Science.gov

Sample records for individual knowledge sharing

  1. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  2. The Romance of Learning from Disagreement. The Effect of Cohesiveness and Disagreement on Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Individual Performance Within Teams.

    PubMed

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Sanders, Karin

    2010-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of disagreement and cohesiveness on knowledge sharing in teams, and on the performance of individual team members. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey among 1,354 employees working in 126 teams in 17 organizations. FINDINGS: The results show that cohesiveness has a positive effect on the exchange of advice between team members and on openness for sharing opinions, whereas disagreement has a negative effect on openness for sharing opinions. Furthermore, the exchange of advice in a team has a positive effect on the performance of individual team members and acts as a mediator between cohesiveness and individual performance. IMPLICATIONS: Managers who want to stimulate knowledge sharing processes and performance within work teams may be advised to take measures to prevent disagreement between team members and to enhance team cohesiveness. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although some gurus in organizational learning claim that disagreement has a positive effect on group processes such as knowledge sharing and team learning, this study does not support this claim. PMID:20174445

  3. Knowledge Sharing: Developing from within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Keith; Dotsika, Fefie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: If collaboration and knowledge sharing lie at the core of providing added-value to either services or products can we improve this process? The purpose of this paper is to suggest that it can be improved and this lies in how we develop the systems that support collaboration and knowledge sharing. This can be achieved within the…

  4. Knowledge Sharing at Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Bregje; Pieters, Jules

    2007-01-01

    To improve the quality in teaching and learning, opportunities need to be provided where practitioners and researchers meet and share visions, disseminate findings, co-construct ideas, and set research agendas together. Visiting a conference is one well-known and established way to do this. But are they effective? A survey was conducted among the…

  5. So This is Knowledge Sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan

    2003-01-01

    People within large organizations have probably already dealt with problems similar to the problems that you face; you can save time and money by taking advantage of that experience and knowledge. Knowledge sharing by mentors can empower less experienced managers who would otherwise not challenge the status quo. Reviews should encourage joint problem solving rather than just reporting. To accomplish this, ensure that the review process is viewed as feedback from independent and supportive experts.

  6. Knowledge Searching and Sharing on Virtual Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helokunnas, Tuija; Herrala, Juha

    2001-01-01

    Describes searching and sharing of knowledge on virtual networks, based on experiences gained when hosting virtual knowledge networks at Tampere University of Technology in Finland. Discusses information and knowledge management studies; role of information technology in knowledge searching and sharing; implementation and experiences of the…

  7. Analyzing Collaborative Interactions: Divergence, Shared Understanding and Construction of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important facets of collaborative learning is the interaction between individual and collaborative learning activities--between divergent perspectives and shared knowledge building. Individuals bring divergent ideas into a collaborative environment. While individuals bring their own unique knowledge and perspectives, the second…

  8. Successful Architectural Knowledge Sharing: Beware of Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poort, Eltjo R.; Pramono, Agung; Perdeck, Michiel; Clerc, Viktor; van Vliet, Hans

    This chapter presents the analysis and key findings of a survey on architectural knowledge sharing. The responses of 97 architects working in the Dutch IT Industry were analyzed by correlating practices and challenges with project size and success. Impact mechanisms between project size, project success, and architectural knowledge sharing practices and challenges were deduced based on reasoning, experience and literature. We find that architects run into numerous and diverse challenges sharing architectural knowledge, but that the only challenges that have a significant impact are the emotional challenges related to interpersonal relationships. Thus, architects should be careful when dealing with emotions in knowledge sharing.

  9. Hydrology for everyone: Share your knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Dogulu, Canay

    2015-04-01

    Hydrology, the science of water, plays a central role in understanding the function and behaviour of water on the earth. Given the increasingly complex, uncertain, and dynamic nature of this system, the study of hydrology presents challenges in solving water-related problems in societies. While researchers in hydrologic science and engineering embrace these challenges, it is important that we also realize our critical role in promoting the basic understanding of hydrology concepts among the general public. Hydrology is everywhere, yet, the general public often lacks the basic understanding of the hydrologic environment surrounding them. Essentially, we believe that a basic level of knowledge on hydrology is a must for everyone and that this knowledge might facilitate resilience of communities to hydrological extremes. For instance, in case of flood and drought conditions, which are the most frequent and widespread hydrological phenomena that societies live with, a key aspect of facilitating community resilience would be to create awareness on the hydrological, meteorological, and climatological processes behind floods and droughts, and also on their potential implications on water resources management. Such knowledge awareness can lead to an increase in individuals' awareness on their role in water-related problems which in turn can potentially motivate them to adopt preparedness behaviours. For these reasons, embracing an approach that will increase hydrologic literacy of the general public should be a common objective for the hydrologic community. This talk, hopefully, will motivate researchers in hydrologic science and engineering to share their knowledge with the general public. We, as early career hydrologists, should take this responsibility more than anybody else. Start teaching hydrology now and share your knowledge with people around you - friends, family, relatives, neighbours, and others. There is hydrology for everyone!

  10. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  11. Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

  12. Knowledge Sharing and Global Collaboration on Online Knowledge Exchange Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yuecheng

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on three empirical studies that focus on questions concerning knowledge sharing and construction in communities of practice and global knowledge exchange platforms. The first essay presents an exploratory case study on a particular academic community of practice--AISNET and its central knowledge exchange platform, the ISWorld…

  13. Theory and ontology for sharing temporal knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1996-01-01

    Using current technology, the sharing or re-using of knowledge-bases is very difficult, if not impossible. ARPA has correctly recognized the problem and funded a knowledge sharing initiative. One of the outcomes of this project is a formal language called Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) for representing knowledge that could be translated into other languages. Capturing and representing design knowledge and reasoning with them have become very important for NASA who is a pioneer of innovative design of unique products. For upgrading an existing design for changing technology, needs, or requirements, it is essential to understand the design rationale, design choices, options and other relevant information associated with the design. Capturing such information and presenting them in the appropriate form are part of the ongoing Design Knowledge Capture project of NASA. The behavior of an object and various other aspects related to time are captured by the appropriate temporal knowledge. The captured design knowledge will be represented in such a way that various groups of NASA who are interested in various aspects of the design cycle should be able to access and use the design knowledge effectively. To facilitate knowledge sharing among these groups, one has to develop a very well defined ontology. Ontology is a specification of conceptualization. In the literature several specific domains were studied and some well defined ontologies were developed for such domains. However, very little, or no work has been done in the area of representing temporal knowledge to facilitate sharing. During the ASEE summer program, I have investigated several temporal models and have proposed a theory for time that is flexible to accommodate the time elements, such as, points and intervals, and is capable of handling the qualitative and quantitative temporal constraints. I have also proposed a primitive temporal ontology using which other relevant temporal ontologies can be built. I

  14. Tools for Knowledge Analysis, Synthesis, and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medland, Michael B.

    2007-04-01

    Change and complexity are creating a need for increasing levels of literacy in science and technology. Presently, we are beginning to provide students with clear contexts in which to learn, including clearly written text, visual displays and maps, and more effective instruction. We are also beginning to give students tools that promote their own literacy by helping them to interact with the learning context. These tools include peer-group skills as well as strategies to analyze text and to indicate comprehension by way of text summaries and concept maps. Even with these tools, more appears to be needed. Disparate backgrounds and languages interfere with the comprehension and the sharing of knowledge. To meet this need, two new tools are proposed. The first tool fractures language ontologically, giving all learners who use it a language to talk about what has, and what has not, been uttered in text or talk about the world. The second fractures language epistemologically, giving those involved in working with text or on the world around them a way to talk about what they have done and what remains to be done. Together, these tools operate as a two- tiered knowledge representation of knowledge. This representation promotes both an individual meta-cognitive and a social meta-cognitive approach to what is known and to what is not known, both ontologically and epistemologically. Two hypotheses guide the presentation: If the tools are taught during early childhood, children will be prepared to master science and technology content. If the tools are used by both students and those who design and deliver instruction, the learning of such content will be accelerated.

  15. Sharing Your Knowledge: Getting Your Idea Published.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2016-01-01

    Nurses have a professional and ethical obligation to share best practices to advance nursing knowledge and create better outcomes for patients. Practice-based evidence is as important to advancing evidence-based practice as original research. Infusion nurses are in an excellent position to share local best practices more broadly. Writing for publication is a mechanism for disseminating practice-based evidence. This article reviews the importance of sharing best practices and describes not only how to prepare a manuscript for publication but also resources that will help nurses in this important endeavor. PMID:27598069

  16. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  17. Deconstructing Interaction Dynamics in Knowledge Sharing Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Ablimit; Agichtein, Eugene

    Online knowledge sharing sites have recently exploded in popularity, and have began to play an important role in online information seeking. Unfortunately, many factors that influence the effectiveness of the information exchange in these communities are not well understood. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap by exploring the dynamics of information sharing in such sites - that is, identifying the factors that can explain how people respond to information requests. As a case study, we use Yahoo! Answers, one of the leading knowledge sharing portals on the web with millions of active participants. We follow the progress of thousands of questions, from posting until resolution. We examine contextual factors such as the topical area of the questions, as well as intrinsic factors of question wording, subjectivity, sentiment, and other characteristics that could influence how a community responds to an information request. Our findings could be useful for improving existing collaborative question answering systems, and for designing the next generation of knowledge sharing communities.

  18. Knowledge Sharing in Organizations: An Analysis of Motivators and Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipe, Minu

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge sharing has been identified as critical to the management of knowledge in organizations. However, in practice, problems with knowledge sharing have proved to be a major barrier to the effective management of knowledge. This paper reports on research that identified four motivators and five inhibitors of knowledge sharing within one…

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  20. Sharing Knowledge: Contextualising Socio-Technical Thinking and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergaard, Susanne; Kerr, Micky; Clegg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to present the empirical findings from a case study in knowledge sharing with the aim of understanding knowledge sharing in a strategic context through a socio-technical approach. Design/methodology/approach: Knowledge sharing facilitators and barriers were examined in a UK owned multinational engineering…

  1. Knowledge Sharing in an American Multinational Company Based in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chen Wai; Sandhu, Manjit S.; Jain, Kamal Kishore

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the views of executives working in an American based multinational company (MNC) about knowledge sharing, barriers to knowledge sharing, and strategies to promote knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out in phases. In the first phase, a topology of organizational mechanisms for…

  2. Distinguishing Knowledge-Sharing, Knowledge-Construction, and Knowledge-Creation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalst, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The study reported here sought to obtain the clear articulation of asynchronous computer-mediated discourse needed for Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia's knowledge-creation model. Distinctions were set up between three modes of discourse: knowledge sharing, knowledge construction, and knowledge creation. These were applied to the asynchronous…

  3. Knowledge sharing in the health scenario

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of certain data often requires the collection of similar data from different places to be analysed and interpreted. Interoperability standards and ontologies, are facilitating data interchange around the world. However, beyond the existing networks and advances for data transfer, data sharing protocols to support multilateral agreements are useful to exploit the knowledge of distributed Data Warehouses. The access to a certain data set in a federated Data Warehouse may be constrained by the requirement to deliver another specific data set. When bilateral agreements between two nodes of a network are not enough to solve the constraints for accessing to a certain data set, multilateral agreements for data exchange are needed. We present the implementation of a Multi-Agent System for multilateral exchange agreements of clinical data, and evaluate how those multilateral agreements increase the percentage of data collected by a single node from the total amount of data available in the network. Different strategies to reduce the number of messages needed to achieve an agreement are also considered. The results show that with this collaborative sharing scenario the percentage of data collected dramaticaly improve from bilateral agreements to multilateral ones, up to reach almost all data available in the network. PMID:25471452

  4. Knowledge Exchange in the Shrines of Knowledge: The ''How's'' and ''Where's'' of Knowledge Sharing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reychav, Iris; Te'eni, Dov

    2009-01-01

    Academic conferences are places of situated learning dedicated to the exchange of knowledge. Knowledge is exchanged between colleagues who are looking to enhance their future research by taking part in several formal and informal settings (lectures, discussions and social events). We studied the processes of knowledge sharing and the influence of…

  5. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Y. C.; Bailey, T.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation, Burton and Bailey, discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing knowledge sharing systems in organizations. Bailey provides a tool using imagery and collage for identifying and utilizing the diverse values and beliefs of individuals and groups. Burton reveals findings from a business research study that examines how social construction influences knowledge sharing among task oriented groups.

  6. Breaking the Myths of Rewards: An Exploratory Study of Attitudes about Knowledge Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Gee-Woo; Kim, Young-Gul

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of organizational knowledge sharing focuses on a study of Korean public organizations that investigated factors affecting the individual's knowledge sharing behavior. Highlights include social exchange theory; self-efficacy; theory of reasoned action; and hypothesis testing that showed expected associations and contribution, rather than…

  7. Independence, Individualism & Connection among Share Householders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natalier, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    How do young people who are financially dependent on their parents but living in share households conceive of the concept of independence? The meanings of independence are discussed in relation to a qualitative study of young people who described themselves as independent although they accepted money on a regular basis from their parents. Their…

  8. A Text Analysis Approach to Motivate Knowledge Sharing via Microsoft SharePoint

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; McNair, Wade; Symons, Christopher T; Treadwell, Jim N; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Creating incentives for knowledge workers to share their knowledge within an organization continues to be a challenging task. Strong, innate behaviors of the knowledge worker, such as self-preservation and self- advancement, are difficult to overcome, regardless of the level of knowledge. Many incentive policies simply focus on providing external pressure to promote knowledge sharing. This work describes a technical approach to motivate sharing. Utilizing text analysis and machine learning techniques to create an enhanced knowledge sharing experience, a prototype system was developed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that reduces the overhead cost of sharing while providing a quick, positive payoff for the knowledge worker. This work describes the implementation and experiences of using the prototype in a corporate production environment.

  9. Collaborating to Compete: Achieving Effective Knowledge Sharing in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laycock, Martyn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a practitioner overview of the challenges and growing strategic importance of knowledge and knowledge sharing in organizations, considering roles of learning, and in particular networks, together with collaboration in the development of sustainable competitive edge through knowledge, knowledge management and the…

  10. Knowledge Sharing at Work: An Examination of Organizational Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Tricia M.

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid pace of today's knowledge-driven industries, organizations are turning to successful knowledge management initiatives to obtain sustainable competitive advantage. As a result, one facet of knowledge management, knowledge sharing at work, has received increased researcher and practitioner attention in the last decade. However, in the…

  11. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  12. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  13. Sharing Knowledge in Universities: Communities of Practice the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl; du Toit, Adeline

    2009-01-01

    The change from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy forced many organizations to change their modus operandi if they were going to survive in a sustainable way. The introduction of communities of practice (CoPs) by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger shed new light on knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Sharing, interacting,…

  14. Revisiting Knowledge Sharing from the Organizational Change Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Eun-Jee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify how knowledge sharing literature has discussed task, structure, technology and people as elements of organizational change and to examine the interactions between the four elements of knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: The research questions guiding the study are: How do organizational…

  15. Measuring successful knowledge sharing among academia through social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to study the influence of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Previously, many researches have been done to explore the importance emergence of social media for public use, but there are still limited studies on how this technological advancement affects the academia. For this study, Facebook is chosen as one of the online social networking tools as the medium of knowledge sharing. To begin with, this study is started with the identification of factors that encourage the academia to share their knowledge through social media. These factors are then categorized based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). After this knowledge has successfully shared, the level of successful knowledge sharing through Facebook is modeled using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy inputs for this study are the number of like, comment and share. Findings from this study indeed showed that there are many reasons encouraging academia to utilize social media for their work. Besides, this paper contributes new knowledge to fuzzy logic application as it is the first known research in measuring Facebook engagement for knowledge sharing purposes. In conclusion although there exist some barriers and limitations with the use of social media, academia are showing a positive shift in the application of these tools for work.

  16. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  17. Sharing Practical Knowledge in Hostile Environments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical contribution towards the understanding of the process of sharing practical knowledge (PK) in a hostile work environment. The particular focus is an instance of the process of sharing PK between experienced and non-experienced workers in a bio-pharmaceutical industry.…

  18. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  19. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing Management Using BIM Technology in Construction

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology. PMID:24723790

  20. Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping; Jan, Shu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology. PMID:24723790

  1. Lending a Helping Hand: Voluntary Engagement in Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergel, Ines; Lazer, David; Binz-Scharf, Maria Christina

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is essential for the functioning of every social system, especially for professionals in knowledge-intensive organisations. Since individuals do not possess all the work-related knowledge that they require, they turn to others in search for that knowledge. While prior research has mainly focused on antecedents and consequences of…

  2. Utilizing visualization for shared knowledge spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareda, John F.; Marek, Edward L., Jr.; Smith, Steven A.

    1997-04-01

    The amount and variety of data on the Web continues to grow exponentially, greatly complicating the process of finding relevant information, and making it increasingly difficult to understand information in the context of related material. Advanced visualization techniques, as long as they are compatible and effective ion the context of the widely distributed nature of data on the Web, can provide some measure of order to this chaos. Despite the proliferation of automated tools which attempt to deal with this sea of data, there is still a pressing need for human involvement in the organization and representation of information. People 'living' on the Web tend to form little 'knowledge spaces', revolving around those subjects that they are interested in. We describe several research efforts currently underway which address the problem of organizing and finding information in Cyberspace. We conclude with 'CiteMaps', a technology we are developing which combines Web-relevant visualization techniques with concepts and tools, to allow 'real people' to develop shareable clusters of related information.

  3. Knowledge Sharing Systems: Advantages of Public Anonymity and Private Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the benefits of the design elements of public anonymity and private accountability in classroom Knowledge Sharing Systems (KSS). The major findings of this study indicate that classroom KSS have the potential to allow for greater equity of input, reduce academic anxiety, increase teachers knowledge of student understanding …

  4. Managing Intranets To Encourage Knowledge Sharing: Opportunities and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddart, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how intranets are being used based on a survey of corporations and international organizations. Discusses good management practices for the development of intranets which stimulate knowledge sharing and the role they could play in facilitating knowledge management initiatives, and considers the role of libraries and information…

  5. Knowledge Sharing and Creation in a Teachers' Professional Virtual Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fu-ren; Lin, Sheng-cheng; Huang, Tzu-ping

    2008-01-01

    By virtue of the non-profit nature of school education, a professional virtual community composed of teachers provides precious data to understand the processes of knowledge sharing and creation. Guided by grounded theory, the authors conducted a three-phased study on a teachers' virtual community in order to understand the knowledge flows among…

  6. MetaShare: Enabling Knowledge-Based Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, D. D.; Salayandia, L.; Gates, A.; Osuna, F.

    2013-12-01

    MetaShare is a free and open source knowledge-based system for supporting data management planning, now required by some agencies and publishers. MetaShare supports users as they describe the types of data they will collect, expected standards, and expected policies for sharing. MetaShare's semantic model captures relationships between disciplines, tools, data types, data formats, and metadata standards. As the user plans their data management activities, MetaShare recommends choices based on practices and decisions from a community that has used the system for similar purposes, and extends the knowledge base to capture new relationships. The MetaShare knowledge base is being seeded with information for geoscience and environmental science domains, and is currently undergoing testing on at the University of Texas at El Paso. Through time and usage, it is expected to grow to support a variety of research domains, enabling community-based learning of data management practices. Knowledge of a user's choices during the planning phase can be used to support other tasks in the data life cycle, e.g., collecting, disseminating, and archiving data. A key barrier to scientific data sharing is the lack of sufficient metadata that provides context under which data were collected. The next phase of MetaShare development will automatically generate data collection instruments with embedded metadata and semantic annotations based on the information provided during the planning phase. While not comprehensive, this metadata will be sufficient for discovery and will enable user's to focus on more detailed descriptions of their data. Details are available at: Salayandia, L., Pennington, D., Gates, A., and Osuna, F. (accepted). MetaShare: From data management plans to knowledge base systems. AAAI Fall Symposium Series Workshop on Discovery Informatics, November 15-17, 2013, Arlington, VA.

  7. Are You Ready for Knowledge Sharing? An Empirical Study of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Shiu-Wan; Cheng, Min-Jhih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between knowledge sharing intentions and the perceptions of individual technology users who are members of virtual communities. We characterized learners' perceptions of new technological products or services by including both an individual's psychological state of readiness to accept technology and…

  8. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration among Academics: The Role of Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge sharing (KS) has been acknowledged as important, universities face issues that may hinder active sharing among its faculty members such as the absence of trust among its members or insufficient incentives rewarded to those who deserved it. The aim of this research is to focus on the impact of knowledge management (KM) factors in…

  9. The Role of Community Trust and Altruism in Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of a Virtual Community of Teacher Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…

  10. Students' Knowledge Sources and Knowledge Sharing in the Design Studio--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Sheng-Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Architectural design is a knowledge-intensive activity; however, students frequently lack sufficient knowledge when they practice design. Collaborative learning can supplement the students' insufficient expertise. Successful collaborative learning relies on knowledge sharing between students. This implies that the peers are a considerable design…

  11. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

  12. Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

  13. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  14. Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…

  15. Matchmaking in Learning Networks: Bringing Learners Together for Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Liesbeth; van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Kone, Malik; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe a system that matches learners with complementary content expertise in reaction to a learner-request for knowledge sharing. It works through the formation of "ad hoc," transient communities, that exist for a limited period of time and stimulate learners socially to interact. The matchmaking system consists of a request…

  16. Stop Reinventing the Wheel: Using Wikis for Professional Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Bridgewater, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article details the development of the Library Instruction Wiki (http://instructionwiki.org): an effort to develop a web-based, knowledge-sharing resource. Though some library instruction is specific to a given institution or class, much of what instruction librarians teach is similar. Library instructors have repeatedly expressed the desire…

  17. User observations on information sharing (corporate knowledge and lessons learned)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Ronald A.; Gregg, Lawrence A.; Martin, Shirley A.; Underwood, Leroy H.; Mcgee, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The sharing of 'corporate knowledge' and lessons learned in the NASA aerospace community has been identified by Johnson Space Center survey participants as a desirable tool. The concept of the program is based on creating a user friendly information system that will allow engineers, scientists, and managers at all working levels to share their information and experiences with other users irrespective of location or organization. The survey addresses potential end uses for such a system and offers some guidance on the development of subsequent processes to ensure the integrity of the information shared. This system concept will promote sharing of information between NASA centers, between NASA and its contractors, between NASA and other government agencies, and perhaps between NASA and institutions of higher learning.

  18. Teaching & Learning for International Students in a "Learning Community": Creating, Sharing and Building Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Linzi

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the culture of learning communities for effective teaching. A learning community is defined here as an environment where learners are brought together to share information, to learn from each other, and to create new knowledge. The individual student develops her/his own learning by building on learning from others. In a…

  19. Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Roles of Employee's Empowerment, Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seung Hyun; Seo, Gaeun; Yoon, Seung Won; Yoon, Dong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the fundamental process through which transformational leaders play a significant role in employees' knowledge sharing by investigating mediating roles of individual affects, particularly psychological empowerment, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).…

  20. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M.; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a ‘copying dominants’ bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity. PMID:27053916

  1. Expertise dissimilarity and creativity: the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Hsieh, J J Po-An; He, Wei

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether team-level knowledge sharing moderates the effects of individual-level expertise dissimilarity on individual employees' creativity in research and development (R&D) project teams. Expertise dissimilarity--defined as the difference in expertise and knowledge between a focal team member and her or his fellow team members--was operationalized in terms of the research department to which each member belonged. In Study 1, multilevel analyses of data collected from 200 members of 40 R&D project teams in a telecommunications company revealed that a team member with expertise dissimilar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creativity when the project team as a whole engaged in higher levels of tacit, rather than explicit, knowledge sharing. In contrast, a member whose expertise was similar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creative behavior when the team engaged in higher levels of explicit, rather than tacit, knowledge sharing. These findings were largely replicated in Study 2 using data collected from 82 members of 25 project teams from another telecommunications company. PMID:24820927

  2. Is Trust Really Social Capital? Knowledge Sharing in Product Development Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Marloes; Leenders, Roger Th. A. J.; Gabbay, Shaul M.; Kratzer, Jan; Van Engelen, Jo M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to focus on the role of trust in knowledge sharing. Social capital researchers have put forward trust as an important force behind the sharing of knowledge. This study aims to investigate whether trust indeed explains knowledge sharing relationships, or whether there are in fact much more important drivers…

  3. Knowledge Sharing among Academics in Institutions of Higher Learning: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramayah, T.; Ignatius, Joshua; Leen, Jasmine Yeap Ai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda for a funded research project on knowledge sharing among academics in Malaysia. One of the main objectives is to develop validate and measure of knowledge sharing which is suitable for academicians. Previous studies on knowledge sharing have used standard measurement items which do not cater for the multiple…

  4. Multi-Generational Knowledge Sharing for NASA Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA, like many other organizations, is facing major challenges when it comes to its workforce. The average age of its personnel is 46, and 68 percent of its population is between 35 and 55. According to the U.S. Government Accounting Office, if the workforce continues aging, not enough engineers will have moved up the ranks and have the requisite skills to enable NASA to meet its vision for space exploration. In order to meet its goals of developing a new generation of spacecraft to support human spaceflight to the moon and Mars, the agency must engage and retain younger generations of workers and bridge the gaps between the four generations working today. Knowledge sharing among the generations is more critical than ever. This paper describes the strategies used to develop the NASA Engineering Network with the goal of engaging different generations.

  5. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  6. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-10-15

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a 'social' (detective) and once a 'non-social' (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions--most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex--when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  7. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual Processor Quota (IPQ) Issuance. 680.40 Section 680.40 Wildlife... Management Measures § 680.40 Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ),...

