Science.gov

Sample records for individual monitoring experiments

  1. Optical absorption properties of electron bubbles and experiments on monitoring individual electron bubbles in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei

    When a free electron is injected into liquid helium, it forms a microscopic bubble essentially free of helium atoms, which is referred to as an electron bubble. It represents a fine example of a quantum-mechanical particle confined in a potential well. In this dissertation, we describe our studies on bubble properties, especially the optical absorption properties of ground state electron bubbles and experiments on imaging individual electron bubbles in liquid helium. We studied the effect of zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the shape of ground state electron bubbles in liquid helium. The results are used to determine the line shape for the 1S to 1P optical transition. The calculated line shape is in very good agreement with the experimental measurements of Grimes and Adams. For 1S to 2P transition, the obtained transition line width agrees well with the measured data of Zipfel over a range of pressure up to 15 bars. Fluctuations in the bubble shape also make other "unallowed" transitions possible. The transition cross-sections from the 1S state to the 1D and 2D states are calculated with magnitude approximately two orders smaller than that of the 1S to 1P and 2P transitions. In our electron bubble imaging experiments, a planar ultrasonic transducer was used to generate strong sound wave pulse in liquid helium. The sound pulse passed through the liquid so as to produce a transient negative pressure over a large volume (˜ 1 cm3). An electron bubble that was passed by the sound pulse exploded for a fraction of a microsecond and grew to have a radius of around 10 microns. While the bubble had this large size it was illuminated with a flash lamp and its position was recorded. In this way, we can determine its position. Through the application of a series of sound pulses, we can then take images along the track of individual electrons. The motion of individual electron bubbles has been successfully monitored. Interesting bubble tracks that may relate to electrons

  2. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  3. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  4. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  5. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  6. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

  7. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  8. Sleep Monitoring Experiment - Skylab Experiment M133

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows equipment for the Skylab's Sleep Monitoring Experiment (M133), a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crewmembers' inflight sleep. The experiment monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this experiment and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  9. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... by all individuals for whom monitoring was conducted and to document doses received during...

  10. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... by all individuals for whom monitoring was conducted and to document doses received during...

  11. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... by all individuals for whom monitoring was conducted and to document doses received during...

  12. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... individual shall be readily available to that individual. (g) Data necessary to allow future verification...

  13. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative “all modes” failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  14. Using widgets to monitor the LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Caballero, I.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of the LHC experiments requires monitoring systems to verify the correct functioning of different sub-systems and to allow operators to quickly spot problems and issues that may cause loss of information and data. Due to the distributed nature of the collaborations and the different technologies involved, the information data that need to be correlated is usually spread over several databases, web pages and monitoring systems. On the other hand, although the complete set of monitorable aspects is known and fixed, the subset that each person needs to monitor is often different for each individual. Therefore, building a unique monitoring tool that suits every single collaborator becomes close to impossible. A modular approach with a set of customizable widgets, small autonomous portions of HTML and JavaScript, that can be aggregated to form private or public monitoring web pages can be a scalable and robust solution, where the information can be provided by a simple and thin set of web services. Among the different widget development toolkits available today, we have chosen the open project UWA (Unified Widget API) because of its portability to the most popular widget platforms (including iGoogle, Netvibes and Apple Dashboard). As an example, we show how this technology is currently being used to monitor parts of the CMS Computing project.

  15. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

  16. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily used to make inferences about the average causal effect of the experimental manipulation. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing experimental data in order to make inferences about individual differences in causal effects. Approaches to analyzing the data produced by a number of classical designs, and two more novel designs, are discussed. Simulations highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the data produced by each design with respect to internal validity. Results indicate that, although the data produced by standard designs can be used to produce accurate estimates of average causal effects of experimental manipulations, more elaborate designs are often necessary for accurate inferences with respect to individual differences in causal effects. The methods described here can be diversely applied by researchers interested in determining the extent to which individuals respond differentially to an experimental manipulation or treatment, and how differential responsiveness relates to individual participant characteristics. PMID:21744970

  17. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  18. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, E; Alves, J G; Ambrosi, P; Janzekovic, H; Vartiainen, E

