distinguished from regions relating to improved recognition memory. This suggests that donepezil can improve delayed recognition in sleep-deprived persons by improving attention as well as enhancing memory encoding. Conclusions: Donepezil reduced decline in recognition performance in individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of combined fMRI–behavior evaluation in psychopharmacological studies. Citation: Chuah LYM; Chong DL; Chen AK; Rekshan WR; Tan JC; Zheng H; Chee MWL. Donepezil

  5. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. PMID:25760303

  6. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  7. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  8. A Calendar Savant with Episodic Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Berryhill, Marian E.; Drowos, David B.; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures as well as retaining some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient’s memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable. PMID:20104390

  9. Perspectives on Episodic-Like and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754

  10. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  11. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Episodic Retrieval: Examining the Dynamics of Delayed and Continuous Distractor Free Recall

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    Unsworth, Nash

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments explored the possibility that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) partially reflect differences in the size of the search set from which items are retrieved. High- and low-WMC individuals were tested in delayed (Experiment 1) and continuous distractor (Experiment 2) free recall with varying list lengths. Across…

  12. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  13. The Episodic Nature of Episodic-Like Memories

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    Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.

    2012-01-01

    Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…

  14. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  15. Episodic-like memory in animals

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memory consists of representations of unique past events. It has been argued that episodic memory is grounded in a temporal framework, meaning that we remember when an event occurred. The ability to model the temporal aspects of episodic memory in non-human animals has been challenging and controversial. This article briefly reviews the theoretical perspective in which temporal processing plays a prominent role in episodic memory. Next, the article reviews experimental attempts to identify temporal processes of episodic memory in animals. Recent studies suggest that, at the time of memory assessment, rats remember a unique earlier event, including when it occurred, what happened, and where it took place, referred to as what-where-when memory. PMID:20211205

  16. Binding of episodic memories in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Smith, Alexandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary People remember an event as a coherent scene [1-4]. Memory of such an episode is thought to reflect binding of a fully integrated representation, rather than memory of unconnected features [4-7]. However, it is not known if rodents form bound representations. Here we show that rats remember episodes as bound representations. Rats were presented with multiple features of unique episodes at memory encoding: what (food flavor), where (maze location), source (self-generated food seeking–running to the food site– or experimenter-generated food seeking –placement by the experimenter at the food site), and context (spatial cues in the room where the event occurred). After a delay, the trial continued with a memory assessment in which one flavor replenished at the self-generated- but not at experimenter-generated-locations. We presented rats with multiple overlapping features, in rapid succession, to ensure that successful memory retrieval required them to disambiguate multiple study episodes (using two rooms). We found that binding is resistant to interference from highly similar episodes and survives long retention intervals (~1 week). Our results suggest that multiple episodic memories are each structured as bound representations, which suggests that nonhumans represent episodic memories using a structure similar to that of people. This finding enhances the translational potential for utilizing animal models of episodic memory to explore the biological mechanisms of memory and validate therapeutic approaches for treating disorders of memory. PMID:25466681

  17. The temporal attributes of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P; Hunsaker, Michael R

    2010-12-31

    From a temporal dynamic processing point of view, episodic memory can be divided into three critical time periods: short-term episodic memory with a duration of seconds, intermediate-term episodic memory with a duration from minutes to hours, and long-term or remote episodic memory with a duration from days to years. We propose that short-term episodic memory is mediated by the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, intermediate-term episodic memory is mediated by the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus (in certain situations aided by the CA3 subregion), and that long-term or remote episodic memory may be mediated by the CA1 subregion. In support of the above mentioned proposal data are presented to support the short-term and intermediate episodic memory functions of CA3 and CA1 based on single item object, spatial location, and object-place association tasks. Additional data are presented for a role for CA3 in short-term episodic memory based on multiple sequential spatial locations, visual objects, and odors tasks. The same episodic memory model based on duration mentioned above cannot easily be applied to the functions of the CA3 (short-term episodic) and CA1 (intermediate-term episodic) for a multiple sequentially presented item, such as a places, objects or odors. The reason for this is that the CA1 region supports, in addition to intermediate episodic memory, temporal pattern separation processes which would reduce interference among sequentially experienced items. The consequence is that this temporal pattern separation process can result in CA1 involvement in short-term episodic tasks based on duration. Also, data are presented based on tasks that involved multiple-trials tested within a day and between days short-term and intermediate-term episodic memory. Furthermore, the mechanisms for understanding the interactions and dissociations between CA3 and CA1 are discussed. The DG appears to have a modulatory influence on the CA3 and CA1 mediation of short-term and

  18. Aging, Estrogens, and Episodic Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Victor W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the relation in midlife and beyond between estrogen exposures and episodic memory in women. Background Episodic memory performance declines with usual aging, and impairments in episodic memory often portend the development of Alzheimer's disease. In the laboratory, estradiol influences hippocampal function and animal learning. However, it is controversial whether estrogens affect memory after a woman's reproductive years. Method Focused literature review, including a summary of a systematic search of clinical trials of estrogens in which outcomes included an objective measure of episodic memory. Results The natural menopause transition is not associated with objective changes in episodic memory. Strong clinical trial evidence indicates that initiating estrogen-containing hormone therapy after about age 60 years does not benefit episodic memory. Clinical trial findings in middle-age women before age 60 are limited by smaller sample sizes and shorter treatment durations, but these also do not indicate substantial memory effects. Limited short-term evidence, however, suggests that estrogens may improve verbal memory after surgical menopause. Although hormone therapy initiation in old age increases dementia risk, observational studies raise the question of an early critical window during which midlife estrogen therapy reduces late-life Alzheimer's disease. However, almost no data address whether midlife estrogen therapy affects episodic memory in old age. Conclusions Episodic memory is not substantially impacted by the natural menopause transition or improved by use of estrogen-containing hormone therapy after age 60. Further research is needed to determine whether outcomes differ after surgical menopause or whether episodic memory later in life is modified by midlife estrogenic exposures. PMID:19996872

  19. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  20. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems. PMID:24702453

  1. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  2. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  3. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  4. Stroke and episodic memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory impairment after stroke: (1) Every node of the limbic system implicated in memory may be damaged by stroke but very rarely in isolation and the combination of amnesia with the associated deficits often illuminates additional aspects of memory functions. (2) Stroke produces amnesia by damage to critical convergence white matter connections of the limbic system, and stroke is the only etiology of amnesia that can delineate the entire pathway of memory and critical convergence points. (3) Stroke also impairs memory, without causing classical amnesia, by damaging brain regions responsible for cognitive processes, some modality specific and some more generally strategic, that are essential for normal learning and recall. PMID:19666037

  5. Autobiographical Thinking Interferes with Episodic Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Michael; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an ‘internal’ memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues. PMID:24736665

  6. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:26074833

  7. Episodic and Semantic Aspects of Memory for Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooling, D. James

    This report describes research on Bartlett's theory of constructive memory. In experiment one, schematic retention is related to Tulving's distinction between episodic and semantic memory. With the passage of time, memory for prose reflects decreasing output from episodic memory and increasing output from semantic memory. In experiment two,…

  8. Using imagination to understand the neural basis of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2008-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies investigating the neural basis of episodic memory recall, and the related task of thinking about plausible personal future events, have revealed a consistent network of associated brain regions. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the contributions individual brain areas make to the overall recollective experience. In order to examine this, we employed a novel fMRI paradigm where subjects had to imagine fictitious experiences. In contrast to future thinking, this results in experiences that are not explicitly temporal in nature or as reliant on self-processing. By using previously imagined fictitious experiences as a comparison for episodic memories, we identified the neural basis of a key process engaged in common, namely scene construction, involving the generation, maintenance and visualisation of complex spatial contexts. This was associated with activations in a distributed network, including hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex. Importantly, we disambiguated these common effects from episodic memory-specific responses in anterior medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. These latter regions may support self-schema and familiarity processes, and contribute to the brain's ability to distinguish real from imaginary memories. We conclude that scene construction constitutes a common process underlying episodic memory and imagination of fictitious experiences, and suggest it may partially account for the similar brain networks implicated in navigation, episodic future thinking, and the default mode. We suggest that further brain regions are co-opted into this core network in a task-specific manner to support functions such as episodic memory that may have additional requirements. PMID:18160644

  9. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690

  10. Anterograde episodic memory in Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546

  11. Anterograde Episodic Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with “polyneuropathy,” the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546

  12. Episodic and Semantic Memory Influences on Picture Naming in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jeff A.; Sandhu, Nirmaljeet

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between semantic and episodic memory as they support lexical access by healthy younger and older adults and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, we were interested in examining the pattern of semantic and episodic memory declines in AD (i.e., word-finding difficulty and impaired recent…

  13. Testing episodic memory in animals: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D P; Clayton, N S

    2001-08-01

    Episodic memory involves the encoding and storage of memories concerned with unique personal experiences and their subsequent recall, and it has long been the subject of intensive investigation in humans. According to Tulving's classical definition, episodic memory "receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes or events and temporal-spatial relations among these events." Thus, episodic memory provides information about the 'what' and 'when' of events ('temporally dated experiences') and about 'where' they happened ('temporal-spatial relations'). The storage and subsequent recall of this episodic information was thought to be beyond the memory capabilities of nonhuman animals. Although there are many laboratory procedures for investigating memory for discrete past episodes, until recently there were no previous studies that fully satisfied the criteria of Tulving's definition: they can all be explained in much simpler terms than episodic memory. However, current studies of memory for cache sites in food-storing jays provide an ethologically valid model for testing episodic-like memory in animals, thereby bridging the gap between human and animal studies memory. There is now a pressing need to adapt these experimental tests of episodic memory for other animals. Given the potential power of transgenic and knock-out procedures for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of learning and memory in laboratory rodents, not to mention the wealth of knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the rodent hippocampus (a brain area heavily implicated in episodic memory), an obvious next step is to develop a rodent model of episodic-like memory based on the food-storing bird paradigm. The development of a rodent model system could make an important contribution to our understanding of the neural, molecular, and behavioral mechanisms of mammalian episodic memory. PMID:11566209

  14. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  15. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  16. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. PMID:26900967

  17. [Neurodynamic Bases of Imitation Learning and Episodic Memory].

    PubMed

    Tsukerman, V D

    2016-01-01

    In this review, three essentially important processes in development of cognitive behavior are considered: knowledge of a spatial environment by means of physical activity, coding and a call of an existential context of episodic memory and imitation learning based on the mirror neural mechanism. The data show that the parietal and frontal system of learning by imitation, allows the developing organism to seize skills of management and motive synergies in perisomatic space, to understand intentions and the purposes of observed actions of other individuals. At the same time a widely distributed parietal and frontal and entorhinal-hippocampal system mediates spatial knowledge and the solution of the navigation tasks important for creation of an existential context of episodic memory. PMID:27192841

  18. Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains

    PubMed Central

    Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele

    2014-01-01

    Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples’ knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system. PMID:24966848

  19. The Effects of Emotion on Episodic Memory for TV Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Esther; Friestad, Marian

    Based on the associational nature of memory, the distinction between episodic and semantic memory, and the notion of memory strength, a model was developed of the role of emotion in the memory of television commercials. The model generated the following hypotheses: (1) emotional commercials will more likely be recalled than nonemotional…

  20. Acetylcholine facilitates recovery of episodic memory after brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Croxson, Paula L.; Browning, Philip G. F.; Gaffan, David; Baxter, Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory depends on a network of interconnected brain structures including the inferior temporal cortex, hippocampus, fornix and mammillary bodies. We have previously shown that a moderate episodic memory impairment in monkeys with transection of the fornix is exacerbated by prior depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex. This is despite the fact that depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex on its own has no effect on episodic memory. Here we now show that this effect occurs because inferotemporal acetylcholine facilitates recovery of function following structural damage within the neural circuit for episodic memory. Episodic memory impairment caused by lesions of the mammillary bodies, like fornix transection, was exacerbated by prior removal of temporal cortical acetylcholine. However, removing temporal cortical acetylcholine after the lesion of the fornix or mammillary bodies did not increase the severity of the impairment. This lesion order effect suggests that acetylcholine within the inferior temporal cortex ordinarily facilitates functional recovery after structural lesions that impair episodic memory. In the absence of acetylcholine innervation to inferotemporal cortex, this recovery is impaired and the amnesia caused by the structural lesion is more severe. These results suggest that humans with loss of cortical acetylcholine function, for example in Alzheimer’s disease, may be less able to adapt to memory impairments caused by structural neuronal damage to areas in the network important for episodic memory. PMID:23035090

  1. Aging-related episodic memory decline: are emotions the key?

    PubMed Central

    Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21–45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48–62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71–83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group. PMID:23378831

  2. Episodic and semantic memory in bilingual and monolingual children.

    PubMed

    Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Moniri, Sadegheh; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2003-02-01

    Although bilinguality has been reported to confer advantages upon children with respect to various cognitive abilities, much less is known about the relation between memory and bilinguality. In this study, 60 (30 girls and 30 boys) bilingual and 60 (30 girls and 30 boys) monolingual children in three age groups (mean ages 8.5, 10.5 and 12.5 years) were compared on episodic memory and semantic memory tasks. Episodic memory was assessed using subject-performed tasks (with real or imaginary objects) and verbal tasks, with retrieval by both free recall and cued recall. Semantic memory was assessed by word fluency tests. Positive effects of bilingualism were found on both episodic memory and semantic memory at all age levels. These findings suggest that bilingual children integrate and/or organize the information of two languages, and so bilingualism creates advantages in terms of cognitive abilities (including memory). Some sex differences were also found in episodic memory but not in semantic memory. This episodic memory difference was found with younger children. PMID:12603003

  3. Executive Functioning and Memory as Potential Mediators of the Episodic Feeling-of-Knowing Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrotin, Audrey; Tournelle, Lydia; Isingrini, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The study focused on the cognitive determinants of the accuracy of feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments made on episodic memory information. An individual differences approach was used on a sample of healthy older adults assessed on an episodic FOK task and on several neuropsychological measures. At a global level of analysis of FOK accuracy, the…

  4. Atypical Neurophysiology Underlying Episodic and Semantic Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massand, Esha; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypicalities in episodic memory (Boucher et al. in Psychological Bulletin, 138 (3), 458-496, 2012). We asked participants to recall the colours of a set of studied line drawings (episodic judgement), or to recognize line drawings alone (semantic judgement). Cycowicz et al. ("Journal of…

  5. Retrieval-Based Model Accounts for Striking Profile of Episodic Memory and Generalization.

    PubMed

    Banino, Andrea; Koster, Raphael; Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental theoretical tension exists between the role of the hippocampus in generalizing across a set of related episodes, and in supporting memory for individual episodes. Whilst the former requires an appreciation of the commonalities across episodes, the latter emphasizes the representation of the specifics of individual experiences. We developed a novel version of the hippocampal-dependent paired associate inference (PAI) paradigm, which afforded us the unique opportunity to investigate the relationship between episodic memory and generalization in parallel. Across four experiments, we provide surprising evidence that the overlap between object pairs in the PAI paradigm results in a marked loss of episodic memory. Critically, however, we demonstrate that superior generalization ability was associated with stronger episodic memory. Through computational simulations we show that this striking profile of behavioral findings is best accounted for by a mechanism by which generalization occurs at the point of retrieval, through the recombination of related episodes on the fly. Taken together, our study offers new insights into the intricate relationship between episodic memory and generalization, and constrains theories of the mechanisms by which the hippocampus supports generalization. PMID:27510579

  6. Retrieval-Based Model Accounts for Striking Profile of Episodic Memory and Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Banino, Andrea; Koster, Raphael; Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental theoretical tension exists between the role of the hippocampus in generalizing across a set of related episodes, and in supporting memory for individual episodes. Whilst the former requires an appreciation of the commonalities across episodes, the latter emphasizes the representation of the specifics of individual experiences. We developed a novel version of the hippocampal-dependent paired associate inference (PAI) paradigm, which afforded us the unique opportunity to investigate the relationship between episodic memory and generalization in parallel. Across four experiments, we provide surprising evidence that the overlap between object pairs in the PAI paradigm results in a marked loss of episodic memory. Critically, however, we demonstrate that superior generalization ability was associated with stronger episodic memory. Through computational simulations we show that this striking profile of behavioral findings is best accounted for by a mechanism by which generalization occurs at the point of retrieval, through the recombination of related episodes on the fly. Taken together, our study offers new insights into the intricate relationship between episodic memory and generalization, and constrains theories of the mechanisms by which the hippocampus supports generalization. PMID:27510579

  7. Relationship of Sensory Modality to Retention of Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeri; Woodworth, Craig; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Rossini, Edward; Jackson, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the difference between episodic memory for verbal information presented in an oral format versus equivalent material presented in a written format. The study utilized the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Fourth Edition and the recently validated Morris Revision-IV Paragraphs. In a sample of 97 normal participants, auditory and visual memory performances were found to be significantly correlated (r = .651, p < .001). Post-hoc analysis revealed a slight though not clinically significant preference for retention in the visual modality. The results demonstrate a high-degree correlation for retention of episodic memory for these two sensory modalities in normal participants. PMID:25372988

  8. Noninvasive stimulation of prefrontal cortex strengthens existing episodic memories and reduces forgetting in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Marco; Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Rosini, Sandra; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Cotelli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Memory consolidation is a dynamic process. Reactivation of consolidated memories by a reminder triggers reconsolidation, a time-limited period during which existing memories can be modified (i.e., weakened or strengthened). Episodic memory refers to our ability to recall specific past events about what happened, including where and when. Difficulties in this form of long-term memory commonly occur in healthy aging. Because episodic memory is critical for daily life functioning, the development of effective interventions to reduce memory loss in elderly individuals is of great importance. Previous studies in young adults showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a causal role in strengthening of verbal episodic memories through reconsolidation. The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which facilitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS) over the left DLPFC would strengthen existing episodic memories through reconsolidation in elderly individuals. On Day 1, older adults learned a list of 20 words. On Day 2 (24 h later), they received a reminder or not, and after 10 min tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC. Memory recall was tested on Day 3 (48 h later) and Day 30 (1 month later). Surprisingly, anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC (i.e., with or without the reminder) strengthened existing verbal episodic memories and reduced forgetting compared to sham stimulation. These results provide a framework for testing the hypothesis that facilitatory tDCS of left DLPFC might strengthen existing episodic memories and reduce memory loss in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25368577

  9. Vection Modulates Emotional Valence of Autobiographical Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…

  10. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Souchay, Céline; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Wojcik, Dominika Zofia; Eustache, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle) to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts, and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience) and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing). We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different NDDs there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process. PMID:24399944

  11. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Lucy G; Simons, Jon S; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18-35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what-where-when style episodic memory test: the "Treasure-Hunt Task". This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what-where-when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  12. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Simons, Jon S.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18–35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what–where–when style episodic memory test: the “Treasure-Hunt Task”. This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what–where–when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  13. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident…

  14. Theory of mind development can withstand compromised episodic memory development.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Braverman, Anna; Gilboa, Asaf; Stuss, Donald T; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2012-12-01

    As humans, we are consciously aware of unobservable mental states, including our own during episodic memory and other people's by having a "theory of mind" (ToM). Episodic memory and ToM are closely related: they share a neural substrate and emerge close in time in ontogenetic development. This relationship is central to prominent child development and cognitive neuroscience theories of ToM, but its causal nature has not been tested empirically. The current study examined whether normal episodic memory development is necessary for normal ToM development. To investigate this, we tested H.C., a young woman with impaired episodic memory development due to early hippocampal damage, on a wide range of ToM measures. H.C.'s performance was indistinguishable from that of controls on all tests of ToM suggesting that, contrary to theoretical claims in the literature, normal episodic memory development and hippocampal function are not essential for the development of ToM. PMID:23088818

  15. Individual differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

    2006-04-28

    Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

  16. Dissociations in Hippocampal and Frontal Contributions to Episodic Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Hollnagel, Caroline; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Delis, Dean C.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus and frontal lobes both contribute to episodic memory performance. In the present study, the authors evaluated the relative contributions of hippocampus, frontal lobes, anterior temporal cortex, and posterior cortex to memory performance in neurodegenerative patients and normal older controls. Subjects (n = 42) were studied with structural MRI and a memory paradigm that measured delayed recall, semantic clustering during recall, recognition discriminability, and recognition response bias. Data were analyzed with multiple regression. Consistent with the authors’ hypotheses, hippocampal volumes were the best predictor of delayed recall and recognition discriminability, whereas frontal volumes were the best predictor of semantic clustering and response bias. Smaller frontal volumes were associated with less semantic clustering during recall and a more liberal response bias. Results indicate that hippocampal and frontal contributions to episodic memory can be dissociated, with the hippocampus more important for memory accuracy, and frontal structures more important for strategic processing and decision making. PMID:16351355

  17. The effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Although stressors are believed to impair memory, experimental studies with humans have provided inconsistent support for this conclusion. The current study was designed to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stressor, and subsequent reactivity, on episodic memory. One hundred participants completed a list-recall task before and after random assignment into a stressor or nonstressor condition. Participants assigned to the stressor condition exhibited both impaired delayed and immediate recall, and also exhibited increasesin the commission of intrusions and perseverations. The experience of off-task thoughts and intentional suppression of such thoughts, were associated with greater impairment of immediate recall. Changes in state anxiety, negative mood, and heart rate were unrelated to changes in memory. These data indicate that exposure to a stressor impaired the recall of previously learned information, and compromised the recall of newly acquired information. Furthermore, cognitive interference is an important factor regarding stress-related impairments of episodic memory. memory. PMID:19727439

  18. Episodic Memory and Regional Atrophy in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, Hedvig; Black, Sandra E.; Miller, Bruce L.; Freedman, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2008-01-01

    It has been unclear to what extent memory is affected in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Since patients usually have atrophy in regions implicated in memory function, the frontal and/or temporal lobes, one would expect some memory impairment, and that the degree of atrophy in these regions would be inversely related to memory function. The purposes of this study were 1) to assess episodic memory function in FTLD, and more specifically patients' ability to episodically re-experience an event, and determine its source; 2) to examine whether memory performance is related to quantified regional brain atrophy. FTLD patients (n=18) and healthy comparison subjects (n=14) were assessed with cued recall, recognition, “remember/know” (self-reported re-experiencing) and source recall, at 30 min and 24 hr after encoding. Regional gray matter volumes were assessed with high resolution structural MRI concurrently to testing. Patients performed worse than comparison subjects on all memory measures. Gray matter volume in the left medial temporal lobe was positively correlated with recognition, re-experiencing, and source recall. Gray matter volume in the left posterior temporal lobe correlated significantly with recognition, at 30 min and 24 hr, and with source recall at 30 min. Estimated familiarity at 30 min was positively correlated with gray matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobe. In summary, episodic memory deficits in FTLD may be more common than previously thought, particularly in patients with left medial and posterior temporal atrophy. PMID:17888461

  19. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert J.; Ryan, Richard M.; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training—episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  20. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Ryan, Richard M; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  1. Amphetamine increases errors during episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse. PMID:24135845

  2. Amphetamine Increases Errors During Episodic Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counter-balanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse. PMID:24135845

  3. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  4. Recognition of Famous Names Predicts Episodic Memory Decline in Cognitively Intact Elders

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Kay, Christina; Woodard, John L.; Nielson, Kristy A.; Smith, J. Carson; Kandah, Cassandra; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M.; Novitski, Julia; Lancaster, Melissa; Matthews, Monica; Hantke, Nathan; Butts, Alissa; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Semantic memory impairment is common in both Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the ability to recognize familiar people is particularly vulnerable. A time-limited temporal gradient (TG) in which well known people from decades earlier are better recalled than those learned recently is also reported in both AD and MCI. In this study, we hypothesized that the TG pattern on a famous name recognition task (FNRT) administered to cognitively intact elders would predict future episodic memory decline, and would also show a significant correlation with hippocampal volume. Methods: 78 healthy elders (ages 65-90) with normal cognition and episodic memory at baseline were administered a FNRT. Follow-up episodic memory testing 18 months later produced two groups: Declining (≥ 1 SD reduction in episodic memory) and Stable (< 1 SD). Results: The Declining group (N=27) recognized fewer recent famous names than the Stable group (N=51), while recognition for remote names was comparable. Baseline MRI volumes for both the left and right hippocampus was significantly smaller in the Declining group than the Stable group. Smaller baseline hippocampal volume was also significantly correlated with poorer performance for recent, but not remote famous names. Logistic regression analyses indicated that baseline TG performance was a significant predictor of group status (Declining versus Stable) independent of chronological age and APOE ε4 inheritance. Conclusions: Famous name recognition may serve as an early pre-clinical cognitive marker of episodic memory decline in older individuals. PMID:23688215

  5. Cortical thickness mediates the effect of β-amyloid on episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Wirth, Miranka; Haase, Claudia M.; Madison, Cindee M.; Ayakta, Nagehan; Mack, Wendy; Mungas, Dan; Chui, Helena C.; DeCarli, Charles; Weiner, Michael W.; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the associations among β-amyloid (Aβ), cortical thickness, and episodic memory in a cohort of cognitively normal to mildly impaired individuals at increased risk of vascular disease. Methods: In 67 subjects specifically recruited to span a continuum of cognitive function and vascular risk, we measured brain Aβ deposition using [11C] Pittsburgh compound B–PET imaging and cortical thickness using MRI. Episodic memory was tested using a standardized composite score of verbal memory, and vascular risk was quantified using the Framingham Coronary Risk Profile index. Results: Increased Aβ was associated with cortical thinning, notably in frontoparietal regions. This relationship was strongest in persons with high Aβ deposition. Increased Aβ was also associated with lower episodic memory performance. Cortical thickness was found to mediate the relationship between Aβ and memory performance. While age had a marginal effect on these associations, the relationship between Aβ and cortical thickness was eliminated after controlling for vascular risk except when examined in only Pittsburgh compound B–positive subjects, in whom Aβ remained associated with thinner cortex in precuneus and occipital lobe. In addition, only the precuneus was found to mediate the relationship between Aβ and memory after controlling for vascular risk. Conclusion: These results suggest strong links among Aβ, cortical thickness, and memory. They highlight that, in individuals without dementia, vascular risk also contributes to cortical thickness and influences the relationships among Aβ, cortical thickness, and memory. PMID:24489134

  6. Oscillations and Episodic Memory: Addressing the Synchronization/Desynchronization Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Staresina, Bernhard P.; Bowman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Brain oscillations are one of the core mechanisms underlying episodic memory. However, while some studies highlight the role of synchronized oscillatory activity, others highlight the role of desynchronized activity. We here describe a framework to resolve this conundrum and integrate these two opposing oscillatory behaviors. Specifically, we argue that the synchronization and desynchronization reflect a division of labor between a hippocampal and a neocortical system, respectively. We describe a novel oscillatory framework that integrates synchronization and desynchronization mechanisms to explain how the two systems interact in the service of episodic memory. PMID:26763659

  7. Episodic simulation and episodic memory can increase intentions to help others

    PubMed Central

    Gaesser, Brendan; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Empathy plays an important role in human social interaction. A multifaceted construct, empathy includes a prosocial motivation or intention to help others in need. Although humans are often willing to help others in need, at times (e.g., during intergroup conflict), empathic responses are diminished or absent. Research examining the cognitive mechanisms underlying prosocial tendencies has focused on the facilitating roles of perspective taking and emotion sharing but has not previously elucidated the contributions of episodic simulation and memory to facilitating prosocial intentions. Here, we investigated whether humans’ ability to construct episodes by vividly imagining (episodic simulation) or remembering (episodic memory) specific events also supports a willingness to help others. Three experiments provide evidence that, when participants were presented with a situation depicting another person’s plight, the act of imagining an event of helping the person or remembering a related past event of helping others increased prosocial intentions to help the present person in need, compared with various control conditions. We also report evidence suggesting that the vividness of constructed episodes—rather than simply heightened emotional reactions or degree of perspective taking—supports this effect. Our results shed light on a role that episodic simulation and memory can play in fostering empathy and begin to offer insight into the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24616532

  8. Episodic Memory and Appetite Regulation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Burn, Jeremy F.; Sell, Nicola R.; Collingwood, Jane M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Wilkinson, Laura L.; Hinton, Elanor C.; Maynard, Olivia M.; Ferriday, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological and neurobiological evidence implicates hippocampal-dependent memory processes in the control of hunger and food intake. In humans, these have been revealed in the hyperphagia that is associated with amnesia. However, it remains unclear whether ‘memory for recent eating’ plays a significant role in neurologically intact humans. In this study we isolated the extent to which memory for a recently consumed meal influences hunger and fullness over a three-hour period. Before lunch, half of our volunteers were shown 300 ml of soup and half were shown 500 ml. Orthogonal to this, half consumed 300 ml and half consumed 500 ml. This process yielded four separate groups (25 volunteers in each). Independent manipulation of the ‘actual’ and ‘perceived’ soup portion was achieved using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump. This was designed to either refill or draw soup from a soup bowl in a covert manner. Immediately after lunch, self-reported hunger was influenced by the actual and not the perceived amount of soup consumed. However, two and three hours after meal termination this pattern was reversed - hunger was predicted by the perceived amount and not the actual amount. Participants who thought they had consumed the larger 500-ml portion reported significantly less hunger. This was also associated with an increase in the ‘expected satiation’ of the soup 24-hours later. For the first time, this manipulation exposes the independent and important contribution of memory processes to satiety. Opportunities exist to capitalise on this finding to reduce energy intake in humans. PMID:23227200

  9. Episodic-Like Memory in a Gorilla: A Review and New Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, B.L.; Hoffman, M.L.; Evans, S.

    2005-01-01

    The current paper examines if gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) possess an episodic memory system. Episodic memory, in humans, is a neurocognitive system that stores information about the personal past. Unique to episodic memory is its palinscopic or past-focused orientation; most memory systems serve to provide the organism with up to date…

  10. The Nature of Episodic Memory Deficits in MCI with and without Vascular Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Massoud, Fadi; Bocti, Christian; Gauthier, Serge; Belleville, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    This study measured episodic memory deficits in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a function of their vascular burden. Vascular burden was determined clinically by computing the number of vascular risk factors and diseases and neuroradiologically by assessing the presence and severity of white matter lesions (WML). Strategic…

  11. Conjunction Illusions and Conjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Nakamura, Koyuki; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the overdistribution principle implies that episodic memory is infected by conjunction illusions. These are instances in which an item that was presented in a single context (e.g., List 1) is falsely remembered as having been presented in multiple contexts (e.g., List 1 and List 2). Robust conjunction illusions were detected in…

  12. Similarity and Attraction Effects in Episodic Memory Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylor, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Matthew A. J.

    2007-01-01

    In the decision-making literature, it is known that preferences between two options can be influenced in different ways by the introduction of a third option. We investigated whether such influences could be demonstrated when making decisions about qualitative aspects of episodic memories. In a baseline condition, participants were asked which of…

  13. PRKCA polymorphism changes the neural basis of episodic remembering in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Catherine A; Donaldson, David I

    2014-01-01

    Everyday functioning relies on episodic memory, the conscious retrieval of past experiences, but this crucial cognitive ability declines severely with aging and disease. Vulnerability to memory decline varies across individuals however, producing differences in the time course and severity of memory problems that complicate attempts at diagnosis and treatment. Here we identify a key source of variability, by examining gene dependent changes in the neural basis of episodic remembering in healthy adults, targeting seven polymorphisms previously linked to memory. Scalp recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were measured while participants remembered words, using an item recognition task that requires discrimination between studied and unstudied stimuli. Significant differences were found as a consequence of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in just one of the tested genes, PRKCA (rs8074995). Participants with the common G/G variant exhibited left parietal old/new effects, which are typically seen in word recognition studies, reflecting recollection-based remembering. During the same stage of memory retrieval participants carrying a rarer A variant exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activity, a topographically dissociable frontally-distributed old/new effect, even though behavioural performance did not differ between groups. Results replicated in a second independent sample of participants. These findings demonstrate that the PRKCA genotype is important in determining how episodic memories are retrieved, opening a new route towards understanding individual differences in memory. PMID:24842701

  14. Reactivation of Reward-Related Patterns from Single Past Episodes Supports Memory-Based Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Büchel, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Rewarding experiences exert a strong influence on later decision making. While decades of neuroscience research have shown how reinforcement gradually shapes preferences, decisions are often influenced by single past experiences. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the influence of single learning episodes. Although recent work has proposed a role for episodes in decision making, it is largely unknown whether and how episodic experiences contribute to value-based decision making and how the values of single episodes are represented in the brain. In multiple behavioral experiments and an fMRI experiment, we tested whether and how rewarding episodes could support later decision making. Participants experienced episodes of high reward or low reward in conjunction with incidental, trial-unique neutral pictures. In a surprise test phase, we found that participants could indeed remember the associated level of reward, as evidenced by accurate source memory for value and preferences to re-engage with rewarded objects. Further, in a separate experiment, we found that high-reward objects shown as primes before a gambling task increased financial risk taking. Neurally, re-exposure to objects in the test phase led to significant reactivation of reward-related patterns. Importantly, individual variability in the strength of reactivation predicted value memory performance. Our results provide a novel demonstration that affect-related neural patterns are reactivated during later experience. Reactivation of value information represents a mechanism by which memory can guide decision making. PMID:26961943

  15. Constructing realistic engrams: poststimulus activity of hippocampus and dorsal striatum predicts subsequent episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yakov, Aya; Dudai, Yadin

    2011-06-15

    Encoding of real-life episodic memory commonly involves integration of information as the episode unfolds. Offline processing immediately following event offset is expected to play a role in encoding the episode into memory. In this study, we examined whether distinct human brain activity time-locked to the offset of short narrative audiovisual episodes could predict subsequent memory for the gist of the episodes. We found that a set of brain regions, most prominently the bilateral hippocampus and the bilateral caudate nucleus, exhibit memory-predictive activity time-locked to the stimulus offset. We propose that offline activity in these regions reflects registration to memory of integrated episodes. PMID:21677186

  16. Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills--that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment--and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

  17. Spatial Navigation Impairments Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Relations With Theory of Mind, Episodic Memory, and Episodic Future Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills—that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment—and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

  18. A computational theory of episodic memory formation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2010-12-31

    A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network to enable rapid, one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, also important in episodic memory. The dentate gyrus performs pattern separation by competitive learning to produce sparse representations, producing for example neurons with place-like fields from entorhinal cortex grid cells. The dentate granule cells produce by the very small number of mossy fibre connections to CA3 a randomizing pattern separation effect important during learning but not recall that separates out the patterns represented by CA3 firing to be very different from each other, which is optimal for an unstructured episodic memory system in which each memory must be kept distinct from other memories. The direct perforant path input to CA3 is quantitatively appropriate to provide the cue for recall in CA3, but not for learning. The CA1 recodes information from CA3 to set up associatively learned backprojections to neocortex to allow subsequent retrieval of information to neocortex, providing a quantitative account of the large number of hippocampo-neocortical and neocortical-neocortical backprojections. Tests of the theory including hippocampal subregion analyses and hippocampal NMDA receptor knockouts are described and support the theory. PMID:20307583

  19. Autonoetic consciousness: Reconsidering the role of episodic memory in future-oriented self-projection.

    PubMed

    Klein, Stanley B

    2016-02-01

    Following the seminal work of Ingvar (1985. "Memory for the future": An essay on the temporal organization of conscious awareness. Human Neurobiology, 4, 127-136), Suddendorf (1994. The discovery of the fourth dimension: Mental time travel and human evolution. Master's thesis. University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand), and Tulving (1985. Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology/PsychologieCanadienne, 26, 1-12), exploration of the ability to anticipate and prepare for future contingencies that cannot be known with certainty has grown into a thriving research enterprise. A fundamental tenet of this line of inquiry is that future-oriented mental time travel, in most of its presentations, is underwritten by a property or an extension of episodic recollection. However, a careful conceptual analysis of exactly how episodic memory functions in this capacity has yet to be undertaken. In this paper I conduct such an analysis. Based on conceptual, phenomenological, and empirical considerations, I conclude that the autonoetic component of episodic memory, not episodic memory per se, is the causally determinative factor enabling an individual to project him or herself into a personal future. PMID:25606713

  20. Episodic Memory Development: Theory of Mind Is Part of Re-Experiencing Experienced Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Gornik, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments with 3 1/2- to 6 1/2-year-old children showed that theory-of-mind development is associated with the growth of episodic memory. Episodic memory was assessed by manipulating informational conditions such that they permit or prevent the formation of episodic memories in terms of re-experiencing the recalled event. Only experienced…

  1. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  2. Sleep-Dependent Facilitation of Episodic Memory Details

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Els; Gujar, Ninad; Nishida, Masaki; Walker, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    While a role for sleep in declarative memory processing is established, the qualitative nature of this consolidation benefit, and the physiological mechanisms mediating it, remain debated. Here, we investigate the impact of sleep physiology on characteristics of episodic memory using an item- (memory elements) and context- (contextual details associated with those elements) learning paradigm; the latter being especially dependent on the hippocampus. Following back-to-back encoding of two word lists, each associated with a different context, participants were assigned to either a Nap-group, who obtained a 120-min nap, or a No Nap-group. Six hours post-encoding, participants performed a recognition test involving item-memory and context-memory judgments. In contrast to item-memory, which demonstrated no between-group differences, a significant benefit in context-memory developed in the Nap-group, the extent of which correlated both with the amount of stage-2 NREM sleep and frontal fast sleep-spindles. Furthermore, a difference was observed on the basis of word-list order, with the sleep benefit and associated physiological correlations being selective for the second word-list, learned last (most proximal to sleep). These findings suggest that sleep may preferentially benefit contextual (hippocampal-dependent) aspects of memory, supported by sleep-spindle oscillations, and that the temporal order of initial learning differentially determines subsequent offline consolidation. PMID:22114672

  3. Dopamine and Consolidation of Episodic Memory: Timing Is Everything

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, John; Bogacz, Rafal; Tsivos, Demitra; Whone, Alan; Coulthard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation underpins adaptive behavior and dopaminergic networks may be critical for prolonged, selective information storage. To understand the time course of the dopaminergic contribution to memory consolidation in humans, here we investigate the effect of dopaminergic medication on recall and recognition in the short and longer term in Parkinson disease (PD). Fifteen people with PD were each tested on or off dopaminergic medication during learning/early consolidation (Day 1) and/or late consolidation (Day 2). Fifteen age-matched healthy participants were tested only once. On Day 1 participants learned new information, and early episodic memory was tested after 30 min. Then on Day 2, recall and recognition were retested after a 24-hr delay. Participants on medication on Day 1 recalled less information at 30 min and 24 hr. In contrast, patients on medication on Day 2 (8–24 hr after learning) recalled more information at 24 hr than those off medication. Although recognition sensitivity was unaffected by medication, response bias was dependent on dopaminergic state: Medication during learning induced a more liberal bias 24 hr later, whereas patients off medication during learning were more conservative responders 24 hr later. We use computational modeling to propose possible mechanisms for this change in response bias. In summary, dopaminergic medication in PD patients during learning impairs early consolidation of episodic memory and makes delayed responses more liberal, but enhances late memory consolidation presumably through a dopamine-dependent consolidation pathway that may be active during sleep. PMID:26102227

  4. Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є4.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Josefsson, Maria; Ekström, Ingrid; Wilson, Donald; Nyberg, Lars; Nordin, Steven; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Larsson, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memory and olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45-90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10-20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by >1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator. PMID:26956928

  5. Sleep Benefits in Parallel Implicit and Explicit Measures of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Frederik D.; Wang, Jing-Yi; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Research in rats using preferences during exploration as a measure of memory has indicated that sleep is important for the consolidation of episodic-like memory, i.e., memory for an event bound into specific spatio-temporal context. How these findings relate to human episodic memory is unclear. We used spontaneous preferences during visual…

  6. The Multifold Relationship between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo; Hansson, Patrik; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory,…

  7. Cognitive Rehabilitation of Episodic Memory Disorders: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Radek; der Linden, Martial Van; Schnider, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioral management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioral disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behavior management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids. PMID:20700383

  8. Neural Changes Underlying the Development of Episodic Memory During Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. PMID:22770728

  9. The optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory in physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Rosa; Sandrini, Marco; Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-09-15

    Episodic memory displays the largest degree of age-related decline. A noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can be used to modulate memory in physiological aging is transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). However, an aspect that has not been adequately investigated in previous studies is the optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function. Our previous studies showed episodic memory enhancement in older adults when anodal tDCS was applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex during encoding or after memory consolidation with or without a contextual reminder. Here we directly compared the two studies to explore which of the tDCS protocols would induce longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function in older adults. In addition, we aimed to determine whether subjective memory complaints would be related to the changes in memory performance (forgetting) induced by tDCS, a relevant issue in aging research since individuals with subjective memory complaints seem to be at higher risk of later memory decline. The results showed that anodal tDCS applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder induced longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory, conceivably through reconsolidation, than anodal tDCS during encoding. Furthermore, we reported, providing new data, a moderate negative correlation between subjective memory complaints and forgetting when anodal tDCS was applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder. This study sheds light on the best-suited timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on memory function and might help the clinicians to select the most effective tDCS protocol to prevent memory decline. PMID:27185737

  10. An episodic memory-based solution for the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem.

    PubMed

    Demange, Sébastien; Ouni, Slim

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion method based on an episodic memory. An episodic memory is an interesting model for two reasons. First, it does not rely on any assumptions about the mapping function but rather it relies on real synchronized acoustic and articulatory data streams. Second, the memory inherently represents the real articulatory dynamics as observed. It is argued that the computational models of episodic memory, as they are usually designed, cannot provide a satisfying solution for the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem due to the insufficient quantity of training data. Therefore, an episodic memory is proposed, called generative episodic memory (G-Mem), which is able to produce articulatory trajectories that do not belong to the set of episodes the memory is based on. The generative episodic memory is evaluated using two electromagnetic articulography corpora: one for English and one for French. Comparisons with a codebook-based method and with a classical episodic memory (which is termed concatenative episodic memory) are presented in order to evaluate the proposed generative episodic memory in terms of both its modeling of articulatory dynamics and its generalization capabilities. The results show the effectiveness of the method where an overall root-mean-square error of 1.65 mm and a correlation of 0.71 are obtained for the G-Mem method. They are comparable to those of methods recently proposed. PMID:23654397

  11. The Emergence of Primary Anoetic Consciousness in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2014-01-01

    Based on an interdisciplinary perspective, we discuss how primary-process, anoetic forms of consciousness emerge into higher forms of awareness such as knowledge-based episodic knowing and self-aware forms of higher-order consciousness like autonoetic awareness. Anoetic consciousness is defined as the rudimentary state of affective, homeostatic, and sensory-perceptual mental experiences. It can be considered as the autonomic flow of primary-process phenomenal experiences that reflects a fundamental form of first-person “self-experience,” a vastly underestimated primary form of phenomenal consciousness. We argue that this anoetic form of evolutionarily refined consciousness constitutes a critical antecedent that is foundational for all forms of knowledge acquisition via learning and memory, giving rise to a knowledge-based, or noetic, consciousness as well as higher forms of “awareness” or “knowing consciousness” that permits “time-travel” in the brain-mind. We summarize the conceptual advantages of such a multi-tiered neuroevolutionary approach to psychological issues, namely from genetically controlled primary (affective) and secondary (learning and memory), to higher tertiary (developmentally emergent) brain-mind processes, along with suggestions about how affective experiences become more cognitive and object-oriented, allowing the developmental creation of more subtle higher mental processes such as episodic memory which allows the possibility of autonoetic consciousness, namely looking forward and backward at one’s life and its possibilities within the “mind’s eye.” PMID:24427125