  8. QSIA--A Web-Based Environment for Learning, Assessing and Knowledge Sharing in Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Barak, Miri; Dan-Gur, Yuval; Toch, Eran

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a Web-based and distributed system named QSIA that serves as an environment for learning, assessing and knowledge sharing. QSIA--Questions Sharing and Interactive Assignments--offers a unified infrastructure for developing, collecting, managing and sharing of knowledge items. QSIA enhances collaboration in authoring via online…

  9. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  10. An Empirical Inquiry on Knowledge Sharing among Academicians in Higher Learning Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramayah, T.; Yeap, Jasmine A. L.; Ignatius, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Universities are expected to be places where knowledge is shared freely among academicians. However, the reality shows that knowledge sharing is barely present within universities these days. As Malaysia shifts towards building a knowledge-based society, academic institutions, particularly the public universities, now face ever-growing faculty…

  11. Analysis of Knowledge-Sharing Evolutionary Game in University Teacher Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge-sharing activity is a major drive force behind the progress and innovation of university teacher team. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this article analyzes the knowledge-sharing process model of this team, studies the influencing mechanism of various factors such as knowledge aggregate gap, incentive coefficient and risk…

  12. A Unified Model of Knowledge Sharing Behaviours: Theoretical Development and Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chennamaneni, Anitha; Teng, James T. C.; Raja, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Research and practice on knowledge management (KM) have shown that information technology alone cannot guarantee that employees will volunteer and share knowledge. While previous studies have linked motivational factors to knowledge sharing (KS), we took a further step to thoroughly examine this theoretically and empirically. We developed a…

  13. Empirical Study of Motivators and Barriers of Teacher Online Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand knowledge flows among teachers by examining what types of knowledge was shared by teachers, as well as what motivates or hinders teachers to share knowledge online. We examined an electronic mailing list (listserv) supporting a community of practice of literacy teachers. Data were gathered on the teachers…

  14. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  15. Tacit Knowledge Sharing Modes of University Teachers from the Perspectives of Psychological Risk and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Dengke; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Tacit knowledge sharing (TKS) is important to improve the teaching skill and researching knowledge of university teachers. In this paper, the tacit knowledge sharing of university teachers is catalogued as four modes from perspectives of the psychological risk and psychological value which are measured by two grades--high and low. The four modes…

  16. Optimization of knowledge sharing through multi-forum using cloud computing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madapusi Vasudevan, Sriram; Sankaran, Srivatsan; Muthuswamy, Shanmugasundaram; Ram, N. Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge sharing is done through various knowledge sharing forums which requires multiple logins through multiple browser instances. Here a single Multi-Forum knowledge sharing concept is introduced which requires only one login session which makes user to connect multiple forums and display the data in a single browser window. Also few optimization techniques are introduced here to speed up the access time using cloud computing architecture.

  17. 'OnePoint'--combining OneNote and SharePoint to facilitate knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher G; Haque, Nuzrul; Gardner, Ben

    2009-09-01

    The identification and development of novel drugs requires a multidisciplinary team of individuals whose membership changes during the lifecycle of a project. Incomplete knowledge transfer across this team can be a barrier to effective decision-making and efficient drug discovery. We have deployed a new infrastructure supporting information storage and distribution within small teams using Microsoft's SharePoint server technology in conjunction with the desktop application OneNote. This delivers a user-friendly collaborative workspace that is fast, flexible and carries a low training burden. Demand from drug project teams for this 'solution' has now resulted in site-wide deployment to over 500 people across research. PMID:19596081

  18. Knowledge Sharing via Social Networking Platforms in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettles, Degan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…

  19. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  20. Genomic knowledge sharing: A review of the ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Francis, Leslie P

    2014-12-01

    The importance of genomic information for care of individual patients and for the development of knowledge about treatment efficacy is becoming increasingly apparent. This information is probabilistic and involves the use of large data sets to increase the likelihood of detecting low frequency events. Duties and rights of patients with respect to this information have been much discussed, including informed consent to the use of individual information, privacy and confidentiality, rights to know or not to know, and individual ownership of information about themselves. But this is only one side of the information equation. On the other side of the equation are duties of information holders: malpractice and duties to warn, responsibilities of data stewardship, intellectual property and ownership, reciprocity, and justice. This article argues that if we take duties of patients to share information seriously, we must also consider duties on the part of information holders about how they protect and use information. PMID:27294025

  1. Shared decision-making in the care of individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, V; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, R; Hargraves, I; Gionfriddo, M R; Tamhane, S; Montori, V M

    2016-06-01

    People with diabetes often live with other chronic conditions and lead complicated lives. Determining what is the best management decision for a patient requires consideration of each individual's personal, social and biomedical context, what he or she values, the reasons he or she has to value the available options, and the relative contribution of each option in terms of benefits, harms, costs and inconveniences. Empathic conversations between patients and clinicians to diagnose the patient situation that necessitates action and the range of evidence-based actions that best address the situation, so-called shared decision-making, are essential to the personalized care of people with diabetes. The aim of the present review was to present key elements of shared decision-making and propose three different approaches for its application. The first approach focuses on transferring information to patients so that they can make decisions. The second approach, choice, focuses on cultivating the individual's ability to give voice to which choice is best for them. The third approach, conversation, establishes an empathic conversational environment through which the individual with diabetes and their clinician think and talk through how to address the problems of living with diabetes and related illnesses. These approaches are manifest in the design of evidence-based decision aids created to support shared decision-making. In randomized trials, decision aids can efficiently improve patient's knowledge, satisfaction, risk awareness, decisional conflict and involvement. Further research, however, is needed to better understand when and how to promote the empathic conversations, patient, clinician and service and policy contexts necessary to routinely implement shared decision-making in different at scale healthcare systems. In the interim, sufficient evidence and tools exist for persons with diabetes and their clinicians to gain expertise in making decisions together. PMID

  2. Inter-Individual Knowledge Transfer and Performance in Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Ajith; Ganesh, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how knowledge transfer between individuals influences performance in product development (PD) organizations and whether this influence is contingent to the degree of novelty in the PD work. Design/methodology/approach: A set of hypotheses describing the relationships between knowledge transfer by codification…

  3. Fostering Collective and Individual Learning through Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Ke; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and examine a computer-supported knowledge-building environment and to investigate both collective knowledge-building dynamics and individual learning in the context of a tertiary education course in mainland China. The participants were 102 students in four intact Year-one tertiary business classes. Two…

  4. Study of Sharing Knowledge Resources in Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a common business school framework based on knowledge resources that are available in business schools. To support the arguments made based on review literature, the paper presents the holistic framework of knowledge resources in a business school and also provides a knowledge value chain in sharing…

  5. Design of a Personal Health Record and Health Knowledge Sharing System using IHE-XDS and OWL.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Hui; Chou, Yi-Ting; Huang, Ean-Wen; Liou, Der-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Personal Health Record systems (PHRs) provide opportunities for patients to access their own PHR. However, PHRs are teeming with medical terminologies, such as disease and symptom names, etc. Patients need readily understandable and useful health knowledge in addition to their records in order to enhance their self-care ability. This study describes a Personal Health Record and Health Knowledge Sharing System (PHR&HKS) whereby users not only can maintain and import their PHR, but also can collate useful health Web resources that are related to their personal diseases. Furthermore, they can share the collated Web resources with any user with the same diseases and vice versa. To fulfill these objectives, IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) architecture was adopted to share and integrate the PHR. A registry ontology, consisting of part of the XDS document metadata attributes, the ICD-9-CM code, and part of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), was created to enhance the health knowledge collating and sharing functions. The system was then tested and evaluated by 30 users. Among these individuals, 24 (81 %) held positive views on the ease of use and usefulness of the system while the remainder, who held either neutral (14 %) or negative (5 %) attitudes, were identified as individuals who were somewhat unwilling to maintain any PHR or share any information with others. PMID:23321976

  6. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  7. On the different “worlds” of intra-organizational knowledge management: Understanding idiosyncratic variation in MNC cross-site knowledge-sharing practices

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Helmut; Lehrer, Mark; Mühlbacher, Jürgen; Müller, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative field study investigated cross-site knowledge sharing in a small sample of multinational corporations in three different MNC business contexts (global, multidomestic, transnational). The results disclose heterogeneous “worlds” of MNC knowledge sharing, ultimately raising the question as to whether the whole concept of MNC knowledge sharing covers a sufficiently unitary phenomenon to be meaningful. We derive a non-exhaustive typology of MNC knowledge-sharing practices: self-organizing knowledge sharing, technocratic knowledge sharing, and best practice knowledge sharing. Despite its limitations, this typology helps to elucidate a number of issues, including the latent conflict between two disparate theories of MNC knowledge sharing, namely “sender–receiver” and “social learning” theories (Noorderhaven & Harzing, 2009). More generally, we develop the term “knowledge contextualization” to highlight the way that firm-specific organizational features pre-define which knowledge is considered to be of special relevance for intra-organizational sharing. PMID:27087759

  8. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  9. Examining Factors that Affect Knowledge Sharing and Students' Attitude toward Their Learning Experience within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors included: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group discussion and the…

  10. Construction of Shared Knowledge in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Frank; Mandl, Heinz

    This study examined how learners constructed and used shared knowledge in computer-mediated and face-to-face cooperative learning, investigating how to facilitate the construction and use of shared knowledge through dynamic visualization. Forty-eight college students were separated into dyads and assigned to one of four experimental conditions…

  11. A Study on the Methods of Assessment and Strategy of Knowledge Sharing in Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Pat P. W.

    2014-01-01

    With the advancement of information and communication technology, collaboration and knowledge sharing through technology is facilitated which enhances the learning process and improves the learning efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to review the methods of assessment and strategy of collaboration and knowledge sharing in a computer course,…

  12. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  13. Knowledge-Sharing in Virtual Communities: Familiarity, Anonymity and Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Cheolho; Rolland, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of motivation has been emphasised in knowledge-sharing literature, traditional motivation theories, such as self-determination theory (SDT), have not been actively used as a research framework in knowledge-sharing research. The purposes of this study are twofold. The first objective is to propose a model, based on SDT, to test…

  14. Improving Quality and Quantity of Contributions: Two Models for Promoting Knowledge Exchange with Shared Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Barquero, B.; Schwan, S.; Hesse, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Shared databases are used for knowledge exchange in groups. Whether a person is willing to contribute knowledge to a shared database presents a social dilemma: Each group member saves time and energy by not contributing any information to the database and by using the database only to retrieve information which was contributed by others. But if…

  15. Harnessing Open Technologies to Promote Open Educational Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru; Richardson, Cheryl; McGrath, Owen

    2006-01-01

    An oft-noted shortcoming of the research on teaching has been the meager description of teachers' knowledge and experience: their intellectual engagement with the subject matter they teach, their understanding of how to manage ideas in their teaching, or even their conceptions of how students develop knowledge of the subject matter taught. To…

  16. Empowering Faculty to Develop and Share Global Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    2014-01-01

    As colleges seek to increase global knowledge within its students, it is important that faculty members are also offered opportunities to increase their own knowledge of global issues. This chapter discusses faculty development models for seminars abroad and how these seminars encourage the development of unique global study programs.

  17. Networked Experiments and Scientific Resource Sharing in Cooperative Knowledge Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikic, Sabine; Jeschke, Sabina; Ludwig, Nadine; Sinha, Uwe; Thomsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative knowledge spaces create new potentials for the experimental fields in natural sciences and engineering because they enhance the accessibility of experimental setups through virtual laboratories and remote technology, opening them for collaborative and distributed usage. A concept for extending existing virtual knowledge spaces for the…

  18. Knowledge Management: A Conceptual Platform for the Sharing of Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdjoubi, Darius; Harmon, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the learning organization and intellectual capital were instrumental in the beginning stage of knowledge management, about 1995. From the spontaneous combination of these two fields, the modern concept of knowledge management as a conceptual platform emerged. The seven main fields that are so far most intimately connected to…

  19. Sharing an Open Learning Space by Individualizing Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Sutinen, Erkki

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of computer-supported special education focuses on a learning environment where an agent supports a learner through a multi-dimensional learning space. Describes an open system called Ahmed (Assistive and adaptive HyperMedia in Education) that is similar to a Web browser but with capabilities for individual adaptation. (Author/LRW)

  20. The Effect of Shared versus Individual Reflection on Team Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke-Damonte, Darla J.; Keels, J. Kay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, teams in a strategic management classroom were given one of two versions of an assignment related to the development of a team contract: independent individual reflections on desired team behaviors versus team-level reflections on desired behavioral norms. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for gender and…

  1. The Construction of Shared Knowledge in an Internet-based Shared Environment for Expeditions (iExpeditions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minjuan; Laffey, James; Poole, Melissa J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how participants (39 teenagers and 10 college-age online mentors) interacted and constructed shared knowledge of concepts, goals, tasks, procedures, and solutions when solving a real-world problem in an Internet-mediated project-based learning environment (iExpeditions). The main focus of the study was on how different patterns of…

  2. 'Big Data' Collaboration: Exploring, Recording and Sharing Enterprise Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ferrell, Regina Kay

    2013-01-01

    As data sources and data size proliferate, knowledge discovery from "Big Data" is starting to pose several challenges. In this paper, we address a specific challenge in the practice of enterprise knowledge management while extracting actionable nuggets from diverse data sources of seemingly-related information. In particular, we address the challenge of archiving knowledge gained through collaboration, dissemination and visualization as part of the data analysis, inference and decision-making lifecycle. We motivate the implementation of an enterprise data-discovery and knowledge recorder tool, called SEEKER based on real world case-study. We demonstrate SEEKER capturing schema and data-element relationships, tracking the data elements of value based on the queries and the analytical artifacts that are being created by analysts as they use the data. We show how the tool serves as digital record of institutional domain knowledge and a documentation for the evolution of data elements, queries and schemas over time. As a knowledge management service, a tool like SEEKER saves enterprise resources and time by avoiding analytic silos, expediting the process of multi-source data integration and intelligently documenting discoveries from fellow analysts.

  3. Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords

    PubMed Central

    Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  4. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns. PMID:25517697

  5. A crystallographic perspective on sharing data and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Ian J; Groom, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    The crystallographic community is in many ways an exemplar of the benefits and practices of sharing data. Since the inception of the technique, virtually every published crystal structure has been made available to others. This has been achieved through the establishment of several specialist data centres, including the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, which produces the Cambridge Structural Database. Containing curated structures of small organic molecules, some containing a metal, the database has been produced for almost 50 years. This has required the development of complex informatics tools and an environment allowing expert human curation. As importantly, a financial model has evolved which has, to date, ensured the sustainability of the resource. However, the opportunities afforded by technological changes and changing attitudes to sharing data make it an opportune moment to review current practices. PMID:25091065

  6. Identifying Factors That Encourage and Hinder Knowledge Sharing in a Longstanding Online Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    Despite the strong interests among practitioners, there is a knowledge gap with regard to online communities of practice. This study examines knowledge sharing among critical-care and advanced-practice nurses, who are engaged in a longstanding online community of practice. Data were collected about members' online knowledge contribution as well as…

  7. Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147

  8. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual Processor Quota (IPQ) Issuance. 680.40 Section 680.40 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  9. Evaluating a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Initiative: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, Claire; Corrigan, Siobhan; Garavan, Thomas N.; O'Connor, Christy; Leahy, Damien; Long, David; Murphy, Eamonn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a case study illustrating the issues involved in the tacit knowledge conversion process and to determine whether such conversion delivers value to the organisation in terms of business value and return on investment (ROI). Design/methodology/approach: A single-case multiple baseline participants experimental…

  10. Argumentation Structure and Metacognition in Constructing Shared Knowledge at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Santi, Marina

    This paper reports on a qualitative study of children's discourse-reasoning about knowledge objects emerging when the classroom becomes a community of discourse. Its purpose was to analyze metacognitive reflections with respect to the steps of the argument. Within science education classes, a part of a wider ecological curriculum was implemented…

  11. Knowledge of error-correcting protocol helps in individual eavesdropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.

    2007-06-01

    The quantum key distribution protocol ΒΒ84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction are analyzed from the viewpoint of security against individual eavesdropping empowered by quantum memory. We show that a mere knowledge of the error correction protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information about the generated key.

  12. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

  13. The Method and Significance of Secondary Preservice Teachers Sharing Reading with Individual Teenagers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe how secondary preservice teachers of diverse subject areas shared their reading with an individual student in school. A second purpose was to describe the barriers (if any) that they faced sharing their reading. A third purpose was to report their beliefs about the positive aspects of sharing…

  14. The Intention to Share: Professionals' Knowledge Sharing Behaviors in Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajmi, Bibi M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the rise of some online communities as well as the decline of others has caught the attention of academia as well as of practice. One assumption for the decline of some online communities is the lack of the rich knowledge content that is believed to be the source of competitiveness and sustainability of any online community.…

  15. Knowledge Management and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing and Learning at Work: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmholdt, Claus

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a critique of knowledge management. The critique is empirically based on the case study of a Danish software production company's (A-Soft) knowledge management strategy of implementing an information technology (IT) tool known as 'knowledge centre' (KC). The article argues: (1) the discourses on knowledge and learning informing…

  16. Ancient Rome Worldwide Links: Sharing Knowledge to Preserve the Roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, P.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Forti, G.; Corrao, A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  17. More than a Master: Developing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge in School-University Research Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate master's programs for in-service teachers may be a promising new avenue in developing research partnership networks that link schools and university and enable collaborative development, sharing and use of knowledge of teacher research. This study explores the way these knowledge processes originating from master's…

  18. A Collaborative Multimedia Annotation Tool for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephen J. H.; Zhang, Jia; Su, Addison Y. S.; Tsai, Jeffrey J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) requires intensive social interactions among participants, typically in the form of annotations. An annotation refers to an explicit expression of knowledge that is attached to a document to reveal the conceptual meanings of an annotator's implicit thoughts. In this research, we…

  19. Pedagogical Knowledge and Elementary Reading Methodology Textbooks: In Search of a Shared Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Jay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines a computer-based concordance of 5,760 references from 12 elementary reading methodology textbooks with copyrights ranging from 1985 to 1989. Suggests the existence of a shared example of pedagogical knowledge, which is composed of a complex amalgam of knowledge on philosophy, principles, and practices. (RS)

  20. A Connective Ethnography of Peer Knowledge Sharing and Diffusion in a Tween Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Deborah A.; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown how knowledge diffusion occurs in classrooms and structured small groups around assigned tasks yet have not begun to account for widespread knowledge sharing in more native, unstructured group settings found in online games and virtual worlds. In this paper, we describe and analyze how an insider gaming practice spread…

  1. Virtual Knowledge-Sharing Communities of Practice at Caterpillar: Success Factors and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexander; Page, Vaughn; Wentling, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a qualitative study of success factors and barriers to the development of virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice at Caterpillar Inc. Identified prerequisites for successful knowledge management through virtual communities of practice, as well as barriers to virtual community development, and discusses future…

  2. Examining Antecedents of Knowledge-Sharing Factors on Research Supervision: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosravi, Arash; Ahmad, Mohammad Nazir

    2016-01-01

    The use of an effective supervision mechanism is crucial between a student and supervisor. The essential knowledge shared and transferred between these two parties must be observed and understood very well in order to ensure that students are produced at good level of quality for future professional knowledge workers. The aim of this study was to…

  3. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prachi; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat–drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought–pathogen and heat–pathogen as examples of abiotic–biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance. PMID:26442037

  4. The transformation of individual and collective knowledge in elementary science classrooms that are organised as knowledge-building communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinn, Michelle K.; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonné, Sylvie; Woszczyna, Carolyn

    1995-06-01

    This study was designed to address two purposes. First, we wanted to test working hypotheses derived from previous studies about the transformation of individual and collective knowledge in elementary classrooms. Second, we attempted to understand the degree to which “ownership” was an appropriate concept to understand the process of learning in science classrooms. Over a four-month period, we collected extensive data in a Grade 6/7 classroom studying simple machines. As in our previous studies we found that (a) conceptual and material resources were readily shared among students, and (b) tool-related practices were appropriated as newcomers participated with more competent others (peers and teachers) in the pursuit of student-framed goals. We also found that for discursive change (“learning”) at the classroom level to occur, it appeared more important whether a new language game was closely related to students' previous language games than who actually proposed the new language game (teacher or student). Implications are drawn for the design of science curricula and classroom activities. Both pedagogy and design are still tightly bound by rationalist, symbol-manipulating, problem-solving assumptions that hold knowledge to be a property of individuals. Pedagogy still concentrates on the individual and individual performance, even though most work is ultimately collaborative and highly social. (Brown & Duguid, 1992, p. 171)

  5. User involvement as sharing knowledge – an extended perspective in patient education

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Anita; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient education is undergoing a paradigm shift in which the perspectives of patients are increasingly being incorporated into learning programs. Access to the users’ experience is now considered a prerequisite for the development of quality health services, but how this user experience is incorporated is somewhat unclear. The inclusion of experiential knowledge and user involvement can challenge professional authority, roles, and working methods because knowledge sharing is different from persuasion, professional explanation, and consent. Dialogue and collaboration between professionals and users are essential to effective user involvement; however, little is understood about the characteristics of their collaboration. Objective To describe characteristics of the collaboration between users and health professionals in developing, implementing, and evaluating patient education courses in hospitals. Design, setting, and methods A field study was conducted in three different hospitals. Data collection comprised open observations in meetings of 17 different collaboration groups with a total of 100 participants, and 24 interviews with users and professionals. The data analyses included both thematic and the Systematic Data Integration approach. Results Two contrasting types of collaboration emerged from the analyses; knowledge sharing and information exchange. The first was characterized by mutual knowledge sharing, involvement, and reciprocal decision making. Characteristics of the second were the absence of dialogue, meagre exploration of the users’ knowledge, and decisions usually made by the professionals. Conclusion Collaboration between users and health personnel takes place in an asymmetric relationship. Mutual knowledge sharing was found to be more than the exchange of information and consultation and also to be a prerequisite for shared decision making. In developing patient education when users are involved the health professionals have the

  6. Vocal sharing and individual acoustic distinctiveness within a group of captive orcas (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Kremers, Dorothee; Lemasson, Alban; Almunia, Javier; Wanker, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    Among vocal learners, some animal species are known to develop individually distinctive vocalizations, and others clearly learn to produce group signatures. The optimal vocal sharing hypothesis suggests that vocal divergence and convergence are not compulsorily exclusive and both can be found at different levels in a given species. Being individually recognizable is socially important even in species sharing vocal badges. Acoustic divergence is not systematically controlled as it can simply be due to interindividual morphological differences. We tested that hypothesis in a species known to learn their family vocal dialect socially: the orca (Orcinus orca). We identified 13 different call types, including some shared by all group members, some shared only by 2 or 3 individuals, and others particular to 1 individual. Sharing was higher between males than between females. Three of our 4 orcas each produced a unique call type, which was preferably emitted. The call types shared by all orcas still presented individual acoustic distinctiveness that could, to some degree, be explained by morphological differences. We found evidence for strong similarities between some of the call types of our captive orcas and the call types of their ancestors, which are Canadian and Icelandic free-ranging orcas. Our findings suggest that captive orcas use a complex vocal repertoire enabling each individual to produce sounds that are similar to some of their partners', which might be used as social badges to advertise their preferential bonds, as well as individual-specific calls. Our findings open new lines of research concerning the functional value of a balanced "diverging-converging" vocal system. PMID:22866769

  7. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Cumming, Oliver; Peletz, Rachel; Chan, Gabrielle Ka-Seen; Brown, Joe; Baker, Kelly; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. Methods and Findings Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18–1.76). Conclusion Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines. PMID:24743336

  8. Rethinking Knowledge Management: Strategies for Enhancing District-Level Teacher and Leader Tacit Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Grounded within knowledge management (KM) theory and conceptions of tacit and explicit knowledge, this article draws on historical evidence from the Early Years Literacy Project (EYLP), a four-year instructional renewal strategy implemented across 100 schools in a large Canadian school district. The EYLP management approach included a series of…

  9. A Legal Framework to Enable Sharing of Clinical Decision Support Knowledge and Services across Institutional Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Hongsermeier, Tonya; Maviglia, Saverio; Tsurikova, Lana; Bogaty, Dan; Rocha, Roberto A.; Goldberg, Howard; Meltzer, Seth; Middleton, Blackford

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the CDS Consortium (CDSC) is to assess, define, demonstrate, and evaluate best practices for knowledge management and clinical decision support in healthcare information technology at scale – across multiple ambulatory care settings and Electronic Health Record technology platforms. In the course of the CDSC research effort, it became evident that a sound legal foundation was required for knowledge sharing and clinical decision support services in order to address data sharing, intellectual property, accountability, and liability concerns. This paper outlines the framework utilized for developing agreements in support of sharing, accessing, and publishing content via the CDSC Knowledge Management Portal as well as an agreement in support of deployment and consumption of CDSC developed web services in the context of a research project under IRB oversight. PMID:22195151

  10. Motivating interdependent teams: individual rewards, shared rewards, or something in between?

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Christian, Michael S; Ellis, Aleksander P J

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose in this study was to extend theory and research regarding the motivational process in teams by examining the effects of hybrid rewards on team performance. Further, to better understand the underlying team level mechanisms, the authors examined whether the hypothesized benefits of hybrid over shared and individual rewards were due to increased information allocation and reduced social loafing. Results from 90 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported the hypotheses. Hybrid rewards led to higher levels of team performance than did individual and shared rewards; these effects were due to improvements in information allocation and reductions in social loafing. PMID:20085415

  11. The early origins of human charity: developmental changes in preschoolers’ sharing with poor and wealthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that young children already engage in sharing behavior. The underlying social-cognitive mechanisms, however, are still under debate. In particular, it is unclear whether or not young children’s sharing is motivated by an appreciation of others’ wealth. Manipulating the material needs of recipients in a sharing task (Experiment 1) and a resource allocation task (Experiment 2), we show that 5- but not 3-year-old children share more with poor than wealthy individuals. The 3-year-old children even showed a tendency to behave less selfishly towards the rich, yet not the poor recipient. This suggests that very early instances of sharing behavior are not motivated by a consideration of others’ material needs. Moreover, the results show that 5-year-old children were rather inclined to give more to the poor individual than distributing the resources equally, demonstrating that their wish to support the poor overruled the otherwise very prominent inclination to share resources equally. This indicates that charity has strong developmental roots in preschool children. PMID:25018735

  12. Can Universities Encourage Students' Continued Motivation for Knowledge Sharing and How Can This Help Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Both practitioners and researchers recognize the increasing importance of knowledge sharing in organizations (Bock, Zmud, Kim, & Lee, 2005; Vera-Muñoz, Ho, & Chow, 2006). Knowledge sharing influences a firm's knowledge creation, organizational learning, performance achievement, growth, and competitive advantage (Bartol &…

  13. National Culture in Practice: Its Impact on Knowledge Sharing in Global Virtual Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Kangning

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning global virtual collaboration have received considerable attention in both the academic and practical world; however, little research has been conducted on knowledge-sharing activities in global virtual collaboration, which is a key process to achieve collaboration effectiveness. Due to national culture having been seen as one of…

  14. Exploration of Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study on Student Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Li, FengChia

    2012-01-01

    Although research on virtual teams is becoming more popular, there is a gap in the understanding of how social capital affects knowledge sharing and creating, and their impacts on virtual team performance. To fill in this gap, this study establishes a framework by incorporating social capital with the SECI model and further examines it with an…

  15. The Ecosystem Factor in Supporting Wiki Initiative for Knowledge Sharing in Malaysian Public Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuzaimah, Khairil Hizar Md; Affandi, Haryanti Mohd; Hassan, Fadzil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of considering the organizational ecosystem in implementing wikis for knowledge sharing.The findings suggest that a prerequisite of an effective wiki is the appreciation of the factors that make up the organizational ecosystem; technical and organizational factors are variable elements of…

  16. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  17. Accumulating Knowledge on Elementary Science Specialists: A Strategy for Building Conceptual Clarity and Sharing Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Jeanne; Rudnick, Mollie; Freeman, Cassie

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a framework for supporting identifying and organizing the elements that comprise elementary science specialist models. With these first building blocks, it is the hope of the author to create a foundation for shared language, conceptual understanding and accumulating knowledge about how to bring high quality science education…

  18. Confucius Institutes: Distributed Leadership and Knowledge Sharing in a Worldwide Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hsi Chang; Mirmirani, Sam; Ilacqua, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on Confucius Institutes and assess the applicability of theories of leadership and knowledge sharing to multinational organizations and worldwide networks. Growth of multinational trade and decrease in international tension have facilitated the globalization of both profit-seeking and non-profit…

  19. Exploring the Supervisor Role as a Facilitator of Knowledge Sharing in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Christina Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the themes and implications, concerning the role of the supervisor as a facilitator of knowledge sharing in teams. After describing the strategic context for devolving human resource responsibilities to line managers, the paper defines and discusses the line manager/supervisor role. The barriers to learning in the workplace are…

  20. Asynchronous Knowledge Sharing and Conversation Interaction Impact on Grade in an Online Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2011-01-01

    Student knowledge sharing and conversation theory interactions were coded from asynchronous discussion forums to measure the effect of learning-oriented utterances on academic performance. The sample was 3 terms of an online business course (in an accredited MBA program) at a U.S.-based university. Correlation, stepwise regression, and multiple…

  1. Debriefing in Moodle: Written Feedback on Trust and Knowledge Sharing in a Social Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oertig, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to debriefing that uses the discussion forum feature of the Moodle open source course management system to debrief a simulation game with undergraduate business students. The simulation game allowed the students to experience the fragility of trust when sharing knowledge in a global virtual project team. I…

  2. The Role of Motivators in Improving Knowledge-Sharing among Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling; Ramayah, T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research addresses a primary issue that involves motivating academics to share knowledge. Adapting the theory of reasoned action, this study examines the role of motivation that consists of intrinsic motivators (commitment; enjoyment in helping others) and extrinsic motivators (reputation; organizational rewards) to determine…

  3. DIY Activists: Communities of Practice, Cultural Dialogism, and Radical Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, David; Leskowitz, Shari

    2013-01-01

    This study explored innovative alternative processes of living, learning, and knowledge sharing of a loosely knit community of anarchist, anticapitalist "Do-It-Yourself" (DIY) activists. Generated through participant observation and interviews, findings reinforced adult education theories--that adults can diagnose their own learning needs and…

  4. Cosmos, culture and landscape: Documenting, learning and sharing Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in contemporary society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    This PhD thesis presents Australian Aboriginal astronomical knowledge, its documentation, sharing and communication, with an emphasis on contemporary collaborations. The research is primarily focussed on the Murchison region (associated with Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory), East Kimberley (Wolfe Creek Crater) and the South West of Western Australia.