    2004-01-01

    A large number of standards are available for radiation protection and individual monitoring purposes. They are published by various organisations, international and national. Moreover, the increasing policy of "Quality" applied to individual monitoring requires the implementation of standards on Quality Assurance (QA) both in technical and management aspects of a dosimetric service. Implementation of standards is not mandatory; therefore, varying degrees of implementation can be found in different European countries. However, for a number of good reasons, a degree of harmonisation within the European Union (EU) of the requirements and procedures for individual monitoring would be desirable. Harmonisation as applied to dosimetric services does not mean that they should all follow exactly the same procedures, but that they should aim to meet the same general requirements, and their results should be comparable. This article aims to compile information on the use of all standards applied within individual monitoring practices, be it on the calibration of dosemeters or on the QA procedures to be applied to the overall dose evaluation process. Both "technical standards" and "quality standards" will be discussed. A list of documents of relevance to subjects such as recommendations and requirements in the field of individual monitoring, whose application could help in the harmonisation of procedures, will also be given. As it is agreed that implementation of quality standards is a relevant framework within which harmonisation can be achieved, guidance on the implementation of quality standards in a dosimetric service is given. Accreditation and approval of dosimetric services will be of relevance in the process of harmonisation of individual monitoring within the EU. In this article, a discussion of various procedures and the meaning of both forms of recognition is also provided. Although most of the text applies to the monitoring of internal and external exposure to

  19. Xrootd Monitoring for the CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Bloom, K.; Bockelman, B.; Bradley, D. C.; Dasu, S.; Sfiligoi, I.; Tadel, A.; Tadel, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Yagil, A.

    2012-12-01

    During spring and summer of 2011, CMS deployed Xrootd-based access for all US T1 and T2 sites. This allows for remote access to all experiment data on disk in the US. It is used for user analysis, visualization, running of jobs at computing sites when data is not available at local sites, and as a fail-over mechanism for data access in jobs. Monitoring of this Xrootd infrastructure is implemented on three levels. Basic service and data availability checks are performed by Nagios probes. The second level uses Xrootd's “summary data” stream; this data is aggregated from all sites and fed into a MonALISA service providing visualization and storage. The third level uses Xrootd's “detailed monitoring” stream, which includes detailed information about users, opened files and individual data transfers. A custom application was developed to process this information. It currently provides a real-time view of the system usage and can store data into ROOT files for detailed analysis. Detailed monitoring allows us to determine dataset popularity and to detect abuses of the system, including sub-optimal usage of the Xrootd protocol and the ROOT prefetching mechanism.

  20. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 5,000 grams of contained uranium-235, uranium-233, or plutonium... submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee for each... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 5,000 grams of contained uranium-235, uranium-233, or plutonium... submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee for each... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 5,000 grams of contained uranium-235, uranium-233, or plutonium... submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee for each... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30 of... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of individual monitoring. 20.2206 Section 20.2206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2206...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30 of... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of individual monitoring. 20.2206 Section 20.2206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2206...

  5. Achievement Monitoring of Individually Paced Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    A study was made to monitor achievement of individually paced instruction. The project concentrated on designing testing procedures in group paced instructional programs to provide information to student, teachers, parents and administrators which could be used in both a formative and summative evaluation. The three objectives of the project were:…

  6. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily…

  7. Radiation monitoring equipment dosimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  8. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  9. Calibration Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M. E.

    2009-11-23

    The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified calibration source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars'. This calibration source, the On-board Calibration Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric calibration program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring instrument sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS instrument sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor instrument sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the instrument payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in instrument senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and calibrated instrument.

  10. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; West, E.; Pratico, J.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 2-10 gm diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approximately 10(exp-5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-200 nm spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nm. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on test particles of silica and polystyrene to determine the photoelectric yields and surface equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. A brief description of an experimental procedure for photoemission studies is given and some preliminary laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust particles are presented.

  11. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  12. Monitoring individual and joint action outcomes in duet music performance.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Janeen D; Kourtis, Dimitrios; Vesper, Cordula; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-07-01

    We investigated whether people monitor the outcomes of their own and their partners' individual actions as well as the outcome of their combined actions when performing joint actions together. Pairs of pianists memorized both parts of a piano duet. Each pianist then performed one part while their partner performed the other; EEG was recorded from both. Auditory outcomes (pitches) associated with keystrokes produced by the pianists were occasionally altered in a way that either did or did not affect the joint auditory outcome (i.e., the harmony of a chord produced by the two pianists' combined pitches). Altered auditory outcomes elicited a feedback-related negativity whether they occurred in the pianist's own part or the partner's part, and whether they affected individual or joint action outcomes. Altered auditory outcomes also elicited a P300 whose amplitude was larger when the alteration affected the joint outcome compared with individual outcomes and when the alteration affected the pianist's own part compared with the partner's part. Thus, musicians engaged in joint actions monitor their own and their partner's actions as well as their combined action outcomes, while at the same time maintaining a distinction between their own and others' actions and between individual and joint outcomes. PMID:23489144

  13. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  14. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. PMID:26979804