  12. Cognitive Dissonance Resolution Is Related to Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Maillet, Mathurin; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The notion that our past choices affect our future behavior is certainly one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first experimental report in the 50 s, and its initial theorization by Festinger within the “cognitive dissonance” framework. Using the free choice paradigm (FCP), it was shown that choosing between two similarly rated items made subjects reevaluate the chosen items as more attractive and the rejected items as less attractive. However, in 2010 a major work by Chen and Risen revealed a severe statistical flaw casting doubt on most previous studies. Izuma and colleagues (2010) supplemented the traditional FCP with original control conditions and concluded that the effect observed could not be solely attributed to this methodological flaw. In the present work we aimed at establishing the existence of genuine choice-induced preference change and characterizing this effect. To do so, we replicated Izuma et al.’ study and added a new important control condition which was absent from the original study. Moreover, we added a memory test in order to measure the possible relation between episodic memory of choices and observed behavioral effects. In two experiments we provide experimental evidence supporting genuine choice-induced preference change obtained with FCP. We also contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon by showing that choice-induced preference change effects are strongly correlated with episodic memory. PMID:25264950

  13. Cognitive dissonance resolution is related to episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Salti, Moti; El Karoui, Imen; Maillet, Mathurin; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The notion that our past choices affect our future behavior is certainly one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first experimental report in the 50 s, and its initial theorization by Festinger within the "cognitive dissonance" framework. Using the free choice paradigm (FCP), it was shown that choosing between two similarly rated items made subjects reevaluate the chosen items as more attractive and the rejected items as less attractive. However, in 2010 a major work by Chen and Risen revealed a severe statistical flaw casting doubt on most previous studies. Izuma and colleagues (2010) supplemented the traditional FCP with original control conditions and concluded that the effect observed could not be solely attributed to this methodological flaw. In the present work we aimed at establishing the existence of genuine choice-induced preference change and characterizing this effect. To do so, we replicated Izuma et al.' study and added a new important control condition which was absent from the original study. Moreover, we added a memory test in order to measure the possible relation between episodic memory of choices and observed behavioral effects. In two experiments we provide experimental evidence supporting genuine choice-induced preference change obtained with FCP. We also contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon by showing that choice-induced preference change effects are strongly correlated with episodic memory. PMID:25264950

  14. Cognitive Processes Supporting Episodic Memory Formation in Childhood: The Role of Source Memory, Binding, and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memories contain various forms of contextual detail (e.g., perceptual, emotional, cognitive details) that need to become integrated. Each of these contextual features can be used to attribute a memory episode to its source, or origin of information. Memory for source information is one critical component in the formation of episodic…

  15. [Critical time intervention for individuals with first episode psychosis].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Ruben; Schilling, Sara; Jorquera, María José

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of providing individuals experiencing first episode psychosis with early, comprehensive, and effective treatment, in order to improve their long-term prognosis, has been widely recognized. However, despite the important role of psychosocial interventions in treatment, only a portion of patients receive this type of care, and it is often of poor quality, especially in countries with limited resources. The Critical Time Intervention (CTI) model has been shown to effectively improve clinical and social outcomes of individuals with a history of psychosis, while also being cost-effective. It is a time-limited, community-based intervention, carried out by technical community workers who are specifically trained and continuously supervised by professionals. Therefore, CTI is a promising psychosocial intervention model for individuals experiencing a first psychotic episode, in countries with limited mental health service resources. PMID:27107285

  16. Episodic and Semantic Memory: Implications for the Role of Emotion in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Esther

    In an examination of the way people store and retrieve information from advertising, this paper draws a distinction between "semantic" memory, which stores general knowledge about the world, and "episodic" memory, which stores information about specific events. It then argues that episodic memory plays a more significant role in advertising's…

  17. Recollection in an Episodic-Like Memory Task in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinkivskay, Ann; Eacott, Madeline J.; Easton, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Episodic memory in humans is the conscious recollection of a past event. Animal models of episodic-like memory assess the memory for "what" happened, "where" it happened, and either "when" it happened, or in "which" context it happened, although recollection on such tasks is often difficult to measure. Here we present the first evidence of…

  18. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Episodic and semantic autobiographical memories were examined in a group of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a control group matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated a personal episodic memory deficit in the ASD group in the absence of a personal semantic memory deficit, suggesting a deficit dissociation between these…

  19. Episodic Autobiographical Memories over the Course of Time: Cognitive, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing "autobiographical" memory (TEMPau task),…

  20. Generalization Through the Recurrent Interaction of Episodic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Dharshan; McClelland, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a perspective on the role of the hippocampal system in generalization, instantiated in a computational model called REMERGE (recurrency and episodic memory results in generalization). We expose a fundamental, but neglected, tension between prevailing computational theories that emphasize the function of the hippocampus in pattern separation (Marr, 1971; McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995), and empirical support for its role in generalization and flexible relational memory (Cohen & Eichenbaum, 1993; Eichenbaum, 1999). Our account provides a means by which to resolve this conflict, by demonstrating that the basic representational scheme envisioned by complementary learning systems theory (McClelland et al., 1995), which relies upon orthogonalized codes in the hippocampus, is compatible with efficient generalization—as long as there is recurrence rather than unidirectional flow within the hippocampal circuit or, more widely, between the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that recurrent similarity computation, a process that facilitates the discovery of higher-order relationships between a set of related experiences, expands the scope of classical exemplar-based models of memory (e.g., Nosofsky, 1984) and allows the hippocampus to support generalization through interactions that unfold within a dynamically created memory space. PMID:22775499

  1. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident in several EEG frequency bands: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (9–13 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz). Activity in these bands was differentially modulated by preexisting semantic knowledge and by episodic memory, implicating their different functional roles in memory. More specifically, theta activity and alpha suppression were larger for old compared to new faces at test regardless of fame, but were both larger for famous faces during study. This pattern of selective semantic effects suggests that the theta and alpha responses, which are primarily associated with episodic memory, reflect utilization of semantic information only when it is beneficial for task performance. In contrast, gamma activity decreased between the first (study) and second (test) presentation of a face, but overall was larger for famous than nonfamous faces. Hence, the gamma rhythm seems to be primarily related to activation of preexisting neural representations that may contribute to the formation of new episodic traces. Although the latter process is affected by the episodic status of a stimulus, gamma activity might not be a direct index of episodic memory. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the complex interaction between semantic and episodic memory for faces and the neural dynamics associated with mnemonic processes. PMID:19400676

  2. Conscious Experience and Episodic Memory: Hippocampus at the Crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, Ralf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    If an instance of conscious experience of the seemingly objective world around us could be regarded as a newly formed event memory, much as an instance of mental imagery has the content of a retrieved event memory, and if, therefore, the stream of conscious experience could be seen as evidence for ongoing formation of event memories that are linked into episodic memory sequences, then unitary conscious experience could be defined as a symbolic representation of the pattern of hippocampal neuronal firing that encodes an event memory – a theoretical stance that may shed light into the mind-body and binding problems in consciousness research. Exceedingly detailed symbols that describe patterns of activity rapidly self-organizing, at each cycle of the θ rhythm, in the hippocampus are instances of unitary conscious experience that jointly constitute the stream of consciousness. Integrating object information (derived from the ventral visual stream and orbitofrontal cortex) with contextual emotional information (from the anterior insula) and spatial environmental information (from the dorsal visual stream), the hippocampus rapidly forms event codes that have the informational content of objects embedded in an emotional and spatiotemporally extending context. Event codes, formed in the CA3-dentate network for the purpose of their memorization, are not only contextualized but also allocentric representations, similarly to conscious experiences of events and objects situated in a seemingly objective and observer-independent framework of phenomenal space and time. Conscious perception, creating the spatially and temporally extending world that we perceive around us, is likely to be evolutionarily related to more fleeting and seemingly internal forms of conscious experience, such as autobiographical memory recall, mental imagery, including goal anticipation, and to other forms of externalized conscious experience, namely dreaming and hallucinations; and evidence pointing

  3. Episodic but not semantic order memory difficulties in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from the Historical Figures Task.

    PubMed

    Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M; Gardiner, John M

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the episodic memory system operates abnormally in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) whereas the functions of the semantic memory system are relatively preserved. Here we show that the same dissociation also applies to the domain of order memory. We asked adult participants to order the names of famous historical figures either according to their chronological order in history (probing semantic memory) or according to a random sequence shown once on a screen (probing episodic memory). As predicted, adults with ASD performed less well than age- and IQ-matched comparison individuals only on the episodic task. This observation is of considerable importance in the context of developmental theory because semantic and episodic order memory abilities can be dissociated in typically developing infants before they reach the age at which the behavioural markers associated with ASD are first apparent. This raises the possibility that early emerging memory abnormalities play a role in shaping the developmental trajectory of the disorder. We discuss the broader implications of this possibility and highlight the urgent need for greater scrutiny of memory competences in ASD early in development. PMID:23815188

  4. Looking for episodic memory in animals and young children: prospects for a new minimalism.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Nicola S; Russell, James

    2009-09-01

    Because animals and young children cannot be interrogated about their experiences it is difficult to conduct research into their episodic memories. The approach to this issue adopted by Clayton and Dickinson [Clayton, N. S., & Dickinson, A. (1998). Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays. Nature, 395, 272-274] was to take a conceptually minimalist definition of episodic memory, in terms of integrating information about what was done where and when [Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving, & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organisation of memory (pp. 381-403). New York: Academic Press], and to refer to such memories as 'episodic-like'. Some claim, however, that because animals supposedly lack the conceptual abilities necessary for episodic recall one should properly call these memories 'semantic'. We address this debate with a novel approach to episodic memory, which is minimalist insofar as it focuses on the non-conceptual content of a re-experienced situation. It rests on Kantian assumptions about the necessary 'perspectival' features of any objective experience or re-experience. We show how adopting this perspectival approach can render an episodic interpretation of the animal data more plausible and can also reveal patterns in the mosaic of developmental evidence for episodic memory in humans. PMID:18984000

  5. Plastic modulation of episodic memory networks in the aging brain with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng; Yuan, Yonggui; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-07-15

    Social-cognitive processing has been posited to underlie general functions such as episodic memory. Episodic memory impairment is a recognized hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who is at a high risk for dementia. Three canonical networks, self-referential processing, executive control processing and salience processing, have distinct roles in episodic memory retrieval processing. It remains unclear whether and how these sub-networks of the episodic memory retrieval system would be affected in aMCI. This task-state fMRI study constructed systems-level episodic memory retrieval sub-networks in 28 aMCI and 23 controls using two computational approaches: a multiple region-of-interest based approach and a voxel-level functional connectivity-based approach, respectively. These approaches produced the remarkably similar findings that the self-referential processing network made critical contributions to episodic memory retrieval in aMCI. More conspicuous alterations in self-referential processing of the episodic memory retrieval network were identified in aMCI. In order to complete a given episodic memory retrieval task, increases in cooperation between the self-referential processing network and other sub-networks were mobilized in aMCI. Self-referential processing mediate the cooperation of the episodic memory retrieval sub-networks as it may help to achieve neural plasticity and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of dementia. PMID:27091676

  6. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  7. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  8. Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on verbal declarative episodic memory in young adult females.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2013-11-01

    Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504

  9. Genuine episodic memory deficits and executive dysfunctions in alcoholic subjects early in abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Witkowski, Thomas; Vabret, François; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Quinette, Peggy; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic alcoholism is known to impair episodic memory function, but the specific nature of this impairment is still unclear. Moreover, it has never been established whether episodic memory deficit in alcoholism is an intrinsic memory deficit or whether it has an executive origin. Thus, the objectives are to specify which episodic memory processes are impaired early in abstinence from alcohol and to determine whether they should be regarded as genuine memory deficits or rather as the indirect consequences of executive impairments. Methods Forty recently detoxified alcoholic inpatients at alcohol entry treatment and fifty five group-matched controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment of episodic memory and executive functions. The episodic memory evaluation consisted of three tasks complementing each other designed to measure the different episodic memory components (learning, storage, encoding and retrieval, contextual memory and autonoetic consciousness) and five executive tasks testing capacities of organization, inhibition, flexibility, up-dating and integration. Results Compared with control subjects, alcoholic patients presented impaired learning abilities, encoding processes, retrieval processes, contextual memory and autonoetic consciousness. However, there was no difference between the two groups regarding the storage capacities assessed by the rate of forgetting. Concerning executive functions, alcoholics displayed deficits in each executive task used. Nevertheless, stepwise regression analyses showed that only performances on fluency tasks were significantly predictive of some of the episodic memory disorders (learning abilities for 40%, encoding processes for 20%, temporal memory for 21% and state of consciousness associated with memories for 26%) in the alcoholic group. Discussion At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients present genuine episodic memory deficits which cannot be regarded solely as the consequences of executive

  10. Recovering and Preventing Loss of Detailed Memory: Differential Rates of Forgetting for Detail Types in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired,…

  11. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. PMID:26923744

  12. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence. PMID:25575452

  13. No Associations between Interindividual Differences in Sleep Parameters and Episodic Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Rasch, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep and memory are stable and heritable traits that strongly differ between individuals. Sleep benefits memory consolidation, and the amount of slow wave sleep, sleep spindles, and rapid eye movement sleep have been repeatedly identified as reliable predictors for the amount of declarative and/or emotional memories retrieved after a consolidation period filled with sleep. These studies typically encompass small sample sizes, increasing the probability of overestimating the real association strength. In a large sample we tested whether individual differences in sleep are predictive for individual differences in memory for emotional and neutral pictures. Design: Between-subject design. Setting: Cognitive testing took place at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Sleep was recorded at participants' homes, using portable electroencephalograph-recording devices. Participants: Nine hundred-twenty-nine healthy young participants (mean age 22.48 ± 3.60 y standard deviation). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: In striking contrast to our expectations as well as numerous previous findings, we did not find any significant correlations between sleep and memory consolidation for pictorial stimuli. Conclusions: Our results indicate that individual differences in sleep are much less predictive for pictorial memory processes than previously assumed and suggest that previous studies using small sample sizes might have overestimated the association strength between sleep stage duration and pictorial memory performance. Future studies need to determine whether intraindividual differences rather than interindividual differences in sleep stage duration might be more predictive for the consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures during sleep. Citation: Ackermann S, Hartmann F, Papassotiropoulos A, de Quervain DJF, Rasch B. No associations between interindividual differences in sleep parameters and episodic memory consolidation. SLEEP 2015;38(6):951

  14. Common and unique gray matter correlates of episodic memory dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding the integrity of episodic memory in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Recent converging evidence suggests that episodic memory in progressive cases of bvFTD is compromised to the same extent as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying neural substrates of these episodic memory deficits, however, likely differ contingent on dementia type. In this study we sought to elucidate the neural substrates of episodic memory performance, across recall and recognition tasks, in both patient groups using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses. We predicted that episodic memory dysfunction would be apparent in both patient groups but would relate to divergent patterns of neural atrophy specific to each dementia type. We assessed episodic memory, across verbal and visual domains, in 19 bvFTD, 18 AD patients, and 19 age- and education-matched controls. Behaviorally, patient groups were indistinguishable for immediate and delayed recall, across verbal and visual domains. Whole-brain VBM analyses revealed regions commonly implicated in episodic retrieval across groups, namely the right temporal pole, right frontal lobe, left paracingulate gyrus, and right anterior hippocampus. Divergent neural networks specific to each group were also identified. Whereas a widespread network including posterior regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex, parietal and occipital cortices was exclusively implicated in AD, the frontal and anterior temporal lobes underpinned the episodic memory deficits in bvFTD. Our results point to distinct neural changes underlying episodic memory decline specific to each dementia syndrome. PMID:23670951

  15. Reconsolidation of Episodic Memories: A Subtle Reminder Triggers Integration of New Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca; Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Recent demonstrations of "reconsolidation" suggest that memories can be modified when they are reactivated. Reconsolidation has been observed in human procedural memory and in implicit memory in infants. This study asks whether episodic memory undergoes reconsolidation. College students learned a list of objects on Day 1. On Day 2, they received a…

  16. Antiretroviral Non-Adherence is Associated With a Retrieval Profile of Deficits in Verbal Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Obermeit, Lisa C; Morgan, Erin E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated deficits in verbal episodic memory are commonly associated with antiretroviral non-adherence; however, the specific aspects of memory functioning (e.g., encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) that underlie this established relationship are not well understood. This study evaluated verbal memory profiles of 202 HIV+ participants who underwent a 30-day electronic monitoring of antiretroviral adherence. At the group level, non-adherence was significantly associated with lower scores on immediate and delayed passage recall and word list learning. Retention and recognition of passages and word lists were not related to adherence. Participants were then classified as having either a normal verbal memory profile, a "subcortical" retrieval profile (i.e., impaired free recall with relatively spared recognition), or a "cortical" encoding profile (e.g., cued recall intrusions) based on the Massman et al. ( 1990 ) algorithm for the California Verbal Learning Test. HIV+ participants with a classic retrieval deficit had significantly greater odds of being non-adherent than participants with a normal or encoding profile. These findings suggest that adherence to prescribed antiretroviral regimens may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in HIV+ individuals due to deficits in the complex process of efficiently accessing verbal episodic information with minimal cues. A stronger relationship between non-adherence and passage (vs. word list) recall was also found and may reflect the importance of contextual features in remembering to take medications. Targeted interventions for enhancing and supporting episodic memory retrieval processes may improve antiretroviral adherence and overall health outcomes among persons living with HIV. PMID:25781903

  17. Antiretroviral Non-Adherence is Associated with a Retrieval Profile of Deficits in Verbal Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Obermeit, Lisa C.; Morgan, Erin E.; Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-associated deficits in verbal episodic memory are commonly associated with antiretroviral non-adherence; however, the specific aspects of memory functioning (e.g., encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) that underlie this established relationship are not well understood. Method This study evaluated verbal memory profiles of 202 HIV+ participants who underwent a 30-day electronic monitoring of antiretroviral adherence. Results At the group level, non-adherence was significantly associated with lower scores on immediate and delayed passage recall and word list learning. Retention and recognition of passages and word lists were not related to adherence. Participants were then classified as having either a normal verbal memory profile, a “subcortical” retrieval profile (i.e., impaired free recall with relatively spared recognition), or a “cortical” encoding profile (e.g., cued recall intrusions) based on the Massman et al. (1990) algorithm for the California Verbal Learning Test. HIV+ participants with a classic retrieval deficit had significantly greater odds of being non-adherent than participants with a normal or encoding profile. Conclusions These findings suggest that adherence to prescribed antiretroviral regimens may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in HIV+ individuals due to deficits in the complex process of efficiently accessing verbal episodic information with minimal cues. A stronger relationship between non-adherence and passage (vs. word list) recall was also found and may reflect the importance of contextual features in remembering to take medications. Targeted interventions for enhancing and supporting episodic memory retrieval processes may improve antiretroviral adherence and overall health outcomes among persons living with HIV. PMID:25781903

  18. Episodic Memory and Future Thinking During Early Childhood: Linking the Past and Future

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Rajan, Vinaya; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive examination of episodic memory and future thinking development, little is known about the concurrent emergence of these capacities during early childhood. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds participated in an episodic memory hiding task [“what, when, where” (WWW) components] with an episodic future thinking component. In Experiment 2, a group of 4-year-olds (including children from Experiment 1) participated in the same task (different objects and locations), providing the first longitudinal investigation of episodic memory and future thinking. Although children exhibited age-related improvements in recall, recognition, and binding of the WWW episodic memory components, there were no age-related changes in episodic future thinking. At both ages, WWW episodic memory performance was higher than future thinking performance, and episodic future thinking and WWW memory components were unrelated. These findings suggest that the WWW components of episodic memory are potentially less fragile than the future components when assessed in a cognitively demanding task. PMID:25864990

  19. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    PubMed Central

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Ravel, Nadine; Thévenet, Marc; Garcia, Samuel; Plailly, Jane

    2014-01-01

    We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What) positioned at three specific locations (Where) within a visual context (Which context). During the retrieval test, which occurred 24–72 h after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors. PMID:24936176

  20. Conjunction Illusions and Conjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Nakamura, K.; Reyna, V. F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the overdistribution principle implies that episodic memory is infected by conjunction illusions. These are instances in which an item that was presented in a single context (e.g., List 1) is falsely remembered as having been presented in multiple contexts (e.g., List 1 and List 2). Robust conjunction illusions were detected in source-monitoring designs in which conjunctive probes (Was bagpipe presented on List 1 and List 2?) were added to the traditional nonconjunctive probes (Was bagpipe presented on List 1?). In Experiment 1, the levels of those illusions were comparable to what would be expected on the basis of results from prior overdistribution experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3, conjunction illusions were neither eliminated nor reduced by a manipulation that should have had such effects if the illusions are by-products of subjective differences in retrieved memory support. Also, conjunction illusions sometimes rose to the level of conjunction fallacies: In certain conditions, subjects thought that items were more likely to have occurred in all the presentation contexts than in any single context, which is impossible. Two general approaches to explaining overdistribution, representational accounts and retrieval accounts, are considered. PMID:24911136

  1. Positive and negative emotional contexts unevenly predict episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Cansino, Selene

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the recognition of faces with neutral expressions differs when they are encoded under different emotional contexts (positive, negative or non-emotional). The effects of the emotional valence context on the subsequent memory effect (SME) and the autonomic responses were also examined. Twenty-eight participants performed a betting-game task in which the faces of their virtual opponents were presented in each trial. The probability of winning or losing was manipulated to generate positive or negative contexts, respectively. Additionally, the participants performed the same task without betting as a non-emotional condition. After the encoding phase, an old/new paradigm was performed for the faces of the virtual opponents. The recognition was superior for the faces encoded in the positive contexts than for the faces encoded in the non-emotional contexts. The skin conductance response amplitude was equivalent for both of the emotional contexts. The N170 and P300 components at occipital sites and the frontal slow wave manifested SMEs that were modulated by positive contexts; neither negative nor non-emotional contexts influenced these effects. The behavioral and neurophysiological data demonstrated that positive contexts are stronger predictors of episodic memory than negative or non-emotional contexts. PMID:26003944

  2. Bridging the Gap between Brain and Behavior: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The notion that non-human animals are capable of episodic memory is highly controversial. Here, we review recent behavioral work from our laboratory showing that the fundamental features of episodic memory can be observed in rats and that, as in humans, this capacity relies on the hippocampus. We also discuss electrophysiological evidence, from…

  3. Spatial and Temporal Episodic Memory Retrieval Recruit Dissociable Functional Networks in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Arne D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging, electrophysiological studies, and lesion work have shown that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for episodic memory; however, it is unclear whether different MTL regions support the spatial, temporal, and item elements of episodic memory. In this study we used fMRI to examine retrieval performance emphasizing different aspects…

  4. A Mathematical Model for the Hippocampus: Towards the Understanding of Episodic Memory and Imagination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, I.; Yamaguti, Y.; Kuroda, S.; Fukushima, Y.; Tsukada, M.

    How does the brain encode episode? Based on the fact that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of episodic memory, we have proposed a mathematical model for the hippocampus. Because episodic memory includes a time series of events, an underlying dynamics for the formation of episodic memory is considered to employ an association of memories. David Marr correctly pointed out in his theory of archecortex for a simple memory that the hippocampal CA3 is responsible for the formation of associative memories. However, a conventional mathematical model of associative memory simply guarantees a single association of memory unless a rule for an order of successive association of memories is given. The recent clinical studies in Maguire's group for the patients with the hippocampal lesion show that the patients cannot make a new story, because of the lack of ability of imagining new things. Both episodic memory and imagining things include various common characteristics: imagery, the sense of now, retrieval of semantic information, and narrative structures. Taking into account these findings, we propose a mathematical model of the hippocampus in order to understand the common mechanism of episodic memory and imagination.

  5. Behavioural and magnetoencephalographic evidence for the interaction between semantic and episodic memory in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Garnero, Line; George, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between episodic and semantic memory systems has long been debated. Some authors argue that episodic memory is contingent on semantic memory (Tulving 1984), while others postulate that both systems are independent since they can be selectively damaged (Squire 1987). The interaction between these memory systems is particularly important in the elderly, since the dissociation of episodic and semantic memory defects characterize different aging-related pathologies. Here, we investigated the interaction between semantic knowledge and episodic memory processes associated with faces in elderly subjects using an experimental paradigm where the semantic encoding of famous and unknown faces was compared to their episodic recognition. Results showed that the level of semantic awareness of items affected the recognition of those items in the episodic memory task. Event-related magnetic fields confirmed this interaction between episodic and semantic memory: ERFs related to the old/new effect during the episodic task were markedly different for famous and unknown faces. The old/new effect for famous faces involved sustained activities maximal over right temporal sensors, showing a spatio-temporal pattern partly similar to that found for famous versus unknown faces during the semantic task. By contrast, an old/new effect for unknown faces was observed on left parieto-occipital sensors. These findings suggest that the episodic memory for famous faces activated the retrieval of stored semantic information, whereas it was based on items' perceptual features for unknown faces. Overall, our results show that semantic information interfered markedly with episodic memory processes and suggested that the neural substrates of these two memory systems overlap. PMID:22426946

  6. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27284790

  7. Olfactory memory in the old and very old: relations to episodic and semantic memory and APOE genotype.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maria; Hedner, Margareta; Papenberg, Goran; Seubert, Janina; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J

    2016-02-01

    The neuroanatomical organization that underlies olfactory memory is different from that of other memory types. The present work examines olfactory memory in an elderly population-based sample (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen) aged 60-100 years (n = 2280). We used structural equation modeling to investigate whether olfactory memory in old age is best conceptualized as a distinct category, differentiated from episodic and semantic memory. Further, potential olfactory dedifferentiation and genetic associations (APOE) to olfactory function in late senescence were investigated. Results are in support of a 3-factor solution where olfactory memory, as indexed by episodic odor recognition and odor identification, is modeled separately from episodic and semantic memory for visual and verbal information. Increasing age was associated with poorer olfactory memory performance, and observed age-related deficits were further exacerbated for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele; these effects tended to be larger for olfactory memory compared to episodic and semantic memory pertaining to other sensory systems (vision, auditory). Finally, stronger correlations between olfactory and episodic memory, indicating dedifferentiation, were observed in the older age groups. PMID:26827650

  8. Episodic Memories and Their Relevance for Psychoactive Drug Use and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of adult people in western societies regularly consume psychoactive drugs. While this consumption is integrated in everyday life activities and controlled in most consumers, it may escalate and result in drug addiction. Non-addicted drug use requires the systematic establishment of highly organized behaviors, such as drug-seeking and -taking. While a significant role for classical and instrumental learning processes is well established in drug use and abuse, declarative drug memories have largely been neglected in research. Episodic memories are an important part of the declarative memories. Here a role of episodic drug memories in the establishment of non-addicted drug use and its transition to addiction is suggested. In relation to psychoactive drug consumption, episodic drug memories are formed when a person prepares for consumption, when the drug is consumed and, most important, when acute effects, withdrawal, craving, and relapse are experienced. Episodic drug memories are one-trial memories with emotional components that can be much stronger than “normal” episodic memories. Their establishment coincides with drug-induced neuronal activation and plasticity. These memories may be highly extinction resistant and influence psychoactive drug consumption, in particular during initial establishment and at the transition to “drug instrumentalization.” In that, understanding how addictive drugs interact with episodic memory circuits in the brain may provide crucial information for how drug use and addiction are established. PMID:23734106

  9. Variation in Working Memory Capacity and Temporal-Contextual Retrieval from Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillers, Gregory J.; Unsworth, Nash

    2011-01-01

    Unsworth and Engle (2007) recently proposed a model of working memory capacity characterized by, among other things, the ability to conduct a strategic, cue-dependent search of long-term memory. Although this ability has been found to mediate individual variation in a number of higher order cognitive tasks, the component processes involved remain…

  10. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory) and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory) over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods) but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance. PMID:24133435

  11. Development in the organization of episodic memories in middle childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena Margaret; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use "lifetime periods" to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story - an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12-21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European (NZE) and New Zealand Chinese (NZC) adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. NZC adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than NZE adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence. PMID:23874275

  12. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena Margaret; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use “lifetime periods” to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story – an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12–21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European (NZE) and New Zealand Chinese (NZC) adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. NZC adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than NZE adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence. PMID:23874275

  13. Semantic memory influences episodic retrieval by increased familiarity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujuan; Mao, Xinrui; Li, Bingcan; Lu, Baoqing; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    The role of familiarity in associative recognition has been investigated in a number of studies, which have indicated that familiarity can facilitate recognition under certain circumstances. The ability of a pre-experimentally existing common representation to boost the contribution of familiarity has rarely been investigated. In addition, although many studies have investigated the interactions between semantic memory and episodic retrieval, the conditions that influence the presence of specific patterns were unclear. This study aimed to address these two questions. We manipulated the degree of overlap between the two representations using synonym and nonsynonym pairs in an associative recognition task. Results indicated that an increased degree of overlap enhanced recognition performance. The analysis of event-related potentials effects in the test phase showed that synonym pairs elicited both types of old/rearranged effects, whereas nonsynonym pairs elicited a late old/rearranged effect. These results confirmed that a common representation, irrespective of source, was necessary for assuring the presence of familiarity, but a common representation could not distinguish associative recognition depending on familiarity alone. Moreover, our expected double dissociation between familiarity and recollection was absent, which indicated that mode selection may be influenced by the degree of distinctness between old and rearranged pairs rather than the degree of overlap between representations. PMID:27244264

  14. Mistakes as Stepping Stones: Effects of Errors on Episodic Memory among Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Anderson, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    The memorial costs and benefits of trial-and-error learning have clear pedagogical implications for students, and increasing evidence shows that generating errors during episodic learning can improve memory among younger adults. Conversely, the aging literature has found that errors impair memory among healthy older adults and has advocated for…

  15. Recovering and preventing loss of detailed memory: differential rates of forgetting for detail types in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Sekeres, Melanie J; Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-02-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults. The study investigated (1) time-dependent loss of "central" and "peripheral" details from episodic memories, (2) the effectiveness of cuing with reminders to reinstate memory details, and (3) the role of retrieval in preventing forgetting. Over the course of 7 d, memory for naturalistic events (film clips) underwent a time-dependent loss of peripheral details, while memory for central details (the core or gist of events) showed significantly less loss. Giving brief reminders of the clips just before retrieval reinstated memory for peripheral details, suggesting that loss of details is not always permanent, and may reflect both a storage and retrieval deficit. Furthermore, retrieving a memory shortly after it was encoded prevented loss of both central and peripheral details, thereby promoting retention over time. We consider the implications of these results for behavioral and neurobiological models of retention and forgetting. PMID:26773100

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the episodic autobiographic memory interview for Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Daniel S; Foss, Maria P; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M

    2015-08-01

    Episodic memory enables the storage of personal events with specific temporal and spatial details, and their retrieval through a sensory experience, usually visual, which is called autonoetic consciousness. While, in Brazil, several scales for the evaluation of anterograde episodic memory have been validated, there is not yet an instrument to assess the episodic autobiographical memory. The aim of this study is thus to make a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Episodic Autobiographic Memory Interview (EAMI) for Brazilian Portuguese. Altogether, 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 10 healthy controls (CTs) were evaluated. EAMI scores for AD patients were lower than those of CTs, and these scores also correlated positively with the Remember-Know coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a good inter-rater reliability. The Portuguese version of EAMI showed a good reliability and validity, which suggests that it is a useful tool for evaluation of autobiographical memory in Brazilian patients. PMID:26222359

  17. Phencyclidine withdrawal disrupts episodic-like memory in rats: reversal by donepezil but not clozapine.

    PubMed

    Le Cozannet, Romain; Fone, Kevin C F; Moran, Paula M

    2010-09-01

    Episodic memory is the capacity to recall an event in time and place (What? Where? When?). Impaired episodic memory is a debilitating cognitive symptom in schizophrenia but is poorly controlled by currently available antipsychotic drugs. Consistent with glutamatergic abnormality in schizophrenia, the NDMA receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), induces persistent 'schizophrenia-like' symptoms including memory deficits in humans and rodents and is widely used as an animal model of the disorder. However, in contrast to humans, PCP and PCP withdrawal-induced memory deficits in rodents are reversed by antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine. One possible explanation is that the memory tasks used in animal studies do not simultaneously test the What? Where? When? components that characterize episodic memory in human tasks. We investigated whether subchronic PCP withdrawal disrupts memory in rats in a task that requires simultaneous integration of memory for object, place and context. Rats learn to discriminate objects under specific spatial and contextual conditions analogous to the What? Where? When? components of human episodic memory. We found that PCP withdrawal impaired performance on this task and that the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine did not reverse this impairment. However the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil, which has been shown to improve episodic memory in humans did reverse the effect of PCP. This suggests that PCP withdrawal disruption of object-place-context recognition in rats may prove to be a useful model to investigate episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia and supports the suggestion that AChEIs could prove to be a useful pharmacological strategy to specifically treat episodic memory problems in schizophrenia. PMID:20236574

  18. Sleep benefits in parallel implicit and explicit measures of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Weber, Frederik D; Wang, Jing-Yi; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2014-04-01

    Research in rats using preferences during exploration as a measure of memory has indicated that sleep is important for the consolidation of episodic-like memory, i.e., memory for an event bound into specific spatio-temporal context. How these findings relate to human episodic memory is unclear. We used spontaneous preferences during visual exploration and verbal recall as, respectively, implicit and explicit measures of memory, to study effects of sleep on episodic memory consolidation in humans. During encoding before 10-h retention intervals that covered nighttime sleep or daytime wakefulness, two groups of young adults were presented with two episodes that were 1-h apart. Each episode entailed a spatial configuration of four different faces in a 3 × 3 grid of locations. After the retention interval, implicit spatio-temporal recall performance was assessed by eye-tracking visual exploration of another configuration of four faces of which two were from the first and second episode, respectively; of the two faces one was presented at the same location as during encoding and the other at another location. Afterward explicit verbal recall was assessed. Measures of implicit and explicit episodic memory retention were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P < 0.01), and were both better after nighttime sleep than daytime wakefulness (P < 0.05). In the sleep group, implicit episodic memory recall was associated with increased fast spindles during nonrapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep (r = 0.62, P < 0.05). Together with concordant observations in rats our results indicate that consolidation of genuinely episodic memory benefits from sleep. PMID:24634354

  19. Preservation of episodic memory in semantic dementia: The importance of regions beyond the medial temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Bunk, Steffie; Tu, Sicong; Kamminga, Jody; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-29

    Episodic memory impairment represents one of the hallmark clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and parietal regions of the brain. In contrast, a somewhat paradoxical profile of relatively intact episodic memory, particularly for non-verbal material, is observed in semantic dementia (SD), despite marked atrophy of the hippocampus. This retrospective study investigated the neural substrates of episodic memory retrieval in 20 patients with a diagnosis of SD and 21 disease-matched cases of AD and compared their performance to that of 35 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants completed the Rey Complex Figure and the memory subscale of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised as indices of visual and verbal episodic recall, respectively. Relative to Controls, AD patients showed compromised memory performance on both visual and verbal memory tasks. In contrast, memory deficits in SD were modality-specific occurring exclusively on the verbal task. Controlling for semantic processing ameliorated these deficits in SD, while memory impairments persisted in AD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed significant overlap in the neural correlates of verbal episodic memory in AD and SD with predominantly anteromedial regions, including the bilateral hippocampus, strongly implicated. Controlling for semantic processing negated this effect in SD, however, a distributed network of frontal, medial temporal, and parietal regions was implicated in AD. Our study corroborates the view that episodic memory deficits in SD arise very largely as a consequence of the conceptual loading of traditional tasks. We propose that the functional integrity of frontal and parietal regions enables new learning to occur in SD in the face of significant hippocampal and anteromedial temporal lobe pathology, underscoring the inherent complexity of the episodic memory circuitry. PMID:26683384

  20. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and episodic memory decline in Alzheimer's disease: A review.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Amouyel, Philippe; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Pasquier, Florence; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of research has examined the relationship between episodic memory decline, the cognitive hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the presence of Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele, a major genetic risk factor for the disease. Our review attempts to summarize and critically evaluate this literature. We performed a systematic search for studies assessing episodic memory in AD patients who were genotyped for APOE ε4 and identified fourteen papers. Although most of these papers reported significant relationships between APOE ε4 and episodic memory decline in AD, some papers did not confirm this relationship. Our review links this controversy to the conflicting literature about the effects of APOE ε4 on general cognitive functioning in AD. We identify several shortcoming and limitations of the research on the relationship between APOE ε4 and episodic memory in AD, such as small sample sizes, non-representative populations, lack of comparison of early-onset vs. late-onset disease, and lack of comparison among different genotypes that include APOE ε4 (i.e., zero, one, or two ε4 alleles). Another major shortcoming of the reviewed literature was the lack of comprehensive evaluation of episodic memory decline, since episodic memory was solely evaluated with regard to encoding and retrieval, omitting evaluation of core episodic features that decline in AD, such as context recall (e.g., how, where, and when an episodic event has occurred) and subjective experience of remembering (e.g., reliving, emotion and feeling during episodic recollection). Future research taking these limitations into consideration could illuminate the nature of the relationship between APOE ε4 and episodic memory decline in AD. PMID:26876367

  1. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val158Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val158Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  2. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val(158)Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val(158)Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  3. Cognitive Control of Episodic Memory in Schizophrenia: Differential Role of Dorsolateral and Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ragland, John D.; Ranganath, Charan; Phillips, Joshua; Boudewyn, Megan A.; Kring, Ann M.; Lesh, Tyler A.; Long, Debra L.; Luck, Steven J.; Niendam, Tara A.; Solomon, Marjorie; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dorsal (DLPFC) and ventral (VLPFC) subregions in lateral prefrontal cortex play distinct roles in episodic memory, and both are implicated in schizophrenia. We test the hypothesis that schizophrenia differentially impairs DLPFC versus VLPFC control of episodic encoding. Methods: Cognitive control was manipulated by requiring participants to encode targets and avoid encoding non-targets based upon stimulus properties of test stimuli. The more automatic encoding response (target versus non-target) was predicted to engage VLPFC in both groups. Conversely, having to overcome the prepotent encoding response (non-targets versus targets) was predicted to produce greater DLPFC activation in controls than in patients. Encoding occurred during event-related fMRI in a sample of 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 30 healthy participants. Scanning was followed by recognition testing outside the scanner. Results: Patients were less successful differentially remembering target versus non-target stimuli, and retrieval difficulties correlated with more severe disorganized symptoms. As predicted, the target versus non-target contrast activated the VLPFC and correlated with retrieval success in both groups. Conversely, the non-target versus target contrast produced greater DLPFC activation in controls than in patients, and DLPFC activation correlated with performance only in controls. Conclusion: Individuals with schizophrenia can successfully engage the VLPFC to provide control over semantic encoding of individual items, but are specifically impaired at engaging the DLPFC to main context for task-appropriate encoding and thereby generate improved memory for target versus non-target items. This extends previous cognitive control models based on response selection tasks to the memory domain. PMID:26617507

  4. Long-Term Episodic Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronek, Jeffrey S.; Leichtman, Michelle D.; Pillemer, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine grade-matched 4th-8th-grade males, 12 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (age M = 12.2 years, SD = 1.48), and 17 without (age M = 11.5, SD = 1.59), completed two working memory tasks (digit span and the Simon game) and three long-term episodic memory tasks (a personal event memory task, story memory task, and picture…

  5. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  6. Does Lateral Parietal Cortex Support Episodic Memory? Evidence from Focal Lesion Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Anaki, David; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Cohn, Melanie; Kim, Alice S. N.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although neuroimaging and human lesion studies agree that the medial parietal region plays a critical role in episodic memory, many neuroimaging studies have also implicated lateral parietal cortex, leading some researchers to suggest that the lateral region plays a heretofore underappreciated role in episodic memory. Because there are very few extant lesion data on this matter, we examined memory in six cases of focal lateral parietal damage, using both clinical and experimental measures, in which we distinguished between recollection and familiarity. The patients did not have amnesia, but they did show evidence of disrupted recollection on an anterograde memory task. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated, lateral parietal damage appears to impair some aspects of episodic memory. PMID:18313699

  7. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory. PMID:26261317

  8. IMPAIRED CATEGORY FLUENCY IN MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE AMNESIA: THE ROLE OF EPISODIC MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Daniel L.; Keane, Margaret M.; Ryan, Lee; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Memory tasks are often classified as semantic or episodic, but recent research shows that these types of memory are highly interactive. Category fluency, for example, is generally considered to reflect retrieval from semantic memory, but behavioral evidence suggests that episodic memory is also involved: Participants frequently draw on autobiographical experiences while generating exemplars of certain categories. Neuroimaging studies accordingly have reported increased medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during exemplar generation. Studies of fluency in MTL amnesics have yielded mixed results but were not designed to determine the precise contributions of episodic memory. We addressed this issue by asking MTL amnesics and controls to generate exemplars of three types of categories. One type tended to elicit autobiographical and spatial retrieval strategies (AS). Another type elicited strategies that were autobiographical but nonspatial (AN). The third type elicited neither autobiographical nor spatial strategies (N). Amnesic patients and control participants generated exemplars for 8 categories of each type. Patients were impaired on all category types but were more impaired on AS and AN categories. After covarying for phonemic fluency (total FAS score), the N category impairment was not significant, but the impairment on AS and AN categories remained. The same results were obtained for patients with lesions restricted to the MTL and those with more extensive lesions. We conclude that patients’ episodic memory impairment hindered their performance on this putatively semantic task. This interaction between episodic and semantic memory might partially account for fluency deficits seen in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19726648

  9. Retrieval from Episodic Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimber, Maria; Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W.; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Selectively retrieving a target memory among related memories requires some degree of inhibitory control over interfering and competing memories, a process assumed to be supported by inhibitory mechanisms. Evidence from behavioral studies suggests that such inhibitory control can lead to subsequent forgetting of the interfering information, a…