  5. The Impact of Affective and Cognitive Trust on Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Peter E.; Hwang, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an organizational learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the influence of one conceptualization of trust, one that has two…

  6. Employee Determinants to Share Knowledge in a U.S. Federal Government Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature indicates that knowledge sharing (KS) research is prevalent in the private sector, there is scant empirical research data about KS in the public sector. Moreover, organizations lack an understanding of employee KS behavior. This study investigated two research questions: First, how does the perceived importance of five…

  7. Knowledge Sharing and Educational Technology Acceptance in Online Academic Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate; Schustek, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Online programs rely on the use of educational technology for knowledge sharing in academic virtual communities of practice (vCoPs). This poses the question as to which factors influence technology acceptance. Previous research has investigated the inter-relationship between educational technology acceptance (ETA) and the vCoP context…

  8. Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing Using 3D Virtual World on "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Noor Faridah A.

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative and knowledge sharing virtual activity on "Second Life" using a learner-centred teaching methodology was initiated between Temasek Polytechnic and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HK PolyU) in the October 2011 semester. This paper highlights the author's experience in designing and implementing this e-learning…

  9. Horizontal Evaluation: Fostering Knowledge Sharing and Program Improvement within a Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Graham; Devaux, Andre; Velasco, Claudio; Horton, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal evaluation combines self-assessment and external evaluation by peers. Papa Andina, a regional network that works to reduce rural poverty in the Andean region by fostering innovation in potato production and marketing, has used horizontal evaluations to improve the work of local project teams and to share knowledge within the network. In…

  10. Knowledge Sharing Through Online Communities of Practice: The Impact of Cultural Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Maurer, Martin; Wentling, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study explores cultural variations in knowledge sharing strategies in virtual communities of practice at three overseas offices (located in Brazil, China, and Russia) of Caterpillar, a US-based Fortune 100 corporation. The study results show that such factors as degree of collectivism, competitiveness, the importance of saving face, cultural…

  11. "Heading Up the Street:" Localized Opportunities for Shared Constructions of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.; Majors, Yolanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares linguistic and non-linguistic components of ways of speaking, being, performing, and reasoning within an urban African American secondary classroom and a midwestern African American hair salon, identifying culturally shared interactional norms that inform knowledge building across sites and analyzing how the discourse norms and structures…

  12. Storing and Sharing Knowledge: Supporting the Management of Knowledge Made Explicit in Transnational Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakes, Elayne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to indicate and illustrate the potential for use of different types of technologies to support knowledge process in transnational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a standard literature review plus illustrations from case organisations to demonstrate the potential applications and…

  13. From Knowledge Sharing to Knowledge Creation: A Blended Knowledge-Management Model for Improving University Students' Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu; Yeh, Yi-ling; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Creativity and knowledge management are both important competences that university students need to strive to develop. This study therefore developed and evaluated an instructional program for improving university students' creativity based on a blended knowledge-management (KM) model that integrates e-learning and three core processes of KM:…

  14. Assessment on knowledge network sharing capability of industrial cluster based on dempster-shafer theory of evidence.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shengli; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assess knowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research. PMID:24795540

  15. Assessment on Knowledge Network Sharing Capability of Industrial Cluster Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assess knowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research. PMID:24795540

  16. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-02-15

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning

  17. CmapTools: A Software Environment for Knowledge Modeling and Sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canas, Alberto J.

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing collaborative effort between a group of NASA Ames scientists and researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) of the University of West Florida, a new version of CmapTools has been developed that enable scientists to construct knowledge models of their domain of expertise, share them with other scientists, make them available to anybody on the Internet with access to a Web browser, and peer-review other scientists models. These software tools have been successfully used at NASA to build a large-scale multimedia on Mars and in knowledge model on Habitability Assessment. The new version of the software places emphasis on greater usability for experts constructing their own knowledge models, and support for the creation of large knowledge models with large number of supporting resources in the forms of images, videos, web pages, and other media. Additionally, the software currently allows scientists to cooperate with each other in the construction, sharing and criticizing of knowledge models. Scientists collaborating from remote distances, for example researchers at the Astrobiology Institute, can concurrently manipulate the knowledge models they are viewing without having to do this at a special videoconferencing facility.

  18. Multicentre knowledge sharing and planning/dose audit on flattening filter free beams for SBRT lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. R.; Sykes, J. R.; Barber, J.; West, K.; Bromley, R.; Szymura, K.; Fisher, S.; Sim, J.; Bailey, M.; Chrystal, D.; Deshpande, S.; Franji, I.; Nielsen, T. B.; Brink, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    When implementing new technology into clinical practice, there will always be a need for large knowledge gain. The aim of this study was twofold, (I) audit the treatment planning and dose delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam technology for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of lung tumours across a range of treatment planning systems compared to the conventional Flatting Filter (FF) beams, (II) investigate how sharing knowledge between centres of different experience can improve plan quality. All vendor/treatment planning system (TPS) combinations investigated were able to produce acceptable treatment plans and the dose accuracy was clinically acceptable for all plans. By sharing knowledge between the different centres, the minor protocol violations (MPV) could be significantly reduced, from an average of 1.9 MPV per plan to 0.6 after such sharing of treatment planning knowledge. In particular, for the centres with less SBRT and/or volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) experience the MPV average per plan improved. All vendor/TPS combinations were also able to successfully deliver the FF and FFF SBRT VMAT plans. The plan quality and dose accuracy were found to be clinically acceptable.

  19. Knowledge sharing and information integration in healthcare using ontologies and deductive databases.

    PubMed

    Nardon, Fabiane Bizinella; Moura, Lincoln A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using Semantic Web technologies for sharing knowledge in healthcare. It combines deductive databases and ontologies, so that it is possible to extract knowledge that has not been explicitly declared within the database. A representation of the UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) Semantic Network and Metathesaurus was created using the RDF standard, in order to represent the basic medical ontology. The inference over the knowledge base is done by the TRI-DEDALO System, a deductive data-base created to query and update RDF based knowledge sources as well as conventional relational databases. Finally, an ontology was created for the Brazilian National Health Card data interchange format, a standard to capture and transmit health encounter information throughout the country. This paper demonstrates how this approach can be used to integrate heterogeneous information and to answer complex queries in a real world environment. PMID:15360775

  20. Sharing What We Know about Living a Good Life: Indigenous Approaches to Knowledge Translation

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Olding, Michelle; Ziegler, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge Translation (KT), a core priority in Canadian health research, policy, and practice for the past decade, has a long and rich tradition within Indigenous communities. In Indigenous knowledge systems the processes of “knowing” and “doing” are often intertwined and indistinguishable. However, dominant KT models in health science do not typically recognize Indigenous knowledge conceptualizations, sharing systems, or protocols and will likely fall short in Indigenous contexts. There is a need to move towards KT theory and practice that embraces diverse understandings of knowledge and that recognizes, respects, and builds on pre-existing knowledge systems. This will not only result in better processes and outcomes for Indigenous communities, it will also provide rich learning for mainstream KT scholarship and practice. As professionals deeply engaged in KT work, health librarians are uniquely positioned to support the development and implementation of Indigenous KT. This article provides information that will enhance the ability of readers from diverse backgrounds to promote and support Indigenous KT efforts, including an introduction to Indigenous knowledge conceptualizations and knowledge systems; key contextual issues to consider in planning, implementing, or evaluating KT in Indigenous settings; and contemporary examples of Indigenous KT in action. The authors pose critical reflection questions throughout the article that encourage readers to connect the content with their own practices and underlying knowledge assumptions. PMID:26793244

  1. Shared Knowledge for Decision-making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring indigenous traditional knowledge together with contemporary scientific knowledge to address impacts resulting from changes in climate, environment, weather and pollution in the Arctic. As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities continue to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This system is being designed to bring together remotely sensed, indigenous and other data and observations for analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest (e.g., snow cover, rainfall, temperature, ice conditions, vegetation, infrastructure, fires). A description of the system and its components as well as a preliminary application of the system in the Arctic will be presented.

  2. A Game between Enterprise and Employees about the Tacit Knowledge Transfer and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqin, Zhao; Guijun, Wang; Zhenqiang, Bao; Quanke, Pan

    Tacit knowledge transfer and sharing can lead to synergy, both employees and enterprise can benefit from it. This paper discusses the setting of incentive mechanism in order to promote tacit knowledge transfer and sharing of employees in the case of asymmetric information, and establishes the incentive model applied double auction theory. We introduce the concept of favor degree to establish the trust mechanism in the process of trading, and we bring forward the repeated double auction model based on favor degree, improving the transaction success rate, and accelerating the long-term cooperative relationship between enterprise and employees, and solving the quantity problems of employees' promotion potential and the sense of belonging in the human resource management. And then we use an example to demonstrate the feasibility of repeated game model.

  3. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with... and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. (a) No aircraft operator may use any... ensure that individuals performing security-related duties for the aircraft operator have knowledge...

  4. Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

  5. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  6. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  7. Architectural design and support for knowledge sharing across heterogeneous MAST systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.; Garcia-Vergara, Sergio; Lee, Sung G.

    2012-06-01

    A novel approach for the sharing of knowledge between widely heterogeneous robotic agents is presented, drawing upon Gardenfors Conceptual Spaces approach [4]. The target microrobotic platforms considered are computationally, power, sensor, and communications impoverished compared to more traditional robotics platforms due to their small size. This produces novel challenges for the system to converge on an interpretation of events within the world, in this case specifically focusing on the task of recognizing the concept of a biohazard in an indoor setting.

  8. Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children's social preferences.

    PubMed

    Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we show that this effect depends on shared knowledge: children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, irrespective of the target children's liking of the songs. These results suggest that young children have a remarkably selective sensitivity to shared cultural knowledge. Shared knowledge may be a powerful determinant of children's social preferences, both because it underpins effective communication and because it is conveyed by others through social interactions and therefore can serve as a marker of social group identity. PMID:26773967

  9. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture.

    PubMed

    Marincioni, Fausto

    2007-12-01

    A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric. PMID:18028164

  10. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R.; Otto, John S.; Sánchez, Mario A.; Bustamante, Fabián E.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

  11. A Method of Social Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing Acceleration for e-Learning System: The Distance Learning Network Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różewski, Przemysław

    Nowadays, e-learning systems take the form of the Distance Learning Network (DLN) due to widespread use and accessibility of the Internet and networked e-learning services. The focal point of the DLN performance is efficiency of knowledge processing in asynchronous learning mode and facilitating cooperation between students. In addition, the DLN articulates attention to social aspects of the learning process as well. In this paper, a method for the DLN development is proposed. The main research objectives for the proposed method are the processes of acceleration of social collaboration and knowledge sharing in the DLN. The method introduces knowledge-disposed agents (who represent students in educational scenarios) that form a network of individuals aimed to increase their competence. For every agent the competence expansion process is formulated. Based on that outcome the process of dynamic network formation performed on the social and knowledge levels. The method utilizes formal apparatuses of competence set and network game theories combined with an agent system-based approach.

  12. Examining the Impact of Pedagogy on Student Application of Learning: Acquiring, Sharing, and Using Knowledge for Organizational Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alice C.; Williams, Jacqueline; Smith-Gratto, Karen; Black, Sylvia Sloan; Kane, Betty Turner

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot research we examine the impact of two leadership development training programs on the ability of students to acquire knowledge, share knowledge, and apply knowledge for organizational decision making. One program emphasized concepts and case-based application based on a technical learning paradigm. The other program used a game-based…

  13. 49 CFR 1548.11 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with... SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.11 Training and knowledge for individuals with security... accept, handle, transport, or deliver cargo have knowledge of the— (1) Applicable provisions of this...

  14. Internet Addictive Individuals Share Impulsivity and Executive Dysfunction with Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhu, Hongmei; Li, Cui; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty in suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), and 22 normal controls (NC). All participants were measured with BIS-11, go/no-go task, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that Barratt impulsiveness scale 11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores, and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25202248

  15. Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens

    PubMed Central

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The project “Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia” brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced. PMID:26904532

  16. Continuous quality improvement: a shared governance model that maximizes agent-specific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Burkoski, Vanessa; Yoon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Motivate, Innovate, Celebrate: an innovative shared governance model through the establishment of continuous quality improvement (CQI) councils was implemented across the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC). The model leverages agent-specific knowledge at the point of care and provides a structure aimed at building human resources capacity and sustaining enhancements to quality and safe care delivery. Interprofessional and cross-functional teams work through the CQI councils to identify, formulate, execute and evaluate CQI initiatives. In addition to a structure that facilitates collaboration, accountability and ownership, a corporate CQI Steering Committee provides the forum for scaling up and spreading this model. Point-of-care staff, clinical management and educators were trained in LEAN methodology and patient experience-based design to ensure sufficient knowledge and resources to support the implementation. PMID:24860947

  17. Community-Based Individual Knowledge Construction in the Classroom: A Process-Oriented Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, C.-K.; Chen, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of knowledge convergence and knowledge sharing in the context of classroom collaboration in which students do a group learning activity mediated by a generic representation tool. In analysing the transcript of the interactions of a group, we adapt the group cognition method of Stahl and the uptake analysis…

  18. Individual Differences and Metacognitive Knowledge of Visual Search Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the ‘template’ of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions. PMID:22066030

  19. Exotic herbivores on a shared native host: tissue quality after individual, simultaneous, and sequential attack.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; Orians, Colin M; Preisser, Evan L

    2012-08-01

    Plants in nature are often attacked by multiple enemies whose effect on the plant cannot always be predicted based on the outcome of individual attacks. We investigated how two invasive herbivores, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA) and the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) (EHS), alter host plant quality (measured as amino acid concentration and composition) when feeding individually or jointly on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an important long-lived forest tree that is in severe decline. The joint herbivore treatments included both simultaneous and sequential infestations by the two herbivores. We expected resource depletion over time, particularly in response to feeding by HWA. In contrast, HWA dramatically increased the concentration and altered the composition of individual free amino acids. Compared to control trees, HWA increased total amino acid concentration by 330% after 1 year of infestation. Conversely, EHS had a negligible effect when feeding individually. Interestingly, there was a marginally significant HWA × EHS interaction that suggests the potential for EHS presence to reduce the impact of HWA on foliage quality when the two species co-occur. We suggest indirect effects of water stress as a possible physiological mechanism for our results. Understanding how species interactions change the physiology of a shared host is crucial to making more accurate predictions about host mortality and subsequent changes in affected communities and ecosystems, and to help design appropriate management plans. PMID:22311255

  20. Social Category Formation Is Induced by Cues of Sharing Knowledge in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Katalin; Elekes, Fruzsina; Bródy, Gábor; Király, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that human infants and young children are sensitive to the boundaries of certain social groups, which supports the idea that the capacity to represent social categories constitutes a fundamental characteristic of the human cognitive system. However, the function this capacity serves is still debated. We propose that during social categorization the human mind aims at mapping out social groups defined by a certain set of shared knowledge. An eye-tracking paradigm was designed to test whether two-year-old children differentially associate conventional versus non-conventional tool use with language-use, reflecting an organization of information that is induced by cues of shared knowledge. Children first watched videos depicting a male model perform goal-directed actions either in a conventional or in a non-conventional way. In the test phase children were presented with photographs taken of the model and of a similarly aged unfamiliar person while listening to a foreign (Experiment 1) or a native language (Experiment 2) text. Upon hearing the foreign utterance children looked at the model first if he had been seen to act in an unconventional way during familiarization. In contrast, children looked at the other person if the model had performed conventional tool use actions. No such differences were found in case of the native language. The results suggest that children take the conventionality of behavior into account in forming representations about a person, and they generalize to other qualities of the person based on this information. PMID:25014363

  1. Knowledge sharing among healthcare infection preventionists: the impact of public health professionals in a rural state

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Infection Preventionists (IPs) are healthcare workers tasked at overseeing the prevention and control of these infections, but they may have difficulties obtaining up-to-date information, primarily in rural states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of public health involvement on the knowledge-sharing network of IPs in a rural state. Findings A total of 95 attendees completed our survey. The addition of public health professionals increased the density of the network, reduced the number of separate components of the network, and reduced the number of key players needed to contact nearly all of the other network members. All network metrics were higher for public health professionals than for IPs without public health involvement. Conclusions The addition of public health professionals involved in healthcare infection prevention activities augmented the knowledge sharing potential of the IPs in Iowa. Rural states without public health involvement in healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention efforts should consider the potential benefits of adding these personnel to the public health workforce to help facilitate communication of HAI-related information. PMID:22838734

  2. Preparing for motherhood: authoritative knowledge and the undercurrents of shared experience in two childbirth education courses in Cagliari, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ketler, S K

    2000-06-01

    This article compares the social settings and teaching organization of two differently structured childbirth education courses in Cagliari, Italy, in order to understand how social processes and contexts work to negotiate authoritative knowledge. Although the explicit goal of both courses was to transmit biomedical knowledge, knowledge based in women's experience nonetheless dominated some course sessions. Thus, I examine the social processes and interactions that enabled women's experiential knowledge to dominate discussions and subsequently share in the authority of biomedical knowledge in some situations. Because few existing studies do so, this article also addresses a gap in our current understanding by exploring not only how experiential knowledge comes to share authority with biomedical knowledge, but also, why it is important that it does. Focusing on the efficacy of differently structured courses, this article informs the planning of future childbirth education courses in similar settings. PMID:10879367

  3. INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTION FOR VARYING LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HERSHBERGER, WAYNE A.; TRANTINA, PAUL R.

    THE HYPOTHESIS FOR TWO EXPERIMENTS WAS THAT INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION EFFECTIVENESS IS A POSITIVE FUNCTION OF THE MANNER IN WHICH A LESSON IDENTIFIES AND REMEDIES TYPES OF ERRORS. PAIRS OF GRADE EIGHT AND NINE STUDENTS, MATCHED FOR INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT, AND RANDOMLY DIVIDED AS EXPERIMENTAL AND YOKED CONTROL SUBJECTS, WERE EXPOSED TO TWO…

  4. Shared Decision Making and Patient Decision Aids: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Hawai‘i Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friend, John; Chun, Maria BJ

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai‘i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai‘i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai‘i physicians are promising. PMID:24251086

  5. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  6. Genetic Algorithm-Based Test Data Generation for Multiple Paths via Individual Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Dunwei

    2014-01-01

    The application of genetic algorithms in automatically generating test data has aroused broad concerns and obtained delightful achievements in recent years. However, the efficiency of genetic algorithm-based test data generation for path testing needs to be further improved. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model of generating test data for multiple paths coverage. Then, a multipopulation genetic algorithm with individual sharing is presented to solve the established model. We not only analyzed the performance of the proposed method theoretically, but also applied it to various programs under test. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the efficiency of generating test data for many paths' coverage significantly. PMID:25691894

  7. Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Göritz, Anja S; Van Quaquebeke, Niels; Andreou, Christina; Jungclaussen, David; Peters, Maarten J V

    2014-03-30

    Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement. PMID:24461685

  8. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  9. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  10. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator...

  11. Maintaining shared knowledge of acquaintance: methods people use to establish who knows whom.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    Acquaintance is a fundamental determinant of how people behave when interacting with one another. This article focuses on how this type of personal knowledge is an important consideration for people as social actors. Studying naturally occurring social encounters, I describe how speakers use particular references to convey whether a recipient should be able to recognize a non-present third party. On some occasions, however, the presumption of recognizability or non-recognizability that underpins the use of a particular reference proves questionable. By exploring how recipients can challenge reference forms, and thereby reject claims of either recognizability or non-recognizability, I explain how people establish and maintain a shared understanding of who knows whom. I conclude by discussing motivations for this behaviour, and thereby contribute to understanding the commonsense reasoning that underpins orderly conduct in this aspect of social encounters. PMID:24117990

  12. Knowledge about aerosol injection does not reduce individual mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is a climate engineering method that is reputed to be very effective in cooling the planet but is also thought to involve major risks and side effects. As a new option in the bid to counter climate change, it has attracted an increasing amount of research and the debate on its potential gained momentum after it was referred to in the 5th IPCC assessment report (IPCC 2013). One major objection to SAI and the research done on it is that it could undermine commitment to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Policymakers, interest groups or individuals might wrongly perceive SAI as an easy fix for climate change and accordingly reduce their mitigation efforts. This is the first study to provide an empirical evaluation of this claim for individuals. In a large-scale framed field experiment with more than 650 participants, we provide evidence that people do not back-pedal on mitigation when they are told that the climate change problem could be partly addressed via SAI. Instead, we observe that people who have been informed about SAI mitigate more than people who have not. Our data suggest that the increase is driven by a perception of SAI as potential threat.

  13. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine, Volume 11, March 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    APPL is a research-based organization that serves NASA program and project managers, as well as project teams, at every level of development. In 1997, APPL was created from an earlier program to underscore the importance that NASA places on project management and project teams through a wide variety of products and services, including knowledge sharing, classroom and online courses, career development guidance, performance support, university partnerships, and advanced technology tools. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. Contributors to this issue include: Teresa Bailey, a librarian at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Roy Malone, Deputy Director in the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), W. Scott Cameron, Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble, Ray Morgan, recent retiree as Vice President of AeroVironment, Inc., Marty Davis, Program Manager of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, Todd Post, editor of ASK Magazine, and works for EduTech Ltd. in Silver Spring, Maryland, Dr. Owen Gadeken, professor of Engineering Management at the Defense Acquisition University, Ken Schwer, currently the Project Manager of Solar Dynamics Observatory, Dr. Edward Hoffmwan, Director of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Frank Snow, a member of the NASA Explorer Program at Goddard Space Flight Center since 1992, Dr. Alexander Laufer, Editor-in-Chief of ASK Magazine and a member of the Advisory Board of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Judy Stokley, presently Air Force Program Executive Officer for Weapons in Washington, D.C. and Terry Little, Director of the Kinetic

  14. 42 CFR 447.72 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protections for individuals with family incomes above 100 percent but at or below 150 percent of the FPL. 447... sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family incomes above 100 percent but at or below... whose family income exceeds 100 percent, but does not exceed 150 percent, of the FPL. (b) Cost...