  15. Monitoring Spiking Activity of Many Individual Neurons in Invertebrate Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, C.J.; Bruno, A.M.; Humphries, M.D.; Moore-Kochlacs, C.; Sejnowski, T.J.; Wang, J.; Hill, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Optical recording with fast voltage sensitive dyes makes it possible, in suitable preparations, to simultaneously monitor the action potentials of large numbers of individual neurons. Here we describe methods for doing this, including considerations of different dyes and imaging systems, methods for correlating the optical signals with their source neurons, procedures for getting good signals, and the use of Independent Component Analysis for spike-sorting raw optical data into single neuron traces. These combined tools represent a powerful approach for large-scale recording of neural networks with high temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:26238051

  16. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  17. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  18. Label-free monitoring of individual DNA hybridization using SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ji; Zeng, Jianbo; Zhao, Fusheng; Santos, Greggy M.; Lin, Steven Hsesheng; Raja, Balakrishnan; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Sequence-specific detection of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level has been instrumental and gradually become a ubiquitous tool in a wide variety of biological and biomedical applications such as clinical diagnostics, biosensors, and drug development. Label-free and amplification-free schemes are of particular interest because they could potentially provide in situ monitoring of individual hybridization events, which may lead to techniques for discriminating subtle variations due to single-base modification without stringency control or repetitive thermal cycling. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for molecular detection and identification by exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance effect when the target molecules are near gold or silver nanostructures. However, effective and robust SERS assays have yet become a reality for trace detection. Recently, we have developed a SERS substrate by shaping nanoporous gold thin films into monolithic submicron disks, called nanoporous gold disks (NPGD). Here we demonstrate in situ monitoring of the same immobilized ssDNA molecules and their individual hybridization events.

  19. Education and training issues in individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, P; Kamenopoulou, V

    2011-03-01

    The present article deals with the education and training (E&T) issues of individual monitoring (IM) of ionising radiation, based on the requirements provided by the Basic Safety Standards Euratom Directive and the European Commission Technical Recommendations for IM of external radiation. The structure and the objectives of E&T programmes addressed to the staff of dosimetry services, in order to allow the recognition and ensure the continuity of expertise are discussed. The necessity for the establishment of a national strategy for building competence in IM through information, education, training and retraining programmes, addressed to the individually monitored personnel is underlined. The train the trainers' concept is recognised as being an important tool for optimising resources and transferring the skills necessary for building competence. The conditions under which an efficient train the trainers' approach can be established are discussed. Examples of curricula concerning the key persons involved in the provision of E&T in occupational radiation protection are also given. PMID:21131663

  20. Monitoring tools of COMPASS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodlak, M.; Frolov, V.; Huber, S.; Jary, V.; Konorov, I.; Levit, D.; Novy, J.; Salac, R.; Tomsa, J.; Virius, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper briefly introduces the data acquisition system of the COMPASS experiment and is mainly focused on the part that is responsible for the monitoring of the nodes in the whole newly developed data acquisition system of this experiment. The COMPASS is a high energy particle experiment with a fixed target located at the SPS of the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. The hardware of the data acquisition system has been upgraded to use FPGA cards that are responsible for data multiplexing and event building. The software counterpart of the system includes several processes deployed in heterogenous network environment. There are two processes, namely Message Logger and Message Browser, taking care of monitoring. These tools handle messages generated by nodes in the system. While Message Logger collects and saves messages to the database, the Message Browser serves as a graphical interface over the database containing these messages. For better performance, certain database optimizations have been used. Lastly, results of performance tests are presented.

  1. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adrada, J.

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  2. Examining Greek Special Education Teachers' Individual and Collaborative Teaching Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morfidi, Eleni; Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examine Greek special education teachers' individual and collaborative teaching experiences in the context of their literacy instruction. The Five Foci Framework, situated in Vygotskian theory, is utilized in the study's design to examine special education teachers' individual and collaborative experiences…

  3. Working It Out: Workplace Experiences of Individuals with HIV and Individuals with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-two individuals with cancer or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) were interviewed concerning their employment related experiences and concerns. Findings indicated that the decision to tell their supervisor and/or co-workers about their health status varied substantially between individuals with HIV and those with cancer. All study…

  4. Experience with the BEACON core monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.L. ); Icide, C.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The BEACON operational core support system was developed for use in pressurized water reactors to provide an integrated system to perform reactor core monitoring, core measurement reduction, core analysis and follow, and core predictions. It is based on the very fast and accurate three-dimensional SPNOVA nodal program. The experience to date has shown the importance of an accurate integrated system. The benefits accrued are greater for the total system than the benefits that are possible separately.

  5. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2008-09-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average “all modes” failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment.