  10. On the directive function of episodic memories in people's lives: a look at romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lekes, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    We argue that episodic memories have an active and directive function with respect to a number of relational outcomes. In line with self-determination theory, it is expected that the satisfaction of 3 needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in couple-related memories facilitates the quality of romantic relationships and their development. Results of 4 studies support this contention. Study 1 showed that need satisfaction in couple-related memories was associated with relationship quality, even after controlling for other important relational constructs. Study 2 underscored the context-dependent aspect of the directive function of episodic memories. Need satisfaction in couple-related memories was found to be associated with partner relationship quality but not with friendship quality, whereas need satisfaction in friend-related memories was associated with friendship quality but not with partner relationship quality. Study 3 showed that couple-related memories contributed independently to each partner's perceptions of relationship quality, that is, both the rememberer and the partner. Study 4 showed the long-term directive function of episodic memories. Need satisfaction in couple-related memories positively and negatively predicted increases in relationship quality and the likelihood of a breakup over a 1-year period, respectively. This directive function of memories was examined along with the self function of memories (self-enhancement, self-protection) and shown to be complementary. We also examined the stability of need satisfaction in couple-related memories over time and investigated this stability as a function of whether the partners had broken up or not over the year. Overall, the findings suggest that episodic memories play an important role in romantic relationships. PMID:23088231

  11. Two Rooms, Two Representations? Episodic-Like Memory in Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Balcomb, Frances; Ferrara, Katrina; Hansen, Melissa; Koski, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory involves binding together what-where-when associations. In three experiments, we tested the development of memory for such contextual associations in a naturalistic setting. Children searched for toys in two rooms with two different experimenters; each room contained two identical sets of four containers, but arranged differently.…

  12. Temporal Contexts: Filling the Gap between Episodic Memory and Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matute, Helena; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    People can create temporal contexts, or episodes, and stimuli that belong to the same context can later be used to retrieve the memory of other events that occurred at the same time. This can occur in the absence of direct contingency and contiguity between the events, which poses a challenge to associative theories of learning and memory. Because…

  13. Why Am I Remembering This Now? Predicting the Occurrence of Involuntary (Spontaneous) Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Staugaard, Soren Rislov; Sorensen, Louise Maria Torp

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of events that come to mind spontaneously, that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. They are common in daily life and observed in a range of clinical disorders in the form of negative, intrusive recollections or flashbacks. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Here we report a…

  14. A Simple Neural Network Model of the Hippocampus Suggesting Its Pathfinding Role in Episodic Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to extend the theoretical understanding of the relationship between hippocampal spatial and memory functions to the level of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and episodic memory retrieval. The proposed unifying theory describes both phenomena within a unique framework, as based on one and the…

  15. The Effects of Spatial Contextual Familiarity on Remembered Scenes, Episodic Memories, and Imagined Future Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the effect of contextual familiarity on remembered and imagined events. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of this effect by comparing the effect of cuing spatial memories, episodic memories, and imagined future events with spatial contextual cues of varying levels of familiarity. We used…

  16. A Time and Place for Everything: Developmental Differences in the Building Blocks of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joshua K.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether episodic memory development can be explained by improvements in relational binding processes, involved in forming novel associations between events and the context in which they occurred. Memory for item-space, item-time, and item-item relations was assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 151 children aged…

  17. Resting-state fMRI evidence for early episodic memory consolidation: effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kukolja, Juraj; Göreci, D Yasemin; Onur, Özgür A; Riedl, Valentin; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-09-01

    Aging-related episodic memory decline is often attributed to insufficient encoding of new information, although the underlying neural processes remain elusive. We here tested the hypothesis that impaired memory consolidation contributes to aging-related memory decline. To this end, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and older adults and investigated neural network connectivity underlying episodic memory consolidation and the effects of aging thereon. During postencoding rest, connectivity increased in subregions of temporobasal and temporo-occipital networks but decreased in a precuneal network. These connectivity changes predicted subsequent memory performance thereby constituting functional correlates of early memory consolidation. Furthermore, these consolidation-related regional connectivity changes partially overlapped with encoding-related neural activity changes, suggesting a close relationship between encoding- and consolidation-related activity. Older when compared to young participants failed to increase connectivity in the right lingual gyrus as part of an extended default mode network during consolidation, thereby providing a functional correlate for spatial contextual memory deficits. In conclusion, results are consistent with previous reports of persistent activity in regions mediating memory encoding as a core mechanism underlying episodic memory consolidation. Our data extend previous findings suggesting that aging-related memory decline results from a reduction of consolidation processes. PMID:27459940

  18. The Multifold Relationship Between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-differences Study

    PubMed Central

    Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo; Hansson, Patrik; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M.; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 to 80 years, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory, respectively, and six main components of decision-making competence. In line with the hypotheses, working memory was positively related with the more cognitively-demanding tasks (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, and Under/Overconfidence), whereas episodic memory was positively associated with a more experience-based judgment task (Recognizing Social Norms). Furthermore, semantic memory was positively related with two more knowledge-based decision-making tasks (Consistency in Risk Perception and Resistance to Sunk Costs). Finally, the age-related decline observed in some of the decision-making tasks was (partially or totally) mediated by the age-related decline in working memory or episodic memory. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional roles fulfilled by different memory processes in judgment and decision-making tasks. PMID:23565790

  19. Structural MRI Correlates of Episodic Memory Processes in Parkinson’s Disease Without Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pirogovsky-Turk, Eva; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Litvan, Irene; Harrington, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Changes in episodic memory are common early in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may be a risk factor for future cognitive decline. Although medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory and frontostriatal (FS) executive systems are thought to play different roles in distinct components of episodic memory impairment in PD, no study has investigated whether different aspects of memory functioning are differentially associated with MTL and FS volumes in nondemented patients without mild cognitive impairment (PD-woMCI). Objectives The present study investigated MRI markers of different facets of memory functioning in 48 PD-woMCI patients and 42 controls. Methods Regional volumes were measured in structures comprising the MTL and FS systems and then correlated with key indices of memory from the California Verbal Learning Test. Results In PD-woMCI patients, memory was impaired only for verbal learning, which was not associated with executive, attention/working memory, or visuospatial functioning. Despite an absence of cortical atrophy, smaller right MTL volumes in patients were associated with poorer verbal learning, long delayed free recall, long delayed cued recall, and recognition memory hits and false positives. Smaller right pars triangularis (inferior frontal) volumes were also associated with poorer long delayed cued recall and recognition memory hits. These relationships were not found in controls. Conclusions The findings indicate that MTL volumes are sensitive to subtle changes in almost all facets of memory in PD-woMCI, whereas FS volumes are sensitive only to memory performances in cued-testing formats. PMID:26577652

  20. NMDA signaling in CA1 mediates selectively the spatial component of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Place, Ryan; Lykken, Christy; Beer, Zachery; Suh, Junghyup; McHugh, Thomas J; Tonegawa, Susumu; Eichenbaum, Howard; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies focusing on the memory for temporal order have reported that CA1 plays a critical role in the memory for the sequences of events, in addition to its well-described role in spatial navigation. In contrast, CA3 was found to principally contribute to the memory for the association of items with spatial or contextual information in tasks focusing on spatial memory. Other studies have shown that NMDA signaling in the hippocampus is critical to memory performance in studies that have investigated spatial and temporal order memory independently. However, the role of NMDA signaling separately in CA1 and CA3 in memory that combines both spatial and temporal processing demands (episodic memory) has not been examined. Here we investigated the effect of the deletion of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in CA1 or CA3 on the spatial and the temporal aspects of episodic memory, using a behavioral task that allows for these two aspects of memory to be evaluated distinctly within the same task. Under these conditions, NMDA signaling in CA1 specifically contributes to the spatial aspect of memory function and is not required to support the memory for temporal order of events. PMID:22419815

  1. Self-serving episodic memory biases: findings in the repressive coping style.

    PubMed

    Alston, Lauren L; Kratchmer, Carissa; Jeznach, Anna; Bartlett, Nathan T; Davidson, Patrick S R; Fujiwara, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with a repressive coping style self-report low anxiety, but show high defensiveness and high physiological arousal. Repressors have impoverished negative autobiographical memories and are better able to suppress memory for negatively valenced and self-related laboratory materials when asked to do so. Research on spontaneous forgetting of negative information in repressors suggests that they show significant forgetting of negative items, but only after a delay. Unknown is whether increased forgetting after a delay is potentiated by self-relevance. Here we asked in three experiments whether repressors would show reduced episodic memories for negative self-relevant information when tested immediately versus after a 2-day delay. We predicted that repressors would show an exaggerated reduction in recall of negative self-relevant memories after a delay, at least without anew priming of this information. We tested a total of 300 participants (experiment 1: N = 95, experiment 2: N = 106; experiment 3: N = 99) of four types: repressors, high-anxious (HA), low-anxious, and defensive HA individuals. Participants judged positive and negative adjectives with regard to self-descriptiveness, serving as incidental encoding. Surprise free-recall was conducted immediately after encoding (experiment 1), after a 2-day delay (experiment 2), or after a 2-day delay following priming via a lexical decision task (experiment 3). In experiment 1, repressors showed a bias against negative self-relevant words in immediate recall. Such a bias was neither observed in delayed recall without priming nor in delayed recall with priming. Thus, counter to our hypothesis, negative information that was initially judged as self-relevant was not forgotten at a higher rate after a delay in repressors. We suggest that repressors may reinterpret initially negative information in a more positive light after a delay, and therefore no longer experience the need to bias their recall after

  2. Memory Awareness in Individuals with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Desirée A.; Best, Catherine A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known regarding metacognition in individuals with autism. Specifically, it is unclear how individuals with autism think about their own mental states. The current study assessed memory awareness during a facial recognition task. High-functioning children (M=13,1 years, n=18) and adults (M=27.5 years, n =16) with autism matched with typically developing children (M =14.3 years, n =13) and adults (M =26.9 years, n=15) were tested. Children with autism demonstrated less accurate memory awareness and less reliable differentiation between their confidence ratings compared to typically developing children. Subtle impairments in memory awareness were also evident in adults with autism. Results indicate that broader metacognitive deficits may exist in individuals with autism, possibly contributing to other known impairments. PMID:20300817

  3. Episodic, but not semantic, autobiographical memory is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2008-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by decline in anterograde memory as measured by the ability to learn and remember new information. We investigated whether retrograde memory for autobiographical information was affected by aMCI. Eighteen control (age 66–84 years) and 17 aMCI (age 66–84 years) participants described a personal event from each of five periods across the lifespan. These events were transcribed and scored according to procedures that separate episodic (specific happenings) from semantic (general knowledge) elements of autobiographical memory. Although both groups generated protocols of similar length, the composition of autobiographical recall differentiated the groups. The aMCI group protocols were characterized by reduced episodic and increased semantic information relative to the control group. Both groups showed a similar pattern of recall across time periods, with no evidence that the aMCI group had more difficulty recalling recent, rather than remote, life events. These results indicate that episodic and semantic autobiographical memories are differentially affected by the early brain changes associated with aMCI. Reduced autobiographical episodic memories in aMCI may be the result of medial-temporal-lobe dysfunction, consistent with multiple trace theory, or alternatively, could be related to dysfunction of a wider related network of neocortical structures. In contrast, the preservation of autobiographical semantic memories in aMCI suggests neural systems, such as lateral temporal cortex, that support these memories, may remain relatively intact. PMID:18675285

  4. Autobiographically significant concepts: more episodic than semantic in nature? An electrophysiological investigation of overlapping types of memory.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Schmitz, Erika; Park, Lillian; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact. PMID:25061931

  5. Contributions of Feature Binding During Encoding and Functional Connectivity of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures to Episodic Memory Deficits Across the Prodromal and First-Episode Phases of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Kristen M.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Knowlton, Barbara; Bearden, Carrie E.; Subotnik, Kenneth; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with and at risk for psychosis may have difficulty using associative strategies to facilitate episodic memory encoding and recall. In parallel studies, patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n = 27) and high psychosis risk (n = 28) compared with control participants (n = 22 and n = 20, respectively) underwent functional MRI during a remember-know memory task. Psychophysiological interaction analyses, using medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures as regions of interest, were conducted to measure functional connectivity patterns supporting successful episodic memory. During encoding, patients with first-episode schizophrenia demonstrated reduced functional coupling between MTL regions and regions involved in stimulus representations, stimulus selection, and cognitive control. Relative to control participants and patients with high psychosis risk who did not convert to psychosis, patients with high psychosis risk who later converted to psychosis also demonstrated reduced connectivity between MTL regions and auditory-verbal and visual-association regions. These results suggest that episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia are related to inefficient recruitment of cortical connections involved in associative memory formation; such deficits precede the onset of psychosis among those individuals at high clinical risk. PMID:25750836

  6. Bidirectional changes to hippocampal theta–gamma comodulation predict memory for recent spatial episodes

    PubMed Central

    Shirvalkar, Prasad R.; Rapp, Peter R.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memory requires the hippocampus, which is thought to bind cortical inputs into conjunctive codes. Local field potentials (LFPs) reflect dendritic and synaptic oscillations whose temporal structure may coordinate cellular mechanisms of plasticity and memory. We now report that single-trial spatial memory performance in rats was predicted by the power comodulation of theta (4–10 Hz) and low gamma (30–50 Hz) rhythms in the hippocampus. Theta–gamma comodulation (TGC) was prominent during successful memory retrieval but was weak when memory failed or was unavailable during spatial exploration in sample trials. Muscimol infusion into medial septum reduced the probability of TGC and successful memory retrieval. In contrast, patterned electrical stimulation of the fimbria-fornix increased TGC in amnestic animals and partially rescued memory performance in the water maze. The results suggest that TGC accompanies memory retrieval in the hippocampus and that patterned brain stimulation may inform therapeutic strategies for cognitive disorders. PMID:20351262

  7. Metamemory ratings predict long-term changes in reactivated episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Yacoby, Amnon; Dudai, Yadin; Mendelsohn, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of long-term memory can render the memory item temporarily labile, offering an opportunity to modify it via behavioral or pharmacological intervention. Declarative memory reactivation is accompanied by a metamemory ability to subjectively assess the knowledge available concerning the target item (Feeling of knowing, FOK). We set out to examine whether FOK can predict the extent of change of long-term episodic memories by post-retrieval manipulations. To this end, participants watched a short movie and were immediately thereafter tested on their memory for it. A day later, they were reminded of that movie, and either immediately or 1 day later, were presented with a second movie. The reminder phase consisted of memory cues to which participants were asked to judge their FOK regarding the original movie. The memory performance of participants to whom new information was presented immediately after reactivating the original episode corresponded to the degree of FOK ratings upon reactivation such that the lower their FOK, the less their memory declined. In contrast, no relation was found between FOK and memory strength for those who learned new information 1 day after the reminder phase. Our findings suggest that the subjective accessibility of reactivated memories may determine the extent to which new information might modify those memories. PMID:25709571

  8. Executive function deficits in early Alzheimer's disease and their relations with episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Baudic, Sophie; Barba, Gianfranco Dalla; Thibaudet, Marie Claude; Smagghe, Alain; Remy, Philippe; Traykov, Latchezar

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are impaired on executive function early in the course of disease, but negative findings were reported. To evaluate the performance on executive tasks in early AD and to determine the involvement of memory on the outcome of executive tasks. Thirty-six AD patients were divided into two subgroups on the basis of the MMSE: very mild and mild. The comparison with 17 normal controls shows that very mild AD patients had deficits on visuospatial short-term memory, episodic memory, flexibility and self-monitoring abilities, concept formation and reasoning. The mild AD patients showed additional deficits on the Similarities test. Episodic memory and executive deficits occur in the very early stage of AD and precede impairment in constructional praxis, language and sustained attention. With the progression of the disease, additional deficit is observed in abstract thinking. In mild AD, memory failure is also related to executive impairment. PMID:16125364

  9. Active retrieval facilitates across-episode binding by modulating the content of memory

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    The contents of memory can be updated when information from the current episode is bound with content retrieved from previous episodes. Little is known regarding factors that determine the memory content that is subject to this across-episode binding. We tested whether across-episode binding preferentially occurs for memory content that is currently “active” and identified relevant neural correlates. After studying objects at specific locations on scene backgrounds, subjects performed one of two retrieval tasks for the objects on different scene backgrounds. In an active condition, subjects recalled object locations, whereas subjects merely dragged objects to predetermined locations in a passive condition. Immediately following each object-location retrieval event, a novel face appeared on a blank screen. We hypothesized that the original episode content would be active in memory during face encoding in the active condition, but not in the passive condition (despite seeing the same content in both conditions). A ramification of the active condition would thus be preferential binding of original episode content to novel faces, with no such across-episode binding in the passive condition. Indeed, memory for faces was better when tested on the original background scenes in the active relative to passive condition, indicating that original episode content was bound with the active condition faces, whereas this occurred to a lesser extent for the passive condition faces. Likewise, early-onset negative ERP effects reflected binding of the face to the original episode content in the active but not the passive condition. In contrast, binding in the passive condition occurred only when faces were physically displayed on the original scenes during recognition testing, and a very similar early-onset negative ERP effect signaled binding in this condition. ERP correlates of binding were thus similar for across-episode and within-episode binding (and were distinct from other

  10. Episodic Memory Encoding Interferes with Reward Learning and Decreases Striatal Prediction Errors

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. PMID:25378157

  11. Episodic memory decay along the adult lifespan: a review of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene

    2009-01-01

    The ability to learn and remember new information declines along life. Empirical evidence reveals that this deficit occurs unevenly with different types of memory. Episodic memory, which is referred to as the ability to remember our own experiences in a determined temporal and spatial context, is especially vulnerable to aging. Episodic information can be retrieved with or without the context information that took place when the episodic event was encoded. There is agreement that, with advancing age, the source information related to an episodic event is more susceptible to be forgotten than the event; however, there is no consensus regarding the age at which this decline begins, the speed of source-memory decline along life or the possible changes, due to aging, in neurophysiological activity during encoding of source information that is subsequently correctly retrieved. In an attempt to answer the first two issues, a behavioral study with 552 subjects from 20 to 80 years of age was conducted, which provided evidence of the exact age at which source memory starts to decline and of the speed of this memory loss along life. To address the last question, event-related potentials were recorded while young and old adults encoded source information, to investigate whether older adults generate memory traces different from young adults during encoding. PMID:18725253

  12. Naringin and Rutin Alleviates Episodic Memory Deficits in Two Differentially Challenged Object Recognition Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Nayak, Pawan G.; Kishore, Anoop; Shenoy, Rekha R.; Mallikarjuna Rao, Chamallamudi; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline or dementia is a debilitating problem of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, including special conditions like chemobrain. Dietary flavonoids proved to be efficacious in delaying the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Two such flavonoids, naringin (NAR) and rutin (RUT) were reported to have neuroprotective potential with beneficial effects on spatial and emotional memories in particular. However, the efficacy of these flavonoids is poorly understood on episodic memory, which comprises an important form of autobiographical memory. Objective: This study objective is to evaluate NAR and RUT to reverse time-delay-induced long-term and scopolamine-induced short-term episodic memory deficits in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated both short-term and long-term episodic memory forms using novel object recognition task. Open field paradigm was used to assess locomotor activity for any confounding influence on memory assessment. Donepezil was used as positive control and was effective in both models at 1 mg/kg, i.p. Results: Animals treated with NAR and RUT at 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. spent significantly more time exploring novel object compared to familiar one, whereas control animals spent almost equal time with both objects in choice trial. NAR and RUT dose-dependently increased recognition and discriminative indices in time-induced long-term as well as scopolamine-induced short-term episodic memory deficit models without interfering with the locomotor activity. Conclusion: We conclude that, NAR and RUT averted both short- and long-term episodic memory deficits in Wistar rats, which may be potential interventions for neurodegenerative diseases as well as chemobrain condition. SUMMARY Incidence of Alzheimer's disease is increasing globally and the current therapy is only symptomatic. Curative treatment is a major lacuna. NAR and RUT are natural flavonoids proven for their pleiotropic

  13. Using semantic memory to boost 'episodic' recall in a case of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-17

    We report two experiments that investigated factors that might boost 'episodic' recall for Jon, a developmental amnesic whose episodic memory is gravely impaired but whose semantic memory seems relatively normal. Experiment 1 showed that Jon's recall improved following a semantic study task compared with a non-semantic study task, as well as following four repeated study trials compared with only one. Experiment 2 additionally revealed that Jon's recall improved after acting compared with reading action phrases at study, but only if the phrases were well integrated semantically. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that Jon's 'episodic' recall depends on the extent to which he is able to retrieve events using semantic memory. PMID:16791103

  14. The "How" of Animacy Effects in Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Gelin, Margaux; Laroche, Betty; Méot, Alain; Bugaiska, Aurélia

    2015-01-01

    Animates are better remembered than inanimates. According to the adaptive view of human memory ( Nairne, 2010 ; Nairne & Pandeirada, 2010a , 2010b ), this observation results from the fact that animates are more important for survival than inanimates. This ultimate explanation of animacy effects has to be complemented by proximate explanations. Moreover, animacy currently represents an uncontrolled word characteristic in most cognitive research ( VanArsdall, Nairne, Pandeirada, & Cogdill, 2015 ). In four studies, we therefore investigated the "how" of animacy effects. Study 1 revealed that words denoting animates were recalled better than those referring to inanimates in an intentional memory task. Study 2 revealed that adding a concurrent memory load when processing words for the animacy dimension did not impede the animacy effect on recall rates. Study 3A was an exact replication of Study 2 and Study 3B used a higher concurrent memory load. In these two follow-up studies, animacy effects on recall performance were again not altered by a concurrent memory load. Finally, Study 4 showed that using interactive imagery to encode animate and inanimate words did not alter the recall rate of animate words but did increase the recall of inanimate words. Taken together, the findings suggest that imagery processes contribute to these effects. PMID:26687105

  15. Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic-Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Madore, Kevin P; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-09-01

    People produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems after receiving an episodic-specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of a recent event-than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic-specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent-thinking task (generating unusual uses of common objects) after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance following the two inductions was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity-induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent-thinking task following the two inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking. PMID:26205963

  16. Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Kevin P.; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent event - people produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent thinking task that involves generating unusual uses of common objects after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent thinking task following both inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking. PMID:26205963

  17. The Spectro-Contextual Encoding and Retrieval Theory of Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Andrew J.; Ekstrom, Arne D.

    2014-01-01

    The spectral fingerprint hypothesis, which posits that different frequencies of oscillations underlie different cognitive operations, provides one account for how interactions between brain regions support perceptual and attentive processes (Siegel etal., 2012). Here, we explore and extend this idea to the domain of human episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Incorporating findings from the synaptic to cognitive levels of organization, we argue that spectrally precise cross-frequency coupling and phase-synchronization promote the formation of hippocampal-neocortical cell assemblies that form the basis for episodic memory. We suggest that both cell assembly firing patterns as well as the global pattern of brain oscillatory activity within hippocampal-neocortical networks represents the contents of a particular memory. Drawing upon the ideas of context reinstatement and multiple trace theory, we argue that memory retrieval is driven by internal and/or external factors which recreate these frequency-specific oscillatory patterns which occur during episodic encoding. These ideas are synthesized into a novel model of episodic memory (the spectro-contextual encoding and retrieval theory, or “SCERT”) that provides several testable predictions for future research. PMID:24600373

  18. Binding in visual working memory: the role of the episodic buffer.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Alan D; Allen, Richard J; Hitch, Graham J

    2011-05-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory is assumed to play a central role in the binding of features into objects, a process that was initially assumed to depend upon executive resources. Here, we review a program of work in which we specifically tested this assumption by studying the effects of a range of attentionally demanding concurrent tasks on the capacity to encode and retain both individual features and bound objects. We found no differential effect of concurrent load, even when the process of binding was made more demanding by separating the shape and color features spatially, temporally or across visual and auditory modalities. Bound features were however more readily disrupted by subsequent stimuli, a process we studied using a suffix paradigm. This suggested a need to assume a feature-based attentional filter followed by an object based storage process. Our results are interpreted within a modified version of the multicomponent working memory model. We also discuss work examining the role of the hippocampus in visual feature binding. PMID:21256143

  19. A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

  20. Pre-Service Teachers' Episodic Memories of Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balli, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on past excellent teachers' classroom management strategies from the perspective of 148 pre-service teachers. The purpose of the study was to examine how pre-service teachers' memories reflect classroom management models that are typically taught in teacher education coursework prior to their study of those models, as well as to…

  1. Usefulness of an Integrated Analysis of Different Memory Tasks to Predict the Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease: The Episodic Memory Score (EMS).

    PubMed

    Marra, Camillo; Gainotti, Guido; Fadda, Lucia; Perri, Roberta; Lacidogna, Giordano; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Taking into the account both the severity and the consistency of performances obtained on memory tests by patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) could improve the power to predict their progression to Alzheimer's disease. For this purpose, we constructed the Episodic Memory Score (EMS), which is obtained by subdividing in tertiles performances obtained at baseline in verbal (RAVLT) and visual episodic memory (Rey-Osterrieth Figure-delayed recall) and giving a score ranging from 1 (worst result) to 3 (best result) to results falling within each tertile. The EMS was computed for each patient by summing the tertile score obtained on each memory task, so that the total score ranged from 4 (worst performance) to 12 (best performance). The aMCI sample consisted of 198 subjects who completed the two-year follow-up, at the end of which 55 subjects had converted to dementia. The mean EMS score obtained by aMCI converters was significantly lower than that of aMCI-stable patients. In detecting conversion to dementia, the comparison between EMS and individual memory scores obtained at baseline was made by computing ROC curves, and estimating the respective area under the curve (AUC). The EMS had a larger AUC than the individual memory scores. At baseline aMCI converters performed worse than non-converters not only on memory tasks, but also on executive functions tasks. However, in a multiple variables logistic regression analysis in which all scores showing statistically significant differences between aMCI-converters and aMCI-stable were entered, the EMS was the only reliable predictor of progression from aMCI to dementia. PMID:26639965

  2. Effects of eating rate on satiety: A role for episodic memory?

    PubMed

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Lai, Samantha; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Martin, Ashley A; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    Eating slowly is associated with a lower body mass index. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our objective was to determine whether eating a meal at a slow rate improves episodic memory for the meal and promotes satiety. Participants (N=40) consumed a 400ml portion of tomato soup at either a fast (1.97ml/s) or a slow (0.50ml/s) rate. Appetite ratings were elicited at baseline and at the end of the meal (satiation). Satiety was assessed using; i) an ad libitum biscuit 'taste test' (3h after the meal) and ii) appetite ratings (collected 2h after the meal and after the ad libitum snack). Finally, to evaluate episodic memory for the meal, participants self-served the volume of soup that they believed they had consumed earlier (portion size memory) and completed a rating of memory 'vividness'. Participants who consumed the soup slowly reported a greater increase in fullness, both at the end of the meal and during the inter-meal interval. However, we found little effect of eating rate on subsequent ad libitum snack intake. Importantly, after 3h, participants who ate the soup slowly remembered eating a larger portion. These findings show that eating slowly promotes self-reported satiation and satiety. For the first time, they also suggest that eating rate influences portion size memory. However, eating slowly did not affect ratings of memory vividness and we found little evidence for a relationship between episodic memory and satiety. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that episodic memory mediates effects of eating rate on satiety. PMID:26143189

  3. A simple neural network model of the hippocampus suggesting its pathfinding role in episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to extend the theoretical understanding of the relationship between hippocampal spatial and memory functions to the level of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and episodic memory retrieval. The proposed unifying theory describes both phenomena within a unique framework, as based on one and the same pathfinding function of the hippocampus. We propose a mechanism of reconstruction of the context of experience involving a search for a nearly shortest path in the space of remembered contexts. To analyze this concept in detail, we define a simple connectionist model consistent with available rodent and human neurophysiological data. Numerical study of the model begins with the spatial domain as a simple analogy for more complex phenomena. It is demonstrated how a nearly shortest path is quickly found in a familiar environment. We prove numerically that associative learning during sharp waves can account for the necessary properties of hippocampal place cells. Computational study of the model is extended to other cognitive paradigms, with the main focus on episodic memory retrieval. We show that the ability to find a correct path may be vital for successful retrieval. The model robustly exhibits the pathfinding capacity within a wide range of several factors, including its memory load (up to 30,000 abstract contexts), the number of episodes that become associated with potential target contexts, and the level of dynamical noise. We offer several testable critical predictions in both spatial and memory domains to validate the theory. Our results suggest that (1) the pathfinding function of the hippocampus, in addition to its associative and memory indexing functions, may be vital for retrieval of certain episodic memories, and (2) the hippocampal spatial navigation function could be a precursor of its memory function. PMID:15774943

  4. Effects of eating rate on satiety: A role for episodic memory?

    PubMed Central

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L.; Lai, Samantha; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Martin, Ashley A.; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Eating slowly is associated with a lower body mass index. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our objective was to determine whether eating a meal at a slow rate improves episodic memory for the meal and promotes satiety. Participants (N = 40) consumed a 400 ml portion of tomato soup at either a fast (1.97 ml/s) or a slow (0.50 ml/s) rate. Appetite ratings were elicited at baseline and at the end of the meal (satiation). Satiety was assessed using; i) an ad libitum biscuit ‘taste test’ (3 h after the meal) and ii) appetite ratings (collected 2 h after the meal and after the ad libitum snack). Finally, to evaluate episodic memory for the meal, participants self-served the volume of soup that they believed they had consumed earlier (portion size memory) and completed a rating of memory ‘vividness’. Participants who consumed the soup slowly reported a greater increase in fullness, both at the end of the meal and during the inter-meal interval. However, we found little effect of eating rate on subsequent ad libitum snack intake. Importantly, after 3 h, participants who ate the soup slowly remembered eating a larger portion. These findings show that eating slowly promotes self-reported satiation and satiety. For the first time, they also suggest that eating rate influences portion size memory. However, eating slowly did not affect ratings of memory vividness and we found little evidence for a relationship between episodic memory and satiety. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that episodic memory mediates effects of eating rate on satiety. PMID:26143189

  5. Dopamine D2 receptor availability is linked to hippocampal-caudate functional connectivity and episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Lars; Karalija, Nina; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Micael; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboovand, Neda; Köhncke, Ylva; Axelsson, Jan; Rieckmann, Anna; Papenberg, Goran; Garrett, Douglas D; Riklund, Katrine; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-07-12

    D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1DRs and D2DRs) may contribute differently to various aspects of memory and cognition. The D1DR system has been linked to functions supported by the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, the role of the D2DR system is less clear, although it has been hypothesized that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognitive functions. Here we present results from 181 healthy adults between 64 and 68 y of age who underwent comprehensive assessment of episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed, along with MRI and D2DR assessment with [(11)C]raclopride and PET. Caudate D2DR availability was positively associated with episodic memory but not with working memory or speed. Whole-brain analyses further revealed a relation between hippocampal D2DR availability and episodic memory. Hippocampal and caudate D2DR availability were interrelated, and functional MRI-based resting-state functional connectivity between the ventral caudate and medial temporal cortex increased as a function of caudate D2DR availability. Collectively, these findings indicate that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognition by influencing striatal and hippocampal regions, and their interactions. PMID:27339132

  6. Dopamine D2 receptor availability is linked to hippocampal–caudate functional connectivity and episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Lars; Karalija, Nina; Salami, Alireza; Andersson, Micael; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboovand, Neda; Köhncke, Ylva; Axelsson, Jan; Rieckmann, Anna; Papenberg, Goran; Garrett, Douglas D.; Riklund, Katrine; Lövdén, Martin; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (D1DRs and D2DRs) may contribute differently to various aspects of memory and cognition. The D1DR system has been linked to functions supported by the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, the role of the D2DR system is less clear, although it has been hypothesized that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognitive functions. Here we present results from 181 healthy adults between 64 and 68 y of age who underwent comprehensive assessment of episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed, along with MRI and D2DR assessment with [11C]raclopride and PET. Caudate D2DR availability was positively associated with episodic memory but not with working memory or speed. Whole-brain analyses further revealed a relation between hippocampal D2DR availability and episodic memory. Hippocampal and caudate D2DR availability were interrelated, and functional MRI-based resting-state functional connectivity between the ventral caudate and medial temporal cortex increased as a function of caudate D2DR availability. Collectively, these findings indicate that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognition by influencing striatal and hippocampal regions, and their interactions. PMID:27339132

  7. Cognitive control of meal onset and meal size: Role of dorsal hippocampal-dependent episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Parent, Marise B

    2016-08-01

    There is a large gap in our understanding of how top-down cognitive processes, such as memory, influence energy intake. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding how the brain controls the timing of meals and meal frequency. Understanding how cognition influences ingestive behavior and how the brain controls meal frequency will provide a more complete explanation of the neural mechanisms that regulate energy intake and may also increase our knowledge of the factors that contribute to diet-induced obesity. We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal neurons, which are critical for memory of personal experiences (i.e., episodic memory), form a memory of a meal, inhibit meal onset during the period following a meal, and limit the amount ingested at the next meal. In support, we describe evidence from human research suggesting that episodic memory of a meal inhibits intake and review data from human and non-human animals showing that impaired hippocampal function is associated with increased intake. We then describe evidence from our laboratory showing that inactivation of dorsal hippocampal neurons decreases the interval between sucrose meals and increases intake at the next meal. We also describe our evidence suggesting that sweet orosensation is sufficient to induce synaptic plasticity in dorsal hippocampal neurons and raise the possibility that impaired dorsal hippocampal function and episodic memory deficits contribute to the development and/or maintenance of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we raise some critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27083124

  8. Spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder: evidence for impairments in mental simulation?

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This study explored spatial navigation alongside several other cognitive abilities that are thought to share common underlying neurocognitive mechanisms (e.g., the capacity for self-projection, scene construction, or mental simulation), and which we hypothesized may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty intellectually high-functioning children with ASD (with a mean age of ~8 years) were compared to 20 sex, age, IQ, and language ability matched typically developing children on a series of tasks to assess spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking (also known as episodic foresight or prospection), theory of mind (ToM), relational memory, and central coherence. This is the first study to explore these abilities concurrently within the same sample. Spatial navigation was assessed using the “memory island” task, which involves finding objects within a realistic, computer simulated, three-dimensional environment. Episodic memory and episodic future thinking were assessed using a past and future event description task. ToM was assessed using the “animations” task, in which children were asked to describe the interactions between two animated triangles. Relational memory was assessed using a recognition task involving memory for items (line drawings), patterned backgrounds, or combinations of items and backgrounds. Central coherence was assessed by exploring differences in performance across segmented and unsegmented versions of block design. Children with ASD were found to show impairments in spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and central coherence, but not ToM or relational memory. Among children with ASD, spatial navigation was found to be significantly negatively related to the number of repetitive behaviors. In other words, children who showed more repetitive behaviors showed poorer spatial navigation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25538661

  9. Cued Recall from Image and Sentence Memory: A Shift from Episodic to Identical Elements Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Timothy C.; Bajic, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of the identical elements (IE) model of arithmetic fact retrieval (T. C. Rickard, A. F. Healy, & L. E. Bourne, 1994) to cued recall from episodic (image and sentence) memory was explored in 3 transfer experiments. In agreement with results from arithmetic, speedup following even minimal practice recalling a missing word from an…

  10. Integrating Incremental Learning and Episodic Memory Models of the Hippocampal Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Myers, C. E.; Gluck, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    By integrating previous computational models of corticohippocampal function, the authors develop and test a unified theory of the neural substrates of familiarity, recollection, and classical conditioning. This approach integrates models from 2 traditions of hippocampal modeling, those of episodic memory and incremental learning, by drawing on an…

  11. Do Different Tests of Episodic Memory Produce Consistent Results in Human Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of different philosophical, theoretical, and empirical perspectives on episodic memory have led to the development of very different tests with which to assess it. Although these tests putatively assess the same psychological capacity, they have rarely been directly compared. Here, a sample of undergraduates was tested on three different…

  12. Generalization through the Recurrent Interaction of Episodic Memories: A Model of the Hippocampal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, Dharshan; McClelland, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a perspective on the role of the hippocampal system in generalization, instantiated in a computational model called REMERGE (recurrency and episodic memory results in generalization). We expose a fundamental, but neglected, tension between prevailing computational theories that emphasize the function of the hippocampus…

  13. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  14. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  15. Hippocampal Activation during Episodic and Semantic Memory Retrieval: Comparing Category Production and Category Cued Recall

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M.; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest. PMID:18420234

  16. Lateralized differences in tympanic membrane temperature, but not induced mood, are related to episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ruth E; Barr, Taylor D; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-03-01

    The present research examined the effects of pre-encoding and pre-recall induced mood on episodic memory. It was hypothesized that happy and/or angry mood prior to encoding (increasing left hemisphere activity), in tandem with fearful mood prior to recall (increasing right hemisphere activity) would be associated with superior episodic memory. It was also hypothesized that tympanic membrane measures (TMT), indicative of hemispheric activity, would change as a function of induced mood. Although subjectively-experienced mood induction was successful, pre-encoding and pre-recall mood did not alter memory, and only altered TMT in the pre-encoding fear and pre-recall angry mood induction conditions. Interestingly, baseline absolute difference between left and right TMT, a measure of differential hemispheric activity, regardless of the direction of that activity, was significantly positively related to number of total words written, number of correctly recalled words, and corrected recall score. This same TMT measure pre-encoding, regardless of specific mood, was significantly negatively related to false recall. Results are discussed in terms the HERA model of episodic memory, and in the nature of interhemispheric interaction involved in episodic recall. PMID:25647603

  17. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  18. Structural and Metabolic Correlates of Episodic Memory in Relation to the Depth of Encoding in Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpouzos, Gregoria; Chetelat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Clochon, Patrice; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to establish the relationship between changes in episodic memory retrieval in normal aging on the one hand and gray matter volume and [superscript 18]FDG uptake on the other. Structural MRI, resting-state [superscript 18]FDG-PET, and an episodic memory task manipulating the depth of encoding and the retention interval were…

  19. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species. PMID:26635567

  20. From episodic to habitual prospective memory: ERP-evidence for a linear transition

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Beat; Matter, Sibylle; Baumann, Brigitta; Walter, Stefan; Koenig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Performing a prospective memory task repeatedly changes the nature of the task from episodic to habitual. The goal of the present study was to investigate the neural basis of this transition. In two experiments, we contrasted event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by correct responses to prospective memory targets in the first, more episodic part of the experiment with those of the second, more habitual part of the experiment. Specifically, we tested whether the early, middle, or late ERP-components, which are thought to reflect cue detection, retrieval of the intention, and post-retrieval processes, respectively, would be changed by routinely performing the prospective memory task. The results showed a differential ERP effect in the middle time window (450–650 ms post-stimulus). Source localization using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography analysis suggests that the transition was accompanied by an increase of activation in the posterior parietal and occipital cortex. These findings indicate that habitual prospective memory involves retrieval processes guided more strongly by parietal brain structures. In brief, the study demonstrates that episodic and habitual prospective memory tasks recruit different brain areas. PMID:25071519

  1. Episodic-like memory trace in awake replay of hippocampal place cell activity sequences.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval of events at a specific place and time is effective for future planning. Sequential reactivation of the hippocampal place cells along familiar paths while the animal pauses is well suited to such a memory retrieval process. It is, however, unknown whether this awake replay represents events occurring along the path. Using a subtask switching protocol in which the animal experienced three subtasks as 'what' information in a maze, I here show that the replay represents a trial type, consisting of path and subtask, in terms of neuronal firing timings and rates. The actual trial type to be rewarded could only be reliably predicted from replays that occurred at the decision point. This trial-type representation implies that not only 'where and when' but also 'what' information is contained in the replay. This result supports the view that awake replay is an episodic-like memory retrieval process. PMID:26481131

  2. Relations between episodic memory, suggestibility, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition in the preschool child.