  15. Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium: three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics and knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jongsun; Cheong, Kyeong-Chae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Ward, Todd J; O'Donnell, Kerry; Geiser, David M; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate species identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on well-preserved culture collections, have established a robust foundation for Fusarium classification. Genomes of four Fusarium species have been published with more being currently sequenced. The Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF; http://www.fusariumdb.org/) was built to support archiving and utilization of rapidly increasing data and knowledge and consists of Fusarium-ID, Fusarium Comparative Genomics Platform (FCGP) and Fusarium Community Platform (FCP). The Fusarium-ID archives phylogenetic marker sequences from most known species along with information associated with characterized isolates and supports strain identification and phylogenetic analyses. The FCGP currently archives five genomes from four species. Besides supporting genome browsing and analysis, the FCGP presents computed characteristics of multiple gene families and functional groups. The Cart/Favorite function allows users to collect sequences from Fusarium-ID and the FCGP and analyze them later using multiple tools without requiring repeated copying-and-pasting of sequences. The FCP is designed to serve as an online community forum for sharing and preserving accumulated experience and knowledge to support future research and education. PMID:21087991

  16. Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium: three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics and knowledge sharing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jongsun; Cheong, Kyeong-Chae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Ward, Todd J.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Geiser, David M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate species identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on well-preserved culture collections, have established a robust foundation for Fusarium classification. Genomes of four Fusarium species have been published with more being currently sequenced. The Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF; http://www.fusariumdb.org/) was built to support archiving and utilization of rapidly increasing data and knowledge and consists of Fusarium-ID, Fusarium Comparative Genomics Platform (FCGP) and Fusarium Community Platform (FCP). The Fusarium-ID archives phylogenetic marker sequences from most known species along with information associated with characterized isolates and supports strain identification and phylogenetic analyses. The FCGP currently archives five genomes from four species. Besides supporting genome browsing and analysis, the FCGP presents computed characteristics of multiple gene families and functional groups. The Cart/Favorite function allows users to collect sequences from Fusarium-ID and the FCGP and analyze them later using multiple tools without requiring repeated copying-and-pasting of sequences. The FCP is designed to serve as an online community forum for sharing and preserving accumulated experience and knowledge to support future research and education. PMID:21087991

  17. Mapping the navigational knowledge of individually foraging ants, Myrmecia croslandi.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Ajay; Gourmaud, Sarah; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-08-22

    Ants are efficient navigators, guided by path integration and visual landmarks. Path integration is the primary strategy in landmark-poor habitats, but landmarks are readily used when available. The landmark panorama provides reliable information about heading direction, routes and specific location. Visual memories for guidance are often acquired along routes or near to significant places. Over what area can such locally acquired memories provide information for reaching a place? This question is unusually approachable in the solitary foraging Australian jack jumper ant, since individual foragers typically travel to one or two nest-specific foraging trees. We find that within 10 m from the nest, ants both with and without home vector information available from path integration return directly to the nest from all compass directions, after briefly scanning the panorama. By reconstructing panoramic views within the successful homing range, we show that in the open woodland habitat of these ants, snapshot memories acquired close to the nest provide sufficient navigational information to determine nest-directed heading direction over a surprisingly large area, including areas that animals may have not visited previously. PMID:23804615

  18. Mapping the navigational knowledge of individually foraging ants, Myrmecia croslandi

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Gourmaud, Sarah; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Ants are efficient navigators, guided by path integration and visual landmarks. Path integration is the primary strategy in landmark-poor habitats, but landmarks are readily used when available. The landmark panorama provides reliable information about heading direction, routes and specific location. Visual memories for guidance are often acquired along routes or near to significant places. Over what area can such locally acquired memories provide information for reaching a place? This question is unusually approachable in the solitary foraging Australian jack jumper ant, since individual foragers typically travel to one or two nest-specific foraging trees. We find that within 10 m from the nest, ants both with and without home vector information available from path integration return directly to the nest from all compass directions, after briefly scanning the panorama. By reconstructing panoramic views within the successful homing range, we show that in the open woodland habitat of these ants, snapshot memories acquired close to the nest provide sufficient navigational information to determine nest-directed heading direction over a surprisingly large area, including areas that animals may have not visited previously. PMID:23804615

  19. Protocol for an exploration of knowledge sharing for improved discharge from a mental health ward

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Emma; Wright, Nicola; Waring, Justin; Gregoriou, Kyri; Chopra, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to reduce hospital admissions for mental health service users have received vast amounts of attention, yet the transfer of care from hospital to the community has been ignored. The discharge process is complex, messy, disjointed and inefficient, relying on cross-agency and organisational working. Focusing on one acute mental health admission ward, we will investigate whether the discharge process for people with severe mental health problems can be enhanced through the creation, implementation and utilisation of a knowledge sharing proforma that is used on their admission to the ward. Methods and analysis The project uses qualitative interviews to understand the complex processes associated with being admitted and discharged from inpatient mental health wards. Practitioners will be asked to identify and map the relevant stakeholders involved in admission and discharge, and discuss any problems with the process. The study team will work with clinicians to develop a knowledge collection proforma, which will be piloted for 2 months. Qualitative interviews will be carried out to collect reflections on the experiences of using the tool, with data used for further refinement of the intervention. Baseline and repeat quantitative measures will be taken to illustrate any changes to length of stay and readmission rates achieved as a result of the study. Ethics and dissemination A key issue is that participants are able to comment frankly on something that is a core part of their work, without fear or reprise. It is equally important that all participants are offered the opportunity to develop and coproduce the knowledge collection proforma, in order that the intervention produced is fit for purpose and usable in the real world, away from a research environment. The study has received ethical approval from Nottingham University Business School ethics committee, and has all appropriate National Health Service research governance clearances. PMID

  20. AgShare Open Knowledge: Improving Rural Communities through University Student Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of AgShare is to create a scalable and sustainable collaboration of existing organizations for African publishing, localizing, and sharing of science-based teaching and learning materials that fill critical resource gaps in African MSc agriculture curriculum. Shared innovative practices are emerging through the AgShare projects, not only…

  1. Institutional and Individual Influences on Scientists' Data Sharing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngseek

    2013-01-01

    In modern research activities, scientific data sharing is essential, especially in terms of data-intensive science and scholarly communication. Scientific communities are making ongoing endeavors to promote scientific data sharing. Currently, however, data sharing is not always well-deployed throughout diverse science and engineering disciplines.…

  2. Views of Ethical Best Practices in Sharing Individual-Level Data From Medical and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nia; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing support for sharing individual-level data generated by medical and public health research. This scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature examined stakeholders’ perspectives of ethical best practices in data sharing, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. Sixty-nine empirical and conceptual articles were reviewed, of which, only five were empirical studies and eight were conceptual articles focusing on low- and middle-income settings. We conclude that support for sharing individual-level data is contingent on the development and implementation of international and local policies and processes to support ethical best practices. Further conceptual and empirical research is needed to ensure data sharing policies and processes in low- and middle-income settings are appropriately informed by stakeholders’ perspectives. PMID:26297745

  3. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  4. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  5. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stationary floating crab processor. (3) PQS issued to Blue Dutch, LLC. (i) Pursuant to Public Law 109-241... crab QS fishery. (ii) PQS units issued to Blue Dutch, LLC, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS...

  6. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stationary floating crab processor. (3) PQS issued to Blue Dutch, LLC. (i) Pursuant to Public Law 109-241... crab QS fishery. (ii) PQS units issued to Blue Dutch, LLC, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS...

  7. Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredlund, Tobias; Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2012-05-01

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed.

  8. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese healthcare referral services: an emergent theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146

  9. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  10. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders' Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership. PMID:20700375

  11. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  12. Integrating Individual Learning Processes and Organizational Knowledge Formation: Foundational Determinants for Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.; Kim, Hong Min

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the link between learning processes and knowledge formation through an integrated literature review from both academic and practical viewpoints. Individuals' learning processes and organizational knowledge creation were reviewed by means of theoretical and integrative analysis based on a lack of empirical research on the…

  13. Effects of Puppetry on Elementary Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB) puppet shows on elementary school students' knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities are described. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and change attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both…

  14. The Effect of Individual Difference Variables on Information Sharing in Decision-Making Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2004-01-01

    We examined need for cognition, social desirability, and communication apprehension for their influence on the mention and repetition of shared and unshared information in 8-person decision-making groups. Both need for cognition and social desirability influenced the discussion of shared and unshared information in decision-making groups. The…

  15. The Development of Interindividual Sharing of Knowledge and Beliefs in 5- to 9-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradmetz, Joel; Gauthier, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied the evolution of interindividual intentionality in children and showed that the sharing of knowledge and beliefs requires more complex operations than those involved in usual false-belief tasks. The authors conducted 3 experiments on 380 children (aged 5 years, 0 months to 9 years, 6 months). They assessed the children's…

  16. The Association between Attitude towards the Implementation of Staff Development Training and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing among Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Abd. Latif; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; Daud, Yaakob; Omar, Mohd Sofian

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the association of teachers' attitude towards the implementation of Staff Development Training with Knowledge Sharing Practices among the lecturers of the Teacher Training Institution (TTI). In addition, this study was also to examine the differences in attitudes towards the implementation of Staff Development…

  17. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N…

  18. Collaborative 3D Learning Games for Future Learning: Teachers' Instructional Practices to Enhance Shared Knowledge Construction among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Oksanen, Kimmo

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative games will enable new kinds of possibilities for learning. In the future, the goal of game-based learning should be to introduce new ideas and deepen learners' in-depth understanding. However, studies have shown that shared high-level knowledge construction is a challenging process. Moreover, thus far, few empirical studies have…

  19. Activity Systems, Information Sharing and the Development of Organizational Knowledge in Two Finnish Firms: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widén-Wulff, Gunilla; Davenport, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations; a company that handles insurance claims and a small, entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a…

  20. The Role of Shared Knowledge in Science: The Failure of the Constructivist Programme in the Sociology of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Gad

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of contructivism, focusing on the work of Karin Knorr-Cetina. Indicates that an internal critique of Knorr's arguments for the relativist program in the sociology highlights the role of shared knowledge in science and that Knorr's analysis produces new insights concerning the necessity and nature of scientific consensus.…

  1. Sharing Tacit Knowledge among Expert Teaching Professors and Mentees: Considerations for Career and Technical Education Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Han Sik; Roth, Gene L.

    2007-01-01

    This case study provides viewpoints of knowledge sharing by expert teaching professors and their mentees. Professors who were recognized as expert teachers with an annual award at a mid-western USA university were the units of analysis of this study. Expert teaching professors had difficulty articulating much of their teaching expertise. The…

  2. TissueWikiMobile: an Integrative Protein Expression Image Browser for Pathological Knowledge Sharing and Annotation on a Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chihwen; Stokes, Todd H.; Hang, Sovandy; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Doctors need fast and convenient access to medical data. This motivates the use of mobile devices for knowledge retrieval and sharing. We have developed TissueWikiMobile on the Apple iPhone and iPad to seamlessly access TissueWiki, an enormous repository of medical histology images. TissueWiki is a three terabyte database of antibody information and histology images from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Using TissueWikiMobile, users are capable of extracting knowledge from protein expression, adding annotations to highlight regions of interest on images, and sharing their professional insight. By providing an intuitive human computer interface, users can efficiently operate TissueWikiMobile to access important biomedical data without losing mobility. TissueWikiMobile furnishes the health community a ubiquitous way to collaborate and share their expert opinions not only on the performance of various antibodies stains but also on histology image annotation. PMID:27532057

  3. Advancing and sharing the knowledge base of CT screening for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henschke, Claudia I.

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is gaining in acceptance and is now moving from the research domain into standard clinical practice. Coincident with this, there is also increasing awareness of the usefulness of collecting large datasets obtained in the clinical domain and how this can be used to advance practice. Toward this end, in the United States, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are requiring data from screening to be entered into certified registries. While this is still in its early stage and only limited datasets are required, this would be particularly relevant if images as well as clinical information were collected as it will allow for additional evaluation of all imaging findings including ancillary ones and understanding how they integrate into the screening process. All of this needs to be considered in the context of how this information can be shared with a person interested in being screened. In particular, the potential benefit of screening needs to be presented in terms of what is meaningful to the individual including their chances of having lung cancer and also their chance of being cured. This is very different then presenting it in terms of mortality reduction which was never meant to be used for that purpose. Also, how findings made on the CT scans, in addition to those related to lung cancer will be meaningful to them. PMID:27195272

  4. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders’ perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust. PMID:26297751

  5. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    PubMed

    Bull, Susan; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders' perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust. PMID:26297751

  6. The Role of Auditory Cues in the Spatial Knowledge of Blind Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Kimon; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here sought to explore the role of auditory cues in the spatial knowledge of blind individuals by examining the relation between the perceived auditory cues and the landscape of a given area and by investigating how blind individuals use auditory cues to create cognitive maps. The findings reveal that several auditory cues…

  7. In Pursuit of the Individual in the Field of Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechberg, Isabel D. W.; Syed, Jawad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the focus on individuals in the field of knowledge management (KM). Through a meta-review of the KM literature, we identify a relative disregard of the individual in the KM literature while information technology (IT) oriented concepts are widely represented. Our review indicates the need for a greater emphasis…

  8. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1546.407 Section 1546.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions. (a) Training required. Before performing screening functions, an individual must...

  9. Music Educators' Involvement in the Individual Education Program Process and Their Knowledge of Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Kimberly A.; Watts, Emily H.

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1990 was amended to require that assistive technology be considered when preparing an individual education program (IEP). This study explored involvement of Midwestern music educators in the IEP development process as well as their knowledge and attitudes regarding use of assistive…

  10. Individual differences in current events knowledge: contributions of ability, personality, and interests.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Meinz, Elizabeth J; Oswald, Frederick L

    2007-03-01

    What accounts for individual differences in the sort of knowledge that people may draw on in everyday cognitive tasks, such as deciding whom to vote for in a presidential election, how to invest money in the stock market, or what team to bet on in a friendly wager? In a large sample of undergraduate students, we investigated correlates of individual differences in recently acquired knowledge of current events in domains such as politics, business, and sports. Structural equation modeling revealed two predictive pathways: one involving cognitive ability factors and the other involving two major nonability factors (personality and interests). The results of this study add to what is known about the sources of individual differences in knowledge and are interpreted in the context of theoretical conceptions of adult intelligence that emphasize the centrality and importance of knowledge (e.g., Ackerman, 1996; Cattell, 1971). PMID:17645171

  11. 42 CFR 447.74 - Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150 percent of the FPL. 447.74 Section 447.74 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  12. 42 CFR 447.74 - Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150 percent of the FPL. 447.74 Section 447.74 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  13. 42 CFR 447.74 - Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150 percent of the FPL. 447.74 Section 447.74 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  14. [Transfer and sharing of public health knowledge: reflections on the components of a national information system in France].

    PubMed

    Cambon, Linda; Alla, François

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly necessary, in France, to develop a more efficient public health policy and define research in terms of the perspective of its use for public decisions and clinical practice. One possible solution consists of knowledge transfer and sharing based on a continuous exchange and interaction process between scientists and potential users of research data - field workers and health policy decision-makers. Such a process would involve collaboration with users to help them apply the evidence produced by research as well as the mobilization of research scientists to develop research more adapted to needs. This article defines the goals of development of knowledge transfer in the French setting. The conceptual bases are defined and four strategic axes and their operational modalities are developed. This proposal also integrates all of the public authorities concerned: promote knowledge transfer; reinforce observation and diffusion of evidence and its usability; promote the development of more adapted public health research by facilitating research scientist /research data user relationships; assist the various parties in the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Apart from improving the efficiency of health policies, the development of knowledge transfer and sharing would also strengthen the credibility of certain intervention strategies, especially in the field of prevention, by designing evidence-based strategies. PMID:24451421

  15. Decision support for hospital bed management using adaptable individual length of stay estimations and shared resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective patient admission and assignment planning is an important task of the strategic and operational management of a hospital and early on became a central topic of clinical operations research. The management of hospital beds is an important subtask. Various approaches have been proposed, involving the computation of efficient assignments with regard to the patients’ condition, the necessity of the treatment, and the patients’ preferences. However, these approaches are mostly based on static, unadaptable estimates of the length of stay and, thus, do not take into account the uncertainty of the patient’s recovery. Furthermore, the effect of aggregated bed capacities have not been investigated in this context. Computer supported bed management, combining an adaptable length of stay estimation with the treatment of shared resources (aggregated bed capacities) has not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of our work is: 1) to define a cost function for patient admission taking into account adaptable length of stay estimations and aggregated resources, 2) to define a mathematical program formally modeling the assignment problem and an architecture for decision support, 3) to investigate four algorithmic methodologies addressing the assignment problem and one base-line approach, and 4) to evaluate these methodologies w.r.t. cost outcome, performance, and dismissal ratio. Methods The expected free ward capacity is calculated based on individual length of stay estimates, introducing Bernoulli distributed random variables for the ward occupation states and approximating the probability densities. The assignment problem is represented as a binary integer program. Four strategies for solving the problem are applied and compared: an exact approach, using the mixed integer programming solver SCIP; and three heuristic strategies, namely the longest expected processing time, the shortest expected processing time, and random choice. A baseline approach

  16. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.

  17. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  18. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  19. Chains of (dis)trust: exploring the underpinnings of knowledge-sharing and quality care across mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Calnan, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing their development across relatively low-trust service contexts and their impact upon knowledge-sharing and caregiving. Drawing upon data from in-depth interviews with service users, healthcare professionals, service managers and other stakeholders across three mental healthcare (psychosis) teams in southern England, we identify micro-mechanisms that explain how (dis)trust within one intra-organisational relationship impacts upon other relationships. Experiences and inferences of vulnerability, knowledge, uncertainty, interests and time, among actors who are both trustees and trusters across different relationships, are pertinent to such analyses. This more micro-level understanding facilitates detailed conceptualisations of trust chains as meso-level tendencies that contribute to wider vicious or virtuous cycles of organisational (dis)trust. We explore how knowledge-sharing and caregiving are vitally interwoven within these chains of trust or distrust, enhancing and/or inhibiting the instrumental and communicative aspects of quality healthcare as a result. PMID:26614364

  20. A Web 2.0-Based Collaborative Annotation System for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Addison Y. S.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Zhang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    A limitation of current Web-based collaborative learning is the restricted ability of students to create and share individual annotations with annotated documents. Applying Web 2.0 collaborative annotation systems and analyzing students' annotation behavior has attracted attention to improve collaborative learning. This study designed a…

  1. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  2. Issues and Structures for Sharing Medical Knowledge Among Decision-Making Systems: The 1989 Arden Homestead Retreat

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Paul D.; Pryor, T. Allan; Wigertz, Ove B.; Hripcsak, George

    1989-01-01

    To address the issue of facilitating transfer and integration of the variety of computer-based programs which contain medical expertise, a retreat was held at Columbia University's Arden Homestead conference center June 16-18, 1989. The focus of this retreat was to explore ways in which the medical expertise contained in knowledge-based systems could be shared and expanded. During the three day meeting, the eighteen attendees from ten institutions discussed: (a) the need for better ways of mapping terminology used in one setting or program to terms with similar meaning that have been used in other programs, (b) the need for catalogues which list the variety of programs which are available, (c) a representational syntax and format for sharing modular medical knowledge, (d) the possibility of developing standards for interfacing program modules so that they could be “snapped” into place in a variety of systems, (e) methods for evaluating, validating and testing knowledge based systems, and (f) the legal and financial aspects of sharing systems which influence the care that is given to a patient. We emerged from the retreat with a feeling that there was an enthusiastic but not unanimous consensus that sharing should occur in order to advance the field of medical information systems. We accepted an initial version of a working document for the representation of Medical Logic Modules (MLM's), appointed leaders for subcommittees to address the issues which had surfaced and settled upon an approach for dealing with the legal and financial aspects of the sharing process.

  3. A method of extracting ontology module using concept relations for sharing knowledge in mobile cloud computing environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keonsoo; Rho, Seungmin; Lee, Seok-Won

    2014-01-01

    In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge. PMID:25250374

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Cultural Habits Change Process Triggered by the Use of IT: A Faculty Student Knowledge-Sharing Platform Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mei-Lien

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we explore the impact on teachers of implementation of the Faculty Student Knowledge-Sharing Platform (FSKSP) in their college. Specifically, we focus on the effect on those teachers of the need to share publicly their knowledge and teaching material as the result of FSKSP implementation. In addition, we report the experience and…

  5. Interaction between impaired and unimpaired speakers: inter-subjectivity and the interplay of culturally shared and situation specific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Collins, S; Marková, I

    1999-12-01

    The part played by culturally shared knowledge in interaction is generally recognised. However, the details of how it may be manifested in interaction are largely undocumented. This study explores this issue in the context of interactions between impaired and unimpaired speakers, using a conversation analytic approach in combination with a communication task commonly employed in experimental social psychology. Three exemplary cases are analysed. Results show that when the task interaction is co-constructed, the interaction is collaboratively enacted, participants' actions are in alignment, and the task outcome is relatively accurate. When the unimpaired speaker proceeds on the basis of culturally shared knowledge, and thereby 'unilaterally' manages the interaction, two courses of action are available to the impaired speaker. The impaired speaker may make attempts to provide situation specific details. In this case, because each participant is drawing on different resources to construct the interaction, their actions are out of alignment, and the task outcome is less accurate. Alternatively, the impaired speaker may concur with the culturally shared knowledge drawn on by the unimpaired speaker, in which case the participants' actions are in alignment, but the task outcome is highly inaccurate. The authors conclude that by combining a conversation analytic approach with a communication task which reflects participants' everyday experiences, orientations to different interaction resources can be drawn out. This can have relevance for, and help to elicit, practices in everyday interaction. PMID:10641294

  6. Co-op students' access to shared knowledge in science-rich workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munby, Hugh; Taylor, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Wenger's (1998) concepts community of practice, brokering, and transfer explain the challenges co-operative (co-op) education students face in relating the knowledge learned in school with what they learn while participating as members of a workplace. The research for this paper is set within the contexts of the knowledge economy and increased collaboration in the workplace. The paper draws on several qualitative studies of work-based education to examine the similarities and differences between learning in the workplace and learning in school, with a focus on science education and science-rich workplaces. Barriers to connecting school knowledge and workplace knowledge include the nature of science (its purpose, accountability, and substance), the structure of knowledge in each setting, the form content knowledge takes, the sequence that the curriculum is presented in, and the gatekeeping that occurs when knowledge is accessed. The paper addresses implications for interventions in school and the workplace, with attention to the transition from school to work, and concludes by pointing to profound obstacles to connecting school knowledge with workplace knowledge.

  7. Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Individual Transition Planning and Its Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Lynch, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    Although increased attention in special education has been given to individual transition planning, little research has been done to assess student opinions and knowledge on this process. The majority of research has focused on "best practice" to ensure quality transition planning for students. This study surveyed 103 students receiving special…

  8. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who perform screening functions. 1544.407 Section 1544.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions. (a) Training required. Before performing screening functions,...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.235 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties. 1544.235 Section 1544.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY:...

  11. Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

  12. Uncovering Knowledge of Core Syntactic and Semantic Principles in Individuals With Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien; Chunyo, Gitana; Landau, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We investigate knowledge of core syntactic and semantic principles in individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Our study focuses on the logico-syntactic properties of negation and disjunction (or) and tests knowledge of (a) core syntactic relations (scope and c-command), (b) core semantic relations (entailment relations and DeMorgan’s laws of propositional logic), and (c) the relationship between (a) and (b). We examine the performance of individuals with WS, children matched for mental age (MA), and typical adult native speakers of English. Performance on all conditions suggests that knowledge of (a-c) is present and engaged in all three groups. Results also indicate slightly depressed performance on (c) for the WS group, compared to MA, consistent with limitation in processing resources. Implications of these results for competing accounts of language development in WS, as well as for the relevance of WS to the study of cognitive architecture and development are discussed. PMID:21866219

  13. A Theoretical Synthesis of Knowledge Sharing and Educational Leadership for Sustaining Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungrojngarmcharoen, Kanog on

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the crucial and dominant economic resources in order to obtain sustainable advantages in any community. The world is now shifting faster thanks to the advanced development of digital connectivity and increasing access to knowledge. Leaders of a community, society, or country must contemplate what factors concerned in the…

  14. Co-Op Students' Access to Shared Knowledge in Science-Rich Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munby, Hugh; Taylor, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Wenger's (1998) concepts "community of practice," "brokering," and "transfer" explain the challenges co-operative (co-op) education students face in relating the knowledge learned in school with what they learn while participating as members of a workplace. The research for this paper is set within the contexts of the knowledge economy and…

  15. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  16. "Heading up the Street": Localised Opportunities for Shared Constructions of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.; Majors, Yolanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Success and failure in school is contingent upon one's ability to regulate and situate identities, utilise culturally-developed semiotic tools and negotiate models of meaning in shared social activity. However, many language minority students lack such success, struggling with conflicts between their primary-and community-based identities, and…

  17. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  18. World Bank's Global Development Learning Network: Sharing Knowledge Electronically between Nations To "Fight Poverty."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN), a satellite-driven global communication system developed by the World Bank to help developing countries fight poverty and share in a global exchange of information. Explains Distance Learning Centers that are used by private and public organizations and institutions for distance education…

  19. A Framework for Measuring Fidelity of Implementation: A Foundation for Shared Language and Accumulation of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Jeanne; Rudnick, Mollie; Freeman, Cassie

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the value of measuring fidelity of implementation (FOI) as a necessary part of evaluating interventions. However, evaluators do not have a shared conceptual understanding of what FOI is and how to measure it. Thus, the creation of FOI measures is typically a secondary focus and based on specific contexts and…

  20. Help Central: Creating a Help Desk and Knowledge Portal in SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the authors' implementation of Help Central, a site within the Lister Hill Library Collection on the University of Alabama-Birmingham's SharePoint server. Initially, Help Central was designed to address the inadequacies in the library's old, static HTML web-based support system, including haphazard issue reporting by staff…

  1. Building digital archives by the National Diet Library : Toward knowledge sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masaki

    This article shows the current situation of construction of the National Diet Library (NDL)'s digital archive and the direction of activities for “creating and reproducing new knowledge” which “knowledge sharing” aims at. The NDL, as a deposit library has a responsibility to acquire and preserve not only paper materials but also digital contents, and needs to make them accessible anytime and anywhere. The NDL acquires and preserves digital contents to a maximum extent to build the NDL digital archive. However, it is impossible to collect all of them, so the NDL plans to accumulate all knowledge in cooperation with other institutions to build distributed digital archives. The NDL plays a data provider role to navigate all the distributed digital archival information and make it available as semantically-related knowledge to build “NDL Search”. The NDL will make it possible to create new knowledge reusing the existing information as knowledge to build up the knowledge infrastructure.

  2. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part I: Introducing knowledge into the dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author presents a new approach for modeling the dynamics of collections of objects with internal structure. Based on the fact that the behavior of an individual in a population is modified by its knowledge of other individuals, a procedure for accounting for knowledge in a population of interacting objects is presented. It is assumed that each object has partial (or complete) knowledge of some (or all) other objects in the population. The dynamical equations for the objects are then modified to include the effects of this pairwise knowledge. This procedure has the effect of projecting out what the population will do from the much larger space of what it could do, i.e., filtering or smoothing the dynamics by replacing the complex detailed physical model with an effective model that produces the behavior of interest. The procedure therefore provides a minimalist approach for obtaining emergent collective behavior. The use of knowledge as a dynamical quantity, and its relationship to statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, information theory, and cognition microstructure are discussed.

  3. Summary of the ACAT Round Table Discussion: Open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Federico; Perret-Gallix, Denis; Riemann, Tord

    2014-06-01

    Round table discussions are in the tradition of ACAT. This year's plenary round table discussion was devoted to questions related to the use of scientific software in High Energy Physics and beyond. The 90 minutes of discussion were lively, and quite a lot of diverse opinions were spelled out. Although the discussion was, in part, controversial, the participants agreed unanimously on several basic issues in software sharing: • The importance of having various licensing models in academic research; • The basic value of proper recognition and attribution of intellectual property, including scientific software; • The user respect for the conditions of use, including licence statements, as formulated by the author. The need of a similar discussion on the issues of data sharing was emphasized and it was recommended to cover this subject at the conference round table discussion of next ACAT. In this contribution, we summarise selected topics that were covered in the introductory talks and in the following discussion.

  4. Sharing knowledge of Planetary Datasets through the Web-Based PRoGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M. G.; Morley, J. M.; Muller, J. P. M.; Barnes, R. B.; Tao, Y. T.