    PubMed

    Melinder, Annika; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-12-01

    The development of episodic memory, its relation to theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (e.g., cognitive inhibition), and to suggestibility was studied. Children (n= 115) between 3 and 6 years of age saw two versions of a video film and were tested for their memory of critical elements of the videos. Results indicated similar developmental trends for all memory measures, ToM, and inhibition, but ToM and inhibition were not associated with any memory measures. Correlations involving source memory was found in relation to specific questions, whereas inhibition and ToM were significantly correlated to resistance to suggestions. A regression analysis showed that age was the main contributor to resistance to suggestions, to correct source monitoring, and to correct responses to specific questions. Inhibition was also a significant main predictor of resistance to suggestive questions, whereas the relative contribution of ToM was wiped out when an extended model was tested. PMID:17107497

  3. A combined electrophysiological and morphological examination of episodic memory decline in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hoppstädter, Michael; King, Andrea Victoria; Frölich, Lutz; Wessa, Michèle; Flor, Herta; Meyer, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by neuropathological changes within the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC), which lead to characteristic impairments in episodic memory, i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Here, we tested the neural correlates of this memory impairment using event-related potentials (ERPs) and voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-four participants were instructed to encode lists of words and were tested in a yes/no recognition memory task. The dual-process model of recognition memory dissociates between acontextual familiarity and recollection of contextual details. The early frontal ERP old/new effect, which is thought to represent a neural correlate of familiarity-based memory, was absent in aMCI, whereas the control group showed a significant early old/new effect at frontal electrodes. This effect was positively correlated with behavioral episodic memory performance. Analyses of brain morphology revealed a focused gray matter loss in the inferior and medial temporal lobes in aMCI versus healthy controls. Moreover, the positive correlation between gray matter volume in the MTLC and the familiarity-related early frontal old/new effect supports the notion that this effect relies upon the integrity of the MTLC. Thus, the present findings might provide a further functional marker for prodromal AD. PMID:24065918

  4. Hippocampal transcriptome-guided genetic analysis of correlated episodic memory phenotypes in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jingwen; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Chen, Rui; Risacher, Shannon L.; Moore, Jason H.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li

    2015-01-01

    As the most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder initially manifested by impaired memory performances. While the diagnosis information indicates a dichotomous status of a patient, memory scores have the potential to capture the continuous nature of the disease progression and may provide more insights into the underlying mechanism. In this work, we performed a targeted genetic study of memory scores on an AD cohort to identify the associations between a set of genes highly expressed in the hippocampal region and seven cognitive scores related to episodic memory. Both main effects and interaction effects of the targeted genetic markers on these correlated memory scores were examined. In addition to well-known AD genetic markers APOE and TOMM40, our analysis identified a new risk gene NAV2 through the gene-level main effect analysis. NAV2 was found to be significantly and consistently associated with all seven episodic memory scores. Genetic interaction analysis also yielded a few promising hits warranting further investigation, especially for the RAVLT list B Score. PMID:25859259

  5. Neurofeedback training of EEG alpha rhythm enhances episodic and working memory.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Jen-Jui; Chen, Tzu-Shan; Chen, Jia-Jin; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-07-01

    Neurofeedback training (NFT) of the alpha rhythm has been used for several decades but is still controversial in regards to its trainability and effects on working memory. Alpha rhythm of the frontoparietal region are associated with either the intelligence or memory of healthy subjects and are also related to pathological states. In this study, alpha NFT effects on memory performances were explored. Fifty healthy participants were recruited and randomly assigned into a group receiving a 8-12-Hz amplitude (Alpha) or a group receiving a random 4-Hz amplitude from the range of 7 to 20 Hz (Ctrl). Three NFT sessions per week were conducted for 4 weeks. Working memory was assessed by both a backward digit span task and an operation span task, and episodic memory was assessed using a word pair task. Four questionnaires were used to assess anxiety, depression, insomnia, and cognitive function. The Ctrl group had no change in alpha amplitude and duration. In contrast, the Alpha group showed a progressive significant increase in the alpha amplitude and total alpha duration of the frontoparietal region. Accuracies of both working and episodic memories were significantly improved in a large proportion of participants of the Alpha group, particularly for those with remarkable alpha-amplitude increases. Scores of four questionnaires fell in a normal range before and after NFT. The current study provided supporting evidence for alpha trainability within a small session number compared with that of therapy. The findings suggested the enhancement of working and episodic memory through alpha NFT. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2662-2675, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038114

  6. Reconstructing the past: The late posterior negativity (LPN) in episodic memory studies.

    PubMed

    Mecklinger, Axel; Rosburg, Timm; Johansson, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The late posterior negativity (LPN) is an ERP effect frequently reported in episodic memory tasks. In 2003, we proposed that both non-mnemonic action monitoring processes and reconstructive mnemonic processes contribute to the LPN. Here, we review more recent studies and provide additional evidence that the LPN reflects dissociable (though not mutually exclusive) mnemonic and non-mnemonic processes. The idea that the LPN is related to the modality-specific reactivation of brain regions activated during encoding is critically evaluated. We suggest that the LPN is modulated by the amount of information actually used to reconstruct prior episodes and in parts mediated by source specifying factors, like the amount and overlap of memory bound attributes. We propose that the LPN reflects domain general mechanisms recruited not just during episodic but also during semantic memory tasks, in particular in situations that require highly specific reconstructive processing or continued evaluation of retrieval outcomes. Finally, we relate these ideas to recent accounts of the role of the parietal cortex in allocating attention for the inspection of memory contents. PMID:27365154

  7. Pauses During Autobiographical Discourse Reflect Episodic Memory Processes in Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pistono, Aurélie; Jucla, Mélanie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Lemesle, Béatrice; Calvet, Benjamin; Köpke, Barbara; Puel, Michèle; Pariente, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on discourse production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some studies have focused on pause production, revealing that patients make extensive use of pauses during speech. This has been attributed to lexical retrieval difficulties, but pausing may also reflect other forms of cognitive impairment as it increases with cognitive load. The aim of the present study was to analyze autobiographical discourse impairment in AD from a broad perspective, looking at pausing behavior (frequency, duration, and location). Our first objective was to characterize discourse changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. Our second objective was to determine the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of these changes. Fifteen patients with MCI due to AD and 15 matched cognitively normal controls underwent an ecological episodic memory task, a full neuropsychological assessment, and a 3D T1-weighted MRI scans. Autobiographical discourse collected from the ecological episodic memory task was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, focusing on pausing. Intergroup comparisons showed that although patients did not produce more pauses than controls overall, they did make more between-utterance pauses. The number of these specific pauses was positively correlated with patients' episodic memory performance. Furthermore, neuroimaging analysis showed that, in the patient group, their use was negatively correlated with frontopolar area (BA 10) grey matter density. This region may therefore play an important role in the planning of autobiographical discourse production. These findings demonstrate that pauses in early AD may reflect a compensatory mechanism for improving mental time travel and memory retrieval. PMID:26757034

  8. Do Synesthetes Have a General Advantage in Visual Search and Episodic Memory? A Case for Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2009-01-01

    Background Some studies, most of them case-reports, suggest that synesthetes have an advantage in visual search and episodic memory tasks. The goal of this study was to examine this hypothesis in a group study. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested thirteen grapheme-color synesthetes and we compared their performance on a visual search task and a memory test to an age-, handedness-, education-, and gender-matched control group. The results showed no significant group differences (all relevant ps>.50). For the visual search task effect sizes indicated a small advantage for synesthetes (Cohen's d between .19 and .32). No such advantage was found for episodic memory (Cohen's d<.05). Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that synesthesia per se does not seem to lead to a strong performance advantage. Rather, the superior performance of synesthetes observed in some case-report studies may be due to individual differences, to a selection bias or to a strategic use of synesthesia as a mnemonic. In order to establish universal effects of synesthesia on cognition single-case studies must be complemented by group studies. PMID:19352425

  9. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Balota, David A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Duchek, Janet M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed in order to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. Method All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within two years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a PET-PIB scan for amyloid imaging. Results Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. Conclusion These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be utilized to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change. PMID:26416094

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory

    PubMed Central

    Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Gilboa, Asaf; Addis, Donna Rose; Westmacott, Robyn; Grady, Cheryl; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Levine, Brian; Black, Sandra; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and retrieval of detailed, vivid autobiographical memories depend on the hippocampal system no matter how long ago they were acquired. Semantic memories, on the other hand, benefit from hippocampal contribution for some time before they can be retrieved independently of the hippocampus. Even semantic memories, however, can have episodic elements associated with them that continue to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, we distinguish between experientially detailed spatial memories (akin to episodic memory) and more schematic memories (akin to semantic memory) that are sufficient for navigation but not for re-experiencing the environment in which they were acquired. Like their episodic and semantic counterparts, the former type of spatial memory is dependent on the hippocampus no matter how long ago it was acquired, whereas the latter can survive independently of the hippocampus and is represented in extra-hippocampal structures. In short, the evidence reviewed suggests strongly that the function of the hippocampus (and possibly that of related limbic structures) is to help encode, retain, and retrieve experiences, no matter how long ago the events comprising the experience occurred, and no matter whether the memories are episodic or spatial. We conclude that the evidence favours a multiple trace theory (MTT) of memory over two other models: (1) traditional consolidation models which posit that the hippocampus is a time-limited memory structure for all forms of memory; and (2) versions of cognitive map theory which posit that the hippocampus is needed for representing all forms of allocentric space in memory. PMID

  11. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3–4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal–cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the age at which children begin to report autobiographical memories using the past tense (Milestone 1); the age at which they begin to verbally acknowledge past events (Milestone 2); and the age at which they begin to spontaneously use memory-related verbs (Milestone 3). As expected, memories of events that occurred before 3–4 years of age were affected by infantile amnesia. Achievement of these milestones followed almost the same developmental progression: Milestone 1 (1 year; 10 months (1;10) to 3 years; 4 months (3;4)) was followed by Milestones 2 (3;1 to 4;0) and 3 (3;5 to 4;4). Milestone 2 was typically related to the onset of infantile amnesia, whereas Milestone 1 occurred during the period for which the children became amnesic as they aged. These data suggest that linguistic meta-cognitive awareness of personal memory is the key feature in infantile amnesia. PMID:26331479

  12. Dissociations between procedural and episodic memory: effects of time and aging.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D B; Brown, A S; Murphy, D R

    1990-06-01

    The issue of multiple memory systems is explored. Young and older adults (mean ages = 20 and 71, respectively) named pictures and were tested immediately, 1, 7, or 21 days later. Episodic memory (recognition) for pictures was significantly lower in older relative to young adults and declined systematically across all retention intervals in both age groups. In contrast, procedural memory (repetition priming in picture naming) revealed no reliable age differences. In both age groups, priming declined within the first 24 hr, but unlike recognition, there was no further decrement from 1 to 21 days. There were also within-subject dissociations: The magnitude of priming was equivalent for remembered and forgotten items, and the relation between recognition and priming across intervals was nonmonotic, revealing a reversed association. The findings were interpreted within a multiple-memory-systems framework. PMID:2378692

  13. Source accuracy data reveal the thresholded nature of human episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Iain M; Donaldson, David I

    2013-04-01

    Episodic recollection supports conscious retrieval of past events. It is unknown why recollected memories are often vivid, but at other times we struggle to remember. Such experiences might reflect a recollection threshold: Either the threshold is exceeded and information is retrieved, or recollection fails completely. Alternatively, retrieval failure could reflect weak memory: Recollection could behave as a continuous signal, always yielding some variable degree of information. Here we reconcile these views, using a novel source memory task that measures retrieval accuracy directly. We show that recollection is thresholded, such that retrieval sometimes simply fails. Our technique clarifies a fundamental property of memory and allows responses to be accurately measured, without recourse to subjective introspection. These findings raise new questions about how successful retrieval is determined and why it declines with age and disease. PMID:23192370

  14. Frontotemporal function]al connectivity and executive functions contribute to episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Tashauna L; O'Neill, Meagan; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Diana, Rachel A; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    The contributions of hemispheric-specific electrophysiology (electroencephalogram or EEG) and independent executive functions (inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility) to episodic memory performance were examined using abstract paintings. Right hemisphere frontotemporal functional connectivity during encoding and retrieval, measured via EEG alpha coherence, statistically predicted performance on recency but not recognition judgments for the abstract paintings. Theta coherence, however, did not predict performance. Likewise, cognitive flexibility statistically predicted performance on recency judgments, but not recognition. These findings suggest that recognition and recency operate via separate electrophysiological and executive mechanisms. PMID:27388478

  15. A neural framework for organization and flexible utilization of episodic memory in cumulatively learning baby humanoids.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Cumulatively developing robots offer a unique opportunity to reenact the constant interplay between neural mechanisms related to learning, memory, prospection, and abstraction from the perspective of an integrated system that acts, learns, remembers, reasons, and makes mistakes. Situated within such interplay lie some of the computationally elusive and fundamental aspects of cognitive behavior: the ability to recall and flexibly exploit diverse experiences of one's past in the context of the present to realize goals, simulate the future, and keep learning further. This article is an adventurous exploration in this direction using a simple engaging scenario of how the humanoid iCub learns to construct the tallest possible stack given an arbitrary set of objects to play with. The learning takes place cumulatively, with the robot interacting with different objects (some previously experienced, some novel) in an open-ended fashion. Since the solution itself depends on what objects are available in the "now," multiple episodes of past experiences have to be remembered and creatively integrated in the context of the present to be successful. Starting from zero, where the robot knows nothing, we explore the computational basis of organization episodic memory in a cumulatively learning humanoid and address (1) how relevant past experiences can be reconstructed based on the present context, (2) how multiple stored episodic memories compete to survive in the neural space and not be forgotten, (3) how remembered past experiences can be combined with explorative actions to learn something new, and (4) how multiple remembered experiences can be recombined to generate novel behaviors (without exploration). Through the resulting behaviors of the robot as it builds, breaks, learns, and remembers, we emphasize that mechanisms of episodic memory are fundamental design features necessary to enable the survival of autonomous robots in a real world where neither everything can be known

  16. Controlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane; der Linden, Martial Van; Morais, José

    2007-05-01

    A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. PMID:16860766

  17. Visual associations cued recall A Paradigm for Measuring Episodic Memory Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sascha R A; Spaan, Pauline E J; Boelaarts, Leo; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Schmand, Ben; de Jonghe, Jos F M

    2016-09-01

    Repeated measurements of episodic memory are needed for monitoring amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most episodic memory tests may pose a challenge to patients, even when they are in the milder stages of the disease. This cross-sectional study compared floor effects of the Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in healthy elderly controls and in patients with aMCI or AD (N = 125). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted the data of cognitive test performance across global cognitive impairment. Results showed that VAT total scores decreased linearly across the range of global cognitive impairment, whereas RAVLT total scores showed a quadratic trend, with total scores levelling off for 90% of aMCI patients and 94% of AD patients. We conclude that the VAT shows few if any floor effects in patients with aMCI and mild AD and is therefore a potentially promising cognitive test for monitoring episodic memory impairment. PMID:26853620

  18. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. PMID:26799371

  19. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Panizzon, Matthew S; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Spoon, Kelly M; Mendoza, Sally P; Jacobson, Kristen C; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K; McKenzie, Ruth; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E

    2014-07-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone are believed to be a key component of the processes that contribute to cognitive aging in men. The APOE-ε4 allele may interact with testosterone and moderate the hormone's association with cognition. The goals of the present study were to examine the degree to which free testosterone is associated with episodic memory in a community-based sample of middle-aged men, and examine the potential interaction between free testosterone and the APOE-ε4 allele. Data were used from 717 participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Average age was 55.4 years (standard deviation = 2.5). Significant positive associations were observed between free testosterone level and verbal episodic memory, as well as a significant interaction between free testosterone and APOE-ε4 status. In ε4 carriers free testosterone was positively associated with verbal episodic memory performance (story recall), whereas no association was observed in ε4 noncarriers. Results support the hypothesis that APOE-ε4 status increases susceptibility to other risk factors, such as low testosterone, which may ultimately contribute to cognitive decline or dementia. PMID:24444806

  20. Functional anatomy of temporal organisation and domain-specificity of episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Shallice, Tim; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory provides information about the “when” of events as well as “what” and “where” they happened. Using functional imaging, we investigated the domain specificity of retrieval-related processes following encoding of complex, naturalistic events. Subjects watched a 42-min TV episode, and 24 h later, made discriminative choices of scenes from the clip during fMRI. Subjects were presented with two scenes and required to either choose the scene that happened earlier in the film (Temporal), or the scene with a correct spatial arrangement (Spatial), or the scene that had been shown (Object). We identified a retrieval network comprising the precuneus, lateral and dorsal parietal cortex, middle frontal and medial temporal areas. The precuneus and angular gyrus are associated with temporal retrieval, with precuneal activity correlating negatively with temporal distance between two happenings at encoding. A dorsal fronto-parietal network engages during spatial retrieval, while antero-medial temporal regions activate during object-related retrieval. We propose that access to episodic memory traces involves different processes depending on task requirements. These include memory-searching within an organised knowledge structure in the precuneus (Temporal task), online maintenance of spatial information in dorsal fronto-parietal cortices (Spatial task) and combining scene-related spatial and non-spatial information in the hippocampus (Object task). Our findings support the proposal of process-specific dissociations of retrieval. PMID:22877840

  1. Set-relevance determines the impact of distractors on episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Shallice, Tim; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the interplay between stimulus-driven attention and memory retrieval with a novel interference paradigm that engaged both systems concurrently on each trial. Participants encoded a 45-min movie on Day 1 and, on Day 2, performed a temporal order judgment task during fMRI. Each retrieval trial comprised three images presented sequentially, and the task required participants to judge the temporal order of the first and the last images ("memory probes") while ignoring the second image, which was task irrelevant ("attention distractor"). We manipulated the content relatedness and the temporal proximity between the distractor and the memory probes, as well as the temporal distance between two probes. Behaviorally, short temporal distances between the probes led to reduced retrieval performance. Distractors that at encoding were temporally close to the first probe image reduced these costs, specifically when the distractor was content unrelated to the memory probes. The imaging results associated the distractor probe temporal proximity with activation of the right ventral attention network. By contrast, the precuneus was activated for high-content relatedness between distractors and probes and in trials including a short distance between the two memory probes. The engagement of the right ventral attention network by specific types of distractors suggests a link between stimulus-driven attention control and episodic memory retrieval, whereas the activation pattern of the precuneus implicates this region in memory search within knowledge/content-based hierarchies. PMID:24666132

  2. Right temporofrontal cortex as critical locus for the ecphory of old episodic memories.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, P; Markowitsch, H J; Durwen, H F; Widlitzek, H; Haupts, M; Holinka, B; Gehlen, W

    1996-01-01

    A 54 year old patient of average intelligence with a severe and enduring loss of old autobiographical memories after herpes simplex type 1 infection is described. She was tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery two years after the infection. Special emphasis was laid on examining different aspects of retrograde memory. The neurological examination involved MRI and SPECT. Brain damage was found mainly in the right temporofrontal region, but minor left sided damage to this region seems possible. The patient was in the normal or slightly subnormal range for all tested anterograde memory functions, but manifested severe retrograde memory deficits with respect to episodic old memories and more moderate deficits in tests of general knowledge (semantic old memories). It is concluded that the ecphory of old autobiographical memories relies heavily on an activation of the right lateral temporofrontal junction area, but that probably only some complementary left hemispheric damage to these regions will lead to major and persistent retrograde amnesia. Alternatively, the disconnection between major prefrontal and posterior cortical regions may provide a basis for retrograde amnesia. Images PMID:8795604

  3. Mistakes as stepping stones: Effects of errors on episodic memory among younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Anderson, Nicole D

    2015-05-01

    The memorial costs and benefits of trial-and-error learning have clear pedagogical implications for students, and increasing evidence shows that generating errors during episodic learning can improve memory among younger adults. Conversely, the aging literature has found that errors impair memory among healthy older adults and has advocated for the use of errorless learning to rehabilitate memory. However, there is evidence that errors are not always beneficial for younger adults, nor always harmful for older adults. We propose that differences in the learning paradigms used in the younger and older adult literatures may account for these conflicting recommendations, namely that they typically engender conceptual and nonconceptual processing, respectively. In this study, we had younger and older adults study words under errorless and trial-and-error learning instructions and based either on conceptual (a flower--tulip) or lexical (ho___--house) cues. We found that relative to errorless learning, trial-and-error learning increased target memory in the conceptual condition but decreased it in the lexical condition. Critically, both age groups showed this pattern, implying that aging does not influence how we learn from mistakes. We suggest that conceptual guesses act as "stepping stones" toward the target whereas lexical guesses simply create retrieval noise. This suggestion was supported by the fact that participants of both ages remembered their prior guesses better in the conceptual than lexical condition and that memory for guesses mediated differences in target performance. These findings are discussed within the framework of current theories on the effects of error generation on episodic memory. PMID:25347615

  4. The Episodicity of Verbal Reports of Personally Significant Autobiographical Memories: Vividness Correlates with Narrative Text Quality More than with Detailedness or Memory Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  5. The episodicity of verbal reports of personally significant autobiographical memories: vividness correlates with narrative text quality more than with detailedness or memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918

  6. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. PMID:26277459

  7. Using Virtual Reality to Characterize Episodic Memory Profiles in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Influence of Active and Passive Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancher, G.; Tirard, A.; Gyselinck, V.; Nicolas, S.; Piolino, P.

    2012-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details,…

  8. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    PubMed Central

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval. PMID:18505596

  9. Self and social functions: individual autobiographical memory and collective narrative.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine

    2003-03-01

    The personal functions of autobiographical memory build on the basic biological functions of memory common to most mammals that, however, do not have the kind of episodic memories that compose human autobiographical memory according to present theory. The thesis here is that personal autobiographical memory is functionally and structurally related to the use of cultural myths and social narratives, and that the relative emphasis put on the self in different cultural and social contexts influences the form and function of autobiographical memory and the need for developing a uniquely personal life narrative in those contexts. Historical and cross-cultural trends revealed in psychological and literary research are invoked to support this thesis. PMID:12820826

  10. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  11. How Semantic and Episodic Memory Contribute to Autobiographical Memory. Commentary on Burt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira

    2008-01-01

    In his article, Chris Burt focuses on the relationship between time and autobiographical memory. The question Burt puts forward is whether temporal markers in reports on autobiographic memories reflect specific temporal information or result from rather complex cognitive processing of time-relevant knowledge. The aspect of time is inherent to the…

  12. Delineating the Effect of Semantic Congruency on Episodic Memory: The Role of Integration and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect—the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759

  13. Shared and distinct contributions of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex to analogical reasoning and episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Andrew J; Reggente, Nicco; Ito, Kaori L; Rissman, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) is widely appreciated to support higher cognitive functions, including analogical reasoning and episodic memory retrieval. However, these tasks have typically been studied in isolation, and thus it is unclear whether they involve common or distinct RLPFC mechanisms. Here, we introduce a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task paradigm to compare brain activity during reasoning and memory tasks while holding bottom-up perceptual stimulation and response demands constant. Univariate analyses on fMRI data from twenty participants identified a large swath of left lateral prefrontal cortex, including RLPFC, that showed common engagement on reasoning trials with valid analogies and memory trials with accurately retrieved source details. Despite broadly overlapping recruitment, multi-voxel activity patterns within left RLPFC reliably differentiated these two trial types, highlighting the presence of at least partially distinct information processing modes. Functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that while left RLPFC showed consistent coupling with the fronto-parietal control network across tasks, its coupling with other cortical areas varied in a task-dependent manner. During the memory task, this region strengthened its connectivity with the default mode and memory retrieval networks, whereas during the reasoning task it coupled more strongly with a nearby left prefrontal region (BA 45) associated with semantic processing, as well as with a superior parietal region associated with visuospatial processing. Taken together, these data suggest a domain-general role for left RLPFC in monitoring and/or integrating task-relevant knowledge representations and showcase how its function cannot solely be attributed to episodic memory or analogical reasoning computations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:896-912, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663572

  14. Spatial Working Memory Ability in Individuals at Ultra High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.; Brett, Caroline; Tabraham, Paul; Johns, Louise; Valmaggia, Lucia; Broome, Matthew; Woolley, James; Bramon, Elvira; Howes, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to clarify the nature of spatial working memory difficulties in individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. We evaluated spatial working memory and intelligence in 96 individuals at UHR for psychosis, 28 patients with first episode psychosis (FEP), and 23 healthy controls. Fourteen UHR individuals developed a psychotic disorder during follow-up. Compared to controls, the UHR group was impaired in both the short-term maintenance of material and in the effective use of strategy, but not more immediate memory. These impairments were not as severe as those in the FEP group, as the UHR group performed better than the FEP group. A similar pattern of results was found for the intelligence measures. Discriminant function analyses demonstrated short-term maintenance of material significantly differentiated the UHR and healthy control groups even when accounting for full scale intelligence quotient (IQ); whereas full scale IQ significantly differentiated the UHR and FEP groups and FEP and control groups. Notably, within the UHR group, impaired spatial working memory performance was associated with lower global functioning, but not full scale IQ. The subgroup of UHR individuals who later developed psychosis was not significantly more impaired on any aspect of working memory performance than the group of UHR individuals who did not develop psychosis. Given, the relationship between spatial working memory deficits and functional outcome, these results indicate that cognitive remediation could be useful in individuals at UHR for psychosis to potentially improve functioning. PMID:24398256

  15. APOE ε4 worsens hippocampal CA1 apical neuropil atrophy and episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Berdnik, Daniela; Shen, Jadon C.; Bernstein, Jeffrey D.; Fenesy, Michelle C.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Rutt, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Using high-resolution structural MRI, we endeavored to study the relationships among APOE ε4, hippocampal subfield and stratal anatomy, and episodic memory. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we studied 11 patients with Alzheimer disease dementia, 14 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 14 age-matched healthy controls with no group differences in APOE ε4 carrier status. Each subject underwent ultra-high-field 7.0-tesla MRI targeted to the hippocampus and neuropsychological assessment. Results: We found a selective, dose-dependent association of APOE ε4 with greater thinning of the CA1 apical neuropil, or stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum-moleculare (CA1-SRLM), a hippocampal subregion known to exhibit early vulnerability to neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer disease. The relationship between the ε4 allele and CA1-SRLM thinning persisted after controlling for dementia severity, and the size of other hippocampal subfields and the entorhinal cortex did not differ by APOE ε4 carrier status. Carriers also exhibited worse episodic memory function but similar performance in other cognitive domains compared with noncarriers. In a statistical mediation analysis, we found support for the hypothesis that CA1-SRLM thinning may link the APOE ε4 allele to its phenotypic effects on memory. Conclusions: The APOE ε4 allele segregated dose-dependently and selectively with CA1-SRLM thinning and worse episodic memory performance in a pool of older subjects across a cognitive spectrum. These findings highlight a possible role for this gene in influencing a critical hippocampal subregion and an associated symptomatic manifestation. PMID:24453080

  16. Pauses During Autobiographical Discourse Reflect Episodic Memory Processes in Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pistono, Aurélie; Jucla, Mélanie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Lemesle, Béatrice; Calvet, Benjamin; Köpke, Barbara; Puel, Michèle; Pariente, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on discourse production in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some studies have focused on pause production, revealing that patients make extensive use of pauses during speech. This has been attributed to lexical retrieval difficulties, but pausing may also reflect other forms of cognitive impairment as it increases with cognitive load. The aim of the present study was to analyze autobiographical discourse impairment in AD from a broad perspective, looking at pausing behavior (frequency, duration, and location). Our first objective was to characterize discourse changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. Our second objective was to determine the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of these changes. Fifteen patients with MCI due to AD and 15 matched cognitively normal controls underwent an ecological episodic memory task, a full neuropsychological assessment, and a 3D T1-weighted MRI scans. Autobiographical discourse collected from the ecological episodic memory task was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, focusing on pausing. Intergroup comparisons showed that although patients did not produce more pauses than controls overall, they did make more between-utterance pauses. The number of these specific pauses was positively correlated with patients’ episodic memory performance. Furthermore, neuroimaging analysis showed that, in the patient group, their use was negatively correlated with frontopolar area (BA 10) grey matter density. This region may therefore play an important role in the planning of autobiographical discourse production. These findings demonstrate that pauses in early AD may reflect a compensatory mechanism for improving mental time travel and memory retrieval. PMID:26757034

  17. Preserved memory monitoring but impaired memory control during episodic encoding in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Elisabeth; Izaute, Marie; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2007-03-01

    Metamemory awareness refers to the ability to monitor and control how well information is processed depending on the loads and needs of the task at hand. There is some evidence that metamemory functions are impaired in schizophrenia at the time of memory retrieval. This study investigated whether patients with schizophrenia exhibit metamemory abnormalities during the encoding of new information. The frequency of item presentation was varied. Both memory control and memory monitoring were assessed using study-time allocation and Judgments of Learning (JOL), respectively. Repeated items were recalled better by both groups, but memory performance was lower in patients than controls. Patients' behavior patterns were abnormal in terms of the study-time allocated for each item according to presentation frequency. Patients' JOLs were lower than those of controls but remained sensitive to item repetition. Patients' predictive values on memory accuracy were no different to those measured in controls. In addition, none of the patients reported using efficient strategies to help memorize target items. The results show a dissociation between memory control, which was impaired, and memory monitoring, which was spared, in patients with schizophrenia during encoding of new information. PMID:17286879

  18. Ecological Validity and the Study of Procedural and Episodic Memory Function in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David J.; Saldanha, Colin J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory in songbirds, from song learning, production, and recognition to that for locations in complex environments, has led to the attractiveness of these animals as model systems for the changes occurring within and between neurons that lead to relevant modifications in behavior. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in particular are excellent models attributable to their ability to readily perform the above-mentioned, ecologically relevant memories in the laboratories, and the ease with which these stereotyped behaviors can be manipulated and measured. This review centers on the independent functioning of and possible interactions between two primary memory systems in songbirds: those important for song or “procedural” memories, as well as those for place, such as food location, a “spatial” or “episodic-like” memory. Work over several decades has formed a relatively comprehensive understanding of the behavioral changes, neural substrates, and plasticity central to procedural memory (song learning and production) function in birds. However, few studies have examined spatial memory ability in those that do not store and retrieve caches, orient some distance away from and back to a home loft, or are not brood parasites. Zebra finches offer a rather unique advantage in this study of memory function and the interaction of memory systems: they do not store food, and are closed-ended song learners, biparental, not territorial, and non-migratory. Thus, their memory for song is not necessarily intertwined with that for time (of year) or location, as in a bird that learns a new song each breeding season, migrates to a particular breeding ground, or forgoes song and reproductive behavior in periods of food scarcity. Episodic-like memory in zebra finches is controlled by the hippocampus, and damage to this region, as in rodents and humans, compromises the ability to learn and/or remember particular spatial locations. In male zebra finches, hippocampal damage

  19. Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Lövdén, Martin; Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9–12, 20–25, and 65–78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity. PMID:22615692

  20. Episodic-like memory trace in awake replay of hippocampal place cell activity sequences

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval of events at a specific place and time is effective for future planning. Sequential reactivation of the hippocampal place cells along familiar paths while the animal pauses is well suited to such a memory retrieval process. It is, however, unknown whether this awake replay represents events occurring along the path. Using a subtask switching protocol in which the animal experienced three subtasks as ‘what’ information in a maze, I here show that the replay represents a trial type, consisting of path and subtask, in terms of neuronal firing timings and rates. The actual trial type to be rewarded could only be reliably predicted from replays that occurred at the decision point. This trial-type representation implies that not only ‘where and when’ but also ‘what’ information is contained in the replay. This result supports the view that awake replay is an episodic-like memory retrieval process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08105.001 PMID:26481131

  1. Individual Motivations and Characteristics Associated with Bystander Intervention during Bullying Episodes among Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Pepler, Debra; Cummings, Joanne G.; Craig, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore bystander experiences during bullying episodes among children and youth attending a residential summer camp by investigating rates of witnessing and intervention, as well as individual motivations and characteristics associated with bystander intervention. The majority of children had witnessed bullying…

  2. Time decay of object, place and temporal order memory in a paradigm assessing simultaneously episodic-like memory components in mice.

    PubMed

    Belblidia, Hassina; Abdelouadoud, Abdelmalek; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Dumas, Hélène; Freret, Thomas; Leger, Marianne; Schumann-Bard, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    A common trait of numerous memory disorders is the impairment of episodic memory. Episodic memory is a delay-dependant memory, especially associating three components, the "what", "where" and "when" of a unique event. To investigate underlying mechanisms of such memory, several tests, mainly based on object exploration behaviour, have been set up in rodents. Recently, a three-trial object recognition task has been proposed to evaluate simultaneously the different components of episodic-like memory in rodents. However, to date, the time course of each memory component in this paradigm is not known. We characterised here the time course of memory decay in adult mice during the three-trial object recognition task, with inter-trial interval (ITI) ranging from 1h to 4h. We found that, with 1h and 2h, but not 4h ITI, mice spent more time to explore the displaced "old object" relative to the displaced "recent object", reflecting memory for "what and when". Concomitantly, animals exhibited more exploration time for the displaced "old object" relative to the stationary "old object", reflecting memory for "what and where". These results provide strong evidence that mice establish an integrated memory for unique experience consisting of the "what", "where" and "when" that can persist until 2h ITI. PMID:25732955

  3. Final report for the endowment of simulator agents with human-like episodic memory LDRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Lippitt, Carl Edward; Thomas, Edward Victor; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schaller, Mark J.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2003-12-01

    This report documents work undertaken to endow the cognitive framework currently under development at Sandia National Laboratories with a human-like memory for specific life episodes. Capabilities have been demonstrated within the context of three separate problem areas. The first year of the project developed a capability whereby simulated robots were able to utilize a record of shared experience to perform surveillance of a building to detect a source of smoke. The second year focused on simulations of social interactions providing a queriable record of interactions such that a time series of events could be constructed and reconstructed. The third year addressed tools to promote desktop productivity, creating a capability to query episodic logs in real time allowing the model of a user to build on itself based on observations of the user's behavior.

  4. Early age-related changes in episodic memory retrieval as revealed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Cécile; Clochon, Patrice; Denise, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-28

    Familiarity is better preserved than recollection in ageing. The age at which changes first occur and the slope of the subsequent decline, however, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in episodic memory, by using event-related potentials (ERPs) in young (m=24), middle-aged (m=58) and older (m=70) adults. Although behavioural performance did not change before the age of 65 years, changes in ERP correlates were already present in the middle-aged adults. The ERP correlates of recollection and monitoring processes were the first to be affected by ageing, with a linear decrease as age increased. Conversely, the ERP correlate of familiarity remained unchanged, at least up to the age of 65 years. These results suggest a differential time course for the age effects on episodic retrieval. PMID:19104457

  5. Functional connectivity change across multiple cortical networks relates to episodic memory changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Grydeland, Håkon; Storsve, Andreas B; de Lange, Ann-Marie Glasø; Amlien, Inge K; Røgeberg, Ole J; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2015-12-01

    A major task of contemporary cognitive neuroscience of aging is to explain why episodic memory declines. Change in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) could be a mechanism accounting for reduced function. We addressed this through 3 studies. In study 1, 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) were followed for 3.5 years with verbal recall testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Independent of atrophy, recall change was related to change in rsFC in anatomically widespread areas. Striking age-effects were observed in that a positive relationship between rsFC and memory characterized older participants while a negative relationship was seen among the younger and middle-aged. This suggests that cognitive consequences of rsFC change are not stable across age. In study 2 and 3, the age-dependent differences in rsFC-memory relationship were replicated by use of a simulation model (study 2) and by a cross-sectional experimental recognition memory task (study 3). In conclusion, memory changes were related to altered rsFC in an age-dependent manner, and future research needs to detail the mechanisms behind age-varying relationships. PMID:26363813

  6. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  7. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60-78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  8. The effect of childhood bilingualism on episodic and semantic memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Shojaei, Razie-Sadat; Moniri, Sadegheh; Gholami, Ali-Reza; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-04-01

    Kormi-Nouri, Moniri and Nilsson (2003) demonstrated that Swedish-Persian bilingual children recalled at a higher level than Swedish monolingual children, when they were tested using Swedish materials. The present study was designed to examine the bilingual advantage of children who use different languages in their everyday life but have the same cultural background and live in their communities in the same way as monolingual children. In four experiments, 488 monolingual and bilingual children were compared with regard to episodic and semantic memory tasks. In experiments 1 and 2 there were 144 boys and 144 girls in three school groups (aged 9-10 years, 13-14 years and 16-17 years) and in three language groups (Persian monolingual, Turkish-Persian bilingual, and Kurdish-Persian bilingual). In experiments 3 and 4, there were 200 male students in two school groups (aged 9-10 years and 16-17 years) and in two language groups (Persian monolingual and Turkish-Persian bilingual). In the episodic memory task, children learned sentences (experiments 1-3) and words (Experiment 4). Letter and category fluency tests were used as measures of semantic memory. To change cognitive demands in memory tasks, in Experiment 1, the integration of nouns and verbs within sentences was manipulated by the level of association between verb and noun in each sentence. At retrieval, a recognition test was used. In experiments 2 and 3, the organization between sentences was manipulated at encoding in Experiment 2 and at both encoding and retrieval in Experiment 3 through the use of categories among the objects. At retrieval, free recall or cued recall tests were employed. In Experiment 4, the bilingual children were tested with regard to both their first and their second language. In all four experiments, a positive effect of bilingualism was found on episodic and semantic memory tasks; the effect was more pronounced for older than younger children. The bilingual advantage was not affected by

  9. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  10. Mixed-Handedness Advantages in Episodic Memory Obtained under Conditions of Intentional Learning Extend to Incidental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Stephen D.; Butler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The existence of handedness differences in the retrieval of episodic memories is well-documented, but virtually all have been obtained under conditions of intentional learning. Two experiments are reported that extend the presence of such handedness differences to memory retrieval under conditions of incidental learning. Experiment 1 used Craik…

  11. The Episodic Engram Transformed: Time Reduces Retrieval-Related Brain Activity but Correlates It with Memory Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Orit; Mendelsohn, Avi; Dudai, Yadin

    2012-01-01

    We took snapshots of human brain activity with fMRI during retrieval of realistic episodic memory over several months. Three groups of participants were scanned during a memory test either hours, weeks, or months after viewing a documentary movie. High recognition accuracy after hours decreased after weeks and remained at similar levels after…

  12. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite) before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition. Methods and Findings Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50–89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931). Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing. Conclusion Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge. PMID:26713627

  13. Increased hippocampal head diffusivity predicts impaired episodic memory performance in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Müller, Matthias J; Lorscheider, Markus; Schermuly, Ingrid; Weibrich, Carsten; Dellani, Paulo R; Hammers, Alexander; Stoeter, Peter; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Recent neuroanatomical and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the anterior part of the hippocampus, rather than the whole structure, may be specifically involved in episodic memory. In the present work, we examined whether anterior structural measurements are superior to other regional or global measurements in mapping functionally relevant degenerative alterations of the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty patients with early AD (MMSE 25.7+/-1.7) and 18 healthy controls were studied using magnetic resonance and diffusion-tensor imaging. Using a regions-of-interest analysis, we obtained volumetric and diffusivity measures of the hippocampal head and body-tail-section as well as of the whole hippocampus. Detailed cognitive evaluation was based on the CERAD battery. All volumetric measures as well as diffusivity of the hippocampus head were significantly (p<0.01) altered in patients as compared to controls. In patients, increased left head diffusivity significantly (p<0.01) correlated with performance on free delayed verbal recall test (DVR) (r=-0.74, p=0.0002) and with the CERAD global score. Reduced volume of the left body-tail was also associated with performance on DVR (r=0.62, p=0.004). Stepwise regression analyses revealed that increased left head diffusivity was the only predictor for performance on DVR (R(2)=52%, p<0.0005). These findings suggest that anterior hippocampus diffusivity is more closely related to verbal episodic memory impairment than other regional or global structural measures. Our data support the hypothesis of functional differentiation in general and the specific role of the anterior hippocampus in episodic memory in particular. Diffusivity measurements might be highly sensitive to functionally relevant degenerative alterations of the hippocampus. PMID:20109475

  14. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS. PMID:20703629

  15. Episodic memory loss is related to hippocampal-mediated beta-amyloid deposition in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Mormino, E C; Kluth, J T; Madison, C M; Rabinovici, G D; Baker, S L; Miller, B L; Koeppe, R A; Mathis, C A; Weiner, M W; Jagust, W J

    2009-05-01

    Although beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques are a primary diagnostic criterion for Alzheimer's disease, this pathology is commonly observed in the brains of non-demented older individuals. To explore the importance of this pathology in the absence of dementia, we compared levels of amyloid deposition (via 'Pittsburgh Compound-B' (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging) to hippocampus volume (HV) and episodic memory (EM) in three groups: (i) normal controls (NC) from the Berkeley Aging Cohort (BAC NC, n = 20); (ii) normal controls (NC) from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI NC, n = 17); and (iii) PIB+ mild cognitive impairment subjects from the ADNI (ADNI PIB+ MCI, n = 39). Age, gender and education were controlled for in each statistical model, and HV was adjusted for intracranial volume (aHV). In BAC NC, elevated PIB uptake was significantly associated with smaller aHV (P = 0.0016) and worse EM (P = 0.0086). Within ADNI NC, elevated PIB uptake was significantly associated with smaller aHV (P = 0.047) but not EM (P = 0.60); within ADNI PIB+ MCI, elevated PIB uptake was significantly associated with both smaller aHV (P = 0.00070) and worse EM (P = 0.046). To further understand these relationships, a recursive regression procedure was conducted within all ADNI NC and PIB+ MCI subjects (n = 56) to test the hypothesis that HV mediates the relationship between Abeta and EM. Significant correlations were found between PIB index and EM (P = 0.0044), PIB index and aHV (P < 0.0001), as well as between aHV and EM (P < 0.0001). When both aHV and PIB were included in the same model to predict EM, aHV remained significant (P = 0.0015) whereas PIB index was no longer significantly associated with EM (P = 0.50). These results are consistent with a model in which Abeta deposition, hippocampal atrophy, and EM occur sequentially in elderly subjects, with Abeta deposition as the primary event in this cascade. This pattern suggests that declining EM in older

  16. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Spinhoven, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM. Method Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N=83). Results We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress. Conclusions The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions. PMID:22893818

  17. Dissociable Temporo-Parietal Memory Networks Revealed by Functional Connectivity during Episodic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko M.; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval most often recruits multiple separate processes that are thought to involve different temporal regions. Previous studies suggest dissociable regions in the left lateral parietal cortex that are associated with the retrieval processes. Moreover, studies using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) have provided evidence for the temporo-parietal memory networks that may support the retrieval processes. In this functional MRI study, we tested functional significance of the memory networks by examining functional connectivity of brain activity during episodic retrieval in the temporal and parietal regions of the memory networks. Recency judgments, judgments of the temporal order of past events, can be achieved by at least two retrieval processes, relational and item-based. Neuroimaging results revealed several temporal and parietal activations associated with relational/item-based recency judgments. Significant RSFC was observed between one parahippocampal region and one left lateral parietal region associated with relational recency judgments, and between four lateral temporal regions and another left lateral parietal region associated with item-based recency judgments. Functional connectivity during task was found to be significant between the parahippocampal region and the parietal region in the RSFC network associated with relational recency judgments. However, out of the four tempo-parietal RSFC networks associated with item-based recency judgments, only one of them (between the left posterior lateral temporal region and the left lateral parietal region) showed significant functional connectivity during task. These results highlight the contrasting roles of the parahippocampal and the lateral temporal regions in recency judgments, and suggest that only a part of the tempo-parietal RSFC networks are recruited to support particular retrieval processes. PMID:24009657

  18. Increased local synchronization of resting-state fMRI signal after episodic memory encoding reflects off-line memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Yi; Liu, Dong-Qiang; Li, Su-Fang; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2012-10-24

    The changes of spontaneous activity from before and after a memory or learning task had been considered to be related to off-line memory consolidation process in human brain by using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) MRI (fMRI). However, RSFC reflects temporal synchronization of timecourses of spatially distinct brain regions and therefore could not determine which specific brain region is involved in the memory consolidation process. Here we used regional homogeneity (ReHo), a method for measuring local synchronization, to link the local spontaneous activity change to off-line episodic memory consolidation. We hypothesized that the spontaneous activity change would be different between people with better memory performance and those with worse performance in memory-related regions. All participants completed two resting-state sessions, that is, before (REST-1) and after (REST-2) an episodic memory encoding task (picture indoor or outdoor judgment). Then, based on the d' of a later surprise memory retrieval test, a high-performance group and a low-performance group, each consisting of 16 participants, were chosen from whole 58 participants. We defined a ReHo ratio, that is, ReHo of REST-2 divided by ReHo of REST-1, as a change induced by memory consolidation. The high-performance group showed a significant higher ReHo ratio than low-performance group in medial temporal lobe (MTL) including parahippocampal and anterior temporal regions. The current results provide neuroimaging evidence supporting that the MTL is involved in off-line memory consolidation of episodic memory. Moreover, this study may provide a paradigm for understanding of episodic memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22955145

  19. Cellular dynamical mechanisms for encoding the time and place of events along spatiotemporal trajectories in episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Hasselmo, Michael E.; Giocomo, Lisa M.; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of episodic memory requires linking behavioural data and lesion effects to data on the dynamics of cellular membrane potentials and population interactions within these brain regions. Linking behavior to specific membrane channels and neurochemicals has implications for therapeutic applications. Lesions of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and subcortical nuclei impair episodic memory function in humans and animals, and unit recording data from these regions in behaving animals indicate episodic memory processes. Intracellular recording in these regions demonstrates specific cellular properties including resonance, membrane potential oscillations and bistable persistent spiking that could underlie the encoding and retrieval of episodic trajectories. A model presented here shows how intrinsic dynamical properties of neurons could mediate the encoding of episodic memories as complex spatiotemporal trajectories. The dynamics of neurons allow encoding and retrieval of unique episodic trajectories in multiple continuous dimensions including temporal intervals, personal location, the spatial coordinates and sensory features of perceived objects and generated actions, and associations between these elements. The model also addresses how cellular dynamics could underlie unit firing data suggesting mechanisms for coding continuous dimensions of space, time, sensation and action. PMID:20018213

  20. Neural mechanisms of subliminal priming for traumatic episodic memory: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Xuyan; Li, Wei; Qiu, Jiang; Jou, Jerwen; Wei, Dongtao; Tu, Shen; Zhang, Qinglin