    2015-10-01

    The large amount of raw and derived data available from various planetary surface missions (e.g. Mars and Moon in our case) has been integrated withco-registered and geocoded orbital image data to provide rover traverses and camera site locations in universal global co-ordinates [1]. This then allows an integrated GIS to use these geocoded products for scientific applications: we aim to create a web interface, PRoGIS, with minimal controls focusing on the usability and visualisation of the data, to allow planetary geologists to share annotated surface observations. These observations in a common context are shared between different tools and software (PRoGIS, Pro3D, 3D point cloud viewer). Our aim is to use only Open Source components that integrate Open Web Services for planetary data to make available an universal platform with a WebGIS interface, as well as a 3D point cloud and a Panorama viewer to explore derived data. On top of these tools we are building capabilities to make and share annotations amongst users. We use Python and Django for the server-side framework and Open Layers 3 for the WebGIS client. For good performance previewing 3D data (point clouds, pictures on the surface and panoramas) we employ ThreeJS, a WebGL Javascript library. Additionally, user and group controls allow scientists to store and share their observations. PRoGIS not only displays data but also launches sophisticated 3D vision reprocessing (PRoVIP) and an immersive 3D analysis environment (PRo3D).

  5. Applying Social Network Analysis to Understand the Knowledge Sharing Behaviour of Practitioners in a Clinical Online Discussion Forum

    PubMed Central

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge Translation (KT) plays a vital role in the modern health care community, facilitating the incorporation of new evidence into practice. Web 2.0 tools provide a useful mechanism for establishing an online KT environment in which health practitioners share their practice-related knowledge and experiences with an online community of practice. We have implemented a Web 2.0 based KT environment—an online discussion forum—for pediatric pain practitioners across seven different hospitals in Thailand. The online discussion forum enabled the pediatric pain practitioners to share and translate their experiential knowledge to help improve the management of pediatric pain in hospitals. Objective The goal of this research is to investigate the knowledge sharing dynamics of a community of practice through an online discussion forum. We evaluated the communication patterns of the community members using statistical and social network analysis methods in order to better understand how the online community engages to share experiential knowledge. Methods Statistical analyses and visualizations provide a broad overview of the communication patterns within the discussion forum. Social network analysis provides the tools to delve deeper into the social network, identifying the most active members of the community, reporting the overall health of the social network, isolating the potential core members of the social network, and exploring the inter-group relationships that exist across institutions and professions. Results The statistical analyses revealed a network dominated by a single institution and a single profession, and found a varied relationship between reading and posting content to the discussion forum. The social network analysis discovered a healthy network with strong communication patterns, while identifying which users are at the center of the community in terms of facilitating communication. The group-level analysis suggests that there is

  6. A systematic literature review of individuals' perspectives on broad consent and data sharing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Sathe, Nila A.; Antommaria, Armand H. Matheny; Holm, Ingrid A.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Smith, Maureen E.; McPheeters, Melissa L.; Clayton, Ellen W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In 2011, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposed that de-identified human data and specimens be included in biobanks only if patients provide consent. The National Institutes of Health Genomic Data Sharing policy went into effect in 2015, requiring broad consent from almost all research participants. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of attitudes toward biobanking, broad consent, and data sharing. Bibliographic databases included MEDLINE, Web of Science, EthxWeb, and GenETHX. Study screening was conducted using DistillerSR. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. Results: The final 48 studies included surveys (n = 23), focus groups (n = 8), mixed methods (n = 14), interviews (n = 1), and consent form analyses (n = 2). Study quality was characterized as good (n = 19), fair (n = 27), and poor (n = 2). Although many participants objected, broad consent was often preferred over tiered or study-specific consent, particularly when broad consent was the only option, samples were de-identified, logistics of biobanks were communicated, and privacy was addressed. Willingness for data to be shared was high, but it was lower among individuals from under-represented minorities, individuals with privacy and confidentiality concerns, and when pharmaceutical companies had access to data. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to understand factors affecting willingness to give broad consent for biobank research and data sharing in order to address concerns to enhance acceptability. Genet Med 18 7, 663–671. PMID:26583683

  7. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria IMRT treatment planning by combining shared and individual apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2013-11-01

    We consider the problem of deliverable Pareto surface navigation for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This problem amounts to calculation of a collection of treatment plans with the property that convex combinations of plans are directly deliverable. Previous methods for deliverable navigation impose restrictions on the number of apertures of the individual plans, or require that all treatment plans have identical apertures. We introduce simultaneous direct step-and-shoot optimization of multiple plans subject to constraints that some of the apertures must be identical across all plans. This method generalizes previous methods for deliverable navigation to allow for treatment plans with some apertures from a collective pool and some apertures that are individual. The method can also be used as a post-processing step to previous methods for deliverable navigation in order to improve upon their plans. By applying the method to subsets of plans in the collection representing the Pareto set, we show how it can enable convergence toward the unrestricted (non-navigable) Pareto set where all apertures are individual.

  8. Nutrient intake of institutionalized developmentally disabled individuals: impact of the nutrition knowledge of paraprofessionals.

    PubMed

    Litchford, M D; Wakefield, L M

    1985-06-01

    The role of the caretaker in enhancing nutrient intake of developmentally disabled individuals living in an institutional setting was examined. Eighty developmentally disabled residents living at the Western Carolina Center, Morganton, NC, were assessed for anthropometric measurements and for dietary intake, with a 3-day plate waste study. Seventy paraprofessionals/feeders working at the same center were assessed for knowledge of nutrition and food practices and participated in a series of inservice programs on nutrition. Pretest and post-test scores for knowledge of nutrition and food practices were determined. For the paraprofessionals/feeders, inservice programs on nutrition resulted in increased knowledge of nutrition but did not increase the nutritional quality of their own diets. However, statistically significant differences were noted in residents' diets for calories (p less than .05), iron (p less than .05), and niacin (p less than .05) attributable to the inservice programs on nutrition. PMID:3998339

  9. Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Horoshko, D B

    2007-12-31

    The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  10. Learning Study: Helping Teachers to Use Theory, Develop Professionally, and Produce New Knowledge to Be Shared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Ming Fai; Ling, Lo Mun

    2012-01-01

    The lesson study approach is a systematic process for producing professional knowledge about teaching by teachers, and has spread rapidly and extensively in the United States. The learning study approach is essentially a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory--the variation theory of learning. In this paper, we argue that having an…

  11. A Hundred Ways of Learning: Sharing Traditional Knowledge at Tohono O'odham Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a learning program of the Tohono O'odham or "desert people" of the Southwestern United States and Mexico. Their culture and knowledge on both sides of the border is for them a special way of life known as "himdag," where science is built into everyday life of gathering, hunting, farming, artistry,…

  12. Knowledge sharing and collaboration in translational research, and the DC-THERA Directory

    PubMed Central

    Gündel, Michaela; Austyn, Jonathan M.; Cavalieri, Duccio; Scognamiglio, Ciro; Brandizi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research relies increasingly on large collections of data sets and knowledge whose generation, representation and analysis often require large collaborative and interdisciplinary efforts. This dimension of ‘big data’ research calls for the development of computational tools to manage such a vast amount of data, as well as tools that can improve communication and access to information from collaborating researchers and from the wider community. Whenever research projects have a defined temporal scope, an additional issue of data management arises, namely how the knowledge generated within the project can be made available beyond its boundaries and life-time. DC-THERA is a European ‘Network of Excellence’ (NoE) that spawned a very large collaborative and interdisciplinary research community, focusing on the development of novel immunotherapies derived from fundamental research in dendritic cell immunobiology. In this article we introduce the DC-THERA Directory, which is an information system designed to support knowledge management for this research community and beyond. We present how the use of metadata and Semantic Web technologies can effectively help to organize the knowledge generated by modern collaborative research, how these technologies can enable effective data management solutions during and beyond the project lifecycle, and how resources such as the DC-THERA Directory fit into the larger context of e-science. PMID:21969471

  13. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    PubMed

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. PMID:24738561

  14. Collaborative Inquiry in a Socially Shared Contextual Frame, Striving toward Sensible Knowledge Creation on Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löytönen, Teija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The tradition of dance art in Finland is characterized by values such as individuality and uniqueness, and the professional practice is structured by competition and different kinds of hierarchies, which may also add color to the culture of dance teaching. One of the most noticeable elements within the dance education community…

  15. Exploiting Expertise and Knowledge Sharing Online for the Benefit of NASA's GN&C Community of Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria E.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, NASA faced major knowledge sharing challenges due to geographically isolated field centers that inhibited engineers from sharing their experiences, expertise, ideas, and lessons learned. The necessity to collaborate on complex development projects and the reality of constrained project resources together drove the need for ensuring that personnel at all NASA centers had comparable skill sets and that engineers could find resources in a timely fashion. Mission failures and new directions for the Agency also demanded better collaborative tools for NASA's engineering workforce. In response to these needs, the online NASA Engineering Network (NEN) was formed by the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer to provide a multi-faceted system for overcoming geographic and cultural barriers. NEN integrates communities of practice with a cross-repository search and the Lessons Learned Information System. This paper describes the features of the GN&C engineering discipline CoP site which went live on NEN in May of 2008 as an online means of gathering input and guidance from practitioners. It allows GN&C discipline expertise captured at one field center to be shared in a collaborative way with the larger discipline CoP spread across the entire Agency. The site enables GN&C engineers to find the information they need quickly, to find solutions to questions from experienced engineers, and to connect with other practitioners regardless of geographic location, thus increasing the probability of project success.

  16. A Theoretical Approach to the Organizational Knowledge Formation Process: Integrating the Concepts of Individual Learning and Learning Organization Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the link between individual learning processes and continuous organizational knowledge formation through an integrated literature review of these perspectives from both academic and practical viewpoints. In the current fierce economic environment, individual knowledge is regarded as the most valuable asset…

  17. Sharing knowledge, saving time: an online toolbox to aid junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Houston, James; Barker, William; Clarke, Jonathan; Mew, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are too often frustrated by not being able to quickly find information for how to make referrals, book investigations and contact other professionals at hospital. To make matters worse, much of the knowledge gained by doctors throughout the year is lost during the August rotation. There is an unmet need for retaining such knowledge, in order to facilitate a smoother and safer handover. We set up the "Doctors Directory" at our trust; a website run by junior doctors, providing specific, up-to-date information relevant to other junior doctors within the trust. Whilst providing day-to-day information, it also contains a "survival guide" for each hospital firm. We surveyed junior doctors before and after the implementation of this site. 81% of FY1s surveyed have used the site. Of the doctors that had used the site, 94% found it helpful with a mean self reported time saving of 39 minutes a day. Whilst still in its infancy, the site now has mobile access, and has an average of 60 hits a day. Quality improvement projects such as this are readily scalable to other hospitals and have enabled junior doctors to waste less time finding how to do jobs and more time actually getting them done. PMID:26734232

  18. Sharing knowledge, saving time: an online toolbox to aid junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    Houston, James; Barker, William; Clarke, Jonathan; Mew, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are too often frustrated by not being able to quickly find information for how to make referrals, book investigations and contact other professionals at hospital. To make matters worse, much of the knowledge gained by doctors throughout the year is lost during the August rotation. There is an unmet need for retaining such knowledge, in order to facilitate a smoother and safer handover. We set up the “Doctors Directory” at our trust; a website run by junior doctors, providing specific, up-to-date information relevant to other junior doctors within the trust. Whilst providing day-to-day information, it also contains a “survival guide” for each hospital firm. We surveyed junior doctors before and after the implementation of this site. 81% of FY1s surveyed have used the site. Of the doctors that had used the site, 94% found it helpful with a mean self reported time saving of 39 minutes a day. Whilst still in its infancy, the site now has mobile access, and has an average of 60 hits a day. Quality improvement projects such as this are readily scalable to other hospitals and have enabled junior doctors to waste less time finding how to do jobs and more time actually getting them done. PMID:26734232

  19. Knowledge based translation and problem solving in an intelligent individualized instruction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Namho; Biegel, John E.

    1994-01-01

    An Intelligent Individualized Instruction I(sup 3) system is being built to provide computerized instruction. We present the roles of a translator and a problem solver in an intelligent computer system. The modular design of the system provides for easier development and allows for future expansion and maintenance. CLIPS modules and classes are utilized for the purpose of the modular design and inter module communications. CLIPS facts and rules are used to represent the system components and the knowledge base. CLIPS provides an inferencing mechanism to allow the I(sup 3) system to solve problems presented to it in English.

  20. The MIKS (Member Integrated Knowledge System) Model: A Visualization of the Individual Organizational Member's Role When a Knowledge Management System Is Utilized in the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobmeier, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Relating knowledge management (KM) case studies in various organizational contexts to existing theoretical constructs of learning organizations, a new model, the MIKS (Member Integrated Knowledge System) Model is proposed to include the role of the individual in the process. Their degree of motivation as well as communication and learning…

  1. The Dissertation House Model: Doctoral Student Experiences Coping and Writing in a Shared Knowledge Community

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Veale, Wendy Y.; Tull, Renetta G.; Rutledge, Janet C.; Joseph, Lenisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman’s master–apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor–student contexts, and Burnett’s collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students’ reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM’s multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master–apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits’s coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley’s concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM. PMID:27521236

  2. ‘Sciencenet’—towards a global search and share engine for all scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lütjohann, Dominic S.; Shah, Asmi H.; Christen, Michael P.; Richter, Florian; Knese, Karsten; Liebel, Urban

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Modern biological experiments create vast amounts of data which are geographically distributed. These datasets consist of petabytes of raw data and billions of documents. Yet to the best of our knowledge, a search engine technology that searches and cross-links all different data types in life sciences does not exist. We have developed a prototype distributed scientific search engine technology, ‘Sciencenet’, which facilitates rapid searching over this large data space. By ‘bringing the search engine to the data’, we do not require server farms. This platform also allows users to contribute to the search index and publish their large-scale data to support e-Science. Furthermore, a community-driven method guarantees that only scientific content is crawled and presented. Our peer-to-peer approach is sufficiently scalable for the science web without performance or capacity tradeoff. Availability and Implementation: The free to use search portal web page and the downloadable client are accessible at: http://sciencenet.kit.edu. The web portal for index administration is implemented in ASP.NET, the ‘AskMe’ experiment publisher is written in Python 2.7, and the backend ‘YaCy’ search engine is based on Java 1.6. Contact: urban.liebel@kit.edu Supplementary Material: Detailed instructions and descriptions can be found on the project homepage: http://sciencenet.kit.edu. PMID:21493657

  3. The Dissertation House Model: Doctoral Student Experiences Coping and Writing in a Shared Knowledge Community.

    PubMed

    Carter-Veale, Wendy Y; Tull, Renetta G; Rutledge, Janet C; Joseph, Lenisa N

    2016-01-01

    The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman's master-apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor-student contexts, and Burnett's collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students' reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM's multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master-apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits's coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley's concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM. PMID:27521236

  4. An Exploration of Communities of Practice: From Lave and Wenger's Seminal Work to a U.S. Government Agency's Knowledge Sharing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    The communities of practice model for knowledge sharing is examined in this conceptual paper. Key themes reflected in the literature--the linkage between knowledge and activity and the importance of relationships--are explored within the context of programs and practices within the National Aeronautics and Aerospace Agency (NASA) learning…

  5. A Method of Sharing Tacit Knowledge by a Bulletin Board Link to Video Scene and an Evaluation in the Field of Nursing Skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko

    We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.

  6. Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. PMID:24582853

  7. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. PMID:26188116

  8. Sharing hydrological knowledge: an international comparison of hydrological models in the Meuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Drogue, Gilles; Brauer, Claudia; Weerts, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    International collaboration between institutes and universities working and studying the same transboundary basin is needed for consensus building around possible effects of climate change and climate adaptation measures. Education, experience and expert knowledge of the hydrological community have resulted in the development of a great variety of model concepts, calibration and analysis techniques. Intercomparison could be a first step into consensus modeling or an ensemble based modeling strategy. Besides these practical objectives, such an intercomparison offers the opportunity to explore different ranges of models and learn from each other, hopefully increasing the insight into the hydrological processes that play a role in the transboundary basin. In this experiment, different international research groups applied their rainfall-runoff model in the Ourthe, a Belgium sub-catchment of the Meuse. Data preparation involved the interpolation of hourly precipitation station data collected and owned by the Service Public de Wallonie1 and the freely available E-OBS dataset for daily temperature (Haylock et al., 2008). Daily temperature was disaggregated to hourly values and potential evaporation was derived with the Hargreaves formula. The data was made available to the researchers through an FTP server. The protocol for the modeling involved a split-sample calibration and validation for pre-defined periods. Objective functions for calibration were fixed but the calibration algorithm was a free choice of the research groups. The selection of calibration algorithm was considered model dependent because lumped as well as computationally less efficient distributed models were used. For each model, an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected and several performance metrics enabled to assess the models' abilities to simulate discharge. The aim of this experiment is to identify those model components and structures that increase model performance and may best

  9. Towards improved knowledge sharing: assessment of the HL7 Reference Information Model to support medical logic module queries.

    PubMed

    Jenders, R A; Sujansky, W; Broverman, C A; Chadwick, M

    1997-01-01

    Because clinical databases vary in structure, access methods and vocabulary used to represent data, the Arden Syntax does not define a standard model for querying databases. Consequently, database queries are encoded in ad hoc ways and enclosed in "curly braces" in Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). However, the nonstandard representation of queries impairs sharing of MLMs, an impediment that has come to be known as the "curly braces problem." As a first step in solving this problem, we evaluated the proposed HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a foundation for a standard query model for the Arden Syntax. Specifically, we analyzed the MLM knowledge base at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and compared the queries in these MLMs to the RIM. We studied 488 queries in 104 MLMs, identifying 674 total query data elements. Laboratory tests accounted for 45.8% of these elements, while demographic and ADT data accounted for 37.6%. Pharmacy orders accounted for 10.5%, medical problems for 4.3% and MLM output messages for 1.6%. We found that the RIM encompasses all but those data elements signifying MLM output (1.6% of the total). We conclude that the majority of queries in the CPMC knowledge base access a relatively small set of data elements and that the RIM encompasses these elements. We propose extensions of this analysis to continue construction of an Arden query model capable of solving the "curly braces problem." PMID:9357638

  10. Views of Ethical Best Practices in Sharing Individual-Level Data From Medical and Public Health Research: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Bull, Susan; Roberts, Nia; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing support for sharing individual-level data generated by medical and public health research. This scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature examined stakeholders' perspectives of ethical best practices in data sharing, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. Sixty-nine empirical and conceptual articles were reviewed, of which, only five were empirical studies and eight were conceptual articles focusing on low- and middle-income settings. We conclude that support for sharing individual-level data is contingent on the development and implementation of international and local policies and processes to support ethical best practices. Further conceptual and empirical research is needed to ensure data sharing policies and processes in low- and middle-income settings are appropriately informed by stakeholders' perspectives. PMID:26297745

  11. University-Industry Relationships and the Role of the Individual: Network Ties and the Diversity of Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Bekkers, Rudi; Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the effectiveness of knowledge transfer processes between academia and industry. Although there is growing evidence that the characteristics of individual researchers are important when explaining cases of successful transfer, few studies have taken the individual researcher as their unit of…

  12. Overcoming Interoperability Weaknesses in e-Government Processes: Organizing and Sharing Knowledge in Regional Development Programs Using Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Francesco; Casas, Giuseppe Las; Murgante, Beniamino

    European Regional Policy produced several generations of programmes at both National and Regional levels. Such a complex framework tends to increase multi-level governance in the period 2007-2013, promoting a wider participation of stakeholders (including Public Administration, Local Communities, Enterprises, etc). This process has been usually accompanied by e-tools for the management of bottom-up processes, with several instances related to common problems of participation processes. Communication between "programmer" and categories of beneficiaries always presented weakness due to the ineffective system of management knowledge within the process. Relevant issues in the framework of regional development programmes are: Do stakeholders understand the meaning of general and sectoral policies? Are citizens aware of technical instruments implementing such policies? Are they conscious of ex-ante comprehensive context analysis and/or can they share possible future scenarios? A way to tackle these problems is the use of ontologies. In this work we present the structural elements of the ontology of regional development programmes analyzing major steps of the ontology design and nodal phases of the ontology building (i.e. consensus on relations and restrictions, switch from glossary to taxonomy). The result of such an application is an ontology of regional development containing more than one hundred classes.

  13. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders’ Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders’ communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader’s consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader’s initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. Methodology A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. Findings In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate’s team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader’s preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. Implications This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader’s supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. Originality/value Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership. PMID:20700375

  14. Knowledge acquisition and decision-making: spinal cord injured individuals perceptions of caring during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lucke, K T

    1997-09-01

    Nurses and other healthcare providers have little research to guide them on specific interventions and attitudes which expedite the attainment of rehabilitation outcomes by spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals and their successful return to the community (Fuhrer, 1994; Whiteneck, 1994). Acquisition of knowledge is required during rehabilitation to learn self-care and decision-making which is essential to long term survival following SCI. However, skills that patients and families are able to accomplish in rehabilitation are often not able to be translated into the home environment (White & Holloway, 1990). The process of learning self-care and decision-making needs to be more clearly elucidated, so more effective interventions can be designed which can improve problem-solving and lead to enhanced well-being and quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning, process and consequences of caring during rehabilitation from the perspective of the SCI individual. This paper will report on the findings from one research question: How is the process of a developing caring relationship perceived by SCI individuals during rehabilitation? The theoretical foundation of caring for this study was synthesized from philosophical, ethical, feminist, and nursing literature. A purposive sample of adults with traumatic SCI were interviewed at least once during their initial rehabilitation stay. Twenty interviews were conducted with fifteen participants at various times during their rehabilitation stay over a six month period. The core category of "getting back together" or reintegration of self, which was the major work of rehabilitation, was accomplished with nurses and therapists who were perceived as caring. The process of a developing caring relationship was conceptualized, from participants' descriptions in three phases: learning the other, learning what I need to know, and letting me find out. During each phase reciprocal behaviors occurred

  15. Impaired personal trait knowledge, but spared other-person trait knowledge, in an individual with bilateral damage to the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Grilli, Matthew D; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2016-08-01

    Functional neuroimaging has revealed that in healthy adults retrieval of personal trait knowledge is associated with increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Separately, neuropsychology has shown that the self-referential nature of memory can be disrupted in individuals with mPFC lesions. However, it remains unclear whether damage to the mPFC impairs retrieval of personal trait knowledge. Therefore, in this neuropsychological case study we investigated the integrity of personal trait knowledge in J.S., an individual who sustained bilateral damage to the mPFC as a result of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. We measured both accuracy and consistency of J.S.'s personal trait knowledge as well as his trait knowledge of another, frequently seen person, and compared his performance to a group of healthy adults. Findings revealed that J.S. had severely impaired accuracy and consistency of his personal trait knowledge relative to control participants. In contrast, J.S.'s accuracy and consistency of other-person trait knowledge was intact in comparison to control participants. Moreover, J.S. showed a normal positivity bias in his trait ratings. These results, albeit based on a single case, implicate the mPFC as critical for retrieval of personal trait knowledge. Findings also cast doubt on the likelihood that the mPFC, in particular the ventral mPFC, is necessary for storage and retrieval of trait knowledge of other people. Therefore, this case study adds to a growing body of evidence that mPFC damage can disrupt the link between self and memory. PMID:27342256

  16. 42 CFR 447.72 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and....72 Section 447.72 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Provisions Alternative Premiums and Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.72 Alternative premium and...

  17. 42 CFR 447.72 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and....72 Section 447.72 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Provisions Alternative Premiums and Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.72 Alternative premium and...

  18. 42 CFR 447.72 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and....72 Section 447.72 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Provisions Alternative Premiums and Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.72 Alternative premium and...

  19. Principles of Antipsychotic Prescribing for Policy Makers, Circa 2008. Translating Knowledge to Promote Individualized Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Joseph; Radke, Alan; Parker, George; Foti, May-Ellen; Eilers, Robert; Diamond, Mary; Svendsen, Dale; Tandon, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Findings from 2 pivotal government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness undermine assumptions about the marked superiority of the more expensive second-generation “atypical” medications in comparison to the less expensive first-generation “typical” drugs. Because this assumption was the basis for the almost universal recommendation that these newer antipsychotics be used preferentially resulting in a 10-fold increase in state governmental expenditures on this class of medications over the past decade, a reassessment of policy is called for. To address the issue, the Medical Directors Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors critically reviewed findings of these studies in the context of other data and considered policy implications in the light of the obligations of state government to make available best possible and individually optimized treatment that is cost-effective. The Medical Directors Council unanimously adopted a set of recommendations to promote appropriate access, efficient utilization, and best practice use. We present our policy statement, in which we provide a succinct background, articulate general principles, and describe a set of 4 broad recommendations. We then summarize our understanding of the current state of knowledge about comparative antipsychotic effectiveness, best antipsychotic practice, and considerations for state policy that represent the basis of our position statement. PMID:18385207

  20. UK publicly funded Clinical Trials Units supported a controlled access approach to share individual participant data but highlighted concerns

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Study Design and Setting Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)–registered CTUs. Results Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. Conclusion There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. PMID:26169841

  1. Effects of Knowledge Sharing and Social Presence on the Intention to Continuously Use Social Networking Sites: The Case of Twitter in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bong-Won; Lee, Kun Chang

    Recent surge of social networking websites in the world supports a widely accepted assumption that people aspires to be recognized online by sharing information with others, perceive enjoyment and keeps to use their social networking site continuously. Different from traditional social networking sites (SNSs) like Cyworld and Facebook, Twitter is famous for its short message and ease of sharing knowledge with others in a prompt manner. Therefore, Twitter is preferred most by many people who seem innovative generically. In this sense, Twitter accumulates its fame as the most influential SNS media among users. However, there is no study to investigate why people holds continuous intention to use the Twitter from the perspective of knowledge-sharing and social presence. To resolve this research issue, this paper adopts six constructs such as personal innovativeness, knowledge-sharing intention, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, social presence, and intention to continuously use. Empirical results with 105 valid questionnaires revealed that the proposed research model is statistically significant, and people's intention to use the Twitter continuously is influenced by social presence, perceived enjoyment, and perceived ease of use.