    2011-07-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured to study the electrophysiological mechanisms of subliminal priming of traumatic episodic memory. Twenty-four Chinese subjects who had experienced the great Sichuan earthquake in 2008 were classified either as normal control or as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects. Results showed that subliminally presented earthquake-related words elicited two significantly more positive ERP deflections (P2 and P300) than did earthquake-unrelated words between 250-300 ms and 340-400 ms post-stimulus periods for the PTSD group, but not for the control group. Dipole source analysis showed that the P2 was mainly generated in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which appeared to be related to unconscious attentional resource allocation to the earthquake-related words. In addition, the P300 was found to be generated in the parahippocampal gyrus, which seemed to be related to the involuntary activation of traumatic episodic memory. These results indicated that catastrophic earthquake experiences made some subjects extremely sensitive and hyper-responsive to trauma-related information. PMID:21536103

  1. Role of Aging and Hippocampus in Time-Place Learning: Link to Episodic-Like Memory?

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C. K.; Gerkema, M. P.; Van der Zee, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With time-place learning (TPL), animals link an event with the spatial location and the time of day (TOD). The what–where–when TPL components make the task putatively episodic-like in nature. Animals use an internal sense of time to master TPL, which is circadian system based. Finding indications for a role of the hippocampus and (early) aging-sensitivity in TPL would strengthen the episodic-like memory nature of the paradigm. Methods: Previously, we used C57Bl/6 mice for our TPL research. Here, we used CD1 mice which are less hippocampal-driven and age faster compared to C57Bl/6 mice. To demonstrate the low degree of hippocampal-driven performance in CD1 mice, a cross maze was used. The spontaneous alternation test was used to score spatial working memory in CD1 mice at four different age categories (young (3–6 months), middle-aged (7–11 months), aged (12–18 months) and old (>19 months). TPL performance of middle-aged and aged CD1 mice was tested in a setup with either two or three time points per day (2-arm or 3-arm TPL task). Immunostainings were applied on brains of young and middle-aged C57Bl/6 mice that had successfully mastered the 3-arm TPL task. Results: In contrast to C57Bl/6 mice, middle-aged and aged CD1 mice were less hippocampus-driven and failed to master the 3-arm TPL task. They could, however, master the 2-arm TPL task primarily via an ordinal (non-circadian) timing system. c-Fos, CRY2, vasopressin (AVP), and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) were investigated. We found no differences at the level of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; circadian master clock), whereas CRY2 expression was increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The most pronounced difference between TPL trained and control mice was found in c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, a circadian system relay station. Conclusions: These results further indicate a key role of CRY proteins in TPL and confirm the

  2. Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer's personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (1) the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (2) episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, “enabling” systems. Although these systems—ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency—are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (3) the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic) is relational rather than intrinsic—i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory. PMID:23378832

  3. Expertise, attention, and memory in sensorimotor skill execution: impact of novel task constraints on dual-task performance and episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Beilock, Sian L; Wierenga, Sarah A; Carr, Thomas H

    2002-10-01

    Two experiments explored the attention and memory processes governing sensorimotor skill. Experiment 1 compared novice and experienced golf putting performance in single-task (putting in isolation) and dual-task conditions (putting while performing an auditory word search task). At specific intervals, participants also produced episodic descriptions of specific putts. Experiment 2 assessed novice performance following training on the same putting task. In Experiment 1, experienced golfers did not differ in putting accuracy from single-to dual-task conditions and, compared to novices, had higher recognition memory for words heard while putting but diminished episodic memories of specific putts. However, when using an s-shaped arbitrarily weighted "funny putter" designed to disrupt the mechanics of skill execution, experienced golfers produced extensive episodic memories of specific putts but showed decreased dual-task putting accuracy and recognition memory for secondary task words. Trained novices produced results intermediate between the untrained novices and experienced golfers. As predicted by current theories of practice-based automaticity, expertise leads to proceduralized control that does not require constant attention. Resources are free to devote to secondary task demands, yet episodic memory for primary task performance is impoverished. Novel task constraints (e.g., a funny putter) increase attention to execution, compromising secondary task performance but enhancing memory for skill execution. PMID:12420993

  4. Recollection rejection of new items in individuals with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin; Benoit, Audrey; Charbonneau, Geneviève; Hawco, Colin; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Brodeur, Mathieu B

    2016-01-01

    Many objects seen for the first time look familiar because they resemble known objects. To overcome this feeling of familiarity and detect novelty, memories of known objects must be recollected and compared to new objects. This experiment examines whether recollection performed when perceiving new items (i.e., recollection rejection) is abnormal in people who experienced a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Recollection of old items is impaired in this clinical population but it has not yet been demonstrated that this impairment influences the processing of new items. Eighteen FEP participants and 19 healthy controls completed an episodic memory task consisting of a study phase and a recognition phase. All the new objects looked familiar because they resembled the studied objects. Brain activity underlying false recognition and correct rejection of new objects was measured with functional resonance magnetic imaging and compared across groups. Behavioral responses to new items were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, the between-groups analysis revealed significant differences in brain activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the right superior parietal lobule, and the right temporal fusiform gyrus during the correct rejection of new items. This activity seems related to recollection rejection and suggests that FEP patients do not normally recollect information of past events when they process new items. PMID:26726818

  5. Mild cognitive impairment, poor episodic memory, and late-life depression are associated with cerebral cortical thinning and increased white matter hyperintensities

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, Motonobu; Maikusa, Norihide; Nakamura, Kei; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Meguro, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    In various independent studies to date, cerebral cortical thickness and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume have been associated with episodic memory, depression, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to uncover variations in cortical thickness and WMH volume in association with episodic memory, depressive state, and the presence of MCI simultaneously in a single study population. The participants were 186 individuals with MCI (clinical dementia rating [CDR] of 0.5) and 136 healthy elderly controls (HCs; CDR of 0) drawn from two community-based cohort studies in northern Japan. We computed cerebral cortical thickness and WMH volume by using MR scans and statistically analyzed differences in these indices between HCs and MCI participants. We also assessed the associations of these indices with memory performance and depressive state in participants with MCI. Compared with HCs, MCI participants exhibited thinner cortices in the temporal and inferior parietal lobes and greater WMH volumes in the corona radiata and semioval center. In MCI participants, poor episodic memory was associated with thinner cortices in the left entorhinal region and increased WMH volume in the posterior periventricular regions. Compared with non-depressed MCI participants, depressed MCI participants showed reduced cortical thickness in the anterior medial temporal lobe and gyrus adjacent to the amygdala bilaterally, as well as greater WMH volume as a percentage of the total intracranial volume (WMHr). A higher WMHr was associated with cortical thinning in the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions in MCI participants. These results demonstrate that episodic memory and depression are associated with both cortical thickness and WMH volume in MCI participants. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the dynamic associations and interactions among these indices. PMID:25426066

  6. Comparison of Prefrontal Atrophy and Episodic Memory Performance in Dysexecutive Alzheimer's Disease and Behavioral-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephanie; Bertoux, Maxime; Savage, Greg; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) sometimes presents with prominent executive dysfunction and associated prefrontal cortex atrophy. The impact of such executive deficits on episodic memory performance as well as their neural correlates in AD, however, remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate episodic memory and brain atrophy in AD patients with relatively spared executive functioning (SEF-AD; n = 12) and AD patients with relatively impaired executive functioning (IEF-AD; n = 23). We also compared the AD subgroups with a group of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia patients (bvFTD; n = 22), who typically exhibit significant executive deficits, and age-matched healthy controls (n = 38). On cognitive testing, the three patient groups showed comparable memory profiles on standard episodic memory tests, with significant impairment relative to controls. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed extensive prefrontal and medial temporal lobe atrophy in IEF-AD and bvFTD, whereas this was limited to the middle frontal gyrus and hippocampus in SEF-AD. Moreover, the additional prefrontal atrophy in IEF-AD and bvFTD correlated with memory performance, whereas this was not the case for SEF-AD. These findings indicate that IEF-AD patients show prefrontal atrophy in regions similar to bvFTD, and suggest that this contributes to episodic memory performance. This has implications for the differential diagnosis of bvFTD and subtypes of AD. PMID:26923025

  7. Memory for Self-Performed Actions in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zalla, Tiziana; Daprati, Elena; Sav, Anca-Maria; Chaste, Pauline; Nico, Daniele; Leboyer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect). Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS). We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from the enactment effect when recalling a list of previously performed items vs. items that were only visually and verbally experienced through three experimental tasks (Free Recall, Old/New Recognition and Source Memory). The results showed that while performance on Recognition and Source Memory tasks was preserved in individuals with AS, the enactment effect for self-performed actions was not consistently present, as revealed by the lower number of performed actions being recalled on the Free Recall test, as compared to adults with typical development. Subtle difficulties in encoding specific motor and proprioceptive signals during action execution in individuals with AS might affect retrieval of relevant personal episodic information. These disturbances might be associated to an impaired action monitoring system. PMID:20967277

  8. Reactivation during encoding supports the later discrimination of similar episodic memories.

    PubMed

    van den Honert, Rebecca N; McCarthy, Gregory; Johnson, Marcia K

    2016-09-01

    Episodic memory is characterized by remembering events as unique combinations of features. Even when some features of events overlap, we are later often able to discriminate among them. Here we ask whether hippocampally mediated reactivation of an earlier event when a similar one occurs supports subsequent memory that two similar but not identical events occurred (mnemonic discrimination). In two experiments, participants viewed objects (Experiment 1) or scenes (Experiment 2) during functional MRI (fMRI). After scanning, participants had to remember whether repeated items had been identical or similar. In Experiment 2, representational similarity between the 1st and 2nd presentation predicted participants' ability to remember that the presentations were different, suggesting that the first item was reactivated while viewing the second. A similar but weaker result was found in Experiment 1 that did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, both experiments yielded evidence that the hippocampus was involved in reactivation; hippocampal pattern similarity (and, in Experiment 2, hippocampal activity during the 2nd presentation) correlated with pattern similarity in several regions of visual cortex. These results provide the first fMRI evidence that hippocampally mediated reactivation contributes to the later memory that two similar, but different events occurred. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27082832

  9. Age and active navigation effects on episodic memory: A virtual reality study.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Taillade, Mathieu; Guitton, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the navigation-related age effects on learning, proactive interference semantic clustering, recognition hits, and false recognitions in a naturalistic situation using a virtual apartment-based task. We also examined the neuropsychological correlates (executive functioning [EF] and episodic memory) of navigation-related age effects on memory. Younger and older adults either actively navigated or passively followed the computer-guided tour of an apartment. The results indicated that active navigation increased recognition hits compared with passive navigation, but it did not influence other memory measures (learning, proactive interference, and semantic clustering) to a similar extent in either age group. Furthermore, active navigation helped to reduce false recognitions in younger adults but increased those made by older adults. This differential effect of active navigation for younger and older adults was accounted for by EF score. Like for the subject-performed task effects, the effects from the navigation manipulation were well accounted for by item-specific/relational processing distinction, and they were also consistent with a source monitoring deficit in older adults. PMID:26756717

  10. Delay-dependent contributions of medial temporal lobe regions to episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Maureen; Montchal, Maria E; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ranganath, Charan

    2015-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes play an important role in episodic memory, but over time, hippocampal contributions to retrieval may be diminished. However, it is unclear whether such changes are related to the ability to retrieve contextual information, and whether they are common across all medial temporal regions. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to compare neural responses during immediate and delayed recognition. Results showed that recollection-related activity in the posterior hippocampus declined after a 1-day delay. In contrast, activity was relatively stable in the anterior hippocampus and in neocortical areas. Multi-voxel pattern similarity analyses also revealed that anterior hippocampal patterns contained information about context during item recognition, and after a delay, context coding in this region was related to successful retention of context information. Together, these findings suggest that the anterior and posterior hippocampus have different contributions to memory over time and that neurobiological models of memory must account for these differences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05025.001 PMID:25584461

  11. Copper chelator induced efficient episodic memory recovery in a non-transgenic Alzheimer's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ceccom, Johnatan; Coslédan, Frédéric; Halley, Hélène; Francès, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean Michel; Meunier, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative syndrom involving many different biological parameters, including the accumulation of copper metal ions in Aβ amyloid peptides due to a perturbation of copper circulation and homeostasis within the brain. Copper-containing amyloids activated by endogenous reductants are able to generate an oxidative stress that is involved in the toxicity of abnormal amyloids and contribute to the progressive loss of neurons in AD. Since only few drugs are currently available for the treatment of AD, we decided to design small molecules able to interact with copper and we evaluated these drug-candidates with non-transgenic mice, since AD is mainly an aging disease, not related to genetic disorders. We created a memory deficit mouse model by a single icv injection of Aβ(1-42) peptide, in order to mimic the early stage of the disease and the key role of amyloid oligomers in AD. No memory deficit was observed in the control mice with the antisense Aβ(42-1) peptide. Here we report the capacity of a new copper-specific chelating agent, a bis-8-aminoquinoline PA1637, to fully reverse the deficit of episodic memory after three weeks of treatment by oral route on non-transgenic amyloid-impaired mice. Clioquinol and memantine have been used as comparators to validate this fast and efficient mouse model. PMID:22927947

  12. [Multiple sclerosis and verbal episodic memory: Critical review of cognitive processes and their assessment].

    PubMed

    Saenz, A; Bakchine, S; Jonin, P-Y; Ehrlé, N

    2015-09-01

    Memory impairment, especially verbal episodic memory (VEM), represents a common ground for cognitive complaint in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Beyond the difficulty caused in daily life, these deficits may impact on occupational activities. Neuropsychological assessment of these patients has to include VEM tests, to describe the level of dysfunction of the different processes contributing to VEM and, if required, to guide adapted cognitive rehabilitation. The objective of the present paper is to propose a critique review of the literature on VEM abilities in MS. This review will present the conceptual references and the psychometric characteristics of the main VEM tests applied in MS (isolated tests or included within more general batteries developed specifically for MS). In a second phase, we propose an inventory of work on MS presented as a function of the cognitive processes involved. This approach provides an approach to the limitations of each conception and possible terminological ambiguities. Contributions to knowledge of MS memory impairments will be clarified, as well as the impact of the disease characteristics (MS forms, disease duration, EDSS). PMID:25983192

  13. White matter disruption at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease: Relationships with hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Rémy, Florence; Vayssière, Nathalie; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pariente, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    White matter tract alterations have been consistently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, limbic fronto-temporal connections, which are critical to episodic memory function, may degenerate early in the course of the disease. However the relation between white matter tract degeneration, hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory impairment at the earliest stages of AD is still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging study, white matter integrity and hippocampal volumes were evaluated in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to AD (Albert et al., 2011) (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 15). Performance in various episodic memory tasks was also evaluated in each participant. Relative to controls, patients showed a significant reduction of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase of radial diffusivity (RD) in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, parahippocampal cingulum and fornix. Within the patient group, significant intra-hemispheric correlations were notably found between hippocampal grey matter volume and FA in the uncinate fasciculus, suggesting a relationship between atrophy and disconnection of the hippocampus. Moreover, episodic recognition scores were related with uncinate fasciculus FA across patients. These results indicate that fronto-hippocampal connectivity is reduced from the earliest pre-demential stages of AD. Disruption of fronto-hippocampal connections may occur progressively, in parallel with hippocampal atrophy, and may specifically contribute to early initial impairment in episodic memory. PMID:25685715

  14. Age-related reduction of the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory: effects of recollection quality and retrieval monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica T; Cramer, Stefanie J; Gallo, David A

    2012-12-01

    We investigated age-related reductions in episodic metamemory accuracy. Participants studied pictures and words in different colors and then took forced-choice recollection tests. These tests required recollection of the earlier presentation color, holding familiarity of the response options constant. Metamemory accuracy was assessed for each participant by comparing recollection test accuracy with corresponding confidence judgments. We found that recollection test accuracy was greater in younger than older adults and also for pictures than font color. Metamemory accuracy tracked each of these recollection differences, as well as individual differences in recollection test accuracy within each age group, suggesting that recollection ability affects metamemory accuracy. Critically, the age-related impairment in metamemory accuracy persisted even when the groups were matched on recollection test accuracy, suggesting that metamemory declines were not entirely due to differences in recollection frequency or quantity, but that differences in recollection quality and/or monitoring also played a role. We also found that age-related impairments in recollection and metamemory accuracy were equivalent for pictures and font colors. This result contrasted with previous false recognition findings, which predicted that older adults would be differentially impaired when monitoring memory for less distinctive memories. These and other results suggest that age-related reductions in metamemory accuracy are not entirely attributable to false recognition effects, but also depend heavily on deficient recollection and/or monitoring of specific details associated with studied stimuli. PMID:22449027

  15. Low Perceived Control as a Risk Factor for Episodic Memory: The Mediational Role of Anxiety and Task Interference

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Low perceived control is considered a risk factor for poor cognitive functioning, but the mechanisms are unclear. The goal of this study was to analyze anxiety and task interference as sequential mediators of the association between control beliefs and episodic memory. Cognitive-specific control beliefs were assessed prior to the lab session. State anxiety was assessed in the lab followed by a word list recall task. The frequency of intrusive thoughts during the memory task was reported by the participants as a measure of task interference after the completion of the cognitive testing. The results for 152 participants aged 22 to 84 years supported the predicted three-path mediation model. Lower levels of control beliefs were associated with higher state anxiety, which in turn affected episodic memory performance by increasing the likelihood of task interference, with age, sex, and verbal abilities as covariates. The implications of the results for developing interventions to improve memory performance are considered. PMID:21918911

  16. Two rooms, two representations? Episodic-like memory in toddlers and preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Nora S; Balcomb, Frances; Ferrara, Katrina; Hansen, Melissa; Koski, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Episodic memory involves binding together what-where-when associations. In three experiments, we tested the development of memory for such contextual associations in a naturalistic setting. Children searched for toys in two rooms with two different experimenters; each room contained two identical sets of four containers, but arranged differently. A distinct toy was hidden in a distinct container in each room. In Experiment 1, which involved children between 15 and 26 months who were prompted with a very explicit cue (a part of the hidden toy), we found a marked shift in performance with age: while 15- to 20-month-olds concentrated their searches on the two containers that sometimes contained toys, they did not distinguish between them according to context, but 21-26-month-olds did. However, surprisingly, without toy cues, even the youngest children showed a fragile ability to disambiguate the two containers by room context. In Experiment 2, we tested 34- to 40-month-olds and 64- to 72-month-olds without toy cues. The 5-year-olds were nearly perfect, and the 3-year-olds showed a significant preference for the correct container given only the context. In Experiment 3, we filled in the age range, and also investigated the effects of the use of labels (i.e. names of experimenters and rooms) and of familiarization time, in groups of 34- to 40-month-olds, 42- to 48-month-olds, and 50- to 56-month-olds. Neither labels nor familiarization time had an effect. Across experiments, there was regular age-related improvement in context-based memory. Overall, the results suggest that children's episodic memory may undergo an early qualitative change, yet to be precisely characterized, and that continuing increments in the use of contextual cues occur throughout the preschool period. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DkwEFw0UEz4&list=PLwxXcOKHPC0llAPVcJyW4EtzlA934A2Rz&index=1. PMID:24628962

  17. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  18. Episodic future thinking: the role of working memory and inhibition on age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana; Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The ability to remember past events and imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) has been shown to decline with aging. However, only few studies have analyzed the cognitive mechanisms involved in EFT in both young and older adults. The present study examined the role of working memory and inhibition on age-related differences between young and older adults in EFT, in response to short sentences reflecting common events, some of which were repeated in both conditions (past and future). Thirty-seven young and 36 older adults completed an adapted version of the autobiographical interview, in which sentences were presented. Results showed that processing resources explained a significant part of the variance in the amount of details; in particular, inhibition explained the amount of external details produced in the future condition. In addition, using sentences, the older group did not differ from the young adults in terms of the proportion of internal details recalled in the past condition, whereas they produced a lower proportion of internal details in the future condition. The effect of using structured material was reinforced by repeating some sentences in the past. Further, only older adults rated the remembered episodes as more emotionally salient and relevant than the imagined ones. Age-related differences between young and older adults in EFT appear to depend on the type of material used, on basic mechanisms of cognition, and are characterized by both quantitative and qualitative differences. PMID:25963665

  19. The Role of Episodic Memory in Controlled Evaluative Judgments about Attitudes: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ray, Jr.; Simon, Elizabeth J.; Henkell, Heather; Zhu, John

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are unique in their ability to provide information about the timing of activity in the neural networks that perform complex cognitive processes. Given the dearth of extant data from normal controls on the question of whether attitude representations are stored in episodic or semantic memory, the goal here was to…

  20. Evidence for a Specific Integrative Mechanism for Episodic Memory Mediated by AMPA/kainate Receptors in a Circuit Involving Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Huston, Joseph P; Wang, An-Li; Petri, David; Chao, Owen Yuan-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    We asked whether episodic-like memory requires neural mechanisms independent of those that mediate its component memories for "what," "when," and "where," and if neuronal connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HPC) CA3 subregion is essential for episodic-like memory. Unilateral lesion of the mPFC was combined with unilateral lesion of the CA3 in the ipsi- or contralateral hemispheres in rats. Episodic-like memory was tested using a task, which assesses the integration of memories for "what, where, and when" concomitantly. Tests for novel object recognition (what), object place (where), and temporal order memory (when) were also applied. Bilateral disconnection of the mPFC-CA3 circuit by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions disrupted episodic-like memory, but left the component memories for object, place, and temporal order, per se, intact. Furthermore, unilateral NMDA lesion of the CA3 plus injection of (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) (CNQX) (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist), but not AP-5 (NMDA receptor antagonist), into the contralateral mPFC also disrupted episodic-like memory, indicating the mPFC AMPA/kainate receptors as critical for this circuit. These results argue for a selective neural system that specifically subserves episodic memory, as it is not critically involved in the control of its component memories for object, place, and time. PMID:26048953

  1. Default network activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: A selective meta-analytic comparison.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether and to what extent the default network subregions involved in episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) processes overlap or are separated from one another. This study addresses this issue through a controlled meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies involving healthy participants. Various EM and SM task paradigms differ widely in the extent of default network involvement. Therefore, the issue at hand cannot be properly addressed without some control for this factor. In this regard, this study employs a two-stage analysis: a preliminary meta-analysis to select EM and SM task paradigms that recruit relatively extensive default network regions and a main analysis to compare the selected task paradigms. Based on a within-EM comparison, the default network contributed more to recollection/familiarity effects than to old/new effects, and based on a within-SM comparison, it contributed more to word/pseudoword effects than to semantic/phonological effects. According to a direct comparison of recollection/familiarity and word/pseudoword effects, each involving a range of default network regions, there were more overlaps than separations in default network subregions involved in these two effects. More specifically, overlaps included the bilateral posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, and left anteromedial prefrontal regions, whereas separations included only the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal cortex region, which was unique to recollection/familiarity effects. These results indicate that EM and SM retrieval processes involving strong memory signals recruit extensive and largely overlapping default network regions and differ mainly in distinct contributions of hippocampus and parahippocampal regions to EM retrieval. PMID:26562053

  2. Effects of Enactment in Episodic Memory: A Pilot Virtual Reality Study with Young and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jebara, Najate; Orriols, Eric; Zaoui, Mohamed; Berthoz, Alain; Piolino, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    None of the previous studies on aging have tested the influence of action with respect to the degree of interaction with the environment (active or passive navigation) and the source of itinerary choice (self or externally imposed), on episodic memory (EM) encoding. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the influence of these factors on feature binding (the association between what, where, and when) in EM and on the subjective sense of remembering. Navigation in a virtual city was performed by 64 young and 64 older adults in one of four modes of exploration: (1) passive condition where participants were immersed as passengers of a virtual car [no interaction, no itinerary control (IC)], (2) IC (the subject chose the itinerary, but did not drive the car), (3) low, or (4) high navigation control (the subject just moved the car on rails or drove the car with a steering-wheel and a gas pedal on a fixed itinerary, respectively). The task was to memorize as many events encountered in the virtual environment as possible along with their factual (what), spatial (where), and temporal (when) details, and then to perform immediate and delayed memory tests. An age-related decline was evidenced for immediate and delayed feature binding. Compared to passive and high navigation conditions, and regardless of age-groups, feature binding was enhanced by low navigation and IC conditions. The subjective sense of remembering was boosted by the IC in older adults. Memory performance following high navigation was specifically linked to variability in executive functions. The present findings suggest that the decision of the itinerary is beneficial to boost EM in aging, although it does not eliminate age-related deficits. Active navigation can also enhance EM when it is not too demanding for subjects’ cognitive resources. PMID:25566069

  3. Effects of enactment in episodic memory: a pilot virtual reality study with young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Najate; Orriols, Eric; Zaoui, Mohamed; Berthoz, Alain; Piolino, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    None of the previous studies on aging have tested the influence of action with respect to the degree of interaction with the environment (active or passive navigation) and the source of itinerary choice (self or externally imposed), on episodic memory (EM) encoding. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the influence of these factors on feature binding (the association between what, where, and when) in EM and on the subjective sense of remembering. Navigation in a virtual city was performed by 64 young and 64 older adults in one of four modes of exploration: (1) passive condition where participants were immersed as passengers of a virtual car [no interaction, no itinerary control (IC)], (2) IC (the subject chose the itinerary, but did not drive the car), (3) low, or (4) high navigation control (the subject just moved the car on rails or drove the car with a steering-wheel and a gas pedal on a fixed itinerary, respectively). The task was to memorize as many events encountered in the virtual environment as possible along with their factual (what), spatial (where), and temporal (when) details, and then to perform immediate and delayed memory tests. An age-related decline was evidenced for immediate and delayed feature binding. Compared to passive and high navigation conditions, and regardless of age-groups, feature binding was enhanced by low navigation and IC conditions. The subjective sense of remembering was boosted by the IC in older adults. Memory performance following high navigation was specifically linked to variability in executive functions. The present findings suggest that the decision of the itinerary is beneficial to boost EM in aging, although it does not eliminate age-related deficits. Active navigation can also enhance EM when it is not too demanding for subjects' cognitive resources. PMID:25566069

  4. Individualized Theory of Mind (iToM): When Memory Modulates Empathy.

    PubMed

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesco; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have noted that brain regions supporting theory of mind (ToM) overlap remarkably with those underlying episodic memory, suggesting a link between the two processes. The present study shows that memory for others' past experiences modulates significantly our appraisal of, and reaction to, what is happening to them currently. Participants read the life story of two characters; one had experienced a long series of love-related failures, the other a long series of work-related failures. In a later faux pas recognition task, participants reported more empathy for the character unlucky in love in love-related faux pas scenarios, and for the character unlucky at work in work-related faux pas scenarios. The memory-based modulation of empathy correlated with the number of details remembered from the characters' life story. These results suggest that individuals use memory for other people's past experiences to simulate how they feel in similar situations they are currently facing. The integration of ToM and memory processes allows adjusting mental state inferences to fit unique social targets, constructing an individualized ToM. PMID:23378839

  5. Individualized Theory of Mind (iToM): When Memory Modulates Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesco; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have noted that brain regions supporting theory of mind (ToM) overlap remarkably with those underlying episodic memory, suggesting a link between the two processes. The present study shows that memory for others’ past experiences modulates significantly our appraisal of, and reaction to, what is happening to them currently. Participants read the life story of two characters; one had experienced a long series of love-related failures, the other a long series of work-related failures. In a later faux pas recognition task, participants reported more empathy for the character unlucky in love in love-related faux pas scenarios, and for the character unlucky at work in work-related faux pas scenarios. The memory-based modulation of empathy correlated with the number of details remembered from the characters’ life story. These results suggest that individuals use memory for other people’s past experiences to simulate how they feel in similar situations they are currently facing. The integration of ToM and memory processes allows adjusting mental state inferences to fit unique social targets, constructing an individualized ToM. PMID:23378839

  6. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups. PMID:26251965

  7. Memory Awareness for Faces in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Desiree A.; Best, Catherine A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding metacognition in individuals with autism. Specifically, it is unclear how individuals with autism think about their own mental states. The current study assessed memory awareness during a facial recognition task. High-functioning children (M = 13.1 years, n = 18) and adults (M = 27.5 years, n = 16) with autism matched…

  8. More to it than meets the eye: how eye movements can elucidate the development of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    The ability to recognise past events along with the contexts in which they occurred is a hallmark of episodic memory, a critical capacity. Eye movements have been shown to track veridical memory for the associations between events and their contexts (relational binding). Such eye-movement effects emerge several seconds before, or in the absence of, explicit response, and are linked to the integrity and function of the hippocampus. Drawing from research from infancy through late childhood, and by comparing to investigations from typical adults, patient populations, and animal models, it seems increasingly clear that eye movements reflect item-item, item-temporal, and item-spatial associations in developmental populations. We analyse this line of work, identify missing pieces in the literature and outline future avenues of research, in order to help elucidate the development of episodic memory. PMID:26999263

  9. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028169

  10. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Sperduti, Marco; Anssens, Adèle; Martinelli, Penelope; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Gallarda, Thierry; Delhommeau, Marion; Lion, Stéphanie; Amado, Isabelle; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE) as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness) and the objective (i.e., source memory) qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task) and a non self-related (general semantic memory task) encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age) and visual areas (mediated by age). Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging. PMID:25628546

  11. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Hambrick, David Z.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether…

  12. Non-Verbal Episodic Memory Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasias are Highly Predictive of Underlying Amyloid Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Siddharth; Flanagan, Emma; Leyton, Cristian E; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Diagnostic distinction of primary progressive aphasias (PPA) remains challenging, in particular for the logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (naPPA) variants. Recent findings highlight that episodic memory deficits appear to discriminate these PPA variants from each other, as only lvPPA perform poorly on these tasks while having underlying amyloid pathology similar to that seen in amnestic dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most memory tests are, however, language based and thus potentially confounded by the prevalent language deficits in PPA. The current study investigated this issue across PPA variants by contrasting verbal and non-verbal episodic memory measures while controlling for their performance on a language subtest of a general cognitive screen. A total of 203 participants were included (25 lvPPA; 29 naPPA; 59 AD; 90 controls) and underwent extensive verbal and non-verbal episodic memory testing, with a subset of patients (n = 45) with confirmed amyloid profiles as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B and PET. The most powerful discriminator between naPPA and lvPPA patients was a non-verbal recall measure (Rey Complex Figure delayed recall), with 81% of PPA patients classified correctly at presentation. Importantly, AD and lvPPA patients performed comparably on this measure, further highlighting the importance of underlying amyloid pathology in episodic memory profiles. The findings demonstrate that non-verbal recall emerges as the best discriminator of lvPPA and naPPA when controlling for language deficits in high load amyloid PPA cases. PMID:26890745

  13. White matter correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Amity E; Croft, Rodney J; Maller, Jerome J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2016-08-30

    Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical thickness. Compared to controls, patients demonstrated GM deficits in temporal and parietal regions and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM in diffuse brain regions. Patients also demonstrated reduced functioning in both encoding and retention of auditory-verbal EM. Among patients but not controls, EM encoding correlated with WM volume in the orbitofrontal cortex and increased radial diffusivity in the fornix, whereas EM retrieval correlated with WM volume in posterior parietal cortex. These findings suggest a differential role for frontal and parietal WM in EM encoding and retrieval processes, while myelin integrity of the fornix may play a specific role in mediating EM encoding processes in SZ. PMID:27479923

  14. The relationship between prospective memory and episodic future thinking in younger and older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Gill; Rose, Nathan S; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT), the ability to project into the future to "preexperience" an event, and prospective memory (PM), remembering to perform an intended action, are both examples of future-oriented cognition. Recently it has been suggested that EFT might contribute to PM performance but to date few studies have examined the relationship between these two capacities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and specificity of this relationship, as well as whether it varies with age. Participants were 125 younger and 125 older adults who completed measures of EFT and PM. Significant, positive correlations between EFT and PM were identified in both age groups. Furthermore, EFT ability accounted for significant unique variance in the young adults, suggesting that it may make a specific contribution to PM function. Within the older adult group, EFT did not uniquely contribute to PM, possibly indicating a reduced capacity to utilize EFT, or the use of compensatory strategies. This study is the first to provide systematic evidence for an association between variation in EFT and PM abilities in both younger and older adulthood and shows that the nature of this association varies as a function of age. PMID:26018341

  15. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    PubMed Central

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  16. Individual differences in children's working memory and writing skill.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H L; Berninger, V W

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to address (a) whether individual differences in working memory (WM) and writing are related to a general or process-specific system, (b) whether WM tasks operate independently of phonological short-term memory (STM) on measures of writing and reading, and (c) whether working memory predicts variance in writing beyond that predicted by reading alone. The present study correlated several WM and phonological STM measures with writing and reading measures. The study showed among the memory measures that a four-factor model reflecting phonological STM, verbal WM span, executive processing, and visual-spatial WM span best fit the multivariate data set. Working memory was correlated significantly with a number of writing measures, particularly those related to text generation. WM measures contributed unique variance to writing that was independent of reading skill, and STM measures best predicted transcription processes and reading recognition, whereas WM measures best predicted text generation and reading comprehension. Both verbal and visual-spatial working memory measures predicted reading comprehension, whereas only WM measures that reflect executive processing significantly predicted writing. In general, the results suggest that individual differences in children's writing reflect a specific capacity system, whereas reading comprehension draws upon a multiple capacity system. PMID:8923751

  17. Individualism and the field viewpoint: cultural influences on memory perspective.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maryanne; Jones, Gregory V

    2012-09-01

    Two perspectives from which memories can be retrieved have been distinguished: field resembles the view from the first-person vantage point of original experience, whereas observer resembles the view from the third-person vantage point of a spectator. There is evidence that the incidences of the two types of perspective differ between at least two different cultural groups. It is hypothesised here that this is a special case of a more general relation between memory perspective and cultural individualism, such that field and observer perspectives are more prevalent among people from, respectively, relatively individualist and relatively collectivist societies. Memory perspectives adopted by participants from a range of different countries were recorded, and were found to vary in the predicted manner. Regression analysis showed that the potential effects of three other cultural variables - uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and, to a lesser extent, power distance - were eclipsed by the influence of individualism, and the implications are discussed. PMID:22673375

  18. Difficulties in Working Memory Updating in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carretti, B.; Belacchi, C.; Cornoldi, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the critical role attributed to working memory (WM) updating for executive functions and fluid intelligence, no research has yet been carried out on its specific role in the vital case of fluid intelligence weakness, represented by individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Furthermore, the relationship between updating and…

  19. Individual Differences in the Fan Effect and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, M.F.; Conway, A.R.A.; Heitz, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    In opposition to conceptualizing working memory (WM) in terms of a general capacity, we present four experiments that favor the view that individual differences in WM depend on attentional control. High- and low-WM participants, as assessed by the operation span task, learned unrelated sentences for which the subject and predicate of the sentences…

  20. Potential contribution of the Alzheimer's disease risk locus BIN1 to episodic memory performance in cognitively normal Type 2 diabetes elderly.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Lior; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Lubitz, Irit; Schmeidler, James; Cooper, Itzik; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M; Heymann, Anthony; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, several promising susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) were discovered, by implementing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach. Recent GWAS meta-analysis has demonstrated the association of 19 loci (in addition to the APOE locus) with AD in the European ancestry population at genome-wide significance level. Since Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a substantial risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, the 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent the 19 AD loci were studied for association with performance in episodic memory, a primary cognitive domain affected by AD, in a sample of 848 cognitively normal elderly Israeli Jewish T2D patients. We found a suggestive association of SNP rs6733839, located near the bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) gene, with this phenotype. Controlling for demographic (age, sex, education, disease duration and ancestry) covariates, carriers of two copies of the AD risk allele T (TT genotype) performed significantly worse (p=0.00576; p=0.00127 among Ashkenazi origin sub-sample) in episodic memory compared to carriers of the C allele (CT+CC genotypes). When including additional potential covariates (clinical and APOE genotype), results remained significant (p=0.00769; p=0.00148 among Ashkenazi). Interestingly, as validated in multiple large studies, BIN1 is one of the most established AD risk loci, with a high odds ratio. Although preliminary and require further replications, our findings support a contribution of BIN1 to individual differences in episodic memory performance among T2D patients. PMID:26947052

  1. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall. PMID:18387559

  2. Everyday-like memory for objects in ageing and Alzheimer's disease assessed in a visually complex environment: The role of executive functioning and episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Pala, Prashant Arvind; Taillade, Mathieu; Auriacombe, Sophie; Guitton, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    To investigate everyday memory, more and more studies rely on virtual-reality applications to bridge the gap between in situ approaches and laboratory settings. In this vein, the present study was designed to assess everyday-like memory from the virtual reality-based Human Object Memory for Everyday Scenes (HOMES) test (Sauzéon et al., , Exp. Psychol., 59, 99) in ageing and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two aims motivated this study: the first was to assess multiple processes of episodic memory (EM) functioning embedded within contexts closely related to real life in ageing and AD using the multi-trial free-recall paradigm, and the second aim was to evaluate the mediating effects of executive functioning (EF), EM, and subjective memory complaints (SMCs) on age differences in the HOMES measures and in AD. To this end, the HOMES test and neurocognitive tests of EF and EM were administered to 23 younger adults, 23 older adults, and 16 patients with AD. The results were: firstly, compared to young adults, elderly adults presented only free-recall decline that almost disappeared in recognition condition whereas AD patients exhibited a poor clustering, learning, and recognition performance, and also a high amount of false recognition; secondly, age differences as well as AD related deficits on the HOMES test were mediated by both memory and EF measure while those observed on false memory indices were only mediated by EM measure; thirdly, the HOMES indices are related to SMCs even when episodic or EF measures are controlled. Overall, the results supported the fact that the VR-based memory test is an appropriate device to capture age-related differences as well as the AD effect with respect to both in situ and laboratory settings. PMID:25307794

  3. Subchronic glucocorticoid receptor inhibition rescues early episodic memory and synaptic plasticity deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lanté, Fabien; Chafai, Magda; Raymond, Elisabeth Fabienne; Pereira, Ana Rita Salgueiro; Mouska, Xavier; Kootar, Scherazad; Barik, Jacques; Bethus, Ingrid; Marie, Hélène

    2015-06-01

    The early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by hippocampus-dependent memory deficits and impaired synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence suggests that stress and dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, marked by the elevated circulating glucocorticoids, are risk factors for AD onset. How these changes contribute to early hippocampal dysfunction remains unclear. Using an elaborated version of the object recognition task, we carefully monitored alterations in key components of episodic memory, the first type of memory altered in AD patients, in early symptomatic Tg2576 AD mice. We also combined biochemical and ex vivo electrophysiological analyses to reveal novel cellular and molecular dysregulations underpinning the onset of the pathology. We show that HPA axis, circadian rhythm, and feedback mechanisms, as well as episodic memory, are compromised in this early symptomatic phase, reminiscent of human AD pathology. The cognitive decline could be rescued by subchronic in vivo treatment with RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. These observed phenotypes were paralleled by a specific enhancement of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD in CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas LTP and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent LTD remain unchanged. NMDAR transmission was also enhanced. Finally, we show that, as for the behavioral deficit, RU486 treatment rescues this abnormal synaptic phenotype. These preclinical results define glucocorticoid signaling as a contributing factor to both episodic memory loss and early synaptic failure in this AD mouse model, and suggest that glucocorticoid receptor targeting strategies could be beneficial to delay AD onset. PMID:25622751

  4. Effects of Episodic Future Thinking and Self-Projection on Children’s Prospective Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Anett; Ellis, Judith A.; Altgassen, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children’s self-projection abilities. Forty-one preschoolers and 39 school-aged children were recruited. Half of the participants in each age group were instructed to use EFT as a strategy to encode the PM task, while the others received standard PM instructions. Results revealed a significant age effect, with school-aged children significantly outperforming preschoolers and a significant effect of encoding condition with overall better performance when receiving EFT instructions compared to the standard encoding condition. Even though the interaction between age group and encoding condition was not significant, planned comparisons revealed first evidence that compared to the younger age group, older children’s PM benefitted more from EFT instructions during intention encoding. Moreover, results showed that although self-projection had a significant impact on PM performance, it did not influence the effects of EFT instructions. Overall, results indicate that children can use EFT encoding strategies to improve their PM performance once EFT abilities are sufficiently developed. Further, they provide first evidence that in addition to executive functions, which have already been shown to influence the development of PM across childhood, self-projection seems to be another key mechanism underlying this development. PMID:27355645

  5. Effects of Episodic Future Thinking and Self-Projection on Children's Prospective Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Anett; Ellis, Judith A; Altgassen, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children's self-projection abilities. Forty-one preschoolers and 39 school-aged children were recruited. Half of the participants in each age group were instructed to use EFT as a strategy to encode the PM task, while the others received standard PM instructions. Results revealed a significant age effect, with school-aged children significantly outperforming preschoolers and a significant effect of encoding condition with overall better performance when receiving EFT instructions compared to the standard encoding condition. Even though the interaction between age group and encoding condition was not significant, planned comparisons revealed first evidence that compared to the younger age group, older children's PM benefitted more from EFT instructions during intention encoding. Moreover, results showed that although self-projection had a significant impact on PM performance, it did not influence the effects of EFT instructions. Overall, results indicate that children can use EFT encoding strategies to improve their PM performance once EFT abilities are sufficiently developed. Further, they provide first evidence that in addition to executive functions, which have already been shown to influence the development of PM across childhood, self-projection seems to be another key mechanism underlying this development. PMID:27355645

  6. Involvement of 5-HT₇ receptors in vortioxetine's modulation of circadian rhythms and episodic memory in rodents.

    PubMed

    Westrich, Ligia; Haddjeri, Nasser; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Sánchez, Connie

    2015-02-01

    Since poor circadian synchrony and cognitive dysfunction have been linked to affective disorders, antidepressants that target key 5-HT (serotonin) receptor subtypes involved in circadian rhythm and cognitive regulation may have therapeutic utility. Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that inhibits 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 receptor activity, 5-HT reuptake, and enhances the activity of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of vortioxetine on the period length of PER2::LUC expression, circadian behavior, and episodic memory, using tissue explants from genetically modified PER2::LUC mice, locomotor activity rhythm monitoring, and the object recognition test, respectively. Incubation of tissue explants from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of PER2::LUC mice with 0.1 μM vortioxetine increased the period length of PER2 bioluminescence. Monitoring of daily wheel-running activity of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with vortioxetine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), alone or in combination with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (30 mg/kg, s.c.), just prior to activity onset revealed significant delays in wheel-running behavior. The increase in circadian period length and the phase delay produced by vortioxetine were abolished in the presence of the 5-HT7 receptor partial agonist AS19. Finally, in the object recognition test, vortioxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the time spent exploring the novel object during the retention test and this effect was prevented by AS19 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). In conclusion, the present study shows that vortioxetine, partly via its 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, induced a significant effect on circadian rhythm and presented promnesic properties in rodents. PMID:25446573

  7. Coding of Stimuli by Animals: Retrospection, Prospection, Episodic Memory and Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    When animals code stimuli for later retrieval they can either code them in terms of the stimulus presented (as a retrospective memory) or in terms of the response or outcome anticipated (as a prospective memory). Although retrospective memory is typically assumed (as in the form of a memory trace), evidence of prospective coding has been found…

  8. Rapid Encoding of New Memories by Individual Neurons in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Matias J.; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Fried, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Summary The creation of memories about real-life episodes requires rapid neuronal changes that may appear after a single occurrence of an event. How is such demand met by neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), which plays a fundamental role in episodic memory formation? We recorded the activity of MTL neurons in neurosurgical patients while they learned new associations. Pairs of unrelated pictures, one of a person and another of a place, were used to construct a meaningful association modeling the episodic memory of meeting a person in a particular place. We found that a large proportion of responsive MTL neurons expanded their selectivity to encode these specific associations within a few trials: cells initially responsive to one picture started firing to the associated one but not to others. Our results provide a plausible neural substrate for the inception of associations, which are crucial for the formation of episodic memories. PMID:26139375

  9. Gray Matter Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Relationships with Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Episodic Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Gaelle E.; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects multiple brain regions through evidence from both structural (gray matter; GM) and functional connectivity (FC) studies. We tested whether these structural abnormalities were associated with FC abnormalities, and assessed the ability of these measures to explain episodic memory impairments in this population. A resting-state and T1 sequences were acquired on 94 (45 with mesial temporal pathology) TLE patients and 50 controls, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was computed to determine the GM volume differences between groups (right, left TLE, controls). Resting-state FC between the abnormal GM volume regions was computed, and compared between groups. Finally, we investigated the relation between EM, GM and FC findings. Patients with and without temporal pathology were analyzed separately. The results revealed reduced GM volume in multiple regions in the patients relative to the controls. Using FC, we found the abnormal GM regions did not display abnormal functional connectivity. Lastly, we found in left TLE patients, verbal episodic memory was associated with abnormal left posterior hippocampus volume, while in right TLE, non-verbal episodic memory was better predicted by resting-state FC measures. This study investigated TLE abnormalities using a multi-modal approach combining GM, FC and neurocognitive measures. We did not find that the GM abnormalities were functionally or abnormally connected during an inter-ictal resting state, which may reflect a weak sensitivity of functional connectivity to the epileptic network. We provided evidence that verbal and non-verbal episodic memory in left and right TLE patients may have distinct relationships with structural and functional measures. Lastly, we provide data suggesting that in the setting of occult, non-lesional right TLE pathology, a coupling of structural and functional abnormalities in extra-temporal/non-ictal regions is

  10. Gray Matter Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Relationships with Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Episodic Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects multiple brain regions through evidence from both structural (gray matter; GM) and functional connectivity (FC) studies. We tested whether these structural abnormalities were associated with FC abnormalities, and assessed the ability of these measures to explain episodic memory impairments in this population. A resting-state and T1 sequences were acquired on 94 (45 with mesial temporal pathology) TLE patients and 50 controls, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was computed to determine the GM volume differences between groups (right, left TLE, controls). Resting-state FC between the abnormal GM volume regions was computed, and compared between groups. Finally, we investigated the relation between EM, GM and FC findings. Patients with and without temporal pathology were analyzed separately. The results revealed reduced GM volume in multiple regions in the patients relative to the controls. Using FC, we found the abnormal GM regions did not display abnormal functional connectivity. Lastly, we found in left TLE patients, verbal episodic memory was associated with abnormal left posterior hippocampus volume, while in right TLE, non-verbal episodic memory was better predicted by resting-state FC measures. This study investigated TLE abnormalities using a multi-modal approach combining GM, FC and neurocognitive measures. We did not find that the GM abnormalities were functionally or abnormally connected during an inter-ictal resting state, which may reflect a weak sensitivity of functional connectivity to the epileptic network. We provided evidence that verbal and non-verbal episodic memory in left and right TLE patients may have distinct relationships with structural and functional measures. Lastly, we provide data suggesting that in the setting of occult, non-lesional right TLE pathology, a coupling of structural and functional abnormalities in extra-temporal/non-ictal regions is

  11. Low perceived control as a risk factor for episodic memory: the mediational role of anxiety and task interference.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Margie E; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Low perceived control is considered a risk factor for poor cognitive functioning, but the mechanisms are unclear. The goal of the present study was to analyze anxiety and task interference as sequential mediators of the association between control beliefs and episodic memory. Cognitive-specific control beliefs were assessed prior to the lab session. State anxiety was assessed in the lab, followed by a word list recall task. The frequency of intrusive thoughts during the memory task was reported by the participants as a measure of task interference after the completion of the cognitive testing. The results for 152 participants from the ages of 22 to 84 years supported the predicted three-path mediation model. Lower levels of control beliefs were associated with higher state anxiety, which in turn affected episodic memory performance by increasing the likelihood of task interference, with age, sex, and verbal abilities as covariates. The implications of the results for developing interventions to improve memory performance are considered. PMID:21918911

  12. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed. PMID:26314991

  13. Imagining Other People’s Experiences in a Person with Impaired Episodic Memory: The Role of Personal Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Jennifer S.; Carson, Nicole; Gilboa, Asaf; Stuss, Donald T.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties remembering one’s own experiences via episodic memory may affect the ability to imagine other people’s experiences during theory of mind (ToM). Previous work shows that the same set of brain regions recruited during tests of episodic memory and future imagining are also engaged during standard laboratory tests of ToM. However, hippocampal amnesic patients who show deficits in past and future thinking, show intact performance on ToM tests, which involve unknown people or fictional characters. Here we present data from a developmental amnesic person (H.C.) and a group of demographically matched controls, who were tested on a naturalistic test of ToM that involved describing other people’s experiences in response to photos of personally familiar others (“pToM” condition) and unfamiliar others (“ToM” condition). We also included a condition that involved recollecting past experiences in response to personal photos (“EM” condition). Narratives were scored using an adapted Autobiographical Interview scoring procedure. Due to the visually rich stimuli, internal details were further classified as either descriptive (i.e., details that describe the visual content of the photo) or elaborative (i.e., details that go beyond what is visually depicted in the photo). Relative to controls, H.C. generated significantly fewer elaborative details in response to the pToM and EM photos and an equivalent number of elaborative details in response to the ToM photos. These data converge with previous neuroimaging results showing that the brain regions underlying pToM and episodic memory overlap to a greater extent than those supporting ToM. Taken together, these results suggest that detailed episodic representations supported by the hippocampus may be pivotal for imagining the experiences of personally familiar, but not unfamiliar, others. PMID:23355827

  14. Working memory capacity and categorization: individual differences and modeling.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2011-05-01

    Working memory is crucial for many higher-level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization, and modeling in category learning has thus far been largely uninformed by knowledge about people's memory processes. This article reports a large study (N = 113) that related people's working memory capacity (WMC) to their category-learning performance using the 6 problem types of Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961). Structural equation modeling revealed a strong relationship between WMC and category learning, with a single latent variable accommodating performance on all 6 problems. A model of categorization (the Attention Learning COVEring map, ALCOVE; Kruschke, 1992) was fit to the individual data and a single latent variable was sufficient to capture the variation among associative learning parameters across all problems. The data and modeling suggest that working memory mediates category learning across a broad range of tasks. PMID:21417512

  15. "I Remember When I Learned That!" Developmental and Gender Differences in Children's Memories of Learning Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Leichtman, Michelle D.; Pillemer, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Eighty 4- to 9-year-old children answered factual knowledge questions in math, science and social studies during one-on-one interviews. Children indicated whether they had known or guessed each answer, and whether they (a) remembered the moment they learned the answer (episodic response) or (b) did not remember. For episodic responses, children…

  16. Beneficial effects of semantic memory support on older adults' episodic memory: Differential patterns of support of item and associative information.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Praggyan Pam; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Ratneshwar, Srinivasan

    2016-02-01

    The effects of two types of semantic memory support-meaningfulness of an item and relatedness between items-in mitigating age-related deficits in item and associative, memory are examined in a marketing context. In Experiment 1, participants studied less (vs. more) meaningful brand logo graphics (pictures) paired with meaningful brand names (words) and later were assessed by item (old/new) and associative (intact/recombined) memory recognition tests. Results showed that meaningfulness of items eliminated age deficits in item memory, while equivalently boosting associative memory for older and younger adults. Experiment 2, in which related and unrelated brand logo graphics and brand name pairs served as stimuli, revealed that relatedness between items eliminated age deficits in associative memory, while improving to the same degree item memory in older and younger adults. Experiment 2 also provided evidence for a probable boundary condition that could reconcile seemingly contradictory extant results. Overall, these experiments provided evidence that although the two types of semantic memory support can improve both item and associative memory in older and younger adults, older adults' memory deficits can be eliminated when the type of support provided is compatible with the type of information required to perform well on the test. PMID:26765749

  17. Mood variability predicts the course of suicidal ideation in individuals with first and second episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Shryane, Nick; Taylor, Peter; Lewis, Shôn; Drake, Richard

    2013-04-30

    Suicide risk is high in early psychosis. Recent research has suggested that mood variability may be associated with levels of suicidal thoughts and behaviour. This has not been investigated in individuals during and following a first or second episode of non-affective psychosis. Repeated-measures data over 18 months from a large randomised controlled trial for cognitive behaviour therapy (N=309) were analysed using latent growth curve modelling, whereby both the variability and the level of depression, anxiety and guilt were entered as predictors of suicidality. The variability of depression, but not guilt and anxiety, predicted the course of suicidality even when controlling for a large range of potential confounders. The level of depression, anxiety and guilt for each participant also strongly predicted the development of suicidality. The findings support the theory that variability in depression may contribute to the formation of suicidal ideation and related behaviour. More variable depression may be harder to predict and intervene against, and therefore increase the likelihood that suicidality escalates. The levels of emotions may also be an important determinant. This has implications for the treatment and assessment of suicidality in early psychosis. PMID:23234757

  18. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    PubMed

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26501829

  19. NMDA Signaling in CA1 Mediates Selectively the Spatial Component of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Ryan; Lykken, Christy; Beer, Zachery; Suh, Junghyup; McHugh, Thomas J.; Tonegawa, Susumu; Eichenbaum, Howard; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies focusing on the memory for temporal order have reported that CA1 plays a critical role in the memory for the sequences of events, in addition to its well-described role in spatial navigation. In contrast, CA3 was found to principally contribute to the memory for the association of items with spatial or contextual information in…

  20. A study of memory functioning in individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Morasse, K; Belleville, S

    2001-02-01

    Memory tasks were administered to 14 high-functioning individuals with autism and 14 typically developing individuals matched on chronological age and verbal intelligence. The tasks consisted of free and cued recall of 15 semantically unrelated words in 3 encoding conditions: phonological encoding, semantic encoding, and a no encoding orientation. In both groups, semantic orientation led to better free recall than did orientation toward syllabic encoding or absence of orientation. In contrast, semantic cues at retrieval led to better cued recall than phonological cues in typically developing individuals, whereas both types of cue had the same effect in prompting cued recall for individuals with autism. These findings are incompatible with the hypothesis of an amnesic deficit and do not support the notion of executive or semantic deficits in the memory problems of autistic individuals, at least for those with a high level of functioning. It is proposed that these findings can be accounted for by enhanced phonological processing in autism. This interpretation is consistent with other findings of enhanced processing of low-level perceptual information in the visual and auditory modality in autism. PMID:11280421

  1. Is routine hospital episode data sufficient for identifying individuals with chronic kidney disease? A comparison study with laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lynn M; Denadai, Lucas; Black, Corri; Fluck, Nicholas; Prescott, Gordon; Simpson, William; Wilde, Katie; Marks, Angharad

    2016-06-01

    Internationally, investment in the availability of routine health care data for improving health, health surveillance and health care is increasing. We assessed the validity of hospital episode data for identifying individuals with chronic kidney disease compared to biochemistry data in a large population-based cohort, the Grampian Laboratory Outcomes, Morbidity and Mortality Study-II (n = 70,435). Grampian Laboratory Outcomes, Morbidity and Mortality Study-II links hospital episode data to biochemistry data for all adults in a health region with impaired kidney function and random samples of individuals with normal and unmeasured kidney function in 2003. We compared identification of individuals with chronic kidney disease by hospital episode data (based on International Classification of Diseases-10 codes) to the reference standard of biochemistry data (at least two estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at least 90 days apart). Hospital episode data, compared to biochemistry data, identified a lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease and had low sensitivity (<10%) but high specificity (>97%). Using routine health care data from multiple sources offers the best opportunity to identify individuals with chronic kidney disease. PMID:25552482

  2. When You've Seen One, Have You Seen Them All? Children's Memory for General and Specific Learning Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Anne E.; Kalish, Charles W.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2014-01-01

    In any learning situation, children must decide the level of generality with which to encode information. Cues to generality may affect children's memory for different components of a learning episode. In this research, we investigated whether 1 cue to generality, generic language, affects children's memory for information about social…

  3. Flynn Effects on Sub-Factors of Episodic and Semantic Memory: Parallel Gains over Time and the Same Set of Determining Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency). We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched…

  4. Hearing Loss Is Negatively Related to Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory but Not to Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Jerker; Danielsson, Henrik; Rudner, Mary; Arlinger, Stig; Sternang, Ola; Wahlin, Ake; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the relationship between degree of hearing loss and different memory systems in hearing aid users. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to study the relationship between auditory and visual acuity and different cognitive and memory functions in an age-hetereogenous subsample of 160 hearing aid users without…

  5. Episodic Long-Term Memory of Spoken Discourse Masked by Speech: What Is the Role for Working Memory Capacity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorqvist, Patrik; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech. Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Ronnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sorqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual…

  6. The six blind men and the elephant: Are episodic memory tasks tests of different things or different tests of the same thing?

    PubMed

    Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-09-01

    The development of episodic memory in children has been of interest to researchers for more than a century. Current behavioral tests that have been developed to assess episodic memory differ substantially in their surface features. Therefore, it is possible that these tests are assessing different memory processes. In this study, 106 children aged 3 to 6 years were tested on four putative tests of episodic memory. Covariation in performance was investigated in order to address two conflicting hypotheses: (a) that the high level of difference between the tests will result in little covariation in performance despite their being designed to assess the same ability and (b) that the conceptual similarity of these tasks will lead to high levels of covariation despite surface differences. The results indicated a gradual improvement with age on all tests. Performances on many of the tests were related, but not after controlling for age. A principal component analysis found that a single principal component was able to satisfactorily fit the observed data. This principal component produced a marginally stronger correlation with age than any test alone. As such, it might be concluded that different tests of episodic memory are too different to be used in parallel. Nevertheless, if used together, these tests may offer a robust assessment of episodic memory as a complex multifaceted process. PMID:25931424

  7. The six blind men and the elephant: Are episodic memory tasks tests of different things or different tests of the same thing?

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of episodic memory in children has been of interest to researchers for more than a century. Current behavioral tests that have been developed to assess episodic memory differ substantially in their surface features. Therefore, it is possible that these tests are assessing different memory processes. In this study, 106 children aged 3 to 6 years were tested on four putative tests of episodic memory. Covariation in performance was investigated in order to address two conflicting hypotheses: (a) that the high level of difference between the tests will result in little covariation in performance despite their being designed to assess the same ability and (b) that the conceptual similarity of these tasks will lead to high levels of covariation despite surface differences. The results indicated a gradual improvement with age on all tests. Performances on many of the tests were related, but not after controlling for age. A principal component analysis found that a single principal component was able to satisfactorily fit the observed data. This principal component produced a marginally stronger correlation with age than any test alone. As such, it might be concluded that different tests of episodic memory are too different to be used in parallel. Nevertheless, if used together, these tests may offer a robust assessment of episodic memory as a complex multifaceted process. PMID:25931424

  8. Environmental context effects on episodic memory are dependent on retrieval mode and modulated by neuropsychological status.

    PubMed

    Barak, Ohr; Vakil, Eli; Levy, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Contextual change or constancy between occasions of memory formation and retrieval are commonly assumed to affect retrieval success, yet such effects may be inconsistent, and the processes leading to the pattern of effects are still not well understood. We conducted a systematic investigation of environmental context effects on memory, using a range of materials (common objects, pictures of familiar and unfamiliar faces, words, and sentences), and four types of retrieval (free recall, cued recall, recognition, and order memory), all assessed within participants. Additionally, we examined the influence of mnemonic challenge on context effects by examining both healthy participants and a group of patients in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We found no effects of contextual factors on tests of recognition for either group of participants, but effects did emerge for cued and free recall, with the most prominent effects being on memory for objects. Furthermore, while patients' memory abilities in general were impaired relative to the comparison group, they exhibited greater influences of contextual reinstatement on several recall tasks. These results support suggestions that environmental context effects on memory are dependent on retrieval mode and on the extent to which retrieval is challenging because of neurocognitive status. Additionally, findings of environmental context effects in memory-impaired TBI patients suggest that by harnessing such preserved indirect memory (e.g., using reminder technologies), it may be possible to ameliorate TBI patients' difficulties in explicit remembering. PMID:23480476

  9. Recall of Remote Episodic Memories Can Appear Deficient because of a Gist-Based Retrieval Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoy, John D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    Determining whether patients with amnesia can succeed in remembering their distant past has pivotal implications for theories of memory storage. However, various factors influence recall. We speculated that some patients with anterograde amnesia adopt a gist-based retrieval orientation for memories from all time periods, thereby exaggerating…

  10. Fornix as an imaging marker for episodic memory deficits in healthy aging and in various neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The fornix is a part of the limbic system and constitutes the major efferent and afferent white matter tracts from the hippocampi. The underdevelopment of or injuries to the fornix are strongly associated with memory deficits. Its role in memory impairments was suggested long ago with cases of surgical forniceal transections. However, recent advances in brain imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, have revealed that macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities of the fornix correlated highly with declarative and episodic memory performance. This structure appears to provide a robust and early imaging predictor for memory deficits not only in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but also in schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders, and during neurodevelopment and “typical” aging. The objective of the manuscript is to present a systematic review regarding published brain imaging research on the fornix, including the development of its tracts, its role in various neurological diseases, and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in human studies. PMID:25642186

  11. Slow-Theta-to-Gamma Phase-Amplitude Coupling in Human Hippocampus Supports the Formation of New Episodic Memories.

    PubMed

    Lega, Bradley; Burke, John; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been proposed as a neural mechanism for coordinating information processing across brain regions. Here we sought to characterize PAC in the human hippocampus, and in temporal and frontal cortices, during the formation of new episodic memories. Intracranial recordings taken as 56 neurosurgical patients studied and recalled lists of words revealed significant hippocampal PAC, with slow-theta activity (2.5-5 Hz) modulating gamma band activity (34-130 Hz). Furthermore, a significant number of hippocampal electrodes exhibited greater PAC during successful than unsuccessful encoding, with the gamma activity at these sites coupled to the trough of the slow-theta oscillation. These same conditions facilitate LTP in animal models, providing a possible mechanism of action for this effect in human memory. Uniquely in the hippocampus, phase preference during item encoding exhibited a biphasic pattern. Overall, our findings help translate between the patterns identified during basic memory tasks in animals and those present during complex human memory encoding. We discuss the unique properties of human hippocampal PAC and how our findings relate to influential theories of information processing based on theta-gamma interactions. PMID:25316340

  12. The rostral prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in working memory capacity: An approach from the hierarchical model of the cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence has suggested that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). However, few studies have localized the neural structures that differentiate high and low WMC individuals, considering the functional architecture of the prefrontal cortex. The present study aimed to identify a frontal region that underlies individual differences from the perspective of the hierarchical architecture of the frontal cortex. By manipulating an episodic factor of cognitive control (control in selecting an appropriate task set according to a temporal context) and using a parametric modulation analysis, we found that both high- and low- WMC individuals have similar activation patterns in the premotor cortex (BA6, 8), caudal prefrontal cortex (BA44, 45), and frontopolar cortex (BA10, 11), but differed in the rostral part of the prefrontal cortex (BA46/47); high WMC individuals showed greater activation in the higher episodic control condition, whereas low WMC individuals showed reduced activation when episodic control was required. Similar patterns of activation were found in the right inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices. These results indicate that the rostral prefrontal cortex, which supports episodic cognitive control, possibly by sending a weighting signal toward the inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices that modulate saliency and sensory processing, underlies individual differences in WMC. Episodic control account, which considers the organization of the prefrontal cortex, fits well with previous findings of individual differences in WMC. PMID:26280275

  13. HIV seroadaptation among individuals, within sexual dyads, and by sexual episodes, men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Willi; Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, H Fisher; Nyugen, Binh; Colfax, Grant; Mehrtens, Jason; Robertson, Tyler; Stall, Ron; Levine, Deb; Truong, Hong-Ha M

    2011-01-01

    “Seroadaptation” comprises sexual behaviors to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission based on knowing one’s own and one’s sexual partners’ serostatus. We measured the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through time-location sampling (TLS) across three perspectives: by individuals (N=1,207 MSM), among sexual dyads (N=3,746 partnerships), and for sexual episodes (N=63,789 episodes) in the preceding six months. Seroadaptation was more common than 100% condom use when considering the consistent behavioral pattern of individuals (adopted by 39.1% vs. 25.0% of men, respectively). Among sexual dyads 100% condom use was more common than seroadaptation (33.1% vs. 26.4%, respectively). Considering episodes of sex, not having anal intercourse (65.0%) and condom use (16.0%) were the most common risk reduction behaviors. Sex of highest acquisition and transmission risks (unprotected anal intercourse with a HIV serodiscordant or unknown status partner in the riskier position) occurred in only 1.6% of sexual episodes. In aggregate, MSM achieve a high level of sexual harm reduction through multiple strategies. Detailed measures of seroadaptive behaviors are needed to effectively target HIV risk and gauge the potential of serosorting and related sexual harm reduction strategies on the HIV epidemic. PMID:21347888

  14. Within-Person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Morris, Matthew C; Garber, Judy

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N = 240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M = 11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  15. Individualized covariance profile of cortical morphology for auditory hallucinations in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Lee, Tae Young; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Neocortical phenotype of cortical surface area (CSA) and thickness (CT) are influenced by distinctive genetic factors and undergo differential developmental trajectories, which could be captured using the individualized cortical structural covariance (ISC). Disturbed patterns of neocortical development and maturation underlie the perceptual disturbance of psychosis including auditory hallucination (AH). To demonstrate the utility of selected ISC features as primal biomarker of AH in first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects experiencing AH (FEP-AH), we employed herein a support vector machine (SVM). A total of 147 subjects (FEP-AH, n = 27; FEP-NAH, n = 24; HC, n = 96) underwent T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The FreeSurfer software suite was used for cortical parcellation, with the CSA-ISC and CT-ISC then calculated. The most informative ISCs showing statistical significance (P < 0.001) across every run of leave-one-out group-comparison were aligned according to the absolute value of averaged t-statistics and were packaged into candidate feature sets for classification analysis using the SVM. An optimal feature set comprising three CSA-ISCs, including the intraparietal sulcus, Broca's complex, and the anterior insula, distinguished FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 83.6% accuracy (sensitivity = 82.8%; specificity = 85.7%). Furthermore, six CT-ISCs encompassing the executive control network and Wernicke's module classified FEP-AH from FEP-NAH subjects with 82.3% accuracy (sensitivity = 79.5%; specificity = 88.6%). Finally, extended sets of ISCs related to the default-mode network distinguished FEP-AH or FEP-NAH from HC subjects with 89.0-93.0% accuracy (sensitivity = 88.4-93.4%; specificity = 89.0-94.1%). This study established a distinctive intermediate phenotype of biological proneness for AH in FEP using CSA-ISCs as well as a state marker of disease progression using CT-ISCs. PMID:26678706

  16. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  17. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  18. Episodic Memory in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Recall for Self- versus Other-Experienced Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Mellor, Christine; Azmi, Sabiha

    2007-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in recalling recently experienced events, which is dependent upon intact functioning of several aspects of "self awareness". The current study examined impaired episodic recall in ASD and its relationship to specific impairments in aspects of "self awareness". Between-group…

  19. Cortical thinning in individuals with subjective memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Meiberth, Dix; Scheef, Lukas; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Boecker, Henning; Block, Wolfgang; Träber, Frank; Erk, Susanne; Heneka, Michael T; Jacobi, Heike; Spottke, Annika; Walter, Henrik; Wagner, Michael; Hu, Xiaochen; Jessen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Elderly individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI) report memory decline, but perform within the age-, gender-, and education- adjusted normal range on neuropsychological tests. Longitudinal studies indicate SMI as a risk factor or early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging that at the group level, subjects with SMI display evidence of AD related pathology. This study aimed to determine differences in cortical thickness between individuals with SMI and healthy control subjects (CO) using the FreeSurfer environment. 110 participants (41 SMI/69 CO) underwent structural 3D-T1 MR imaging. Cortical thickness values were compared between groups in predefined AD-related brain regions of the medial temporal lobe, namely the bilateral entorhinal cortex and bilateral parahippocampal cortex. Cortical thickness reduction was observed in the SMI group compared to controls in the left entorhinal cortex (p = 0.003). We interpret our findings as evidence of early AD-related brain changes in persons with SMI. PMID:25471190

  20. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient's specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  1. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) – is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient’s specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  2. The future is now: comparing the effect of episodic future thinking on impulsivity in lean and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Stanton, Christina M; Epstein, Leonard H

    2013-12-01

    The choice of small immediate rewards as opposed to larger delayed rewards, or delay discounting, is an important dimension of impulsive decision making. The inability to delay gratification is related to obesity, as well as other maladaptive behaviors such as substance abuse, problem drinking, smoking, pathological gambling, and risky HIV behaviors. One way to reduce delay discounting (DD) may be to use prospective imagery in the form of episodic future thinking (EFT) during inter-temporal decision making. We have recently shown that EFT reduces DD and ad libitum energy intake in obese individuals. However, no studies have examined whether the magnitude of the EFT effect differs between lean and overweight/obese individuals. We conducted a within-subject design experiment to compare the efficacy of EFT versus a control task in reducing DD between lean (N=24) and overweight/obese (N=24) women. Participants attended two sessions in which they engaged in either EFT or control episodic thinking during a DD task. We also examined whether individual differences such as trait time perspective, behavioral inhibition or behavioral activation moderated the EFT effect on DD. Results showed EFT reduced DD similarly for lean and overweight/obese individuals. The EFT effect was moderated by behavioral activation. This suggests EFT is just as effective in reducing impulsive decision making in obese individuals as it is in lean individuals and may be useful in reducing other impulsive obesity related behaviors. PMID:23917063

  3. Synchronous and Asynchronous Theta and Gamma Activity during Episodic Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Zaghloul, Kareem A.; Jacobs, Joshua; Williams, Ryan B.; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that neural oscillations synchronize to mediate memory encoding, we analyzed electrocorticographic recordings taken as 68 human neurosurgical patients studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. To the extent that changes in spectral power reflect synchronous oscillations, we would expect those power changes to be accompanied by increases in phase synchrony between the region of interest and neighboring brain areas. Contrary to the hypothesized role of synchronous gamma oscillations in memory formation, we found that many key regions that showed power increases during successful memory encoding also exhibited decreases in global synchrony. Similarly, cortical theta activity that decreases during memory encoding exhibits both increased and decreased global synchrony depending on region and stage of encoding. We suggest that network synchrony analyses, as used here, can help to distinguish between two major types of spectral modulations: (1) those that reflect synchronous engagement of regional neurons with neighboring brain areas, and (2) those that reflect either asynchronous modulations of neural activity or local synchrony accompanied by global disengagement from neighboring regions. We show that these two kinds of spectral modulations have distinct spatiotemporal profiles during memory encoding. PMID:23283342

  4. Cognitive Association Formation in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alice S. N.; Vallesi, Antonino; Picton, Terence W.; Tulving, Endel

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the processes underlying cognitive association formation by investigating subsequent memory effects. Event-related potentials were recorded as participants studied pairs of words, presented one word at a time, for later recall. The findings showed that a frontal-positive late wave (LW), which occurred 1-1.6 s after the…

  5. Some Memories Are Odder than Others: Judgments of Episodic Oddity Violate Known Decision Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Guhl, Emily N.; Cox, Justin C.; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Current decision models of recognition memory are based almost entirely on one paradigm, single item old/new judgments accompanied by confidence ratings. This task results in receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) that are well fit by both signal-detection and dual-process models. Here we examine an entirely new recognition task, the judgment…

  6. Neuronal synchrony reveals working memory networks and predicts individual memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Palva, J. Matias; Monto, Simo; Kulashekhar, Shrikanth; Palva, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain sensory information for cognitive operations, and its deficits are associated with several neuropsychological disorders. VWM is based on sustained neuronal activity in a complex cortical network of frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal areas. The neuronal mechanisms that coordinate this distributed processing to sustain coherent mental images and the mechanisms that set the behavioral capacity limit have remained unknown. We mapped the anatomical and dynamic structures of network synchrony supporting VWM by using a neuro informatics approach and combined magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. Interareal phase synchrony was sustained and stable during the VWM retention period among frontoparietal and visual areas in α- (10–13 Hz), β- (18–24 Hz), and γ- (30–40 Hz) frequency bands. Furthermore, synchrony was strengthened with increasing memory load among the frontoparietal regions known to underlie executive and attentional functions during memory maintenance. On the other hand, the subjects’ individual behavioral VWM capacity was predicted by synchrony in a network in which the intraparietal sulcus was the most central hub. These data suggest that interareal phase synchrony in the α-, β-, and γ-frequency bands among frontoparietal and visual regions could be a systems level mechanism for coordinating and regulating the maintenance of neuronal object representations in VWM. PMID:20368447

  7. Older individuals with HIV infection have greater memory deficits than younger individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tan, IL; Smith, BR; Hammond, E; Vronbrock-Roosa, H; Creighton, JA; Selnes, OA; McArthur, JC; Sacktor, N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains persistently high in the era of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to characterize the pattern of neurocognitive dysfunction in older subjects with HAND, in particular amnestic versus non-amnestic impairment. Methods 106 subjects from the Johns Hopkins University NIMH Clinical Outcomes cohort underwent standardized neuropsychological (NP) testing between November 2006 and June 2010. We examined performance in seven cognitive domains (memory, attention, speed of processing, visuospatial, language, motor and executive). Older subjects were defined as age > 50 years at the time of NP testing. Subjects were diagnosed with HAND according to established criteria, and dichotomized into amnestic cognitive impairment or non-amnestic cognitive impairment, with deficit defined as z-scores < −1.5 for the verbal and non-verbal memory domains. Results There were 32 older subjects with a mean age (SD) of 54.2 (2.8) years, and 74 younger subjects, 43.7 (4.3) years. Older age was associated with a 4.8 fold higher odds of memory deficits, adjusted for potential confounders (p=0.035) identified a priori. With age modeled as a continuous covariate, every 1-year increase in age was associated with a 1.11 fold higher odds of memory deficit (p=0.05). Conclusion There was a higher proportion of amnestic cognitive impairment among older subjects than younger subjects with HIV infection. Neurodegenerative processes other than those directly due to HIV may be increasingly important as individuals with chronic HIV infection and HAND survive into older age. PMID:24078559

  8. Episodic memory in adults with autistic spectrum disorders: recall for self- versus other-experienced events.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Mellor, Christine; Azmi, Sabiha

    2007-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in recalling recently experienced events, which is dependent upon intact functioning of several aspects of 'self awareness'. The current study examined impaired episodic recall in ASD and its relationship to specific impairments in aspects of 'self awareness'. Between-group (participants with learning disabilities with and without autistic spectrum disorder) experimental design examining free and cued recall of table-top activities that were either self-experienced by participants or observed being performed by the experimenter. Participants with ASD did not show superiority of free recall for self-experienced events over observed events, nor for recall of other-experienced events over self-experienced events, but did demonstrate a superiority for cued recall of self-experienced events. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:16839739

  9. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  10. How Do the Different Components of Episodic Memory Develop? Role of Executive Functions and Short-Term Feature-Binding Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Laurence; Cousin, Sidonie; Guillery-Girard, Berenere; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the development of all 3 components of episodic memory (EM), as defined by Tulving, namely, core factual content, spatial context, and temporal context. To this end, a novel, ecologically valid test was administered to 109 participants aged 4-16 years. Results showed that each EM component develops at a different rate.…

  11. A comparison of treatment adherence in individuals with a first episode of psychosis and inpatients with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Spidel, Alicia; Greaves, Caroline; Yuille, John; Lecomte, Tania

    2015-01-01

    In predicting treatment compliance in individuals with severe mental illness, research has focused on variables such as substance abuse, personality, history of child abuse, and symptomatology, although these relationships have not been investigated in great detail in individuals at the onset of mental illness. To better understand these correlates of treatment compliance, two samples were examined: a sample of 117 individuals presenting with a first episode of psychosis and a more chronic forensic sample of 65 participants recruited from a psychiatric hospital. These samples were investigated for service engagement in terms of violence history, substance abuse, symptom severity, psychopathic traits and history of childhood abuse. Linear regressions performed for the first episode sample revealed that childhood physical abuse was the strongest predictor of poor service engagement, followed by problems with alcohol, a history of physical violence, any history of violence and higher psychopathic traits. Linear regression revealed for the forensic group that a lower level of service engagement was most strongly predicted by a history of childhood abuse and a higher score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Results are presented in light of the existing literature and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25703818

  12. Visual Memory in Methamphetamine Dependent Individuals: Deficient Strategic Control of Encoding and Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Poquette, Amelia J.; Vigil, Ofilio; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Objective Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) has moderate effects on neurocognitive functions associated with frontal systems, including the executive aspects of verbal episodic memory. Extending this literature, the current study examined the effects of MA on visual episodic memory with the hypothesis that a profile of deficient strategic encoding and retrieval processes would be revealed for visuospatial information (i.e., simple geometric designs), including possible differential effects on source versus item recall. Method The sample comprised 114 MA-dependent (MA+) and 110 demographically-matched MA-nondependent comparison participants (MA−) who completed the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test – Revised (BVMT-R), which was scored for standard learning and memory indices, as well as novel item (i.e., figure) and source (i.e., location) memory indices. Results Results revealed a profile of impaired immediate and delayed free recall (p < .05) in the context of preserved learning slope, retention, and recognition discriminability in the MA+ group. The MA+ group also performed more poorly than MA− participants on Item visual memory (p < .05) but not Source visual memory (p > .05), and no group by task-type interaction was observed (p > .05). Item visual memory demonstrated significant associations with executive dysfunction, deficits in working memory, and shorter length of abstinence from MA use (p < 0.05). Conclusions These visual memory findings are commensurate with studies reporting deficient strategic verbal encoding and retrieval in MA users that are posited to reflect the vulnerability of frontostriatal circuits to the neurotoxic effects of MA. Potential clinical implications of these visual memory deficits are discussed. PMID:22311530

  13. Exogenous features versus prior experiences modulate different subregions of the right IPL during episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The fractionation view holds that distinct cognitive operations are mediated by subregions of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Within IPL, we hypothesised that retrieval-related activity in different parts of the right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) may be modulated differentially by information acquired via different combinations of attention signals at encoding. We had two groups of participants watch a 42-min TV episode and, after a 24-hr delay, perform a temporal-order judgment task during fMRI. Each retrieval trial comprised three images presented sequentially, requiring participants to judge the temporal order between the first and last images while ignoring the second image (“distractor”). We manipulated the bottom-up factor by presenting distractors that were extracted from either an event-boundary or a non-boundary of the movie. The top-down factor was manipulated by instructing one group perform a segmentation task reporting the event-boundaries at encoding, while the other group watched the movie passively. Across groups, we found that the stimulus-related factor modulated retrieval activation in the anterior rSMG (areas PFt and PFop), whereas the goal-related influence of prior segmentation interacted with this effect in the middle rSMG (area PF), demonstrating IPL segregation during retrieval as a function of prior bottom-up vs. top-down attention signals. PMID:26057929

  14. The nature and staging of attention dysfunction in early (minimal and mild) Alzheimer's disease: relationship to episodic and semantic memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Perry, R J; Watson, P; Hodges, J R

    2000-01-01

    The development of cholinergic therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has highlighted the importance of understanding the role of attentional deficits and the relationship between attention and memory in the earliest stages of the disease. Variability in the tasks used to examine aspects of attention, and in the disease severity, between studies makes it difficult to determine which aspects of attention are affected earliest in AD, and how attentional impairment is related to other cognitive modules. We tested 27 patients in the early stages of the disease on the basis of the MMSE (minimal 24-30 corresponding to minimal cognitive impairment, very mild or possible AD in other classifications; and mild 18-23) on a battery of attentional tests aimed to assess sustained, divided, and selective attention, plus tests of episodic memory, semantic memory, visuoperceptual and visuospatial function, and verbal short-term memory. Although the mildly demented group were impaired on all attentional tests, the minimally impaired group showed a preserved ability to sustain attention, and to divide attention based on a dual-task paradigm. The minimally demented group had particular problems with response inhibition and speed of attentional switching. Examination of the relationship between attention and other cognitive domains showed impaired episodic memory in all patients. Deficits in attention were more prevalent than deficits in semantic memory suggesting that they occur at an earlier stage and the two were partially independent. Impairment in visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions and verbal short-term memory were the least common. Although attention is impaired early in AD, 40% of our patients showed deficits in episodic memory alone, confirming that amnesia may be the only cognitive deficit in the earliest stages of sporadic AD. PMID:10678692

  15. The slow forgetting of emotional episodic memories: An emotional binding account

    PubMed Central

    Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ritchey, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events, and this emotion advantage becomes particularly pronounced over time. The time dependent effects of emotion impact recollection rather than familiarity-based recognition, and they influence recollection of item-specific details rather than contextual details. Moreover, the amygdala, but not the hippocampus, is critical in producing these effects. Time-dependent effects of emotion have been attributed to an emotional consolidation process whereby the amygdala gradually facilitates the storage of emotional memories by other medial temporal lobe regions. However, here we propose that these effects can be better understood by an emotional binding account whereby the amygdala mediates the recollection of item-emotion bindings that are forgotten more slowly than item-context bindings supported by the hippocampus. PMID:25836045

  16. Investigating trajectories of social recovery in individuals with first-episode psychosis: a latent class growth analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hodgekins, Jo; Birchwood, Max; Christopher, Rose; Marshall, Max; Coker, Sian; Everard, Linda; Lester, Helen; Jones, Peter; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Freemantle, Nick; Fowler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Social disability is a hallmark of severe mental illness yet individual differences and factors predicting outcome are largely unknown. Aim To explore trajectories and predictors of social recovery following a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Method A sample of 764 individuals with FEP were assessed on entry into early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services and followed up over 12 months. Social recovery profiles were examined using latent class growth analysis. Results Three types of social recovery profile were identified: Low Stable (66%), Moderate-Increasing (27%), and High-Decreasing (7%). Poor social recovery was predicted by male gender, ethnic minority status, younger age at onset of psychosis, increased negative symptoms, and poor premorbid adjustment. Conclusions Social disability is prevalent in FEP, although distinct recovery profiles are evident. Where social disability is present on entry into EIP services it can remain stable, highlighting a need for targeted intervention. PMID:26294371

  17. Individual Differences in Children's Working Memory and Writing Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Berninger, Virginia W.

    1996-01-01

    Examined whether writing and working memory (WM) were related to general or process-specific system, whether WM tasks operated independently of phonological short-term memory (STM), and whether WM predicted writing variance beyond that predicted by reading. Found a four-factor model reflecting phonological STM, verbal WM span, executive…

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Categorization: Individual Differences and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is crucial for many higher-level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization, and…

  19. Early Memories of Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Assessed Using Online Self-Reports

    PubMed Central

    Zamoscik, Vera; Mier, Daniela; Schmidt, Stephanie N. L.; Kirsch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    “When I was one and a half years old, I was on a ferry lying on red seats” – while several autobiographical accounts by people with autism reveal vivid memories of early childhood, the vast amount of experimental investigations found deficits in personal autobiographic memory in autism. To assess this contradiction empirically, we implemented an online questionnaire on early childhood events to compare people on the autism spectrum (AS) and non-autistic people with respect to their earliest autobiographical episodic memories and the earliest semantic know event as told by another person. Results indicate that people on the AS do not differ from non-autistic people in the age of their earliest know events but remember events from an earlier age in childhood and with more sensory details, contradicting the assumption of an overall deficit in personal episodic memory in autism. Furthermore, our results emphasize the supporting influence of language for memory formation and give evidence for an important role of sensory features in memories of people on the AS. PMID:27199786

  20. Early Memories of Individuals on the Autism Spectrum Assessed Using Online Self-Reports.

    PubMed

    Zamoscik, Vera; Mier, Daniela; Schmidt, Stephanie N L; Kirsch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    "When I was one and a half years old, I was on a ferry lying on red seats" - while several autobiographical accounts by people with autism reveal vivid memories of early childhood, the vast amount of experimental investigations found deficits in personal autobiographic memory in autism. To assess this contradiction empirically, we implemented an online questionnaire on early childhood events to compare people on the autism spectrum (AS) and non-autistic people with respect to their earliest autobiographical episodic memories and the earliest semantic know event as told by another person. Results indicate that people on the AS do not differ from non-autistic people in the age of their earliest know events but remember events from an earlier age in childhood and with more sensory details, contradicting the assumption of an overall deficit in personal episodic memory in autism. Furthermore, our results emphasize the supporting influence of language for memory formation and give evidence for an important role of sensory features in memories of people on the AS. PMID:27199786

  1. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…

  2. Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

  3. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Jaroslav; Li, Lucia; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kaneko, Jun; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans. Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40–78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects. PMID:26640437

  4. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Rokicki, Jaroslav; Li, Lucia; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kaneko, Jun; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans. Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40-78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects. PMID:26640437

  5. Individual Differences in Learning Talker Categories: The Role of Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the question of how an auditory category is learned by having school-age listeners learn to categorize speech not in terms of linguistic categories, but instead in terms of talker categories (i.e., who is talking). Findings from visual-category learning indicate that working memory skills affect learning, but the literature is equivocal: sometimes better working memory is advantageous, and sometimes not. The current study examined the role of different components of working memory to test which component skills benefit, and which hinder, learning talker categories. Results revealed that the short-term storage component positively predicted learning, but that the Central Executive and Episodic Buffer negatively predicted learning. As with visual categories, better working memory is not always an advantage. PMID:25721393

  6. Individual Differences in Young Children's Suggestibility: Relations to Event Memory, Language Abilities, Working Memory, and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, C.M.; Schneider, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two empirical studies are presented in which an attempt was made to explain individual differences in two different aspects of 4-year-olds' suggestibility, that is, their ability to resist false suggestions and memory impairments due to prior misinformation. As sources of individual differences cognitive skills along the information…

  7. Temporal Context Memory in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gras-Vincendon, Agnes; Mottron, Laurent; Salame, Pierre; Bursztejn, Claude; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory, i.e. memory for specific episodes situated in space and time, seems impaired in individuals with autism. According to weak central coherence theory, individuals with autism have general difficulty connecting contextual and item information which then impairs their capacity to memorize information in context. This study…

  8. Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory was examined in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing peers (TD). Thirty-two children (ADHD = 16, TD = 16) completed three versions of a phonological working memory task that varied with regard to stimulus presentation modality (auditory, visual, or dual auditory and visual), as well as a visuospatial task. Children with ADHD experienced the largest magnitude working memory deficits when phonological stimuli were presented via a unimodal, auditory format. Their performance improved during visual and dual modality conditions but remained significantly below the performance of children in the TD group. In contrast, the TD group did not exhibit performance differences between the auditory- and visual-phonological conditions but recalled significantly more stimuli during the dual-phonological condition. Furthermore, relative to TD children, children with ADHD recalled disproportionately fewer phonological stimuli as set sizes increased, regardless of presentation modality. Finally, an examination of working memory components indicated that the largest magnitude between-group difference was associated with the central executive. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer. PMID:24830472

  9. The use of self-generation procedures facilitates verbal memory in individuals with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Schefft, Bruce K; Dulay, Mario F; Fargo, Jamison D; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Yeh, Hwa-shain; Privitera, Michael D

    2008-07-01

    The efficacy of a self-generation encoding procedure in facilitating the encoding and retrieval of verbal memories was compared with the didactic presentation of information in individuals with seizure disorders. Through a within-subject design, 87 patients (25 left temporal seizure onset, 29 right temporal, 8 frontal, and 25 psychogenic nonepileptic seizures) received a self-generation learning condition and a didactic learning condition and were subsequently tested for verbal paired associate free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory. All patient groups benefited from the use of the self-generation condition relative to the didactic condition. Better performance occurred with the self-generation procedure for cued recall and recognition memory test performance, but not free recall. Individuals with a left temporal seizure onset (patients with the poorest memory performance on the didactic condition) benefited the most from the self-generation condition. A memory encoding strategy that actively involves patient participation enhances memory performance. PMID:18343201

  10. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  11. Individual Differences in Learning and Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Richard E.