  2. How Pictorial Knowledge Representations Mediate Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naykki, Piia; Jarvela, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the process of collaborative knowledge construction when technology and pictorial knowledge representations are used for visualizing individual and groups' shared ideas. The focus of the study is on how teacher-students contribute to the group's collaborative knowledge construction and use each other's ideas and tools as an…

  3. Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia: A Participative Workshop to Reduce Volcanic Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    Galeras has been in nearly constant activity during modern historic times (roughly the past 500 years). Approximately 10,000 people live within an area designated as the highest-hazard and nearly 400,000 people are within areas of potential harmful effects. A wide variety of stakeholders are affected by the hazards, including: farmers, indigenous villagers, and people in urban environments. Hazards assessment and volcano monitoring are the responsibility of the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS), whereas decisions regarding mitigation and response procedures are the responsibility of various governmental offices and the national emergency system (SNPAD). According to the current plan, when the risk level rises to a high level the people in the highest risk zone are required to evacuate. The volcano currently is in a very active, but fluctuating, condition and a future large eruption in a medium time frame (years to decades) is possible. There is a growing level of discomfort among many of the affected groups, including indigenous communities, farmers, and urban dwellers, related to the risk assessment. The general opinion prior to July 2009 was quite polarized as the decision makers saw the people of the region as poorly prepared to understand this hazard, whereas the population felt that their views were not being heard. The result was that the people in the hazardous areas decided not to evacuate, even during the current period of explosive activity. To resolve this situation the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop named "Knowledge, Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia" that was held in Pasto (Colombia), between 6 and 11 July, 2009. The general objective of this workshop was to analyze the existing hazard maps and safety plans for Galeras and form a bridge connecting scientists, decision makers, and other stake holders to promote a better

  4. Person-Specific Non-shared Environmental Influences in Intra-individual Variability: A Preliminary Case of Daily School Feelings in Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yao; Molenaar, Peter C M; Arden, Rosalind; Asbury, Kathryn; Almeida, David M

    2016-09-01

    Most behavioural genetic studies focus on genetic and environmental influences on inter-individual phenotypic differences at the population level. The growing collection of intensive longitudinal data in social and behavioural science offers a unique opportunity to examine genetic and environmental influences on intra-individual phenotypic variability at the individual level. The current study introduces a novel idiographic approach and one novel method to investigate genetic and environmental influences on intra-individual variability by a simple empirical demonstration. Person-specific non-shared environmental influences on intra-individual variability of daily school feelings were estimated using time series data from twenty-one pairs of monozygotic twins (age = 10 years, 16 female pairs) over two consecutive weeks. Results showed substantial inter-individual heterogeneity in person-specific non-shared environmental influences. The current study represents a first step in investigating environmental influences on intra-individual variability with an idiographic approach, and provides implications for future behavioural genetic studies to examine developmental processes from a microscopic angle. PMID:27040685

  5. An Investigation of the Relations between Student Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Attitudes toward Individuals with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…

  6. HIV/AIDS Knowledge in College Students: The Implications for Individuals and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Amy L.; Prince, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of college students investigated their HIV/AIDS knowledge. Results indicated that significant sex differences existed on most subscales. Important gaps in students' knowledge include lack of awareness of HIV transmission through oral sex or from mother to infant, belief that donating blood can cause one to contract HIV, and lack of…

  7. A Computer-Based Approach for Deriving and Measuring Individual and Team Knowledge Structure from Essay Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Wallace, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This proof-of-concept investigation describes a computer-based approach for deriving the knowledge structure of individuals and of groups from their written essays, and considers the convergent criterion-related validity of the computer-based scores relative to human rater essay scores and multiple-choice test scores. After completing a…

  8. CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (CSFII) AND THE DIET AND HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SURVEY (DHKS), 1994-96

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Continuing Survey Of Food Intakes By Individuals (CSFII) And The Diet And Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS), popularly known as the What We Eat in America Survey, were conducted by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The CSFII 19...

  9. 42 CFR 447.71 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protections for individuals with family incomes at or below 100 percent of the FPL. 447.71 Section 447.71... protections for individuals with family incomes at or below 100 percent of the FPL. (a) The State may not impose premiums under the State plan on individuals whose family income is at or below 100 percent of...

  10. Nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practices among HIV-positive individuals in India.

    PubMed

    Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices. PMID:23930337

  11. Semantic Knowledge Use in Discourse Produced by Individuals with Anomic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Stephen; Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have demonstrated that people with aphasia (PWA) have preserved semantic knowledge (Dell et al., 1997; Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006). However, Antonucci (2014) demonstrated that some PWA have impaired access to certain types of knowledge more than others. Yet, all these studies used single concepts. It has not been demonstrated whether PWA have difficulty accessing certain types of features within a discourse sample. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine if semantic knowledge and two category types were used differently within discourse produced by participants with anomic aphasia and healthy controls. Method & Procedures Participants with anomic aphasia (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19) told stories that were transcribed and coded for 10 types of semantic knowledge and two category types, living and nonliving things. Outcomes & Results A Poisson regression model was conducted. The results indicated a significant difference between the groups for the semantic knowledge types, sound and internal state, but no difference was found for category types. Yet the distribution of semantic knowledge and category types produced within the discourse samples were similar between the groups. Conclusion PWA might have differential access to certain types of semantic knowledge within discourse production, but it does not rise to the level of categorical deficits. These findings extend single-concept research into the realm of discourse.

  12. 42 CFR 447.71 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and... outpatient department or other alternative non-emergency services health care provider in the geographic area... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 42 CFR 447.71 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and... outpatient department or other alternative non-emergency services health care provider in the geographic area... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 42 CFR 447.71 - Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and protections for individuals with family...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative premium and cost sharing exemptions and... outpatient department or other alternative non-emergency services health care provider in the geographic area... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 42 CFR 447.74 - Alternative premium and cost sharing protections for individuals with family incomes above 150...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for individuals with family incomes above 150 percent of the FPL. 447.74 Section 447.74 Public Health... family incomes above 150 percent of the FPL. (a) States may impose premiums under the State plan consistent with the aggregate limits set forth in § 447.78(a) on individuals whose family income exceeds...

  16. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  17. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  18. Awareness, Knowledge and Exercise of Individual Employment Rights. Employment Relations Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meager, Nigel; Tyers, Claire; Perryman, Sarah; Rick, Jo; Willison, Rebecca

    Recent employment law reforms in England precipitated a telephone survey of a stratified random sample of 5,120 employed people (1,000 respondents) that was intended to find their levels of awareness and knowledge of employment rights and their exercise of those rights. Survey results included the following: (1) nearly 70% of those questioned…

  19. Individual Differences in the Encoding Processes of Egocentric and Allocentric Survey Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Wen; Ishikawa, Toru; Sato, Takao

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how different components of working memory are involved in the acquisition of egocentric and allocentric survey knowledge by people with a good and poor sense of direction (SOD). We employed a dual-task method and asked participants to learn routes from videos with verbal, visual, and spatial interference tasks and without any…

  20. Individual Influences on Knowledge Acquisition in a Call Center Training Context in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowold, Jens

    2007-01-01

    From both a practical and a theoretical point of view, it is important to identify factors that foster knowledge acquisition in organizational training programs. Recent models of training effectiveness have proposed relationships between trainees' characteristics and subsequent learning. The present study tested the impact of trainees' pretraining…

  1. Psychiatrists' Knowledge, Training and Attitudes Regarding the Care of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…

  2. The Influence of Individuals' Beliefs about Learning and Nature of Knowledge on Educating a Competent Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hillendra; Brownlee, Joanne; McCrindle, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    When tested, 23 male postsecondary students displayed unsophisticated conceptions of learning and poor learning outcomes on a problem task. No differences were found between students with work experience and those coming from secondary education. Their limited knowledge base compared to experts suggests that training initiatives may not work. (SK)

  3. Individual Differences in Knowledge Acquisition from Maps. A Report Prepared for Office of Naval Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndyke, Perry W.; Stasz, Cathleen

    This study investigates the strategies people use to acquire knowledge from maps. Among the questions examined were (1) what distinguishes poor learners from good learners, and (2) how do the learning strategies of map-using experts differ from those of nonexpert learners? Eight subjects participated in the study. Five were undergraduate students…

  4. Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

  5. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen B., Ed.; Stabinsky, Doreen, Ed.

    Intellectual property enables individuals to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge. Compensating indigenous people for sharing their knowledge and resources might both validate and be an equitable reward for indigenous knowledge of biological resources, and might promote the conservation of those resources. This book contains…

  6. Individualized Exercises for Self-Assessment of Programming Knowledge: An Evaluation of QuizPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Sosnovsky, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Individualized exercises are a promising feature in promoting modern e-learning. The focus of this article is on the QuizPACK system, which is able to generate parameterized exercises for the C language and automatically evaluate the correctness of student answers. We introduce QuizPACK and present the results of its comprehensive classroom…

  7. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  8. Knowledge, Communication, and Advocacy of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents at Individualized Education Program Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews using Cognitive Interview method techniques were conducted with nine Culturally and Linguistically Diverse parents of students with disabilities in this exploratory study. Parents recalled experiences asking questions and making advocacy statements at Individualized Education Program meetings. Four major findings were…

  9. Developing Individual Goals, Shared Goals, and the Goals of Others: Dimensions of Constructive Competition in Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The aim is to describe and define constructive competition as an educational phenomenon in different learning contexts. The study involved a total of 78 children aged between 5 and 18, and 29 teachers from pre-schools, compulsory school, and upper secondary programs. Data were generated in individual interviews and use was made of critical…

  10. Limited English Proficient Individuals in the United States: Number, Share, Growth, and Linguistic Diversity. LEP Data Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Chhandasi; McHugh, Margie; Batalova, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The number of US residents who are deemed to be Limited English Proficient (LEP) has increased substantially in recent decades, consistent with the growth in the US foreign-born population. While many LEP individuals are still attracted to the historic immigrant-destination states of California, Texas, New York, New Jersey, Florida, and Illinois,…

  11. "My" School or "Our" School? The Effects of Individual versus Shared School Experiences on Teacher Perceptions of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Staci D.; Wilcox, Pamela; May, David C.; Clayton, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    While the research in the area of fear of criminal victimization among students at school continues to grow, few studies have focused on the prevalence or correlates of fear of crime at school among teachers. Using data from 1,438 teachers from 54 public high schools in Kentucky, we examined the individual- and school-level predictors of teacher…

  12. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  13. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R; Goodyer, Ian M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2015-10-27

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  14. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  15. A Study on the Effects of Knowledge Share in Virtual Community on Creative Teaching Behaviors and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawan, Sri; Herachwati, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    In the information technology advance era with constantly expanded knowledge and the requirements of the general public for school education, a lot of different education ideas are introduced in the education reforms, such as school-based characteristic curriculum, teachers' professional development, professional learning community, learning…

  16. The Effects of Mother Training in Emotion-Rich, Elaborative Reminiscing on Children's Shared Recall and Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Penny; Salmon, Karen; Dadds, Mark R.; Allen, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of training mothers in high-elaborative, emotional reminiscing on children's autobiographical memory and emotion knowledge. Eighty mothers were randomly allocated to one of two training conditions: in the "reminiscing" condition, mothers were encouraged to reminisce by asking their children (aged 3.5 to 5…

  17. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas; Potgieter, Marnie; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused) by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known). This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom) often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron) might be of much therapeutic benefit. PMID:26629334

  18. Individual motivation and threat indicators of collaboration readiness in scientific knowledge producing teams: a scoping review and domain analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R.; Mallinson, Trudy R.; Leblanc-Beaudoin, Tommy; Schwartz, Lisa S.; Lazar, Danielle; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies a gap in the team science literature that considers intrapersonal indicators of collaboration as motivations and threats to participating in collaborative knowledge producing teams (KPTs). Through a scoping review process, over 150 resources were consulted to organize 6 domains of motivation and threat to collaboration in KPTs: Resource Acquisition, Advancing Science, Building Relationships, Knowledge Transfer, Recognition and Reward, and Maintenance of Beliefs. Findings show how domains vary in their presentation of depth and diversity of motivation and threat indicators as well as their relationship with each other within and across domains. The findings of 51 indicators resulting from the review provide a psychosocial framework for which to establish a hierarchy of collaborative reasoning for individual engagement in KPTs thus allowing for further research into the mechanism of collaborative engagement. The indicators serve as a preliminary step in establishing a protocol for testing of the psychometric properties of intrapersonal measures of collaboration readiness. PMID:27398411

  19. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  20. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-09-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  1. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of "big data" has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on "adherence to prescription and medical plans" identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases. PMID:27358570

  2. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Bolufer De Gea, Angela; Cahir, Caitriona; Marengoni, Alessandra; Riegler, Salvatore; Fico, Giuseppe; Costa, Elisio; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of “big data” has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on “adherence to prescription and medical plans” identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners with the aim of improving data sharing on a European level. A total of six databases belonging to three different European countries (Spain, Republic of Ireland, and Italy) were included in the analysis. Preliminary results suggest that there are some similarities. However, these results should be applied in different contexts and European countries, supporting the idea that large European studies should be designed in order to get the most of already available databases. PMID:27358570

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Examining Knowledge Management in Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hae-Young; Roth, Gene L.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management is an on-going process that involves varied activities: diagnosis, design, and implementation of knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge sharing. The primary goal of knowledge management, like other management theories or models, is to identify and leverage organizational and individual knowledge for the…

  4. Beyond Sharing: Engaging Students in Cooperative and Competitive Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Gloria Yi-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe their design for an Internet-based learning environment called BeyondShare in which students are encouraged to gain a deep understanding of the learning material, reflect on the quality of individual constructions through sharing and peer evaluation, and synthesize cross-unit knowledge by integrating self- and peer-produced…

  5. Hospital-Based Nurses’ Perceptions of the Adoption of Web 2.0 Tools for Knowledge Sharing, Learning, Social Interaction and the Production of Collective Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. Objectives The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. Methods The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson’s correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Results Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P < .05). Behavioral intention was positively correlated with attitude (r = .72, P < .05), perceived behavioral control (r = .58, P < .05), and subjective norm (r = .45, P < .05). In their decomposed constructs, perceived usefulness (r = .7, P < .05), relative advantage (r = .64, P < .05), and compatibility (r = .60, P < .05) were positively correlated with attitude, but perceived ease of use was not significantly correlated (r = .004, P < .05) with it. Peer (r = .47, P < .05), senior management (r = .24, P < .05), and hospital (r = .45, P < .05) influences had positive correlations with subjective norm. Resource (r = .41, P < .05) and technological (r = .69, P < .05) conditions were positively correlated with perceived behavioral control. Conclusions The identified behavioral perceptions may further health policy makers’ understanding of nurses

  6. Environmental monitoring in soil contamination and remediation programs: how practitioners are using the Internet to share knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guerin, T F

    2001-06-01

    Internet listservers provide a means for professionals from all sectors of the industry and profession, to communicate and collaborate with each other, as well as other stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, academics, the general public and community members) in real time. This article highlights key Internet listservers in the field of environmental monitoring in soil contamination and remediation and how to subscribe to them. The most active and relevant listservers for environmental scientists, technologists and professionals in the soil contamination and remediation profession are the Bioremediation Discussion Group (BioGroup), Phytonet, Phytoremediation listserver, Groundwater listserver and Environmental Forensics listserver. Other observations and lessons so far from the use of Internet listservers are: (i) that moderators provide an important role in maintaining the level of quality and participation, (ii) do not underestimate the knowledge base held within these, and (iii) if not selected and managed properly, e-mail from listservers can generate an excess of e-mail and waste time. PMID:11432262

  7. Working at the nexus between public health policy, practice and research. Dynamics of knowledge sharing in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Joining the domains of practice, research and policy is an important aspect of boosting the quality performance required to tackle complex public health problems. “Joining domains” implies a departure from the linear and technocratic knowledge-translation approach. Integrating the practice, research and policy triangle means knowing its elements, appreciating the barriers, identifying possible cooperation strategies and studying strategy effectiveness under specified conditions. This article examines the dynamic process of developing an Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health in the Netherlands, with the objective of achieving that the three domains of policy, practice and research become working partners on an equal footing. Method An interpretative hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the phenomenon of collaboration at the nexus between the three domains. The project was explicitly grounded in current organizational culture and routines, applied to nexus action. In the process of examination, we used both quantitative (e.g. records) and qualitative data (e.g., interviews and observations). The data were interpreted using the Actor-Network, Institutional Re-Design and Blurring the Boundaries theories. Results Results show commitment at strategic level. At the tactical level, however, managers were inclined to prioritize daily routine, while the policy domain remained absent. At the operational level, practitioners learned to do PhD research in real-life practice and researchers became acquainted with problems of practice and policy, resulting in new research initiatives. Conclusion We conclude that working at the nexus is an ongoing process of formation and reformation. Strategies based on Institutional Re-Design theories in particular might help to more actively stimulate managers’ involvement to establish mutually supportive networks. PMID:23075375

  8. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal. PMID:25622191

  9. 'Is this knowledge mine and nobody else's? I don't feel that.' Patient views about consent, confidentiality and information-sharing in genetic medicine.

    PubMed

    Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2016-03-01

    In genetic medicine, a patient's diagnosis can mean their family members are also at risk, raising a question about how consent and confidentiality should function in clinical genetics. This question is particularly pressing when it is unclear whether a patient has shared information. Conventionally, healthcare professionals view confidentiality at an individual level and 'disclosure without consent' as the exception, not the rule. The relational joint account model, by contrast, conceptualises genetic information as confidential at the familial level and encourages professionals to take disclosure as the default position. In this study, we interviewed 33 patients about consent and confidentiality and analysed data thematically. Our first theme showed that although participants thought of certain aspects of genetic conditions-for example, the way they affect day-to-day health-as somewhat personal, they perceived genetic information-for example, the mutation in isolation-as familial. Most thought these elements were separable and thought family members had a right to know the latter, identifying a broad range of harms that would justify disclosure. Our second theme illustrated that participants nonetheless had some concerns about what, if any, implications there would be of professionals treating such information as familial and they emphasised the importance of being informed about the way their information would be shared. Based on these results, we recommend that professionals take disclosure as the default position, but make clear that they will treat genetic information as familial during initial consultations and address any concerns therein. PMID:26744307

  10. The Schistosomiasis Clinical Trials Landscape: A Systematic Review of Antischistosomal Treatment Efficacy Studies and a Case for Sharing Individual Participant-Level Data (IPD)

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, Michel; Lang, Trudie A.; Guérin, Philippe J.; Olliaro, Piero L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis control mainly relies on preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) distributed through mass drug administration. With a target of 260 million treatments yearly, reliably assessing and monitoring efficacy is all-important. Recommendations for treatment and control of schistosomiasis are supported by systematic reviews and meta-analyses of aggregated data, which however also point to limitations due to heterogeneity in trial design, analyses and reporting. Some such limitations could be corrected through access to individual participant-level data (IPD), which facilitates standardised analyses. Methodology A systematic literature review was conducted to identify antischistosomal drug efficacy studies performed since 2000; including electronic searches of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialised register and the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CENTRAL and Embase; complemented with a manual search for articles listed in past reviews. Antischistosomal treatment studies with assessment of outcome within 60 days post-treatment were eligible. Meta-data, i.e. study-level characteristics (Schistosoma species, number of patients, drug administered, country, etc.) and efficacy parameters were extracted from published documents to evaluate the scope of an individual-level data sharing platform. Principal findings Out of 914 documents screened, 90 studies from 26 countries were included, enrolling 20,517 participants infected with Schistosoma spp. and treated with different PZQ regimens or other drugs. Methodologies varied in terms of diagnostic approaches (number of samples and test repeats), time of outcome assessment, and outcome measure (cure rate or egg reduction rate, as an arithmetic or geometric mean), making direct comparison of published data difficult. Conclusions This review describes the landscape of schistosomiasis clinical research. The volume of data and the methodological and reporting heterogeneity identified all indicate

  11. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  12. Sharing knowledge with Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    Marine biologist Laura Stocker led experts in economics, policy and urban and regional planning to develop a participatory approach to climate adaptation and sustainability at Rottnest Island, Australia.

  13. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Acceptability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Individuals Living with HIV in an Urban HIV Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumaran, Jenani Sarah; Aaron, Erika; Gracely, Ed J.; Schriver, Emily; Szep, Zsofia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool to reduce HIV transmission. The primary objective of this study was to assess awareness of PrEP by individuals living with HIV (HIV+) and acceptance of its use for their HIV negative (HIV-) partners. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted among individuals living with HIV who received care at an urban HIV clinic between January 2013 and June 2013. The survey examined knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of PrEP, and perception of transmission risk of HIV. Chi-Square test and Fisher's Exact test were used to compare proportions. Results Among 206 subjects living with HIV, 15.3% (32) had heard of PrEP. Men who have sex with men (MSM) were more likely to be aware of PrEP than all others (p = 0.003). Once educated about PrEP those who believed PrEP would reduce their partner’s risk for HIV were more likely to recommend PrEP to their partner (p<0.001). 92% of all respondents said they would be “extremely likely/likely” to discuss PrEP use with their provider. Of 159 subjects whose main partner was HIV-, MSM (p = 0.007), male participants (p = 0.044), and those who were consistently taking meds (p = 0.049) were more likely to be aware of PrEP. Those who perceived they were at risk of transmitting HIV (p<0.001) and those who were consistently taking meds (0.049) were more likely to agree that PrEP could reduce the risk of HIV to their partners. Conclusion This study illustrates a low awareness of PrEP but once educated the willingness of a cohort of individuals living with HIV to recommend PrEP to their partners. Our findings demonstrate the importance of providers informing their patients living with HIV about PrEP, as these persons are an underutilized link to support the uptake of PrEP by their HIV- partners. PMID:26862744

  15. Fostering Collaborative Knowledge Construction in a Video-Based Learning Setting: Effects of a Shared Workspace and a Content-Specific Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Aemilian; Cress, Ulrike; Hammer, Karsten; Friedrich, Helmut-Felix

    2007-01-01

    This study examined means of fostering videoconference-based collaborative learning. An experiment was conducted with 15 learning dyads divided into three conditions of videoconference-based learning: without shared workspace, with shared workspace and with shared workspace plus a content-specific graphical representation. Compared with those with…

  16. Frameworks for Sharing Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Rosson, Mary Beth; Dunlap, Dan; Isenhour, Philip

    2005-01-01

    In many organizations, collaborating with peers, sharing resources, and codifying know-how are not typical facets of work activity. For such organizations, knowledge management support must help people identify and orient to opportunities for collaboration and sharing, articulate values and best practices, and assimilate sharing knowledge as an…

  17. The Impact of Leadership Styles and Knowledge Sharing on Police Officers' Willingness to Exert Extra Effort to Provide Better Security: A Study in the Riot Unit of the Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombul, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    The motivation for this study is to understand the factors affecting police officers' willingness to exert extra effort for providing better service through knowledge sharing in different working environments such as riots. Since managers' leadership styles may be important factors affecting subordinates' willingness to exert extra…

  18. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  19. Individual and Issue-Specific Differences in Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Disclosure in Chile, the Philippines, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy; Cumsille, Patricio; Pena-Alampay, Liane; Coatsworth, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Perceived parental knowledge and adolescents' disclosure to parents were predicted from parental warmth and monitoring and adolescents' disclosure, agreement, and beliefs about obligation to obey and parental legitimacy (N = 698 Chilean, Filipino, and U.S. 13-20-year-olds). The correlates of knowledge are similar in all three countries, but the…

  20. A Personnel Centric Knowledge Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Baisakhi; Gautam, Meghbartma

    A Knowledge Management System (KMS) is designed to serve as an effective tool for the proper extraction, utilization and dissemination of knowledge. Traditional KMS models incur cost overhead on the extraction of tacit knowledge and conversion to explicit knowledge. The proposed model in this paper takes the concept of mining the tacit knowledge and using it in the KMS instead of following conventional KMS norms. Through interactions and socialization of the personnel participating in the system, the tacit knowledge is extracted, converted to explicit knowledge and preserved in the Knowledge Management System through proper maintenance of knowledge repository. Our model is based on the technology that encourages active participation and sharing of tacit knowledge through interactions of individuals in the knowledge environment. The model builds a database of queries based on user feedback and the database is enhanced and maintained through creation of tags that makes the KMS dynamic and easily maintainable.

  1. The Impact of Collaborative and Individualized Student Response System Strategies on Learner Motivation, Metacognition, and Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. E.; Antonenko, P. D.; Greenwood, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of collaborative and individualized student response system-based instruction on learner motivation, metacognition, and concept transfer in a large-enrolment undergraduate science course. Participants in the collaborative group responded to conceptual questions, discussed their responses in small groups, and…

  2. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  3. CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (CSFII) AND THE DIET AND HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SURVEY (DHKS), 1989-91

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), conducted as three separate 1-year surveys in 1989, 1990, and 1991, was designed to measure what Americans eat and drink. Information from the surveys is used to develop nutrition education programs, to assess dietary ...

  4. Constructing Knowledge with an Agent-Based Instructional Program: A Comparison of Cooperative and Individual Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Participants in the present study were 87 college students who learned about botany using an agent-based instructional program with three different learning approaches: individual, jigsaw, or cooperative learning. Results showed no differences among learning approaches on retention. Students in jigsaw groups reported higher cognitive load during…

  5. Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  6. Conceptual Knowledge Influences Decision Making Differently in Individuals with High or Low Cognitive Flexibility: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofei; Du, Xiumin; Qi, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have distinguished between good and bad decision makers and have provided an explanation for deficits in decision making. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance and IGT performance, but the results were not consistent and failed to explain why WCST performance can predict IGT performance. The present study aimed to demonstrate that WCST performance can predict IGT performance and to identify the cognitive component of the WCST that affects IGT performance using event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods In this study, 39 healthy subjects (5 subjects were excluded) were divided into a high group and a low group based on their global score on the WCST. A single-choice version of the IGT was used to eliminate the impact of retrieval strategies on the choice evaluation process and interference due to uncorrelated decks. Differences in the underlying neural mechanisms and explicit knowledge between the two groups during the three stages of the decision-making process were described. Results Based on the information processing perspective, we divided the decision-making process into three stages: choice evaluation, response selection, and feedback processing. The behavioral results showed that the highly cognitively flexible participants performed better on the IGT and acquired more knowledge of the task. The ERP results showed that during the choice evaluation stage, the P300 recorded from central and parietal regions when a bad deck appeared was larger in the high group participants than in the low group participants. During the response selection stage, the effect of choice type was significant only in the frontal region in the high group, with a larger effect for passing. During the feedback evaluation stage, a larger FRN was evoked for a loss than for a win in the high group, whereas the FRN effect was absent in the low group. Conclusion Compared with the

  7. The construction of students' knowledge of ecological concepts through the use of structured controversy compared to individual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilby, Jerry Paul

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured controversy on learning and using ten targeted ecological concepts. Structured controversy, from the cooperative learning model, is a debate-styled instructional strategy used to enhance cognitive processing of concepts by challenging opposite ecological viewpoints. Forty-eight students in a college environmental science course were placed in heterogeneous groups of four by ACT score, gender, and the first exam score. The groups of four were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the individual study (control) group. In a pre- and post-treatment written assessment, the students individually generated a series of propositional statements that they used to support a decision about the use of pesticides. Change in the quality (correct, incorrect, and vague) of propositions was compared between the structured controversy and individual study groups. No significant differences were observed for targeted ecological concepts. However, the control group showed a significant decrease in the number of correct non-target (social, economics, etc.) propositions and an increase in number of incorrect non-target propositions based on pre- to post-treatment data and between control and experimental groups. Although not significant, the structured controversy group maintained the quality of both the ecological and social related concepts. This change in the social-related topics in a science course was an unexpected, but positive, outcome.