    A battery of behavioral tests yielding 79 measures, many of which were presumably related to learning and memory, was administered to house mice of seven inbred strains. An analysis of the factorial structure indicated that the two principal and most pervasive factors underlying performance on the battery involved the initiation and maintenance of…

  12. The Relation between Navigation Strategy and Associative Memory: An Individual Differences Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Chi T.; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent…

  13. Working Memory and Mathematics: A Review of Developmental, Individual Difference, and Cognitive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Hecht, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory refers to a mental workspace, involved in controlling, regulating, and actively maintaining relevant information to accomplish complex cognitive tasks (e.g. mathematical processing). Despite the potential relevance of a relation between working memory and math for understanding developmental and individual differences in…

  14. Variation in Cognitive Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation of Everyday Attention and Memory Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday cognitive failures assessed by diaries. A large sample of participants completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory. Furthermore, a subset of these participants also recorded everyday cognitive failures (attention, retrospective memory, and prospective memory failures)…

  15. Multimedia Learning and Individual Differences: Mediating the Effects of Working Memory Capacity with Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…

  16. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  17. Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

  18. Collective memory: collaborative and individual processes in remembering.

    PubMed

    Weldon, M S; Bellinger, K D

    1997-09-01

    Two experiments compared collaborative and individual recall. In Experiment 1, participants encoded pictures and words with a deep or shallow processing task, then recalled them twice either individually or collaboratively. Collaborative groups recalled more than individuals, but less than nominal groups (pooled individuals), thus exhibiting collaborative inhibition. However, group recall appeared to be more stable over time than individual recall. Groups and individuals both showed a picture-superiority effect, a level-of-processing effect, and hypermnesia. In Experiment 2, participants recalled the story "War of the Ghosts" (from F. C. Bartlett, 1932), and again collaborative groups recalled more than individuals, but less than nominal groups. Both the individual and collaborative recalls were highly organized. There was evidence that the collaborative groups tended to rely on the best individual to a greater extent in story than in list recall. Possible social and cognitive mechanisms are considered. PMID:9293627

  19. Hospitalization Happens: A Guide to Hospital Visits for Individuals with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Guide to Hospital Visits for Individuals with Memory Loss Hospital Emergencies: What You Can Do Now ... Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services December 2008 (Reprinted January 2013) Publication Date: ...

  20. The formation of novel social category conjunctions in working memory: A possible role for the episodic buffer?

    PubMed

    Hutter, Russell R C; Allen, Richard J; Wood, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent research (e.g., Hutter, Crisp, Humphreys, Waters, & Moffit; Siebler) has confirmed that combining novel social categories involves two stages (e.g., Hampton; Hastie, Schroeder, & Weber). Furthermore, it is also evident that following stage 1 (constituent additivity), the second stage in these models involves cognitively effortful complex reasoning. However, while current theory and research has addressed how category conjunctions are initially represented to some degree, it is not clear precisely where we first combine or bind existing social constituent categories. For example, how and where do we compose and temporarily store a coherent representation of an individual who shares membership of "female" and "blacksmith" categories? In this article, we consider how the revised multi-component model of working memory (Baddeley) can assist in resolving the representational limitations in the extant two-stage theoretical models. This is a new approach to understanding how novel conjunctions form new bound "composite" representations. PMID:25782096

  1. The relation between navigation strategy and associative memory: An individual differences approach.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Chi T; Weisberg, Steven M; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-04-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent response strategy (Bohbot, Gupta, Banner, & Dahmani, 2011), but not all studies suggest such an effect (Woollett & Maguire, 2009, 2012). Here we tested nonexpert young adults and found that preference for a place strategy positively correlated with spatial (object-location) associative memory performance but did not correlate with nonspatial (face-name) associative memory performance. Importantly, these correlations differed from each other, indicating that the relation between navigation strategy and associative memory is specific to the spatial domain. In addition, the 2 associative memory tasks significantly correlated, suggesting that object-location memory taps into processes relevant to both hippocampal-dependent navigation and nonspatial associative memory. Our findings also suggest that individual differences in spatial associative memory may account for some of the variance in navigation strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26501930

  2. Patterns of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories across the entire life-span of aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Armelle; Lebreton, Karine; Chételat, Gaël; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Young, Alan; De La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Episodic Autobiographical Memories (EAMs) rely on a network of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and distributed neocortical regions regardless of their remoteness. The findings supported the model of memory consolidation which proposes a permanent role of MTL during EAM retrieval (Multiple-Trace Theory or MTT) rather than a temporary role (standard model). Our present aim was to expand the results by examining the interactions between the MTL and neocortical regions (or MTL-neocortical links) during EAM retrieval with varying retention intervals. We used an experimental paradigm specially designed to engage aged participants in the recollection of EAMs, extracted from five different time-periods, covering their whole life-span, in order to examine correlations between activation in the MTL and neocortical regions. The nature of the memories was checked at debriefing by means of behavioral measures to control the degree of episodicity and properties of memories. Targeted correlational analyses carried out on the MTL, frontal, lateral temporal and posterior regions revealed strong links between the MTL and neocortex during the retrieval of both recent and remote EAMs, challenging the standard model of memory consolidation and supporting MTT instead. Further confirmation was given by results showing that activation in the left and right hippocampi significantly correlated during the retrieval of both recent and remote memories. Correlations among extra-MTL neocortical regions also emerged for all time-periods, confirming the critical role of the prefrontal, temporal (lateral temporal cortex and temporal pole), precuneus and posterior cingulate regions in EAM retrieval. Overall, this paper emphasizes the role of a bilateral network of MTL and neocortical areas whose activation correlate during the recollection of rich phenomenological recent and remote EAMs. PMID:19338022

  3. Stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor improves memory in young and elderly healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hinkelmann, Kim; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Fleischer, Juliane; Heuser, Isabella; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Glucocorticoids play an important role in cognitive function and act on glucocorticoid receptors and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the brain. Previously, the blockade of the MR has been shown to impair visuospatial and working memory in healthy young men. Here, we investigated the effects of the MR agonist fludrocortisone on memory in young and elderly healthy individuals. Thirty-one young (mean age 25.4 ± 4.6 years) and 22 elderly (mean age 63.2 ± 8.2 years) healthy participants received the MR agonist fludrocortisone (0.4 mg) or placebo at least 3 days apart in a randomized, double-blind within-subject cross-over design. We measured verbal memory (auditory verbal learning test), nonverbal memory (Rey/Taylor complex figure test), and working memory (digit-span task). As expected, young participants performed significantly better than elderly individuals in visuospatial memory (effect of group: F = 42.7, p < 0.01), verbal memory (F = 33.1, p < 0.01), and working memory (digit-span backward: F = 4.5, p = 0.04). For visuospatial memory (F = 5.0, p = 0.03) and short-term and working memory (digit-span forward: F = 4.2, p = 0.05), we found a significant treatment effect indicating better memory performance after fludrocortisone compared with placebo across groups. In concert with the previous studies, our data suggest a role of the MR in memory function. A cognitive enhancing effect by MR stimulation warrants future studies. PMID:25442112

  4. Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In previously depressed individuals, reflective thinking may easily get derailed and lead to detrimental effects. This study investigated the conditions in which such thinking is, or is not, adaptive. Levels of mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity were assessed as potential moderators of the relationship between reflective thinking and depressive symptoms. Two hundred seventy-four individuals with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, rumination—including subscales for reflection and brooding—and mindfulness, as well as an autobiographical memory task to assess memory specificity. In those low in both mindfulness and memory specificity, higher levels of reflection were related to more depressive symptoms, whereas in all other groups higher levels of reflection were related to fewer depressive symptoms. The results demonstrate that the relation between reflective pondering and depressive symptoms varies depending on individual state or trait factors. In previously depressed individuals, the cognitive problem-solving aspect of reflection may be easily hampered when tendencies toward unspecific processing are increased, and awareness of mental processes such as self-judgment and reactivity is decreased. PMID:25643201

  5. Neural Activity in the Hippocampus and Perirhinal Cortex during Encoding Is Associated with the Durability of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Valerie A.; Viskontas, Indre V.; Engel, Stephen A.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining medial temporal lobe (MTL) involvement in memory formation typically assess memory performance after a single, short delay. Thus, the relationship between MTL encoding activity and memory durability over time remains poorly characterized. To explore this relationship, we scanned participants using high-resolution functional…

  6. Functional Brain Network Modularity Captures Inter- and Intra-Individual Variation in Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Alexander A.; Tappon, Sarah C.; Garg, Arun; Fair, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive abilities, such as working memory, differ among people; however, individuals also vary in their own day-to-day cognitive performance. One potential source of cognitive variability may be fluctuations in the functional organization of neural systems. The degree to which the organization of these functional networks is optimized may relate to the effective cognitive functioning of the individual. Here we specifically examine how changes in the organization of large-scale networks measured via resting state functional connectivity MRI and graph theory track changes in working memory capacity. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-two participants performed a test of working memory capacity and then underwent resting-state fMRI. Seventeen subjects repeated the protocol three weeks later. We applied graph theoretic techniques to measure network organization on 34 brain regions of interest (ROI). Network modularity, which measures the level of integration and segregation across sub-networks, and small-worldness, which measures global network connection efficiency, both predicted individual differences in memory capacity; however, only modularity predicted intra-individual variation across the two sessions. Partial correlations controlling for the component of working memory that was stable across sessions revealed that modularity was almost entirely associated with the variability of working memory at each session. Analyses of specific sub-networks and individual circuits were unable to consistently account for working memory capacity variability. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the intrinsic functional organization of an a priori defined cognitive control network measured at rest provides substantial information about actual cognitive performance. The association of network modularity to the variability in an individual's working memory capacity suggests that the organization of this network into high connectivity within modules

  7. Learning and memory in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Erickson, Roger L; Hartman, Jo Ann; Brown, Warren S

    2016-06-01

    Damage to long white matter pathways in the cerebral cortex is known to affect memory capacity. However, the specific contribution of interhemispheric connectivity in memory functioning is only beginning to become understood. The present study examined verbal and visual memory processing in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997b). Thirty participants with AgCC (FSIQ >78) were compared against 30 healthy age and IQ matched controls on auditory/verbal (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates) and visual (Visual Reproduction, Faces) memory subtests. Performance was worse in AgCC than controls on immediate and delayed verbal recall for rote word pairs and on delayed recall of faces, as well as on percent recall for these tasks. Immediate recall for thematic information from stories was also worse in AgCC, but groups did not differ on memory for details from narratives or on recall for thematic information following a time delay. Groups also did not differ on memory for abstract figures or immediate recall of faces. On all subtests, individuals with AgCC had greater frequency of clinically significant impairments than predicted by the normal distribution. Results suggest less efficient overall verbal and visual learning and memory with relative weaknesses processing verbal pairs and delayed recall for faces. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates more efficient learning and recall for both verbal and visual information, that individuals with AgCC may benefit from receiving verbal information within semantic context, and that known deficits in facial processing in individuals with AgCC may contribute to their impairments in recall for faces. PMID:27091586

  8. Familiarity is related to conceptual implicit memory: an examination of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    Explicit memory is thought to be distinct from implicit memory. However, growing evidence has indicated that explicit familiarity-based recognition memory judgments rely on the same process that supports conceptual implicit memory. We tested this hypothesis by examining individual differences using a paradigm wherein we measured both familiarity and conceptual implicit memory within the same participants. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we examined recognition memory confidence ROCs and remember/know responses, respectively, to estimate recollection and familiarity, and used a free association task to measure conceptual implicit memory. The results demonstrated that, across participants, familiarity, but not recollection, was significantly correlated with conceptual priming. In contrast, in Experiment 2, utilizing a similar paradigm, a comparison of recognition memory ROCs and explicit associative cued-recall performance indicated that cued recall was related to both recollection and familiarity. These results are consistent with models assuming that familiarity-based recognition and conceptual implicit memory rely on similar underlying processes. PMID:22833341

  9. Assessing the Neural Correlates of Task-unrelated Thoughts during Episodic Encoding and Their Association with Subsequent Memory in Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that young adults frequently exhibit task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) such as mind-wandering during episodic encoding tasks and that TUTs negatively impact subsequent memory. In the current study, we assessed age-related differences in the frequency and neural correlates of TUTs during a source memory encoding task, as well as age-related differences in the relationship between the neural correlates of TUTs and subsequent source forgetting effects (i.e., source misses). We found no age-related differences in frequency of TUTs during fMRI scanning. Moreover, TUT frequency at encoding was positively correlated with source misses at retrieval across age groups. In both age groups, brain regions including bilateral middle/superior frontal gyri and precuneus were activated to a greater extent during encoding for subsequent source misses versus source hits and during TUTs versus on-task episodes. Overall, our results reveal that, during a source memory encoding task in an fMRI environment, young and older adults exhibit a similar frequency of TUTs and that experiencing TUTs at encoding is associated with decreased retrieval performance. In addition, in both age groups, experiencing TUTs at encoding is associated with increased activation in some of the same regions that exhibit subsequent source forgetting effects. PMID:26845110

  10. Different Roles of Direct and Indirect Frontoparietal Pathways for Individual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Matthias; Fiebach, Christian J; Melzer, Corina; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Derrfuss, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in working memory is a hallmark of human intelligence and differs considerably across individuals, but the structural brain correlates underlying these differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are only poorly understood. In two separate studies, diffusion MRI data and WMC scores were collected for 70 and 109 healthy individuals. Using a combination of probabilistic tractography and network analysis of the white matter tracts, we examined whether structural brain network properties were predictive of individual WMC. Converging evidence from both studies showed that lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of high-capacity individuals are more densely connected compared with low-capacity individuals. Importantly, our network approach was further able to dissociate putative functional roles associated with two different pathways connecting frontal and parietal regions: a corticocortical pathway and a subcortical pathway. In Study 1, where participants were required to maintain and update working memory items, the connectivity of the direct and indirect pathway was predictive of WMC. In contrast, in Study 2, where participants were required to maintain working memory items without updating, only the connectivity of the direct pathway was predictive of individual WMC. Our results suggest an important dissociation in the circuitry connecting frontal and parietal regions, where direct frontoparietal connections might support storage and maintenance, whereas subcortically mediated connections support the flexible updating of working memory content. PMID:26961945

  11. Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease: implications for development of therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by a constellation of cognitive disturbances, the earliest and most prominent being impaired episodic memory. Episodic memory refers to the memory system that allows an individual to consciously retrieve a previously experienced item or episode of life. Many recent studies have focused on characterizing how AD pathology impacts particular aspects of episodic memory and underlying mental and neural processes. This review summarizes the findings of those studies and discusses the effects of current and promising treatments for AD on episodic memory. The goal of this review is to raise awareness of the strides that cognitive neuroscientists have made in understanding intact and dysfunctional memory. Knowledge of the specific memorial processes that are impaired in AD may be of great value to basic scientists developing novel therapies and to clinical researchers assessing the efficacy of those therapies. PMID:19086882

  12. Visuospatial Support for Verbal Short-Term Memory in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Cintia Perez; Covre, Priscila; Braga, Ana Claudia; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have impaired verbal short-term memory (STM), which persists even when visual support is provided for carrying out verbal tasks. Objective: The current study aims to investigate whether visuospatial support, rather than just visual, can compensate for verbal STM deficits in these individuals. The…

  13. Veridical and False Pictorial Memory in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael T.; Toglia, Michael P.; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit…

  14. A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

  15. Self-defining memories and self-defining future projections in hypomania-prone individuals.

    PubMed

    Lardi Robyn, Claudia; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-06-01

    Mania and hypomania involve dysfunctional beliefs about the self, others, and the world, as well about affect regulation. The present study explored the impact of these beliefs on self-defining memories and self-defining future projections of individuals with a history of hypomanic symptoms. The main findings showed that a history of hypomanic symptoms was related to enhanced retrieval of memories describing positive relationships and to reduced future projections about relationships, suggesting both a need for social bonding and a striving for autonomy. Moreover, hypomania-prone individuals tended to describe more recent events and to produce self-defining memories with references to tension that were more integrated in their self-structure. All of these findings support the presence of conflicting dysfunctional beliefs and the importance of memories containing references to tension in hypomania. PMID:22405587

  16. Characterization of individual aerosol particles collected during a haze episode in Incheon, Korea using the quantitative ED-EPMA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Ryu, J.; Maskey, S.; Jung, H.-J.; Ro, C.-U.

    2010-11-01

    Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon that leads to low visibility, and is mostly due to elevated levels of fine particulate matter. It can have effects on cloud formation, public health, agriculture, and even the global climate. Although urban haze has been increasing in occurrence over the past several years over the Seoul-Incheon metropolis, Korea, studies of the morphology and chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles by single-particle analysis during haze episodes have rarely been conducted. Herein, a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (ED-EPMA), called low-Z particle EPMA, was used to analyze individual aerosol particles collected in Incheon, Korea on 13-18 October 2008 (a typical haze episode occurred from 15 to 18 October). Overall, 3600 particles in 12 aerosol samples collected on haze and non-haze days were measured by low-Z particle EPMA. Based on quantitative X-ray analysis, together with secondary electron images of individual particles, we successfully identified the aerosol particle types as follows: elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing, genuine (fresh) and reacted (aged) sea-salt, mineral dust (such as aluminosilicate, SiO2, CaCO3/CaMg(CO3)2, etc.), and K-containing, Fe-rich, and fly ash particles. By analyzing the relative abundances of different particle types, it was concluded that (a) on non-haze days, reacted sea-salts and reacted mineral dust particles were abundant in both the PM2.5-10 and PM1.0-2.5 fractions (with relative abundances of 65.0% and 57.7%, respectively); whereas on haze days, the relative abundances of OC and (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing particles were significantly elevated, indicating that organic matter and secondary aerosols were abundant in the atmosphere when haze occurred. (b) in PM2.5-10 fractions, sea-salt and mineral dust particles reacted with NOx/HNO3 significantly outnumbered those reacted with SO2/H2SO4, no matter whether they were collected on haze

  17. The Contribution of Attentional Lapses to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Kirsten C. S.; Mance, Irida; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control and working memory capacity are important cognitive abilities that substantially vary between individuals. Although much is known about how attentional control and working memory capacity relate to each other and to constructs like fluid intelligence, little is known about how trial-by-trial fluctuations in attentional engagement impact trial-by-trial working memory performance. Here, we employ a novel whole-report memory task that allowed us to distinguish between varying levels of attentional engagement in humans performing a working memory task. By characterizing low-performance trials, we can distinguish between models in which working memory performance failures are caused by either (1) complete lapses of attention or (2) variations in attentional control. We found that performance failures increase with set-size and strongly predict working memory capacity. Performance variability was best modeled by an attentional control model of attention, not a lapse model. We examined neural signatures of performance failures by measuring EEG activity while participants performed the whole-report task. The number of items correctly recalled in the memory task was predicted by frontal theta power, with decreased frontal theta power associated with poor performance on the task. In addition, we found that poor performance was not explained by failures of sensory encoding; the P1/N1 response and ocular artifact rates were equivalent for high- and low-performance trials. In all, we propose that attentional lapses alone cannot explain individual differences in working memory performance. Instead, we find that graded fluctuations in attentional control better explain the trial-by-trial differences in working memory that we observe. PMID:25811710

  18. Memory for child sexual abuse information: simulated memory error and individual differences.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Goodman, Gail S; Lyons, Kristen E; Newton, Jeremy; Avila-Mora, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Building on the simulated-amnesia work of Christianson and Bylin (Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 495-511, 1999), the present research introduces a new paradigm for the scientific study of memory of childhood sexual abuse information. In Session 1, participants mentally took the part of an abuse victim as they read an account of the sexual assault of a 7-year-old. After reading the narrative, participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: They (1) rehearsed the story truthfully (truth group), (2) left out the abuse details of the story (omission group), (3) lied about the abuse details to indicate that no abuse had occurred (commission group), or (4) did not recall the story during Session 1 (no-rehearsal group). One week later, participants returned for Session 2 and were asked to truthfully recall the narrative. The results indicated that, relative to truthful recall, untruthful recall or no rehearsal at Session 1 adversely affected memory performance at Session 2. However, untruthful recall resulted in better memory than did no rehearsal. Moreover, gender, PTSD symptoms, depression, adult attachment, and sexual abuse history significantly predicted memory for the childhood sexual abuse scenario. Implications for theory and application are discussed. PMID:23835600

  19. Classifying individuals at high-risk for psychosis based on functional brain activity during working memory processing.

    PubMed

    Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Smieskova, Renata; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Klöppel, Stefan; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Wrege, Johannes; Simon, Andor; Taschler, Bernd; Nichols, Thomas; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Lang, Undine E; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The psychosis high-risk state is accompanied by alterations in functional brain activity during working memory processing. We used binary automatic pattern-classification to discriminate between the at-risk mental state (ARMS), first episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls (HCs) based on n-back WM-induced brain activity. Linear support vector machines and leave-one-out-cross-validation were applied to fMRI data of matched ARMS, FEP and HC (19 subjects/group). The HC and ARMS were correctly classified, with an accuracy of 76.2% (sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 63.2%, p = 0.01) using a verbal working memory network mask. Only 50% and 47.4% of individuals were classified correctly for HC vs. FEP (p = 0.46) or ARMS vs. FEP (p = 0.62), respectively. Without mask, accuracy was 65.8% for HC vs. ARMS (p = 0.03) and 65.8% for HC vs. FEP (p = 0.0047), and 57.9% for ARMS vs. FEP (p = 0.18). Regions in the medial frontal, paracingulate, cingulate, inferior frontal and superior frontal gyri, inferior and superior parietal lobules, and precuneus were particularly important for group separation. These results suggest that FEP and HC or FEP and ARMS cannot be accurately separated in small samples under these conditions. However, ARMS can be identified with very high sensitivity in comparison to HC. This might aid classification and help to predict transition in the ARMS. PMID:26640767

  20. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT) on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions. PMID:25360090

  1. Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload.

    PubMed

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

  2. Music lessons are associated with increased verbal memory in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Brittany A; Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K

    2014-11-16

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats. Those with formal music training (average duration of training 4½ years) scored significantly higher on both the spoken and sung recall items, as well as on the spoken multiple choice items, than those with no music training. Music therapy, music enjoyment, age, and Verbal IQ did not impact performance on the memory tasks. These findings provide further evidence that formal music lessons may impact the neurological pathways associated with verbal memory in individuals with WS, consistent with findings in typically developing individuals. PMID:25462517

  3. Autobiographical Memory, Autonoetic Consciousness, and Identity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanweer, Tilait; Rathbone, Clare J.; Souchay, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Previous results from research on individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) suggest a diminished ability for recalling episodic autobiographical memory (AM). The primary aim of this study was to explore autobiographical memory in individuals with Asperger syndrome and specifically to investigate whether memories in those with AS are characterized by…

  4. Individual differences in the suppression of unwanted memories: the executive deficit hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Benjamin J; Anderson, Michael C

    2008-03-01

    When confronted with reminders to an unpleasant memory, people often try to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind. In this article, we review behavioral and neurocognitive evidence concerning the consequences of exerting such control over memory retrieval. This work indicates that suppressing retrieval is accomplished by control mechanisms that inhibit the unwanted memories, making them harder to recall later, even when desired. This process engages executive control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex to terminate recollection-related activity in the hippocampus. Together, these findings specify a neurocognitive model of how memory control operates, suggesting that executive control may be an important means of down-regulating intrusive memories over time. We conclude by proposing that individual differences in the regulation of intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma may be mediated by pre-existing differences in executive control ability. In support of this executive deficit hypothesis, we review the recent work indicating links between executive control ability and memory suppression. PMID:18242571

  5. Improving Memory and Cognition in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Down syndrome (DS), often due to trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). In addition, virtually all individuals with DS develop the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by the age of 40 years and almost 60 % will manifest symptoms of AD dementia by the age of 65 years. Currently, there are no pharmacological treatments available for ID in individuals with DS and only limited symptomatic treatments for AD dementia. Advances in our understanding in both the molecular basis of ID and the pathogenesis of AD have created opportunities to study potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies in animal models of DS continue to provide a rational basis for translating specific compounds into human clinical trials. However, target and compound selection are only initial steps in the drug development pathway. Other necessary considerations include appropriate study designs to assess efficacy in the DS population, as well as operational aspects specifically tailored to assess cognition in this population. We discuss recent progress in the development of compounds for both ID and AD in individuals with DS, as well as concepts for the design and conduct of clinical trials with such compounds. PMID:27272473

  6. The effect of individual differences in working memory capacity on sentence comprehension: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy; Cheng, Hu

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the interaction between working memory systems and language processing by examining how differences in working memory capacity (WMC) modulates neural activation levels and functional connectivity during sentence comprehension. The results indicate that two working memory systems may be involved in sentence comprehension, the verbal working memory system and the episodic buffer, but during different phases of the task. A sub-region of the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) was correlated with WMC during the probe and not during sentence reading while the only region to reveal a correlation with WMC during sentence reading was the posterior cingulate/precuneus area, a region linked to event representation. In addition, functional connectivity analysis suggests that there were two distinct networks affected by WMC. The first was a semantic network that included the middle temporal cortex, an anterior region of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal region. The second included the posterior cingulate and BA 45 of the inferior frontal gyrus. We propose here that high capacity readers may generate an event representation of the sentence during reading that aids in comprehension and that this event representation involves the processing of the posterior cingulate cortex. PMID:23124385

  7. Differential Cortical c-Fos and Zif-268 Expression after Object and Spatial Memory Processing in a Standard or Episodic-Like Object Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Flávio Freitas; Santos, José Ronaldo; Meurer, Ywlliane S. Rodrigues; Macêdo, Priscila Tavares; Ferreira, Luane M. Stamatto; Pontes, Isabella M. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Silva, Regina Helena

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where, and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory (ELM) formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition (OR) tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control, empty open field (CTR-OF), open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj), novel OR task, and ELM task and were killed 1 h after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal) discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) in the OR and ELM groups. The OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and PRh only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-DG co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel OR task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands. PMID:23986669

  8. Blurring emotional memories using eye movements: individual differences and speed of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    van Schie, Kevin; van Veen, Suzanne C.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Klugkist, Irene; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), patients make eye movements (EM) while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM), which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs) benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM) whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i.e., fast EM). Objective We experimentally examined and tested four prespecified hypotheses regarding the role of WMC and EM speed in reducing emotionality and vividness ratings: 1) EM—regardless of WMC and EM speed—are more effective compared to no dual task, 2) increasing EM speed only affects the decrease in memory ratings irrespective of WMC, 3) low-WMC individuals—compared to high-WMC individuals—benefit more from making either type of EM, 4) the EM intervention is most effective when—as predicted by WM theory—EM are adjusted to WMC. Method Undergraduates with low (n=31) or high (n=35) WMC recalled three emotional memories and rated vividness and emotionality before and after each condition (recall only, recall + slow EM, and recall + fast EM). Results Contrary to the theory, the data do not support the hypothesis that EM speed should be adjusted to WMC (hypothesis 4). However, the data show that a dual task in general is more effective in reducing memory ratings than no dual task (hypothesis 1), and that a more cognitively demanding dual task increases the intervention's effectiveness (hypothesis 2). Conclusions Although adjusting EM speed to an individual's WMC seems a straightforward clinical implication, the data do not show any indication that such a titration is helpful. PMID:27387843

  9. Episodic action memory for real objects: an ERP investigation with perform, watch, and imagine action encoding tasks versus a non-action encoding task.

    PubMed

    Senkfor, Ava J; Van Petten, Cyma; Kutas, Marta

    2002-04-01

    Cognitive research shows that people typically remember actions they perform better than those that they only watch or imagine doing, but also at times misremember doing actions they merely imagined or planned to do (source memory errors). Neural research suggests some overlap between brain regions engaged during action production, motor imagery, and action observation. The present study evaluates the similarities/differences in brain activity during the retrieval of various types of action and nonaction memories. Participants study real objects in one of four encoding conditions: performing an action, watching the experimenter perform an action, or imagining an action with an object, or a nonmotoric task of estimating an object's cost. At test, participants view color photos of the objects, and make source memory judgments about the initial encoding episodes. Event-related potentials (ERPs) during test reveal (1) content-specific brain activity depending on the nature of the encoding task, and (2) a hand tag, i.e., sensitivity to the hand with which an object had been manipulated at study. At fronto-central sites, ERPs are similar for the three action-retrieval conditions, which are distinct from those to the cost-encoded objects. At occipital sites ERPs distinguished objects from encoding conditions with visual motion (Perform and Watch) from those without visual motion (Imagine and Cost). Results thus suggest some degree of recapitulation of encoding brain activity during retrieval of memories with qualitatively distinct attributes. PMID:11970800

  10. The Pivotal Role of Semantic Memory in Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past. In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualized as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context. The neural substrates of the episodic and semantic memory systems have been dissociated in healthy individuals during functional imaging studies, and in clinical cohorts, leading to the prevailing view that episodic and semantic memory represent functionally distinct systems subtended by discrete neurobiological substrates. Importantly, however, converging evidence focusing on widespread neural networks now points to significant overlap between those regions essential for retrieval of autobiographical memories, episodic learning, and semantic processing. Here we review recent advances in episodic memory research focusing on neurodegenerative populations which has proved revelatory for our understanding of the complex interplay between episodic and semantic memory. Whereas episodic memory research has traditionally focused on retrieval of autobiographical events from the past, we also include evidence from the recent paradigm shift in which episodic memory is viewed as an adaptive and constructive process which facilitates the imagining of possible events in the future. We examine the available evidence which converges to highlight the pivotal role of semantic memory in providing schemas and meaning whether one is engaged in autobiographical retrieval for the past, or indeed, is endeavoring to construct a plausible scenario of an event in the future. It therefore seems plausible to contend that semantic processing may underlie most, if not all, forms of episodic memory, irrespective of temporal condition. PMID:23565081

  11. Quantification of HLA class II-specific memory B cells in HLA-sensitized individuals.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Gonca E; de Vaal, Yvonne J H; Roelen, Dave L; Buchli, Rico; Claas, Frans H J; Heidt, Sebastiaan

    2015-03-01

    For the quantification of HLA-specific memory B cells from peripheral blood of sensitized individuals, a limited number of methods are available. However, none of these are capable of detecting memory B cells directed at HLA class II molecules. Since the majority of antibodies that occur after transplantation appear to be specific for HLA class II, our aim was to develop an assay to detect and quantify HLA class II-specific memory B cells from peripheral blood. By using biotinylated soluble HLA class II molecules as detection agent, we were able to develop an HLA class II-specific memory B cell ELISPOT assay. The assay was validated using B cell-derived hybridomas that produce human monoclonal antibodies directed at specific HLA class II molecules. In pregnancy-immunized females, we found memory B cell frequencies ranging from 25 to 756 spots per 10(6) B cells specific for the immunizing paternal HLA class II molecules, whereas in non-immunized males no significant spot formation was detected. Here, we present a novel ELISPOT assay for quantifying HLA class II-specific memory B cells from peripheral blood. This technique provides a unique tool for monitoring the HLA class II-specific memory B cell pool in sensitized transplant recipients. PMID:25636565

  12. Attentional interference in judgments of musical timbre: individual differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael D; Blasko, Dawn G

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have shown that working memory is related to a variety of high-level cognitive processes. However, the results of recent research have suggested that may be because of its role in attentional control. In the present experiment, the authors investigated that hypothesis by using an attentional interference task with musical stimuli. Listeners were asked to monitor one ear for either a clarinet or violin tone and to ignore any information in the other ear. On some of the trials, they heard only one tone and on other trials, either the same instrument in both ears or different instruments. Individual differences were measured in working memory and musical experience. The results showed more attentional interference in the different-instrument condition for participants with lower working memory scores, which suggested that working memory involves the ability to control attention to inhibit irrelevant information. PMID:15685962

  13. Generalization on the Basis of Prior Experience Is Predicted by Individual Differences in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lenaert, Bert; van de Ven, Vincent; Kaas, Amanda L; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-01-01

    Generalization on the basis of prior experience is a central feature of human and nonhuman behavior, and anomalies in generalization can give rise to a wide array of problems. For instance, elevated levels of generalization have been shown in individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder. Identifying the individual difference variables that influence the extent to which behavior generalizes to novel stimuli may help our understanding of generalization and its potential maladaptive consequences. In this study, we first present an index of generalization that captures individual differences in generalization in a single continuous measure, thereby surpassing problems associated with traditional analyzing techniques. Further, we investigate whether generalization is predicted by working memory capacity. More precisely, it is hypothesized that generalization is a function of individual differences in the capacity to compare the current situation with previous learning experiences in working memory, and to adjust subsequent behavior accordingly. In a community sample, we found higher levels of generalization in individuals who were less efficient at filtering out irrelevant information from access to working memory. These results suggest that working memory impairments may contribute to elevated and potentially maladaptive levels of generalization. PMID:26763503

  14. The effect of vertical and horizontal symmetry on memory for tactile patterns in late blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Fantino, Micaela; Herbert, Andrew M; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2013-02-01

    Visual stimuli that exhibit vertical symmetry are easier to remember than stimuli symmetric along other axes, an advantage that extends to the haptic modality as well. Critically, the vertical symmetry memory advantage has not been found in early blind individuals, despite their overall superior memory, as compared with sighted individuals, and the presence of an overall advantage for identifying symmetric over asymmetric patterns. The absence of the vertical axis memory advantage in the early blind may depend on their total lack of visual experience or on the effect of prolonged visual deprivation. To disentangle this issue, in this study, we measured the ability of late blind individuals to remember tactile spatial patterns that were either vertically or horizontally symmetric or asymmetric. Late blind participants showed better memory performance for symmetric patterns. An additional advantage for the vertical axis of symmetry over the horizontal one was reported, but only for patterns presented in the frontal plane. In the horizontal plane, no difference was observed between vertical and horizontal symmetric patterns, due to the latter being recalled particularly well. These results are discussed in terms of the influence of the spatial reference frame adopted during exploration. Overall, our data suggest that prior visual experience is sufficient to drive the vertical symmetry memory advantage, at least when an external reference frame based on geocentric cues (i.e., gravity) is adopted. PMID:23150215

  15. Fusing fMRI and DTI Measures of Brain Function and Structure to Predict Working Memory and Processing Speed Performance among Inter-episode Bipolar Patients

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Benjamin S.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Sutherland, Ashley N.; Eyler, Lisa T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence for abnormal brain function as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cognitive dysfunction have been observed in inter-episode bipolar disorder (BD) patients. We aimed to create a joint statistical model of white matter integrity and functional response measures in explaining differences in working memory and processing speed among BD patients. Method Medicated inter-episode BD (n=26, age=45.2±10.1yrs) and healthy comparison (HC; n=36, age=46.3±11.5yrs) participants completed 51-direction DTI and fMRI while performing a working memory task. Participants also completed a processing speed test. Tract-based spatial statistics identified common white matter tracts where fractional anisotropy was calculated from atlas-defined regions of interest. Brain responses within regions of interest activation clusters were also calculated. Least angle regression was used to fuse fMRI and DTI data to select the best joint neuroimaging predictors of cognitive performance for each group. Results While there was overlap between groups in which regions were most related to cognitive performance, some relationships differed between groups. For working memory accuracy, BD-specific predictors included bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from fMRI, splenium of the corpus callosum, left uncinate fasciculus, and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi from DTI. For processing speed, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and right superior longitudinal fasciculus from DTI were significant predictors of cognitive performance selectively for BD patients. Conclusions BD patients demonstrated unique brain-cognition relationships compared to HC. These findings are a first step in discovering how interactions of structural and functional brain abnormalities contribute to cognitive impairments in BD. PMID:26037664

  16. The effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Kelly C.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to two groups of listeners without PD. Methods: Nineteen individuals with Parkinson's disease, ten healthy age- and hearing-matched adults, and ten healthy young adults were studied. All listeners participated in two intensity discrimination tasks differing in auditory memory load; a lower memory load, 4IAX task and a higher memory load, ABX task. Intensity discrimination performance was assessed using a bias-free measurement of signal detectability known as d' (d-prime). Listeners further participated in a continuous loudness scaling task where they were instructed to rate the loudness level of each signal intensity using a computerized 150mm visual analogue scale. Results: Group discrimination functions indicated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity (d') across tasks for the individuals with PD, as compared to the older and younger controls. No significant effect of aging on intensity discrimination was observed for either task. All three listeners groups demonstrated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity for the higher auditory memory load, ABX task, compared to the lower auditory memory load, 4IAX task. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging was identified for the loudness scaling condition. The younger controls were found to rate most stimuli along the continuum as significantly louder than the older controls and the individuals with PD. Conclusions: The persons with PD showed evidence of impaired auditory perception for intensity information, as compared to the older and younger controls. The significant effect of aging on loudness perception may indicate peripheral and/or central auditory involvement.

  17. Phonological and Visuo-Spatial Working Memory in Individuals with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Celia; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly

    2003-01-01

    Differences in storage and rehearsal components of the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad were investigated in individuals with (n=19) and without (n=21) intellectual disability matched on memory span. Those with intellectual disability had specific difficulty in the rehearsal component of the phonological loop. Groups did not differ in…

  18. Spatial-Sequential and Spatial-Simultaneous Working Memory in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, Silvia; De Mori, Letizia; Mammarella, Irene C.; Carretti, Barbara; Vianello, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare visuospatial working memory performance in 18 individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and 18 typically developing (TD) children matched for nonverbal mental age. Two aspects were considered: task presentation format (i.e., spatial-sequential or spatial-simultaneous), and level of attentional control…

  19. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

  20. Effects of Presentation Mode on Veridical and False Memory in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P.; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related…

  1. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and the management of sensorimotor bindings: individual differences in updating of stimulus-response episodes are predicted by DAT1, but not DBH5'-ins/del.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    Evidence suggests that the flexibility of managing (creating and updating) stimulus-response bindings is driven by the dopaminergic system. Given that striatal dopamine (DA) plays a crucial role in the updating of working memory, the present study tested whether individual differences in the efficiency of updating stimulus-response episodes (event files) are predicted by differences in genetic predisposition related to the efficiency of the striatal dopaminergic pathway. In view of contrasting claims that stimulus-response binding is related to norepinephrine, we also considered genetic predispositions regarding noradrenergic pathways. In a sample of 100 healthy adults, we studied whether the degree to which stimulus-response bindings affect ongoing performance is predicted by polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, associated with striatal DA levels) and DBH5'-ins/del (strongly correlated with dopamine beta-hydroxylase, the enzyme catalyzing the dopamine-norepinephrine conversion). The performance of 9-repeat carriers of the DAT1 gene was more affected by stimulus-response bindings than the performance of 10/10 homozygotes was, while DBH5'-ins/del polymorphism was not related to performance. This outcome pattern suggests a crucial role of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the flexible management of stimulus-response episodes, whereas norepinephrine does not seem to play a role. PMID:23681294

  2. Behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of episodic coding, proactive interference, and list length effects in a running span verbal working memory task.