  8. PERKAM: Personalized Knowledge Awareness Map for Computer Supported Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yano, Yoneo

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a ubiquitous computing environment in order to support the learners while doing tasks; this environment is called PERKAM (PERsonalized Knowledge Awareness Map). PERKAM allows the learners to share knowledge, interact, collaborate, and exchange individual experiences. It utilizes the RFID ubiquities technology to detect the…

  9. What Factors Influence the Decision to Share Suicidal Thoughts? A Multilevel Social Network Analysis of Disclosure Among Individuals with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Fulginiti, Anthony; Pahwa, Rohini; Frey, Laura M; Rice, Eric; Brekke, John S

    2016-08-01

    Nondisclosure of suicidal thoughts limits suicide risk management. Consistent with disclosure models for other stigmatized statuses, understanding suicidal disclosure requires accounting for features of the discloser (individual factors) and the discloser-recipient relationship (relational factors). In a sample of 30 adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder (Level 2) who nominated 436 social network members (Level 1), we examined disclosure patterns and identified individual and relational correlates of disclosure intent. Most individuals disclosed in the past (77%; n = 23) and all intended on disclosing (100%; n = 30). Disclosure was highly selective, with 14% (n = 62) of network members identified as prior confidants and 23% (n = 99) identified as intended confidants. Multilevel modeling indicated that relational factors were more central to disclosure than individual factors. Network members who were prior confidants and who provided social support were attractive targets for intended disclosure. Our findings suggest that "targeted" gatekeeper training may be a promising strategy and reveal relational characteristics to identify "high-probability confidants." PMID:26511676

  10. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  11. Aspects of School-University Research Networks that Play a Role in Developing, Sharing and Using Knowledge Based on Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2011-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can enhance teachers' professional knowledge development, and can benefit both schools and university. This paper reports on 21 participants of a school-university research network embedded in a…

  12. An Exploration of School Counselors' Knowledge Sharing Practices Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Social Exchange Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Adria E.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors are expected to be advocates, collaborators, consultants, and leaders in their work with students, families, administrators, school staff, and community based stakeholders (ASCA, 2005; Shoffner & Briggs, 2001; Rowley, 2000). Underlying these expectations is the belief that school counselors are knowledgeable in the areas that…

  13. Factors Influencing Sharing Activities in Transnational Public Sector Knowledge Networks: The Case of Mobile Disease Surveillance System Adoption in the 2009 Hajj

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharawi, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the growing base of theory relating to Transnational Public Sector Knowledge Networks (TPSKNs) presented by Dawes, Gharawi, and Burke (2012). A case study explores the TPSKN formed between the United States Center for Disease Control and the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health ahead of the 2009 Hajj, one of the…

  14. Preparing the Next Generations of Technology Project Managers to Lead through Knowledge Sharing: A Case Study at a Large Transportation Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify knowledge transfer gaps and current practices, prepare current project managers to accept the challenges associated with leadership opportunities that are coming available due to retirements through cross training efforts and succession planning, and to identify the proper management of knowledge…

  15. Craft Knowledge: The Road to Transforming Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Deanna

    2004-01-01

    Teachers take pride in their autonomy, but there is a downside to the tradition of working independently. If the teaching profession is to advance, Burney suggests, practitioners will need to share their individual craft knowledge with one another, and districts will need to create the conditions that make this possible. In the ongoing effort to…

  16. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  17. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  18. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus1

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Gosuen, Gisele Cristina; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Fram, Dayana Souza; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0), sexual function (45.9), and financial worries (55.6). Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. PMID:26039288

  19. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  20. Evaluating knowledge transfer practices among construction organization in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.

  1. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  2. A prospective study comparing the predictions of doctors versus models for treatment outcome of lung cancer patients: a step towards individualized care and shared decision making

    PubMed Central

    Oberije, Cary; Nalbantov, Georgi; Dekker, Andre; Boersma, Liesbeth; Borger, Jacques; Reymen, Bart; van Baardwijk, Angela; Wanders, Rinus; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Steyerberg, Ewout; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision Support Systems, based on statistical prediction models, have the potential to change the way medicine is being practiced, but their application is currently hampered by the astonishing lack of impact studies. Showing the theoretical benefit of using these models could stimulate conductance of such studies. In addition, it would pave the way for developing more advanced models, based on genomics, proteomics and imaging information, to further improve the performance of the models. Purpose In this prospective single-center study, previously developed and validated statistical models were used to predict the two-year survival (2yrS), dyspnea (DPN), and dysphagia (DPH) outcomes for lung cancer patients treated with chemo radiation. These predictions were compared to probabilities provided by doctors and guideline-based recommendations currently used. We hypothesized that model predictions would significantly outperform predictions from doctors. Materials and Methods Experienced radiation oncologists (ROs) predicted all outcomes at two timepoints: 1) after the first consultation of the patient, and 2) after the radiation treatment plan was made. Differences in the performances of doctors and models were assessed using Area under the Curve (AUC) analysis. Results A total number of 155 patients were included. At timepoint #1 the differences in AUCs between the ROs and the models were 0.15, 0.17, and 0.20 (for 2yrS, DPN, and DPH respectively), with p-values of 0.02, 0.07, and 0.03. Comparable differences at timepoint #2 were not statistically significant due to the limited number of patients. Comparison to guideline-based recommendations also favored the models. Conclusions The models substantially outperformed ROs’ predictions and guideline-based recommendations currently used in clinical practice. Identification of risk groups on the basis of the models facilitates individualized treatment, and should be further investigated in clinical impact

  3. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  4. Visualization for constructing and sharing geo-scientific concepts

    PubMed Central

    MacEachren, Alan M.; Gahegan, Mark; Pike, William

    2004-01-01

    Representations of scientific knowledge must reflect the dynamic nature of knowledge construction and the evolving networks of relations between scientific concepts. In this article, we describe initial work toward dynamic, visual methods and tools that support the construction, communication, revision, and application of scientific knowledge. Specifically, we focus on tools to capture and explore the concepts that underlie collaborative science activities, with examples drawn from the domain of human-environment interaction. These tools help individual researchers describe the process of knowledge construction while enabling teams of collaborators to synthesize common concepts. Our visualization approach links geographic visualization techniques with concept-mapping tools and allows the knowledge structures that result to be shared through a Web portal that helps scientists work collectively to advance their understanding. Our integration of geovisualization and knowledge representation methods emphasizes the process through which abstract concepts can be contextualized by the data, methods, people, and perspectives that produced them. This contextualization is a critical component of a knowledge structure, without which much of the meaning that guides the sharing of concepts is lost. By using the tools we describe here, human-environment scientists are given a visual means to build concepts from data (individually and collectively) and to connect these concepts to each other at appropriate levels of abstraction. PMID:15034180

  5. From the description of activities to the identification of risks for clinical management: a proposal of building, merging and sharing knowledge representations of care processes.

    PubMed

    Staccini, Pascal; Joubert, Michel; Collomp, Rémy; Quaranta, Jean-François; Fieschi, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Management of clinical processes and hospital activities takes advantage of business process reengineering methodology. It is now recognized that care process modeling must integrate the definition of goals and the assessment of risk. Two kinds of issues have been outlined: 1) the lack of an integrated model to identify and describe processes and their components according to a functional point of view; and 2) an increasing amount of documents that hospital staff members have to create, collect, index and maintain. As initial models focused only on a structural view of activities, we reviewed different sources of standards and norms to extract and classify a set of metadata aimed at describing any activity and its outcomes. The model includes links to structured terminologies to name attributes or value them. An object-oriented information model has been created and implemented to test the relevance and the feasibility of the modeling approach. Conceptually speaking, this model gives opportunity to bridge tacit and explicit knowledge. Practically speaking, limits to generalization remain partly due to the lack of a template processes database. PMID:17911723

  6. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G.; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Background Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design Review. Results Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements. PMID:23986896

  7. Shared Cataloguing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Barbara M.

    The National Program for Acquisition and Cataloging (NPAC) authorized under Title IIC of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is called the Shared Cataloging Program. Under this Act the Library of Congress is authorized to: (1) acquire for its own collections all materials currently published throughout the world that are of value to scholarship and…

  8. Organizational Knowledge Management Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate a novel management structure that encourages knowledge sharing across an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The extant literature on the impact of organizational culture and its link to management structure is examined and used to develop a new knowledge sharing management structure. Roadblocks to…

  9. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  10. ‘Is this knowledge mine and nobody else's? I don't feel that.’ Patient views about consent, confidentiality and information-sharing in genetic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    In genetic medicine, a patient's diagnosis can mean their family members are also at risk, raising a question about how consent and confidentiality should function in clinical genetics. This question is particularly pressing when it is unclear whether a patient has shared information. Conventionally, healthcare professionals view confidentiality at an individual level and ‘disclosure without consent’ as the exception, not the rule. The relational joint account model, by contrast, conceptualises genetic information as confidential at the familial level and encourages professionals to take disclosure as the default position. In this study, we interviewed 33 patients about consent and confidentiality and analysed data thematically. Our first theme showed that although participants thought of certain aspects of genetic conditions—for example, the way they affect day-to-day health—as somewhat personal, they perceived genetic information—for example, the mutation in isolation—as familial. Most thought these elements were separable and thought family members had a right to know the latter, identifying a broad range of harms that would justify disclosure. Our second theme illustrated that participants nonetheless had some concerns about what, if any, implications there would be of professionals treating such information as familial and they emphasised the importance of being informed about the way their information would be shared. Based on these results, we recommend that professionals take disclosure as the default position, but make clear that they will treat genetic information as familial during initial consultations and address any concerns therein. PMID:26744307

  11. Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Longo, Dan L; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-21

    The aerial view of the concept of data sharing is beautiful. What could be better than having high-quality information carefully reexamined for the possibility that new nuggets of useful data are lying there, previously unseen? The potential for leveraging existing results for even more benefit pays appropriate increased tribute to the patients who put themselves at risk to generate the data. The moral imperative to honor their collective sacrifice is the trump card that takes this trick. However, many of us who have actually conducted clinical research, managed clinical studies and data collection and analysis, and curated data sets have . . . PMID:26789876

  12. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  13. Social Contracts for Writing: Negotiating Shared Understandings about Text in the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells

    2008-01-01

    This article describes some of the foundational social contracts about written texts that two-year-olds and their teachers were negotiating in a U.S. preschool writing center. Social contracts are shared cultural knowledge that individuals draw on to produce and use written texts in culturally appropriate ways. Participants in this study were 18…

  14. Tools for Knowledge Analysis, Synthesis, and Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Change and complexity are creating a need for increasing levels of literacy in science and technology. Presently, we are beginning to provide students with clear contexts in which to learn, including clearly written text, visual displays and maps, and more effective instruction. We are also beginning to give students tools that promote their own…

  15. 42 CFR 447.52 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exceed the amount the agency pays for the service. (d) Targeted cost sharing. (1) Except as provided in... an individual to pay cost sharing as a condition for receiving the item or service if— (i) The individual has family income above 100 percent of the FPL, (ii) The individual is not part of an...

  16. Shared Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This article grew out of a roundtable of national leaders in higher education which explored questions regarding the role of, and trust in, institutional leaders when faced with seemingly insurmountable problems. The essay argues that while individual responses to change are certain to differ by institutional setting and circumstance, the very…

  17. Zwischen Gesetz und Fall. Mutmassungen uber Typologien als Padagogische Wissensform (Between General Law and the Individual Case. Conjectures Concerning Typologies as a Form of Pedagogical Knowledge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Considers the mediation between scientific knowledge and practical action as a crucial feature of professional teaching. Investigates the assumption that typologies represent a form of knowledge which can bridge the gap between theory and practice. Differentiates between two forms of typological thinking and discusses reservations concerning…

  18. The GRIFFIN Collaborative Virtual Community for Architectural Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Patricia; Farenhorst, Rik; Avgeriou, Paris; de Boer, Remco C.; Clerc, Viktor; Jansen, Anton; van Vliet, Hans

    Modern software architecting increasingly often takes place in geographically distributed contexts involving teams of professionals and customers with different backgrounds and roles. So far, attention and effort have been mainly dedicated to individuals sharing already formalized knowledge and less to social, informal collaboration. Furthermore, in Web 2.0 contexts, little to no attention has been given to practitioners carrying out complex, collaborative, and knowledge-intensive tasks in organizational contexts.

  19. A Car Goes in the Garage Like a Can of Peas Goes in the Refrigerator: Do Deficits in Real-World Knowledge Affect the Assessment of Intelligence in Individuals with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Edelson Meredyth

    2005-01-01

    The Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3rd Edition (TONI-3) and the Analogic Reasoning (AR) subscale of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) were administered to 35 individuals with autism to determine whether real-world-knowledge deficits affected intelligence scores. The 2 tests are similar in format; however, the TONI-3 includes only…

  20. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  1. News Conference: Bloodhound races into history Competition: School launches weather balloon Course: Update weekends inspire teachers Conference: Finland hosts GIREP conference Astronomy: AstroSchools sets up schools network to share astronomy knowledge Teaching: Delegates praise science events in Wales Resources: ELI goes from strength to strength International: South Sudan teachers receive training Workshop: Delegates experience universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    Conference: Bloodhound races into history Competition: School launches weather balloon Course: Update weekends inspire teachers Conference: Finland hosts GIREP conference Astronomy: AstroSchools sets up schools network to share astronomy knowledge Teaching: Delegates praise science events in Wales Resources: ELI goes from strength to strength International: South Sudan teachers receive training Workshop: Delegates experience universality

  2. Sharing Public Health Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that effective and appropriate data sharing requires the development of models of good data-sharing practice capable of taking seriously both the potential benefits to be gained and the importance of ensuring that the rights and interests of participants are respected and that risk of harms is minimized. Calls for the greater sharing of individual-level data from biomedical and public health research are receiving support among researchers and research funders. Despite its potential importance, data sharing presents important ethical, social, and institutional challenges in low-income settings. In this article, we report on qualitative research conducted in five low- and middle-income countries exploring the experiences of key research stakeholders and their views about what constitutes good data-sharing practice. PMID:26297744

  3. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and work-based responsibilities.…

  4. Tripartite quantum state sharing.

    PubMed

    Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-30

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources. PMID:15169193

  5. Tripartite Quantum State Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73±0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  6. Bonobos Share with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jingzhi; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others – including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts. PMID:23300956

  7. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... market value based on the Lender's and RHS approval official's knowledge of the property and the area. (B... the shared equity calculation. In the event a junior lienholder forecloses, the RHS approval...

  8. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  9. Individual Learning on Environmental Vocational Education and Training Courses Does Not Always Lead to the Workplace Application of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Fiona; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina; Kara-Zaitri, Chakib; Newbury, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research on three commercial environmental vocational education and training programmes revealed distinct personal, teaching and work-based presage factors, which influenced individual learning and learning transfer to the workplace. The extent to which behaviour change and learning transfer occurred depended on a diverse range of…

  10. A flexible Bayesian hierarchical approach for analyzing spatial and temporal variation in the fecal corticosterone levels in birds when there is imperfect knowledge of individual identity.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Link, William A; Woods, Rami J; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-12-01

    Population cycles have long interested biologists. The ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is one such species whose populations cycle over most of their range. Thus, much effort has been expended to understand the mechanisms that might control cycles in this and other species. Corticosterone metabolites are widely used in studies of animals to measure physiological stress. We evaluated corticosterone metabolites in feces of territorial male grouse as a potential tool to study mechanisms governing grouse cycles. However, like most studies of corticosterone in wild animals, we did not know the identity of all individuals for which we had fecal samples. This presented an analytical problem that resulted in either pseudoreplication or confounding. Therefore, we derived an analytical approach that accommodated for uncertainty in individual identification. Because we had relatively low success capturing birds, we estimated turnover probabilities of birds on territorial display sites based on capture histories of a limited number of birds we captured. Hence, we developed a study design and modeling approach to quantify variation in corticosterone levels among individuals and through time that would be applicable to any field study of corticosterone in wild animals. Specifically, we wanted a sampling design and model that was flexible enough to partition variation among individuals, spatial units, and years, while incorporating environmental covariates that would represent potential mechanisms. We conducted our study during the decline phase of the grouse cycle and found high variation among corticosterone samples (11.33-443.92 ng/g [x=113.99 ng/g, SD=69.08, median=99.03 ng/g]). However, there were relatively small differences in corticosterone levels among years, but levels declined throughout each breeding season, which was opposite our predictions for stress hormones correlating with a declining population. We partitioned the residual variation into site, bird, and

  11. Building effective workforce management practices through shared governance and technology systems integration.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In integrated delivery networks (IDNs) with complex management structures, shared governance in nursing is a proven model for health care delivery. After Advocate Health Care, the largest IDN in Illinois, implemented shared governance in its nursing, clinical, and non-clinical departments and restructured the organization's technology use, it benefited greatly from a new, shared decision-making process. After listening to business consultants, clinical professionals, and information technology experts, hospitals should take the blended, or comprehensive, approach to new projects. They can succeed by promoting communication supported by an integrated computer platform that helps nursing and business executives reach a consensus. Traditional modes of operation, in which individual administrative, clinical, and technology departments separately introduce innovation, do not deliver an advantage. However, models that incorporate open communication, integration, and knowledge sharing will help large IDNs and other complex health care organizations make the best possible use of their resources and investments. PMID:24294648

  12. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    PubMed

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes. PMID:25668744

  13. Shared clinical decision making

    PubMed Central

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  14. Culture as shared cognitive representations.

    PubMed Central

    Romney, A K; Boyd, J P; Moore, C C; Batchelder, W H; Brazill, T J

    1996-01-01

    Culture consists of shared cognitive representations in the minds of individuals. This paper investigates the extent to which English speakers share the "same" semantic structure of English kinship terms. The semantic structure is defined as the arrangement of the terms relative to each other as represented in a metric space in which items judged more similar are placed closer to each other than items judged as less similar. The cognitive representation of the semantic structure, residing in the mind of an individual, is measured by judged similarity tasks involving comparisons among terms. Using six independent measurements, from each of 122 individuals, correspondence analysis represents the data in a common multidimensional spatial representation. Judged by a variety of statistical procedures, the individuals in our sample share virtually identical cognitive representations of the semantic structure of kinship terms. This model of culture accounts for 70-90% of the total variability in these data. We argue that our findings on kinship should generalize to all semantic domains--e.g., animals, emotions, etc. The investigation of semantic domains is important because they may reside in localized functional units in the brain, because they relate to a variety of cognitive processes, and because they have the potential to provide methods for diagnosing individual breakdowns in the structure of cognitive representations typical of such ailments as Alzheimer disease. PMID:11607678

  15. Shared decision making in chronic care in the context of evidence based practice in nursing.

    PubMed

    Friesen-Storms, Jolanda H H M; Bours, Gerrie J J W; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2015-01-01

    In the decision-making environment of evidence-based practice, the following three sources of information must be integrated: research evidence of the intervention, clinical expertise, and the patient's values. In reality, evidence-based practice usually focuses on research evidence (which may be translated into clinical practice guidelines) and clinical expertise without considering the individual patient's values. The shared decision-making model seems to be helpful in the integration of the individual patient's values in evidence-based practice. We aim to discuss the relevance of shared decision making in chronic care and to suggest how it can be integrated with evidence-based practice in nursing. We start by describing the following three possible approaches to guide the decision-making process: the paternalistic approach, the informed approach, and the shared decision-making approach. Implementation of shared decision making has gained considerable interest in cases lacking a strong best-treatment recommendation, and when the available treatment options are equivalent to some extent. We discuss that in chronic care it is important to always invite the patient to participate in the decision-making process. We delineate the following six attributes of health care interventions in chronic care that influence the degree of shared decision making: the level of research evidence, the number of available intervention options, the burden of side effects, the impact on lifestyle, the patient group values, and the impact on resources. Furthermore, the patient's willingness to participate in shared decision making, the clinical expertise of the nurse, and the context in which the decision making takes place affect the shared decision-making process. A knowledgeable and skilled nurse with a positive attitude towards shared decision making—integrated with evidence-based practice—can facilitate the shared decision-making process. We conclude that nurses as well as other

  16. Experience as Knowledge in a New Product Development Team: Implications for Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand how New Product Development (NPD) team members apply their experiences to meet the task needs of their project. Although "experience" is highly valued in team members, little research has looked specifically at experiences as a type of knowledge, and how this knowledge is used in work settings. This research evaluated nearly 200 instances where team members referenced past experiences during team meetings. During these experience exchanges, team members structured the sharing of their experiences to include three common elements: the source of the experience, the nature of the experience, and the degree of relevance to the current work of the team. The experiences fell into four categories: people (relationships), process, product, and politics. This paper describes how team members structured, applied, and integrated their individual experiences and presents the resulting implications for knowledge management systems that wish to exploit experience knowledge.

  17. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  18. Turning Disciplinary Knowledge into Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Turning disciplinary knowledge about preadolescents’ and adolescents’ exposure to risk factors for cancer as adults into solutions for preventing such an outcome requires that investigators from a variety of backgrounds and disciplines come together to share knowledge. Optimally, these collaborations would occur across two dimensions: (1) transdisciplinary, from the molecular or cellular level (e.g., animal studies of endocrine disruption) to the societal level (e.g., economic studies related to state tobacco policies), and (2) translational, using basic research findings in clinical and other sciences to implement prevention programs and public policy. Only when collaboration is commonplace can the disparate groups of investigators working on cancer prevention during pre-adolescence and adolescence gain a holistic picture of the risk factors, inform one another’s work, and learn what we need to know to devise successful interventions for preventing cancer. Working transdisciplinarily also helps to ensure that messages to health professionals, policymakers, the news media, and the public are consistent and coordinated. At present, those investigating preadolescent and adolescent risk for adult cancer disseminate their knowledge individually, thus missing the opportunity to synthesize knowledge, coordinate dissemination, and implement prevention programs. In this paper, we distinguish multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches, argue for the benefits of a transdisciplinary approach to devising successful solutions and how to achieve transdisciplinary functioning. PMID:23601619

  19. Developing leaders at every level: accountability and empowerment actualized through shared governance.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shelley C; Hutchison, Sarah A

    2007-12-01

    The shortage of frontline nursing staff and their managers in acute care organizations necessitates strategies to both use and recognize the unique knowledge and skills of these individuals. The authors describe one organization's successful implementation of a shared decision-making structure that promotes an empowering work environment in which professional fulfillment and personal satisfaction can flourish. With support and opportunity, leaders are developed across all levels of nursing. PMID:18090520

  20. Shared Leadership and Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This literature review describes ways of thinking about sharing school leadership and to examine the possible link between shared leadership and student achievement. This review examines four different approaches to school leadership that involve more than a single individual. These four were selected because they were most widely represented in…

  1. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  2. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  3. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  4. The individual and societal burden of chronic pain in Europe: the case for strategic prioritisation and action to improve knowledge and availability of appropriate care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common in Europe and elsewhere and its under treatment confers a substantial burden on individuals, employers, healthcare systems and society in general. Indeed, the personal and socioeconomic impact of chronic pain is as great as, or greater, than that of other established healthcare priorities. In light of review of recently published data confirming its clinical and socioeconomic impact, this paper argues that chronic pain should be ranked alongside other conditions of established priority in Europe. We outline strategies to help overcome barriers to effective pain care resulting in particular from deficiencies in education and access to interdisciplinary pain management services. We also address the confusion that exists between proper clinical and scientific uses of opioid medications and their potential for misuse and diversion, as reflected in international variations in the access to, and availability of, these agents. Discussion As the economic costs are driven in part by the costs of lost productivity, absenteeism and early retirement, pain management should aim to fully rehabilitate patients, rather than merely to relieve pain. Accredited education of physicians and allied health professionals regarding state-of-the-art pain management is crucial. Some progress has been made in this area, but further provision and incentivization is required. We support a tiered approach to pain management, whereby patients with pain uncontrolled by non-specialists are able to consult a physician with a pain competency or a specialist in pain medicine, who in turn can recruit the services of other professionals on a case-by-case basis. A fully integrated interdisciplinary pain service should ideally be available to patients with refractory pain. Governments and healthcare systems should ensure that their policies on controlled medications are balanced, safeguarding public health without undue restrictions that compromise patient care, and that

  5. The Conceptual Framework of Factors Affecting Shared Mental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Miyoung; Johnson, Tristan; Lee, Youngmin; O'Connor, Debra; Khalil, Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have paid attention to the potentiality and possibility of the shared mental model because it enables teammates to perform their job better by sharing team knowledge, skills, attitudes, dynamics and environments. Even though theoretical and experimental evidences provide a close relationship between the shared mental model and…

  6. HaploShare: identification of extended haplotypes shared by cases and evaluation against controls.

    PubMed

    Ying, Dingge; Sham, Pak Chung; Smith, David Keith; Zhang, Lu; Lau, Yu Lung; Yang, Wanling

    2015-01-01

    Recent founder mutations may play important roles in complex diseases and Mendelian disorders. Detecting shared haplotypes that are identical by descent (IBD) could facilitate discovery of these mutations. Several programs address this, but are usually limited to detecting pair-wise shared haplotypes and not providing a comparison of cases and controls. We present a novel algorithm and software package, HaploShare, which detects extended haplotypes that are shared by multiple individuals, and allows comparisons between cases and controls. Testing on simulated and real cases demonstrated significant improvements in detection power and reduction of false positive rate by HaploShare relative to other programs. PMID:25956955

  7. Knowledge management impact of information technology Web 2.0/3.0. The case study of agent software technology usability in knowledge management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtysik-Piorunkiewicz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    How we can measure the impact of internet technology Web 2.0/3.0 for knowledge management? How we can use the Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for generating, evaluating, sharing, organizing knowledge in knowledge-based organization? How we can evaluate it from user-centered perspective? Article aims to provide a method for evaluate the usability of web technologies to support knowledge management in knowledge-based organizations of the various stages of the cycle knowledge management, taking into account: generating knowledge, evaluating knowledge, sharing knowledge, etc. for the modern Internet technologies based on the example of agent technologies. The method focuses on five areas of evaluation: GUI, functional structure, the way of content publication, organizational aspect, technological aspect. The method is based on the proposed indicators relating respectively to assess specific areas of evaluation, taking into account the individual characteristics of the scoring. Each of the features identified in the evaluation is judged first point wise, then this score is subject to verification and clarification by means of appropriate indicators of a given feature. The article proposes appropriate indicators to measure the impact of Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for knowledge management and verification them in an example of agent technology usability in knowledge management system.

  8. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  9. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  10. What Drives Academic Data Sharing?

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, Benedikt; Friesike, Sascha; Hebing, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support from policy makers, funding agencies, and scientific journals, academic researchers rarely make their research data available to others. At the same time, data sharing in research is attributed a vast potential for scientific progress. It allows the reproducibility of study results and the reuse of old data for new research questions. Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories: Data donor, research organization, research community, norms, data infrastructure, and data recipients. Drawing from our findings, we discuss theoretical implications regarding knowledge creation and dissemination as well as research policy measures to foster academic collaboration. We conclude that research data cannot be regarded as knowledge commons, but research policies that better incentivise data sharing are needed to improve the quality of research results and foster scientific progress. PMID:25714752

  11. LACC Shared Governance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This document discusses Los Angeles City College's (LACC) (California) Shared Governance Model. In response to California Assembly Bill 1725, LACC set forth a plan to implement the statutory requirements of shared governance. Shared governance is a concept grounded in the idea that decision-making is a process that affects the entire campus…

  12. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. PMID:23489589

  13. Effective Team Building Develops Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Gordon L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in group behavior and organizational development is centered around increasing the individual's self-esteem and on developing individual participation in group success. Effective groups depend on a variety of individual contributions and shared decision making, while in turn satisfying human needs for security, achievement, and…

  14. A game theoretic analysis of research data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Paulien H.; van Weerden, Anne; Schieving, Feike

    2015-01-01

    While reusing research data has evident benefits for the scientific community as a whole, decisions to archive and share these data are primarily made by individual researchers. In this paper we analyse, within a game theoretical framework, how sharing and reuse of research data affect individuals who share or do not share their datasets. We construct a model in which there is a cost associated with sharing datasets whereas reusing such sets implies a benefit. In our calculations, conflicting interests appear for researchers. Individual researchers are always better off not sharing and omitting the sharing cost, at the same time both sharing and not sharing researchers are better off if (almost) all researchers share. Namely, the more researchers share, the more benefit can be gained by the reuse of those datasets. We simulated several policy measures to increase benefits for researchers sharing or reusing datasets. Results point out that, although policies should be able to increase the rate of sharing researchers, and increased discoverability and dataset quality could partly compensate for costs, a better measure would be to directly lower the cost for sharing, or even turn it into a (citation-) benefit. Making data available would in that case become the most profitable, and therefore stable, strategy. This means researchers would willingly make their datasets available, and arguably in the best possible way to enable reuse. PMID:26401453

  15. Data sharing for pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Merry, Alan F

    2009-10-01

    Pooling data from different pediatric studies can provide a single robust pharmacokinetic analysis that allows covariate analysis and hypothesis testing. Data sharing should be driven by the altruistic purpose of improving drug understanding to the clinical benefit of children. Electronic communications have rendered the sharing of data relatively easy, and data sharing within the wider scientific community has become commonplace. Data sharing allows verification of results, save costs and time, allows new interpretation of old data, and can fulfill teaching benefits. It may stimulate cooperative competition between researchers and allow individual researchers to concentrate on unique aspects of the scientific puzzle. However, there is occasionally a reluctance to share, in part because of fear of others stealing the hard work of a research group, which may not be recognized in subsequent publications that reuse data. Providing data may require additional effort for presentation in a suitable format. Data may be abused or used for purposes other than those for which they were collected. Propriety claims may limit access to industry-sponsored drug research. The question of who has ownership of data is contentious. Investigators often consider data they have collected to be their own property. Reputations and grants may be hinge on ownership of a data set. However, other team members, institutions, funding agencies, and the public also have a stake. The difficulties identified in the general scientific community also apply to data sharing for pediatric pharmacokinetic studies. There are few clearly established rules at present, and consideration of the issues hinges on ethical and philosophical arguments. The development of databases will depend on collaboration and cooperation and greater clarity and consensus over appropriate processes and procedures. PMID:19558615

  16. Auditing Knowledge toward Leveraging Organizational IQ in Healthcare Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Farzaneh Nejad, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study, a knowledge audit was conducted based on organizational intelligence quotient (OIQ) principles of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) to determine levers that can enhance OIQ in healthcare. Methods The mixed method study was conducted within the MOHME. The study population consisted of 15 senior managers and policymakers. A tool based on literature review and panel expert opinions was developed to perform a knowledge audit. Results The significant results of this auditing revealed the following: lack of defined standard processes for organizing knowledge management (KM), lack of a knowledge map, absence of a trustee to implement KM, absence of specialists to produce a knowledge map, individuals' unwillingness to share knowledge, implicitness of knowledge format, occasional nature of knowledge documentation for repeated use, lack of a mechanism to determine repetitive tasks, lack of a reward system for the formation of communities, groups and networks, non-updatedness of the available knowledge, and absence of commercial knowledge. Conclusions The analysis of the audit findings revealed that three levers for enhancing OIQ, including structure and process, organizational culture, and information technology must be created or modified. PMID:27200221

  17. Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Larry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes three common strands of current thought about education and the Internet. First is the idea that the instant availability of information online makes the memorization of facts unnecessary or less necessary. Second is the celebration of the virtues of collaborative learning as superior to outmoded individual…

  18. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  19. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  20. Shared topics on the experience of people with haemophilia living in the UK and the USA and the influence of individual and contextual variables: Results from the HERO qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Palareti, Laura; Potì, Silvia; Cassis, Frederica; Emiliani, Francesca; Matino, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The study illuminates the subjective experience of haemophilia in people who took part in the Haemophilia Experience, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative, a quali-quantitative research program aimed at exploring psychosocial issues concerning this illness around the world. Applying a bottom-up analytic process with the help of software for textual data, we investigated 19 interviews in order to describe the core themes and the latent factors of speech, to explore the role of different variables in shaping the participants’ illness experiences. The five themes detected are feeling different from others, body pain, acquisition of knowledge and resources, family history, and integration of care practices in everyday life. We illustrate how nationality, age, family situation, the use of prophylaxis or on-demand treatment, and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus affect the experience of our participants in different ways. Findings are used to bring insights on research, clinical practice, and psychosocial support. PMID:26578360

  1. Shared topics on the experience of people with haemophilia living in the UK and the USA and the influence of individual and contextual variables: Results from the HERO qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Palareti, Laura; Potì, Silvia; Cassis, Frederica; Emiliani, Francesca; Matino, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The study illuminates the subjective experience of haemophilia in people who took part in the Haemophilia Experience, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative, a quali-quantitative research program aimed at exploring psychosocial issues concerning this illness around the world. Applying a bottom-up analytic process with the help of software for textual data, we investigated 19 interviews in order to describe the core themes and the latent factors of speech, to explore the role of different variables in shaping the participants' illness experiences. The five themes detected are feeling different from others, body pain, acquisition of knowledge and resources, family history, and integration of care practices in everyday life. We illustrate how nationality, age, family situation, the use of prophylaxis or on-demand treatment, and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus affect the experience of our participants in different ways. Findings are used to bring insights on research, clinical practice, and psychosocial support. PMID:26578360

  2. Unconscious knowledge: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Luís M.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge seem to share at a deeper level. With the aim of promoting further research, we discuss the main challenges which the postulation of unconscious cognition faces within the psychological community. PMID:21814538

  3. A sorrow shared is a sorrow halved? A three-arm randomized controlled trial comparing internet-based clinician-guided individual versus group treatment for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Vincent, Alessia; Krieger, Tobias; Andersson, Gerhard; Berger, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (ICBT) are effective to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD). Whereas the efficacy of clinician-guided ICBT has been established, ICBT in a group format has not yet been systematically investigated. This three-arm RCT compared the efficacy of clinician-guided group ICBT (GT) with clinician guided individual ICBT (IT) and a wait-list (WL). A total of 149 individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for SAD were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Primary endpoints were self-report measures of SAD and diagnostic status taken at baseline, after the twelve-week intervention and at six-month follow-up. Secondary endpoints were symptoms of depression, interpersonal problems and general symptomatology. At post-treatment, both active conditions showed superior outcome regarding SAD symptoms (GT vs. WL: d = 0.84-0.74; IT vs. WL: d = 0.94-1.22). The two active conditions did not differ significantly in symptom reduction (d = 0.12-0.26, all ps > 0.63), diagnostic response rate or attrition. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. The group format reduced weekly therapist time per participant by 71% (IT: 17 min, GT: 5 min). Findings indicate that a clinician-guided group format is a promising approach in treating SAD. PMID:27423374

  4. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  5. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants' degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain's intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  6. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants’ degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants’ degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain’s intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  7. Joint Individual-Group Modeling for Tracking.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Loris; Zanotto, Matteo; Cristani, Marco; Murino, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel probabilistic framework that jointly models individuals and groups for tracking. Managing groups is challenging, primarily because of their nonlinear dynamics and complex layout which lead to repeated splitting and merging events. The proposed approach assumes a tight relation of mutual support between the modeling of individuals and groups, promoting the idea that groups are better modeled if individuals are considered and vice versa. This concept is translated in a mathematical model using a decentralized particle filtering framework which deals with a joint individual-group state space. The model factorizes the joint space into two dependent subspaces, where individuals and groups share the knowledge of the joint individual-group distribution. The assignment of people to the different groups (and thus group initialization, split and merge) is implemented by two alternative strategies: using classifiers trained beforehand on statistics of group configurations, and through online learning of a Dirichlet process mixture model, assuming that no training data is available before tracking. These strategies lead to two different methods that can be used on top of any person detector (simulated using the ground truth in our experiments). We provide convincing results on two recent challenging tracking benchmarks. PMID:26353291

  8. 48 CFR 335.070-3 - Method of cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of cost sharing. 335.070-3 Section 335.070-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.070-3 Method of cost sharing. Cost-sharing on individual contracts may...

  9. Hanging with the Right Crowd: Crowdsourcing as a New Business Practice for Innovation, Productivity, Knowledge Capture, and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    In today's connected world, the reach of the Internet and collaborative social media tools have opened up new opportunities for individuals, regardless of their location, to share their knowledge, expertise, and creativity with others. These tools have also opened up opportunities for organizations to connect with new sources of innovation to…

  10. Knowledge Management: A Teacher Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Radha

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management can be defined as a systematic process that creates, captures, shares, and analyzes knowledge in ways that directly improve performance. The goal of Knowledge Management is to improve the creation, dissemination, and exploitation of knowledge for the purpose of building competitive advantage. The proper use of knowledge…

  11. Externalization of Tacit Knowledge in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Jialin

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge, especially tacit knowledge, has gained more and more attention in recent years. The author claims that, with the development of information technology, more knowledge sharing takes place online rather than face-to-face. The purpose of this study is to explore how tacit knowledge is externalized in online environments. To answer this…

  12. Coordination of Individual and Organizational Planning for Natural Hazards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Decision making consists of constructing or selecting a plan. This is true at many levels of decision making: individuals or households, small groups, larger organizations, and governments. In each case, plans are constructed or selected taking account of the decision maker's prioritized set of active goals and the decision maker's beliefs about the probability or the extent to which each goal will be attained through a given plan. Planning for mitigation of or response to natural hazards can be improved if the plans of the many decision makers at multiple levels are coordinated. Government planning should ideally be informed by knowledge about the plans of businesses and non-profit organizations as well as knowledge about individual, household, and neighborhood plans. Similarly, plans at the individual and organizational levels should be informed by knowledge of others' plans at the same and at higher and lower levels of aggregation. Coordination can be impaired by differences in goals, differences in beliefs about the instrumentality of plans toward given goals, and also by ignorance of others' goals and plans. Good coordination requires incentives that promote sharing of plans, horizontally and vertically, and that alleviate conflicts in goals and conflicts in beliefs that will inevitably surface once plans are shared. Thus, four different kinds of decision aids are needed to improve natural hazard planning: mechanisms that support horizontal dissemination of plans, mechanisms that support vertical dissemination, mechanisms for examining goal conflicts and reducing these through plans that take others' goals into account, and mechanisms for examining belief conflicts.

  13. The dynamics of meaningful social interactions and the emergence of collective knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-01-01

    Collective knowledge as a social value may arise in cooperation among actors whose individual expertise is limited. The process of knowledge creation requires meaningful, logically coordinated interactions, which represents a challenging problem to physics and social dynamics modeling. By combining two-scale dynamics model with empirical data analysis from a well-known Questions & Answers system Mathematics, we show that this process occurs as a collective phenomenon in an enlarged network (of actors and their artifacts) where the cognitive recognition interactions are properly encoded. The emergent behavior is quantified by the information divergence and innovation advancing of knowledge over time and the signatures of self-organization and knowledge sharing communities. These measures elucidate the impact of each cognitive element and the individual actor’s expertise in the collective dynamics. The results are relevant to stochastic processes involving smart components and to collaborative social endeavors, for instance, crowdsourcing scientific knowledge production with online games. PMID:26174482

  14. The dynamics of meaningful social interactions and the emergence of collective knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-07-01

    Collective knowledge as a social value may arise in cooperation among actors whose individual expertise is limited. The process of knowledge creation requires meaningful, logically coordinated interactions, which represents a challenging problem to physics and social dynamics modeling. By combining two-scale dynamics model with empirical data analysis from a well-known Questions & Answers system Mathematics, we show that this process occurs as a collective phenomenon in an enlarged network (of actors and their artifacts) where the cognitive recognition interactions are properly encoded. The emergent behavior is quantified by the information divergence and innovation advancing of knowledge over time and the signatures of self-organization and knowledge sharing communities. These measures elucidate the impact of each cognitive element and the individual actor’s expertise in the collective dynamics. The results are relevant to stochastic processes involving smart components and to collaborative social endeavors, for instance, crowdsourcing scientific knowledge production with online games.

  15. The dynamics of meaningful social interactions and the emergence of collective knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-01-01

    Collective knowledge as a social value may arise in cooperation among actors whose individual expertise is limited. The process of knowledge creation requires meaningful, logically coordinated interactions, which represents a challenging problem to physics and social dynamics modeling. By combining two-scale dynamics model with empirical data analysis from a well-known Questions &Answers system Mathematics, we show that this process occurs as a collective phenomenon in an enlarged network (of actors and their artifacts) where the cognitive recognition interactions are properly encoded. The emergent behavior is quantified by the information divergence and innovation advancing of knowledge over time and the signatures of self-organization and knowledge sharing communities. These measures elucidate the impact of each cognitive element and the individual actor's expertise in the collective dynamics. The results are relevant to stochastic processes involving smart components and to collaborative social endeavors, for instance, crowdsourcing scientific knowledge production with online games. PMID:26174482

  16. The Dash Data Sharing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, David A.; Slaughter, Brooks

    1994-01-01

    The Data Sharing system (DASH) project was recently undertaken at NASA Johnson Space Center to introduce distributed data sharing into the Mission Control Center (MCC). Although the project focused on MCC communications, the solution is a general one. This paper describes that project. DASH allows applications to share data. It provides callable interfaces for applications wishing to export or import data. The system consists of several processes: publishers make exported data available to subscribers, which provide it to interested importing applications. A network registration service provides network location transparency, allowing the other processes to reside at arbitrary network locations. These processes act as intermediaries between external producing and consuming applications. DASH has been demonstrated in the MCC where it transmits Shuttle electrical bus data from the Bus Loss Smart System to the Configurable Realtime Analysis System. In addition, the Failure Impact and Procedure Analysis system used DASH to transmit Shuttle remote manipulator data from an expert system to a version of CRANS. DASH is currently being used to integrate a knowledge acquisition application and the CLIPS expert system shell.

  17. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  18. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  19. Rethinking Resource Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaubien, Anne; Stevens, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the need for rethinking resource sharing to offer both library users and nonlibrary users options to obtain the material they seek from both libraries and commerical sources. The article discusses several programs that are emerging including the "GoGetter" function, the Rethinking Resource Sharing Manifesto, user needs, and…

  20. Virtual environments for telerobotic shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Brian K.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a virtual environment to bring about telerobotic shared control is discussed. A knowledge base, referred to as the World Model, is used to aid the system in its decision making. Information from the World Model is displayed visually in order to aid the human side of human-computer interface.

  1. Share with thy neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

  2. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James R; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Claudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events). Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies. PMID:17849015

  3. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  4. Interoperable Data Sharing for Diverse Scientific Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Hardman, Sean

    2016-04-01

    For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework using ontologies and ISO level archive and metadata registry reference models. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation framework is populated through knowledge acquisition from discipline experts. It is also extended to meet specific discipline requirements. The result is a formalized and rigorous knowledge base that addresses data representation, integrity, provenance, context, quantity, and their relationships within the community. The contents of the knowledge base is translated and written to files in appropriate formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate ingested data, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present the Planetary Data System's PDS4 as a use case that has been adopted by the international planetary science community, describe how the framework is being applied to other disciplines, and share some important lessons learned.

  5. Software Sharing Enables Smarter Content Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, NASA established a technology partnership with Xerox Corporation to develop high-tech knowledge management systems while providing new tools and applications that support the Vision for Space Exploration. In return, NASA provides research and development assistance to Xerox to progress its product line. The first result of the technology partnership was a new system called the NX Knowledge Network (based on Xerox DocuShare CPX). Created specifically for NASA's purposes, this system combines Netmark-practical database content management software created by the Intelligent Systems Division of NASA's Ames Research Center-with complementary software from Xerox's global research centers and DocuShare. NX Knowledge Network was tested at the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and is widely used for document management at Ames, Langley Research Center, within the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center, and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for mission-related tasks.

  6. Unequal Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)

  7. Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

  8. Scotland's knowledge network: a progress report on Knowledge into Action.

    PubMed

    Wales, Ann; Boyle, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Launched in 2012, Knowledge into Action is the national knowledge management strategy for the health and social care workforce in Scotland. It is transforming the role of the national digital knowledge service--NHS Education for Scotlands' Knowledge Network--and the NHSS librarian role to offer more active, tailored support for translating knowledge into frontline clinical practice. This includes the development of a national evidence search and summary service, help with converting knowledge into practical and usable formats for easy use at point of care and with using digital tools to share clinicians' learning, experience and expertise. Through this practical support, Knowledge into Action is contributing to quality and safety outcomes across NHS Scotland, building clinicians' capacity and capability in applying knowledge in frontline practice and service improvement. PMID:26449922

  9. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. N Engl J Med . 2013 Jan 3;368(1):6-8. ... UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  10. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  11. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  12. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide the best way to test ... you. The two of you will make a decision based on your provider's expertise and your values ...

  13. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  14. Measuring Team Shared Understanding Using the Analysis-Constructed Shared Mental Model Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tristan E.; O'Connor, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Teams are an essential part of successful performance in learning and work environments. Analysis-constructed shared mental model (ACSMM) methodology is a set of techniques where individual mental models are elicited and sharedness is determined not by the individuals who provided their mental models but by an analytical procedure. This method…

  15. Secure Information Sharing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-09

    We are develoing a peer-to-peer system to support secure, location independent information sharing in the scientific community. Once complete, this system will allow seamless and secure sharing of information between multiple collaborators. The owners of information will be able to control how the information is stored, managed. ano shared. In addition, users will have faster access to information updates within a collaboration. Groups collaborating on scientific experiments have a need to share information and data.more » This information and data is often represented in the form of files and database entries. In a typical scientific collaboration, there are many different locations where data would naturally be stored. This makes It difficult for collaborators to find and access the information they need. Our goal is to create a lightweight file-sharing system that makes it’easy for collaborators to find and use the data they need. This system must be easy-to-use, easy-to-administer, and secure. Our information-sharing tool uses group communication, in particular the InterGroup protocols, to reliably deliver each query to all of the current participants in a scalable manner, without having to discover all of their identities. We will use the Secure Group Layer (SGL) and Akenti to provide security to the participants of our environment, SGL will provide confldentiality, integrity, authenticity, and authorization enforcement for the InterGroup protocols and Akenti will provide access control to other resources.« less

  16. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    PubMed

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture. PMID:10107083

  17. The Knowledge Stealing Initiative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshorn, Larry

    2005-01-01

    I have the honor of being on the Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) Knowledge Sharing Feedback and Assessment Team (FAA), and as such, I am privileged to receive the feedback written by many of you as attendees of the Project Management (PM) Master s Forums. It is the intent of the FAA Team and APPL leadership to use this feedback as a tool for continuous program improvement. As a retired (sort of) PM in the payload contracting industry, I'm a big supporter of NASA s Knowledge Sharing Initiative (KSI), especially the Master's Forums. I really enjoy participating in them. Unfortunately I had to miss the 8th forum in Pasadena this past Spring, but I did get the feedback package for the Assessment Team work. So here I was, reviewing twelve pages of comments, reflections, learning notes and critiques from attendees of the 8th forum.

  18. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms. PMID:22822299

  19. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Nolin, David A

    2012-07-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms. PMID:22822299

  20. Building Knowledge Cultures: Education and Development in the Age of Knowledge Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This book develops the notion of "knowledge cultures" as a basis for understanding the possibilities of education and development in the age of knowledge Capitalism. "Knowledge cultures" point to the significance of cultural preconditions in the new production of knowledge and how they are based on shared practices, embodying culturally preferred…

  1. Vertically integrated shared learning models in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The numbers of learners seeking placements in general practice is rapidly increasing as an ageing workforce impacts on General Practitioner availability. The traditional master apprentice model that involves one-to-one teaching is therefore leading to supervision capacity constraints. Vertically integrated (VI) models may provide a solution. Shared learning, in which multiple levels of learners are taught together in the same session, is one such model. This study explored stakeholders’ perceptions of shared learning in general practices in northern NSW, Australia. Methods A qualitative research method, involving individual semi-structured interviews with GP supervisors, GP registrars, Prevocational General Practice Placements Program trainees, medical students and practice managers situated in nine teaching practices, was used to investigate perceptions of shared learning practices. A thematic analysis was conducted on 33 transcripts by three researchers. Results Participants perceived many benefits to shared learning including improved collegiality, morale, financial rewards, and better sharing of resources, knowledge and experience. Additional benefits included reduced social and professional isolation, and workload. Perceived risks of shared learning included failure to meet the individual needs of all learners. Shared learning models were considered unsuitable when learners need to: receive remediation, address a specific deficit or immediate learning needs, learn communication or procedural skills, be given personalised feedback or be observed by their supervisor during consultations. Learners’ acceptance of shared learning appeared partially dependent on their supervisors’ small group teaching and facilitation skills. Conclusions Shared learning models may partly address supervision capacity constraints in general practice, and bring multiple benefits to the teaching environment that are lacking in the one-to-one model. However, the risks

  2. A community of practice for knowledge translation trainees: an innovative approach for learning and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Lal, Shalini; Colquhoun, Heather; Klein, Gail; Richmond, Sarah; Witteman, Holly O

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of researchers and trainees identify knowledge translation (KT) as their field of study or practice. Yet, KT educational and professional development opportunities and established KT networks remain relatively uncommon, making it challenging for trainees to develop the necessary skills, networks, and collaborations to optimally work in this area. The Knowledge Translation Trainee Collaborative is a trainee-initiated and trainee-led community of practice established by junior knowledge translation researchers and practitioners to: examine the diversity of knowledge translation research and practice, build networks with other knowledge translation trainees, and advance the field through knowledge generation activities. In this article, we describe how the collaborative serves as an innovative community of practice for continuing education and professional development in knowledge translation and present a logic model that provides a framework for designing an evaluation of its impact as a community of practice. The expectation is that formal and informal networking will lead to knowledge sharing and knowledge generation opportunities that improve individual members' competencies (eg, combination of skills, abilities, and knowledge) in knowledge translation research and practice and contribute to the development and advancement of the knowledge translation field. PMID:24347106

  3. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  4. Core Pedagogy: Individual Uncertainty, Shared Practice, Formative Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    Attention to the core practices of teaching necessitates core pedagogies in teacher preparation. This article outlines the diffusion of one such pedagogy from medical to teacher education. The concept of clinical simulations is outlined through the lens of "signature pedagogies" and their uncertain, engaging, formative qualities.…

  5. New Developments of the Shared Concern Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikas, Anatol

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and describes new developments in the Shared Concern method (SCm), a tool for tackling group bullying amongst teenagers by individual talks. The psychological mechanisms of healing in the bully group and what hinders the bully therapist in eliciting them have become better clarified. The most important recent advancement of the SCm…

  6. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  7. Principles for Designing Pragmatic Knowledge Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management continues to evolve as a discipline, yet even basic features that define a discipline have to be established. Developing a shared understanding of core concepts, such as the meaning of "knowledge", has been elusive in this field. In the absence of reaching a universal definition, surrogates for knowledge are adopted because of…

  8. Making Knowledge Services Work in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Lefrere, Paul; Mason, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Over the past three years, knowledge-based practices in higher education have advanced, driving the development of low/no-cost, mass-market tools for knowledge sharing and reducing some barriers to change. New investors in higher education are developing strategies to exploit the knowledge-driven value propositions. Existing institutions, anxious…

  9. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  10. The Costs of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology

  11. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  12. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  13. Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.

  14. Learning to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

  15. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  16. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Three ideas are shared: using geometric figures in motivational practice of order operations with prealgebra students; constructing a test with a holiday theme to increase student interest; and coding greeting cards for students that can be solved mathematically through the use of previously learned concepts. (MP)

  17. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  18. The Impact of Trust on the Practice of Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, Mirja; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of trust in managing knowledge in organizations. Topics include the problematic nature of the concept of knowledge management; human resource management and information management; personal knowledge and organizational knowledge; collaboration and knowledge sharing; and organizational culture and climate. (Contains 25…

  19. The evolutionary advantage of limited network knowledge.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    Groups of individuals have social networks that structure interactions within the groups; evolutionary theory increasingly uses this fact to explain the emergence of cooperation (Eshel and Cavalli-Sforza, 1982; Boyd and Richerson, 1988, 1989; Ohtsuki et al., 2006; Nowak et al., 2010; Van Veelen et al., 2012). This approach has resulted in a number of important insights for the evolution of cooperation in the biological and social sciences, but omits a key function of social networks that has persisted throughout recent evolutionary history (Apicella et al., 2012): their role in transmitting gossip about behavior within a group. Accounting for this well-established role of social networks among rational agents in a setting of indirect reciprocity not only shows a new mechanism by which the structure of networks is fitness-relevant, but also reveals that knowledge of social networks can be fitness-relevant as well. When groups enforce cooperation by sanctioning peers whom gossip reveals to have deviated, individuals in certain peripheral network positions are tempting targets of uncooperative behavior because gossip they share about misbehavior spreads slowly through the network. The ability to identify these individuals creates incentives to behave uncooperatively. Consequently, groups comprised of individuals who knew precise information about their social networks would be at a fitness disadvantage relative to groups of individuals with a coarser knowledge of their networks. Empirical work has consistently shown that modern humans know little about the structure of their own social networks and perform poorly when tasked with learning new ones. This robust empirical regularity may be the product of natural selection in an environment of strong selective pressure at the group level. Imprecise views of networks make enforcing cooperation easier. PMID:27012517

  20. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…