    PubMed

    Postle, B R; Berger, J S; Goldstein, J H; Curtis, C E; D'Esposito, M

    2001-03-01

    Updating refers to (1) discarding items from, (2) repositioning items in, and (3) adding items to a running working memory span. Our behavioral and fMRI experiments varied three factors: trial length, proactive interference (PI), and group integrity. Group integrity reflected whether the grouping of items at the encoding stage was violated at discarding. Behavioral results were consistent with the idea that updating processes have a relatively short refractory period and may not fatigue, and they revealed that episodic information about group context is encoded automatically in working memory stimulus representations. The fMRI results did not show evidence that updating requirements in a task recruit executive control processes other than those supporting performance on nonupdating trials. They did reveal an item-accumulation effect, in which signal increased monotonically with the number of items presented during the trial, despite the insensitivity of behavioral measures to this factor. Behavioral and fMRI correlates of PI extended previous results and rejected an alternative explanation of PI effects in working memory. PMID:12467100

  3. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated Commentary http

  4. The effect of interference on temporal order memory in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    DeFord, Nicole E; Landy, Kelly M; Pirogovsky-Turk, Eva; Van Etten, Emily J; Graves, Lisa V; Salmon, David P; Filoteo, J Vincent; Gilbert, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Memory for the temporal order of items or events in a sequence has been shown to be impaired in older adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study examined the effects of high and low interference on temporal order memory in individuals diagnosed with PD (n=20) and demographically similar healthy older adults (n=20) utilizing a computerized task used in previously published studies. During the sample phase of each trial, a series of eight circles were randomly presented one at a time in eight different spatial locations. Participants were instructed to remember the sequence in which the circles appeared in the locations. During the choice phase, participants were presented with two circles in two different locations and were asked to indicate which circle appeared earliest in the sample phase sequence. The two circles were separated by one of four possible temporal separation lags (0, 2, 4, and 6), defined as the number of circles occurring in the sample phase sequence between the two choice phase circles. Shorter temporal lags (e.g., 0 and 2 lags) were hypothesized to result in higher interference compared to longer temporal lags (e.g., 4 and 6 lags). The results demonstrated that on trials involving high interference, no differences were found between the two groups. However, healthy older adults significantly outperformed individuals with PD (p<0.05) on trials involving low interference. Although differences were found between the PD and healthy older adult groups, both groups significantly improved on low interference trials compared to high interference trials (p<0.001). The findings indicate that temporal order memory improves in healthy older adults and individuals with PD when interference is reduced. However, individuals with PD demonstrated poorer temporal order memory even with less interference. Therefore, temporal order memory is differentially affected by interference in healthy older adults and individuals with PD. Given

  5. "When Did I Learn and When Shall I Act?": The Developmental Relationship between Episodic Future Thinking and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Suzuki, Toshiko

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of the ability to reflect on one's personal past and future. A total of 64 4- to 6-year-olds received tasks of delayed self-recognition, source memory, delay of gratification, and a newly developed task of future-oriented action timing. Although children's performance on delayed self-recognition, source…

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  7. Depressive symptoms are more strongly related to executive functioning and episodic memory among African American compared with non-Hispanic White older adults.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-11-01

    We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability. PMID:25280795

  8. Memory bias for schema-related stimuli in individuals with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Maul, Bärbel; Rühl, Ilka; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    This study investigates whether individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) have a memory bias in relation to explicit memory (cued and free recall vs. verbal and pictorial recognition tasks). Twenty-five participants diagnosed with BN and 27 normal controls (NC) were exposed to body-related, food-related, and neutral TV commercials, and then recall and recognition rates were assessed. Poorer recognition and recall of body-related stimuli was found for BN in comparison to NC, suggesting a memory bias. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies, along with suggestions as to how future studies can gain more insight into dysfunctions in information processing that can lead to the maintenance of eating disorders. PMID:20099307

  9. Individual differences in working memory and reasoning-remembering relationships in solving class-inclusion problems.

    PubMed

    Howe, M L; Rabinowitz, F M; Powell, T L

    1998-09-01

    In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of individual differences in reading span and variation in memory demands on class-inclusion performance. One hundred twenty college students whose reading spans ranged from low to medium to high (as indexed by a computerized version of the Daneman and Carpenter [1980] reading-span task) solved 48 class-inclusion problems. Half of the subjects had the solution information available when the problems were presented; the other half performed a detection task between solution information and problem presentation. The results from both standard statistical analyses and from a mathematical model indicated that differences in reading span and memory load had predictable, similar effects. Specifically, the sophistication of reasoning strategies declined when memory demands increased or when reading spans decreased. Surprisingly, these effects were primarily additive. The results were interpreted in terms of global resource models and findings from the developmental literature. PMID:9796238

  10. Immediate List Recall as a Measure of Short-Term Episodic Memory: Insights from the Serial Position Effect and Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Horwitz, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    The serial position effect shows that two interrelated cognitive processes underlie immediate recall of a supraspan word list. The current study used item response theory (IRT) methods to determine whether the serial position effect poses a threat to the construct validity of immediate list recall as a measure of verbal episodic memory. Archival data were obtained from a national sample of 4,212 volunteers aged 28–84 in the Midlife Development in the United States study. Telephone assessment yielded item-level data for a single immediate recall trial of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Two parameter logistic IRT procedures were used to estimate item parameters and the Q1 statistic was used to evaluate item fit. A two-dimensional model better fit the data than a unidimensional model, supporting the notion that list recall is influenced by two underlying cognitive processes. IRT analyses revealed that 4 of the 15 RAVLT items (1, 12, 14, and 15) were misfit (p < .05). Item characteristic curves for items 14 and 15 decreased monotonically, implying an inverse relationship between the ability level and the probability of recall. Elimination of the four misfit items provided better fit to the data and met necessary IRT assumptions. Performance on a supraspan list learning test is influenced by multiple cognitive abilities; failure to account for the serial position of words decreases the construct validity of the test as a measure of episodic memory and may provide misleading results. IRT methods can ameliorate these problems and improve construct validity. PMID:22138320

  11. Long-Term and Within-Day Variability of Working Memory Performance and EEG in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gevins, Alan; McEvoy, Linda K.; Smith, Michael E.; Chan, Cynthia S.; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Ilan, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Assess individual-subject long-term and within-day variability of a combined behavioral and EEG test of working memory. Methods EEGs were recorded from 16 adults performing n-back working memory tasks, with 10 tested in morning and afternoon sessions over several years. Participants were also tested after ingesting non-prescription medications or recreational substances. Performance and EEG measures were analyzed to derive an Overall score and three constituent sub-scores characterizing changes in performance, cortical activation, and alertness from each individual’s baseline. Long-term and within-day variability were determined for each score; medication effects were assessed by reference to each individual’s normal day-to-day variability. Results Over the several year period, the mean Overall score and sub-scores were approximately zero with standard deviations less than one. Overall scores were lower and their variability higher in afternoon relative to morning sessions. At the group level, alcohol, diphenhydramine and marijuana produced significant effects, but there were large individual differences. Conclusions Objective working memory measures incorporating performance and EEG are stable over time and sensitive at the level of individual subjects to interventions that affect neurocognitive function. Significance With further research these measures may be suitable for use in individualized medical care by providing a sensitive assessment of incipient illness and response to treatment. PMID:22154302

  12. Self-disorders in individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms: Contribution of a dysfunction of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Martin, Brice; Cermolacce, Michel; Allé, Mélissa C; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-05-30

    Patients with schizophrenia and people with subclinical psychotic symptoms have difficulties getting a clear and stable representation of their self. The cognitive mechanisms involved in this reduced clarity of self-concept remain poorly understood. The present study examined whether an altered way of thinking or reasoning about one's past may account for the reduced clarity of self-concept in individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS). An online study comprising 667 participants examined the capacity to give a meaning to past events and to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand him/herself. Our results showed that in this sample, individuals with APS (n=49) have a lower clarity of self-concept and a higher tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory than controls subjects (n=147). A mediation analysis performed on the full sample revealed that the relation between APS and clarity of self-concept was mediated by a tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory. Our results suggest that the weakness of self-concept, which increases with the intensity of psychotic symptoms, may be related to an altered function of autobiographical memory, so that examining past events may fail to sustain a stable and clear representation of the self when psychotic symptoms increase. PMID:27058160

  13. The Focus of Attention in Visual Working Memory: Protection of Focused Representations and Its Individual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Anna; Schubö, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory can be modulated according to changes in the cued task relevance of maintained items. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this modulation. In particular, we studied the consequences of attentional selection for selected and unselected items, and the role of individual differences in the efficiency with which attention is deployed. To this end, performance in a visual working memory task as well as the CDA/SPCN and the N2pc, ERP components associated with visual working memory and attentional processes, were analysed. Selection during the maintenance stage was manipulated by means of two successively presented retrocues providing spatial information as to which items were most likely to be tested. Results show that attentional selection serves to robustly protect relevant representations in the focus of attention while unselected representations which may become relevant again still remain available. Individuals with larger retrocueing benefits showed higher efficiency of attentional selection, as indicated by the N2pc, and showed stronger maintenance-associated activity (CDA/SPCN). The findings add to converging evidence that focused representations are protected, and highlight the flexibility of visual working memory, in which information can be weighted according its relevance. PMID:27099938

  14. ApoE and Pulse Pressure Interactively Influence Level and Change in the Aging of Episodic Memory: Protective Effects Among ε2 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    McFall, G. Peggy; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Vergote, David; Westaway, David; Jhamandas, Jack; Bäckman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We tested independent and interactive effects of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and pulse pressure (PP) concurrently and longitudinally across 9 years (3 waves) of episodic (EM) and semantic memory (SM) data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Method We assembled a sample of older adults (n=570, Baseline M age=71, Age range=53–95) and used latent growth modeling to test four research goals. Results First, the best fitting memory model was two single latent variables for EM and SM, each exhibiting configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance. This model was analyzed as a parallel process model. Second, baseline level of PP predicted EM performance at centering age (75) and rate of 9-year EM change. Third, we observed no main effects of ApoE on EM or SM. Fourth, EM was affected by higher PP but differentially less so for carriers of the ApoE ε2 allele than the ε3 or ε4 alleles. Conclusions PP is confirmed as a risk factor for concurrent and changing cognitive health in aging, but the effects operate differently across risk and protective allelic distribution of the ApoE gene. PMID:25436424

  15. Multimodal Feature Integration in the Angular Gyrus during Episodic and Semantic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Heidi M.; Richter, Franziska R.; Yazar, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Much evidence from distinct lines of investigation indicates the involvement of angular gyrus (AnG) in the retrieval of both episodic and semantic information, but the region's precise function and whether that function differs across episodic and semantic retrieval have yet to be determined. We used univariate and multivariate fMRI analysis methods to examine the role of AnG in multimodal feature integration during episodic and semantic retrieval. Human participants completed episodic and semantic memory tasks involving unimodal (auditory or visual) and multimodal (audio-visual) stimuli. Univariate analyses revealed the recruitment of functionally distinct AnG subregions during the retrieval of episodic and semantic information. Consistent with a role in multimodal feature integration during episodic retrieval, significantly greater AnG activity was observed during retrieval of integrated multimodal episodic memories compared with unimodal episodic memories. Multivariate classification analyses revealed that individual multimodal episodic memories could be differentiated in AnG, with classification accuracy tracking the vividness of participants' reported recollections, whereas distinct unimodal memories were represented in sensory association areas only. In contrast to episodic retrieval, AnG was engaged to a statistically equivalent degree during retrieval of unimodal and multimodal semantic memories, suggesting a distinct role for AnG during semantic retrieval. Modality-specific sensory association areas exhibited corresponding activity during both episodic and semantic retrieval, which mirrored the functional specialization of these regions during perception. The results offer new insights into the integrative processes subserved by AnG and its contribution to our subjective experience of remembering. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using univariate and multivariate fMRI analyses, we provide evidence that functionally distinct subregions of angular gyrus (An

  16. Interaction of the 5-HTTLPR and childhood trauma influences memory bias in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Janna N; Tendolkar, Indira; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Schene, Aart H; Fernández, Guillén; van Oostrom, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The tendency to recall more negative and less positive information has been frequently related to the genetic susceptibility to depression. This memory bias may be associated with depression candidate genes especially in individuals who experienced stressful childhood events. The serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4/5-HTT, regulates the reuptake of serotonin. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the gene's promoter region has a short (S) and a long (L) allele, of which L contains a further SNP (rs25531), resulting in a triallelic polymorphism: La, Lg, and S. Both S and Lg result in increased serotonin signaling (to simplify, we refer to both alleles as 'S'), which in turn appears associated with depression vulnerability, specifically in individuals with stressful events. In non-depressed individuals (N=1083), we examined the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype (LaLa, SLa, and SS) and stressful childhood events in association with explicit verbal memory bias (positive, negative). Two types of stressful childhood events were studied, namely childhood adverse events (e.g. parental loss) and interpersonal traumatic childhood events (e.g. abuse). Less positive memory bias was found for individuals with the SS genotype who had experienced interpersonal childhood traumatic events. No general association of genotype with memory bias was found, nor was there a significant interaction between genotype and childhood adverse events. Our results suggest that the depression-susceptibility genotype of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with depressive information processing styles when occurring in combination with traumatic childhood events. Tailoring treatment to specific risk profiles based on genetic susceptibility and childhood stress could be promising. PMID:26232751

  17. A virtual reality task based on animal research – spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, Mabel; Levčík, David; Konrádová, Lucie; Mikoláš, Pavol; Brom, Cyril; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analog of the Morris water maze (MWM), the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN) task. Methods: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM) session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions. Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to the healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and a similar deficit in spatial bias in the probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. The age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well with the previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  18. Memory-emotional interactions as revealed by fear generalization in animal-fearful individuals.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Bruno; Schlimm, Mike; Hermann, Christiane

    2005-06-01

    Discriminative fear learning and fear generalization were examined in animal-fearful individuals and in control participants. Electrical shocks were administered contingent upon discriminative pictures of spiders or snakes, respectively, in a generalization-after-discrimination paradigm. Neither discriminative fear learning nor extinction was affected by the individual fear status of the animal categories. Novel feared stimuli, which resembled discriminative stimuli, were treated as more shock predictive than novel non-feared stimuli during generalization testing. Neither preparedness theory nor selective sensitization theory was capable to account for these observations. The findings are commensurable with the hypothesis that phobic fear interferes with the retrieval of memory traces. PMID:15814082

  19. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process Theories of the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Tugade, Michele M.; Engle, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind. PMID:15250813

  20. The influence on individual working memory during 15 days -6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, YiXue; Zhou, RenLai; Wang, LinJie; Tan, Cheng

    2011-12-01

    The research evaluated the changes of verbal and spatial working memory with females during 15 days -6° head-down bed rest. We used 2-back task to evaluate the working memory ability on four time points: the fifth day before the rest, the fifth day and the tenth day in the rest and the fifth day after the rest, as well as record the participants' depression and anxiety feelings using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) simultaneously. The results demonstrated that the trends of verbal and spatial working memory performance were consistent with that of the control group during the rest. Moreover, in the -6° head-down bed rest conditions, the participants have performed no damage on the working memory ability, and any clinically salient anxiety and depression. The research considered that, compared to the real space environment, individuals' undamaged cognitive functions probably have something to do with the failure of evoking clinical anxiety and depression in the stimulated weightless environment.

  1. Impaired memory retrieval correlates with individual differences in cortisol response but not autonomic response

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Tony W.; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy participants (16 women) learned emotionally arousing and neutral words. One hour later, half of the participants underwent a stressor (cold pressor test) and the other half, a control warm water exposure, both followed by a delayed free recall task. The stressed participants were split into those who did (responders, N = 8) and those who did not (nonresponders, N = 6) show a cortisol response. Both responders and nonresponders showed comparable sympathetic nervous system activity (skin conductance level) during the cold pressor. The cortisol responders recalled significantly fewer words compared to nonresponders, and compared to control participants; this effect was most pronounced for moderately arousing words (compared to highly arousing and neutral words). These results suggest that individual differences in cortisol reactivity affect memory retrieval performance, and help to explain the differential effects of stress on memory. PMID:16741288

  2. Migration of objects and inferences across episodes.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Sharon L; Reinitz, Mark Tippens

    2003-04-01

    Participants viewed episodes in the form of a series of photographs portraying ordinary routines (e.g., eating at a restaurant) and later received a recognition test. In Experiment 1, it was shown that objects (e.g., a vase of flowers, a pewter lantern) that appeared in a single episode during the study phase migrated between memories of episodes described by the same abstract schema (e.g., from Restaurant Episode A at study to Restaurant Episode B at test), and not between episodes anchored by different schemas. In Experiment 2, it was demonstrated that backward causal inferences from one study episode influenced memories of other episodes described by the same schema, and that high-schema-relevant items viewed in one episode were sometimes remembered as having occurred in another episode of the same schematic type. PMID:12795485

  3. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Budson, Andrew E

    2010-08-01

    Converging evidence from patient and neuroimaging studies suggests that memory is a collection of abilities that use different neuroanatomic systems. Neurologic injury may impair one or more of these memory systems. Episodic memory allows us to mentally travel back in time and relive an episode of our life. Episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, other medial temporal lobe structures, the limbic system, and the frontal lobes, as well as several other brain regions. Semantic memory provides our general knowledge about the world and is unconnected to any specific episode of our life. Although semantic memory likely involves much of the neocortex, the inferolateral temporal lobes (particularly the left) are most important. Procedural memory enables us to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and algorithms that operate at an automatic, unconscious level. Damage to the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area often impair procedural memory. PMID:22810510

  4. Apolipoprotein ɛ4 breaks the association between declarative long-term memory and memory-based orienting of spatial attention in middle-aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; McCloud, Tayla; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 genotype has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The memory system is mostly involved in AD, and memory deficits represent its key feature. A growing body of studies has focused on the earlier identification of cognitive dysfunctions in younger and older APOE ɛ4 carriers, but investigation on middle-aged individuals remains rare. Here we sought to investigate if the APOE ɛ4 genotype modulates declarative memory and its influences on perception in the middle of the life span. We tested 60 middle-aged individuals recruited according to their APOE allele variants (ɛ3/ɛ3, ɛ3/ɛ4, ɛ4/ɛ4) on a long-term memory-based orienting of attention task. Results showed that the APOE ɛ4 genotype impaired neither explicit memory nor memory-based orienting of spatial attention. Interestingly, however, we found that the possession of the ɛ4 allele broke the relationship between declarative long-term memory and memory-guided orienting of visuo-spatial attention, suggesting an earlier modulation exerted by pure genetic characteristics on cognition. These findings are discussed in light of possible accelerated brain ageing in middle-aged ɛ4-carriers, and earlier structural changes in the brain occurring at this stage of the lifespan. PMID:27395443

  5. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues (e.g., Colombo & Mitchell, 1990) found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during subsequent stimulus exposure than infants that demonstrate long visual fixations (i.e., long lookers). The current study utilized event-related potentials to examine possible neural mechanisms associated with individual differences in visual attention and recognition memory for 6- and 7.5-month-old infants. Short- and long-looking infants viewed images of familiar and novel objects during ERP testing. There was a stimulus type by looker type interaction at temporal and frontal electrodes on the late slow wave (LSW). Short lookers demonstrated a LSW that was significantly greater in amplitude in response to novel stimulus presentations. No significant differences in LSW amplitude were found based on stimulus type for long lookers. These results indicate deeper processing and recognition memory of the familiar stimulus for short lookers. PMID:21666833

  6. Patterns of interaction-dominant dynamics in individual versus collaborative memory foraging.

    PubMed

    Szary, Janelle; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Rhodes, Theo

    2015-11-01

    The extent to which a cognitive system's behavioral dynamics fit a power law distribution is considered indicative of the extent to which that system's behavior is driven by multiplicative, interdependent interactions between its components. Here, we investigate the dynamics of memory processes in individual and collaborating participants. Collaborative dyads showed the characteristic collaborative inhibition effect when compared to nominal groups in terms of the number of items retrieved in a categorical recall task, but they also generate qualitatively different patterns of search behavior. To categorize search behavior, we used multi-model inference to compare the degree to which five candidate models (normal, exponential, gamma, lognormal, and Pareto) described the temporal distribution of each individual and dyad's recall processes. All individual and dyad recall processes were best fit by interaction-dominant distributions (lognormal and Pareto), but a clear difference emerged in that individual behavior is more power law, and collaborative behavior was more lognormal. We discuss these results in terms of the cocktail model (Holden et al. in Psychol Rev 116(2):318-342, 2009), which suggests that as a task becomes more constrained (such as through the necessity of collaborating), behavior can shift from power law to lognormal. This shift may reflect a decrease in the dyad's ability to flexibly shift between perseverative and explorative search patterns. Finally, our results suggest that a fruitful avenue for future research would be to investigate the constraints modulating the shift from power law to lognormal behavior in collaborative memory search. PMID:26314586

  7. Working Memory and Individual Differences in Mathematics Achievement: A Longitudinal Study from First Grade to Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Janssen, Rianne; Bouwens, Kelly; Verschaffel, Lieven; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between working memory and individual differences in mathematics. Working memory measures, comprising the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive, were administered at the start of first grade. Mathematics achievement was assessed 4 months later (at the middle of…

  8. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  9. Abacavir-Reactive Memory T Cells Are Present in Drug Naïve Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Andrew; Lucas, Michaela; Strhyn, Anette; Keane, Niamh M.; McKinnon, Elizabeth; Pavlos, Rebecca; Moran, Ellen M.; Meyer-Pannwitt, Viola; Gaudieri, Silvana; D’Orsogna, Lloyd; Kalams, Spyros; Ostrov, David A.; Buus, Søren; Peters, Bjoern; Mallal, Simon; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Fifty-five percent of individuals with HLA-B*57:01 exposed to the antiretroviral drug abacavir develop a hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) that has been attributed to naïve T-cell responses to neo-antigen generated by the drug. Immunologically confirmed abacavir HSR can manifest clinically in less than 48 hours following first exposure suggesting that, at least in some cases, abacavir HSR is due to re-stimulation of a pre-existing memory T-cell population rather than priming of a high frequency naïve T-cell population. Methods To determine whether a pre-existing abacavir reactive memory T-cell population contributes to early abacavir HSR symptoms, we studied the abacavir specific naïve or memory T-cell response using HLA-B*57:01 positive HSR patients or healthy controls using ELISpot assay, intra-cellular cytokine staining and tetramer labelling. Results Abacavir reactive CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in vitro in one hundred percent of abacavir unexposed HLA-B*57:01 positive healthy donors. Abacavir-specific CD8+ T cells from such donors can be expanded from sorted memory, and sorted naïve, CD8+ T cells without need for autologous CD4+ T cells. Conclusions We propose that these pre-existing abacavir-reactive memory CD8+ T-cell responses must have been primed by earlier exposure to another foreign antigen and that these T cells cross-react with an abacavir-HLA-B*57:01-endogenous peptide ligand complex, in keeping with the model of heterologous immunity proposed in transplant rejection. PMID:25674793

  10. Differential mechanisms of memory CD8 T cell maintenance by individual myeloid cell types

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Loredana; Stonier, Spencer W.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Schluns, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that individual myeloid subsets have a differential ability to maintain memory CD8 T cells via IL-15. Although DCs support IL-15-mediated homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells in vivo, whether various DC subsets and other myeloid cells similarly mediate homeostasis is unknown. Therefore, we studied the ability of different myeloid cells to maintain memory CD8 T cells in vitro. Using an in vitro cocoulture system that recapitulated known roles of DCs and IL-15 on memory CD8 T cells, all in vitro-derived or ex vivo-isolated DCs maintained CD8 T cells better than rIL-15 alone, and FLT-3L-DCs are the most efficient compared with GM-DCs, BM-derived macrophages, or freshly isolated DCs. Although FLT-3L-DCs were the least effective at inducing CD8 T cell proliferation, FLT-3L-DCs promoted better CD8 T cell survival and increased Bcl-2 and MCL-2 expression in CD8 T cells. T cell maintenance correlated only partially with DC expression of IL-15Rα and IL-15, suggesting that DCs provided additional support signals. Indeed, in the absence of IL-15 signals, CD70/CD27 further supported CD8 T cell maintenance. IFN-α enhanced CD70 expression by DCs, resulting in increased proliferation of CD8 T cells. Overall, this study supports our hypothesis by demonstrating that specific DC subtypes had a greater capacity to support memory CD8 T cell maintenance and did so through different mechanisms. Furthermore, this study shows that IL-15 trans-presentation can work in conjunction with other signals, such as CD70/CD27 interactions, to mediate CD8 T cell homeostasis efficiently. PMID:20354106

  11. The Contributions of Primary and Secondary Memory to Working Memory Capacity: An Individual Differences Analysis of Immediate Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the dual-component model of working memory capacity (WMC) by examining estimates of primary memory and secondary memory from an immediate free recall task. Participants completed multiple measures of WMC and general intellectual ability as well as multiple trials of an immediate free recall task. It was demonstrated that…

  12. Autobiographical memories of anger in violent and non-violent individuals: a script-driven imagery study.

    PubMed

    Spoont, Michele R; Kuskowski, Michael; Pardo, Jose V

    2010-09-30

    Numerous studies have implicated frontal lobe dysfunction in anger-related impulsive violent behavior; however, few studies have looked at frontal activity during angry states in violent individuals. Using PET and a script-driven imagery paradigm, we report on autobiographical memories of angry vs. neutral memories in violent patients and psychiatric matched controls. Relative to recall of neutral memories, recall of anger-laden memories was associated with an activation of frontal regions among control subjects but not violent subjects. Violent subjects demonstrated relatively greater activations in the left amygdala, pontine, and cerebellar regions compared to control subjects. PMID:20702069

  13. Canopy foliation and area as predictors of mortality risk from episodic drought for individual trees of Ashe juniper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is killing an increasing number of trees globally, yet mortality risk remains difficult to predict at fine spatial scales. We sought to identify readily-measureable metrics of living individuals that could be used to estimate mortality risk of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) trees under episo...

  14. Electrophysiological Evidence for the Influence of Unitization on the Processes Engaged During Episodic Retrieval: Enhancing Familiarity Based Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Donaldson, David I.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory depends upon multiple dissociable retrieval processes. Here we investigated the degree to which the processes engaged during successful retrieval are dependent on the properties of the representations that underlie memory for an event. Specifically we examined whether the individual elements of an event can, under some conditions,…

  15. Improving working memory abilities in individuals with Down syndrome: a treatment case study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Hiwet Mariam; Purser, Harry R. M.; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) skills of individuals with Down’s syndrome (DS) tend to be very poor compared to typically developing children of similar mental age. In particular, research has found that in individuals with DS visuo-spatial WM is better preserved than verbal WM. This study investigated whether it is possible to train short-term memory (STM) and WM abilities in individuals with DS. The cases of two teenage children are reported: EH, 17 years and 3 months, and AS, 15 years and 11 months. A school-based treatment targeting visuo-spatial WM was given to EH and AS for six weeks. Both prior to and after the treatment, they completed a set of assessments to measure WM abilities and their performance was compared with younger typically developing non-verbal mental age controls. The results showed that the trained participants improved their performance in some of the trained and non-trained WM tasks proposed, especially with regard to the tasks assessing visuo-spatial WM abilities. These findings are discussed on the basis of their theoretical, educational, and clinical implications. PMID:26441713

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in emotion regulation and its relation to working memory in toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    This is the first study to explore genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in emotion regulation in toddlers, and the first to examine the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the association between emotion regulation and working memory. In a sample of 304 same-sex twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ) at age 3, emotion regulation was assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BRS; Bayley, 1993), and working memory was measured by the visually cued recall (VCR) task (Zelazo, Jacques, Burack, & Frye, 2002) and several memory tasks from the Mental Scale of the BSID. Based on model-fitting analyses, both emotion regulation and working memory were significantly influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental effects were significant for working memory, but not for emotion regulation. Only genetic factors significantly contributed to the covariation between emotion regulation and working memory. PMID:24098922

  17. Motivational deficits in effort-based decision making in individuals with subsyndromal depression, first-episode and remitted depression patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Guang-Rong

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is a hallmark symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Preliminary findings suggest that anhedonia is characterized by reduced reward anticipation and motivation of obtaining reward. However, relatively little is known about reward-based decision-making in depression. We tested the hypothesis that anhedonia in MDD may reflect specific impairments in motivation on reward-based decision-making and the deficits might be associated with depressive symptoms severity. In study 1, individuals with and without depressive symptoms performed the modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making. In study 2, MDD patients, remitted MDD patients and healthy controls were recruited for the same procedures. We found evidence for decreased willingness to make effort for rewards among individuals with subsyndromal depression; the effect was amplified in MDD patients, but dissipated in patients with remitted depression. We also found that reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure predicted decreased willingness to expend efforts to obtain rewards in MDD patients. For individuals with subsyndromal depression, the impairments were correlated with anticipatory anhedonia but not consummatory anhedonia. These data offer novel evidence that motivational deficits in MDD are correlated with depression severity and predicted by self-reported anhedonia. PMID:25262638

  18. Cortical network dynamics during source memory retrieval: current density imaging with individual MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Youn; Roh, Ah Young; Namgoong, Yoon; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Jong-Min; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of source memory retrieval using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) with 64 channels EEG and individual MRI as a realistic head model. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 13 healthy subjects performed the source memory task for the voice of the speaker in spoken words. The source correct condition of old words elicited more positive-going potentials than the correct rejection condition of new words at 400-700 ms post-stimulus and the old/new effects also appeared in the right anterior region between 1,000 and 1,200 ms. We conducted source reconstruction at mean latencies of 311, 604, 793, and 1,100 ms and used statistical parametric mapping for the statistical analysis. The results of source analysis suggest that the activation of the right inferior parietal region may reflect retrieval of source information. The source elicited by the difference ERPs between the source correct and source incorrect conditions exhibited dynamic change of current density activation in the overall cortices with time during source memory retrieval. These results indicate that multiple neural systems may underlie the ability to recollect context. PMID:17979123

  19. Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    DeGutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  20. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Degutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  1. Veridical and false pictorial memory in individuals with and without mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Michael T; Toglia, Michael P; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

    2008-05-01

    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit rates than did their CA-matched peers. The mental retardation group demonstrated an acquiescent response bias (i.e., high novel false-alarm rate). When data were corrected for this bias, those with mental retardation had significantly lower hit rates but equivalent false-alarm rates to the MA-matched participants. Results are discussed in terms of pictorial distinctiveness and within the frameworks of activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theory. PMID:18407722

  2. Verbal working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual differences.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Maureen; James, Ariel N; Federmeier, Kara D; Watson, Duane G

    2014-08-01

    Gesture facilitates language production, but there is debate surrounding its exact role. It has been argued that gestures lighten the load on verbal working memory (VWM; Goldin-Meadow, Nusbaum, Kelly, & Wagner, 2001), but gestures have also been argued to aid in lexical retrieval (Krauss, 1998). In the current study, 50 speakers completed an individual differences battery that included measures of VWM and lexical retrieval. To elicit gesture, each speaker described short cartoon clips immediately after viewing. Measures of lexical retrieval did not predict spontaneous gesture rates, but lower VWM was associated with higher gesture rates, suggesting that gestures can facilitate language production by supporting VWM when resources are taxed. These data also suggest that individual variability in the propensity to gesture is partly linked to cognitive capacities. PMID:24813571

  3. Investigation of Information Flow During a Novel Working Memory Task in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Boukrina, Olga; Wylie, Glenn R

    2015-09-01

    Working memory (WM) is often compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of functional and effective connectivity studies investigated the interaction between brain regions during WM task performance. However, previously used WM tasks did not allow differentiation of WM subprocesses such as capacity and manipulation. We used a novel WM paradigm, CapMan, to investigate effective connectivity associated with the capacity and manipulation subprocesses of WM in individuals with TBI relative to healthy controls (HCs). CapMan allows independent investigation of brain regions associated with capacity and manipulation, while minimizing the influence of other WM-related subprocesses. Areas of the fronto-parietal WM network, previously identified in healthy individuals as engaged in capacity and manipulation during CapMan, were analyzed with the Independent Multiple-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) method to investigate the differences in information flow between healthy individuals and individuals with TBI. We predicted that diffuse axonal injury that often occurs after TBI might lead to changes in task-based effective connectivity and result in hyperconnectivity between the regions engaged in task performance. In accordance with this hypothesis, TBI participants showed greater inter-hemispheric connectivity and less coherent information flow from posterior to anterior brain regions compared with HC participants. Thus, this study provides much needed evidence about the potential mechanism of neurocognitive impairments in individuals affected by TBI. PMID:25490432

  4. Event-based prospective memory deficits in individuals with high depressive symptomatology: problems controlling attentional resources?

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi Ryan; Loft, Shayne; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    Depression has been found to be related to neurocognitive deficits in areas important to successful prospective memory (PM) performance, including executive function, attention, and retrospective memory. However, research specific to depression and PM has produced a mixed pattern of results. The current study further examined the task conditions in which event-based PM deficits may emerge in individuals with high depressive symptomatology (HDS) relative to individuals with low depressive symptomatology (LDS) and the capacity of HDS individuals to allocate attentional resources to event-based PM tasks. Sixty-four participants (32 HDS, 32 LDS) were required to make a PM response when target words were presented during an ongoing lexical decision task. When the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, response time costs to the ongoing task, and PM accuracy, did not differ between the HDS and LDS groups. This finding is consistent with previous research demonstrating that event-based PM task accuracy is not always impaired by depression, even when the PM task is resource demanding. When the importance of the PM task was emphasized, costs to the ongoing task further increased for both groups, indicating an increased allocation of attentional resources to the PM task. Crucially, while a corresponding improvement in PM accuracy was observed in the LDS group when the importance of the PM task was emphasized, this was not true for the HDS group. The lack of improved PM accuracy in the HDS group compared with the LDS group despite evidence of increased cognitive resources allocated to PM tasks may have been due to inefficiency in the application of the allocated attention, a dimension likely related to executive function difficulties in depression. Qualitatively different resource allocation patterns may underlie PM monitoring in HDS versus LDS individuals. PMID:24848441

  5. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  6. A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and towards structured representations

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on identifying separate memory systems and exploring different stages of memory processing. This approach has been valuable for establishing a taxonomy of memory systems and characterizing their function, but has been less informative about the nature of stored memory representations. Recent research on visual memory has shifted towards a representation-based emphasis, focusing on the contents of memory, and attempting to determine the format and structure of remembered information. The main thesis of this review will be that one cannot fully understand memory systems or memory processes without also determining the nature of memory representations. Nowhere is this connection more obvious than in research that attempts to measure the capacity of visual memory. We will review research on the capacity of visual working memory and visual long-term memory, highlighting recent work that emphasizes the contents of memory. This focus impacts not only how we estimate the capacity of the system - going beyond quantifying how many items can be remembered, and moving towards structured representations - but how we model memory systems and memory processes. PMID:21617025

  7. A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and toward structured representations.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A

    2011-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on identifying separate memory systems and exploring different stages of memory processing. This approach has been valuable for establishing a taxonomy of memory systems and characterizing their function but has been less informative about the nature of stored memory representations. Recent research on visual memory has shifted toward a representation-based emphasis, focusing on the contents of memory and attempting to determine the format and structure of remembered information. The main thesis of this review will be that one cannot fully understand memory systems or memory processes without also determining the nature of memory representations. Nowhere is this connection more obvious than in research that attempts to measure the capacity of visual memory. We will review research on the capacity of visual working memory and visual long-term memory, highlighting recent work that emphasizes the contents of memory. This focus impacts not only how we estimate the capacity of the system--going beyond quantifying how many items can be remembered and moving toward structured representations--but how we model memory systems and memory processes. PMID:21617025

  8. A Study of Autobiographical Memories in Depressed and Nondepressed Elderly Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Janet Anderson; Rehm, Lynn P.

    1993-01-01

    Used autobiographical memory task to study memory processes and depression in 27 nondepressed and 27 depressed older adults who each recalled 30 memories. Results were consistent with mood congruence hypothesis, in that participants recalled more memories affectively consistent with current mood, and self-enhancement view of reminiscing, such that…

  9. Functional and Neuroanatomical Specificity of Episodic Memory Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: An fMRI study of the Relational and Item-Specific Encoding Task

    PubMed Central

    Ragland, J. Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.; Gold, James M.; Layher, Evan; Lesh, Tyler A.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Niendam, Tara A.; Phillips, Joshua; Silverstein, Steven M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) can encode item-specific information to support familiarity-based recognition, but are disproportionately impaired encoding inter-item relationships (relational encoding) and recollecting information. The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding (RiSE) paradigm has been used to disentangle these encoding and retrieval processes, which may be dependent on specific medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions. Functional imaging during RiSE task performance could help to specify dysfunctional neural circuits in SZ that can be targeted for interventions to improve memory and functioning in the illness. Objectives To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that SZ disproportionately affects MTL and PFC subregions during relational encoding and retrieval, relative to item-specific memory processes. Imaging results from healthy comparison subjects (HC) will also be used to establish neural construct validity for RiSE. Design, Setting, and Participants This multi-site, case-control, cross-sectional fMRI study was conducted at five CNTRACS sites. The final sample included 52 clinically stable outpatients with SZ, and 57 demographically matched HC. Main Outcomes and Measures Behavioral performance speed and accuracy (d’) on item recognition and associative recognition tasks. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps for a priori MTL and PFC regions of interest (ROI), testing activation differences between relational and item-specific memory during encoding and retrieval. Results Item recognition was disproportionately impaired in SZ patients relative to controls following relational encoding. The differential deficit was accompanied by reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation during relational encoding in SZ, relative to HC. Retrieval success (hits > misses) was associated with hippocampal (HI) activation in HC during relational item recognition and associative

  10. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  11. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  12. Cortical potentials in an auditory oddball task reflect individual differences in working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yurgil, Kate A.; Golob, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined whether auditory cortical responses associated with mechanisms of attention vary with individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and perceptual load. The operation span test defined subjects with low vs. high WMC, who then discriminated target/nontarget tones while EEG was recorded. Infrequent white noise distracters were presented at midline or ±90° locations, and perceptual load was manipulated by varying nontarget frequency. Amplitude of the N100 to distracters was negatively correlated with WMC. Relative to targets, only high WMC subjects showed attenuated N100 amplitudes to nontargets. In the higher WMC group, increased perceptual load was associated with decreased P3a amplitudes to distracters and longer-lasting negative slow wave to nontargets. Results show that auditory cortical processing is associated with multiple facets of attention control related to WMC and possibly higher-level cognition. PMID:24016201

  13. Effects of presentation mode on veridical and false memory in individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Michael; Toglia, Michael P; Belmonte, Colleen; DiMeglio, Chiara

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of visual, auditory, and audio-visual presentation formats on memory for thematically constructed lists were assessed in individuals with intellectual disability and mental age-matched children. The auditory recognition test included target items, unrelated foils, and two types of semantic lures: critical related foils and related foils. The audio-visual format led to better recognition of old items and lower false-alarm rates for all foil types. Those with intellectual disability had higher false-alarm rates for all foil types and experienced particular difficulty discriminating presented items from those most strongly activated internally during acquisition (i.e., critical foils). Results are consistent with the activation-monitoring framework and fuzzy-trace theory and inform best practices for designing visual supports to maximize performance in educational and work environments. PMID:22716261

  14. Working memory and intraindividual variability in processing speed: A lifespan developmental and individual-differences study.

    PubMed

    Mella, Nathalie; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2015-04-01

    Working memory (WM) and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed are both hypothesized to reflect general attentional processes. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the relationship between WM capacity and IIV in reaction times (RTs) and its possible variation with development across the lifespan. Two WM tasks and six RT tasks of varying complexity were analyzed in a sample of 539 participants, consisting of five age groups: two groups of children (9-10 and 11-12 years of age), one group of young adults, and two groups of older adults (59-69 and 70-89 years of age). Two approaches were adopted. First, low-span and high-span individuals were identified, and analyses of variance were conducted comparing these two groups within each age group and for each RT task. The results consistently showed a span effect in the youngest children and oldest adults: High-span individuals were significantly faster and less variable than low-span individuals. In contrast, in young adults no difference was observed between high- and low-span individuals, whether in terms of their means or IIV. Second, multivariate analyses were conducted on the entire set of tasks, to determine whether IIV in RTs brought different information than the mean RT. The results showed that, although very strongly correlated, the mean and IIV in speed should be kept separate in terms of how they account for individual differences in WM. Overall, our results support the assumption of a link between WM capacity and IIV in RT, more strongly so in childhood and older adulthood. PMID:25537952

  15. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Joseph P; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3-4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work. PMID:27147986

  16. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Joseph P.; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3–4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work. PMID:27147986

  17. Ageing-related stereotypes in memory: When the beliefs come true.

    PubMed

    Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Follenfant, Alice; Ric, François; Fay, Séverine; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Atzeni, Thierry; Taconnat, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Age-related stereotype concerns culturally shared beliefs about the inevitable decline of memory with age. In this study, stereotype priming and stereotype threat manipulations were used to explore the impact of age-related stereotype on metamemory beliefs and episodic memory performance. Ninety-two older participants who reported the same perceived memory functioning were divided into two groups: a threatened group and a non-threatened group (control). First, the threatened group was primed with an ageing stereotype questionnaire. Then, both groups were administered memory complaints and memory self-efficacy questionnaires to measure metamemory beliefs. Finally, both groups were administered the Logical Memory task to measure episodic memory, for the threatened group the instructions were manipulated to enhance the stereotype threat. Results indicated that the threatened individuals reported more memory complaints and less memory efficacy, and had lower scores than the control group on the logical memory task. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that the stereotype threat effect on the episodic memory performance was mediated by both memory complaints and memory self-efficacy. This study revealed that stereotype threat impacts belief in one's own memory functioning, which in turn impairs episodic memory performance. PMID:26057336

  18. [Memory systems and memory disorders].

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

    2003-02-15

    Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

  19. Individual Differences in Memory Updating in Relation to Arithmetic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between memory updating and arithmetic word problem solving. Two groups of 35 fourth graders with high and low memory-updating abilities were selected from a sample of 89 children on the basis of an updating task used by Palladino et al. ["Memory & Cognition" 29 (2002) 344]. The two groups were required to…

  20. Overdistribution in source memory.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

    2012-03-01

    Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

  1. Age-Related Differences in Memory and Executive Functions in Healthy "APOE"[epsilon]4 Carriers: The Contribution of Individual Differences in Prefrontal Volumes and Systolic Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Andrew R.; Raz, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced age and vascular risk are associated with declines in the volumes of multiple brain regions, especially the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Older adults, even unencumbered by declining health, perform less well than their younger counterparts in multiple cognitive domains, such as episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of…

  2. Individual differences in anxiety predict neural measures of visual working memory for untrustworthy faces.

    PubMed

    Meconi, Federica; Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola

    2014-12-01

    When facing strangers, one of the first evaluations people perform is to implicitly assess their trustworthiness. However, the underlying processes supporting trustworthiness appraisal are poorly understood. We hypothesized that visual working memory (VWM) maintains online face representations that are sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, and that differences among individuals in representing untrustworthy faces are associated with individual differences in anxiety. Participants performed a change detection task that required encoding and maintaining for a short interval the identity of one face parametrically manipulated to be either trustworthy or untrustworthy. The sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), an event-related component (ERP) time-locked to the onset of the face, was used to index the resolution of face representations in VWM. Results revealed greater SPCN amplitudes for trustworthy faces when compared with untrustworthy faces, indicating that VWM is sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, even in the absence of explicit trustworthiness appraisal. In addition, differences in SPCN amplitude between trustworthy and untrustworthy faces correlated with participants' anxiety, indicating that healthy college students with sub-clinical high anxiety levels represented untrustworthy faces in greater detail compared with students with sub-clinical low anxiety levels. This pattern of findings is discussed in terms of the high flexibility of aversive/avoidance and appetitive/approach motivational systems. PMID:24493843

  3. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  4. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  5. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  6. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset. PMID:27434201

  7. Long-term maintenance of smartphone and PDA use in individuals with moderate to severe memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Eva; Richards, Brian; Yao, Christie; Leach, Larry

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier paper we described a structured, theory-driven training programme which was administered to 10 individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment. All individuals received an errorless-fading-of-cues protocol in the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) or smartphones (Svoboda, Richards, Leach, & Mertens, 2012) and demonstrated generalisation of acquired skills to day-to-day memory challenges. Maintenance of intervention gains over the long-term is another indicator of successful generalisation. Here we present the maintenance of device use in the same group of individuals 12 to 19 months after programme completion. A within-subject, ABABB multi-case experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of PDA or smartphone use on day-to-day memory functioning at baseline, immediately post-intervention, at return to baseline, and at short-term and long-term follow-up. Results presented here focus predominantly on long-term follow-up. All 10 individuals showed maintenance of gains in day-to-day functioning as quantified across several ecologically valid questionnaire and task-based measures. This was corroborated by family members with whom six of the participants resided. This study further demonstrates the programme's clinical effectiveness in enabling individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment to function more independently and with greater confidence up to 19 months following programme completion. PMID:24945553

  8. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 compo