  6. Lived Experiences of College-Age Transsexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the lived experiences of 4 college-age transsexual individuals. A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to investigate their experiences influencing their later educational persistence. Results suggested that level of discomfort, perceived social supports, level of secrecy, and academic achievement all affected…

  7. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment (both natural and induced) on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  8. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1989-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment-both natural and induced-on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM Experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  9. Serosurveillance to monitor onchocerciasis elimination: the Ugandan experience.

    PubMed

    Oguttu, David; Byamukama, Edson; Katholi, Charles R; Habomugisha, Peace; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank O; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-02-01

    Uganda is the only African country whose onchocerciasis elimination program uses a two-pronged approach of vector control and mass drug distribution. The Ugandan program relies heavily upon the use of serosurveys of children to monitor progress toward elimination. The program has tested over 39,000 individuals from 11 foci for Onchocerca volvulus exposure, using the Ov16 ELISA test. The data show that the Ov16 ELISA is a useful operational tool to monitor onchocerciasis transmission interruption in Africa at the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold of < 0.1% in children. The Ugandan experience has also resulted in a re-examination of the statistical methods used to estimate the boundary of the upper 95% confidence interval for the WHO prevalence threshold when all samples tested are negative. This has resulted in the development of Bayesian and hypergeometric statistical methods that reduce the number of individuals who must be tested to meet the WHO criterion. PMID:24343885

  10. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  11. Experience and assessment of pain in individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Gabre, Pia; Sjöquist, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    The authors review the literature on pain experience and pain assessment in people with cognitive impairments, focusing on individuals with dementia and mental retardation. The impact of cognitive impairments on pain sensation is not well understood, although some observations have been published. For example, research suggests that pain experience can be influenced by neuropathological processes in the brain and memory impairments. Reporting of pain decreases as cognitive impairment increases. In addition, poor verbal skills lead to difficulties in communicating pain. Pain assessment depends primarily on one's ability to describe the dimensions of pain. Individuals with limited ability to report pain can use pain assessment methods that rely on simple cognitive tasks. For individuals who have no ability to report pain, an outside observer must describe the discomfort experienced by interpreting the patient's body language. The authors conclude that further research is needed to develop valid and reliable assessment methods for people with cognitive impairments. PMID:12580355

  12. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  13. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  14. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  15. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  16. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  17. German experiences in local fatigue monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abib, E.; Bergholz, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2012-07-01

    The ageing management of nuclear power plants (NPP) has gained an increasing importance in the last years. The reasons are mainly due to the international context of extending period of plants operation. Moreover, new scientific discoveries, such as the corrosive influence of the medium on the fatigue process (environmentally assisted fatigue - EAF) play an important role and influence the code development (ASME, EAF code cases). The fatigue damage process takes a central position in ageing mechanisms of components. It must be ensured through appropriate evidence that facilities are being operated under allowable boundary conditions. In the design phase of NPP, fatigue analyses are still based on theoretical considerations and empirical values, which are summarized in the design transient catalogue, necessary for licensing. These analyses aim at proving the admissibility of the loads in terms of stress and fatigue usage. These analyses will also provide the fatigue-relevant positions in the NPP and give a basis for future design improvements and optimization of operating modes. The design transients are in practice conservatively correlated with the real transients occurring during operation. Uncertainties reveal very conservative assumptions regarding forecast temperatures, temperature gradients and frequencies of events. During operation of the plant, it has to be recurrently proved, that the plant is being operated under designed boundary conditions. Moreover, operating signals are constantly acquired to enable a fatigue evaluation. For example, in Germany fatigue evaluation is based on decades of experience and regulatory requirements. The rule KTA 3201.4 [1] establishes the rules for qualified fatigue monitoring. The rule DIN 25475-3 [2] on fatigue monitoring systems is available in draft version. Experience shows that some significant differences occur between the design transients and the real occurred transients during plant operation. The reasons for it

  18. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  2. Mapping individual differences in the experience of a waiting period.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Kate; Andrews, Sara E

    2014-06-01

    Waiting for uncertain news, such as the outcome of a job interview or medical test, is a ubiquitous and difficult but little studied experience. We conducted a longitudinal examination, guided by the predictions of the uncertainty navigation model (Sweeny & Cavanaugh, 2012), to examine broad trends and individual differences in experiences during a consequential waiting period. Fifty students preparing for the California bar exam completed questionnaires at 6 time points: shortly before and after the exam, at 2 intermediate time points during the 4-month waiting period, and immediately before and after learning whether they passed. We identified key individual differences in the overall experience of a waiting period, such that dispositional optimists reported lower levels of anxiety and rumination on average, and defensive pessimists and people uncomfortable with uncertainty reported higher levels. Longitudinal growth curve modeling analyses suggested that waiting is most difficult at the start and end of a waiting period, although people maintained hope and optimism throughout the wait. These temporal trends were generally robust, although some individual differences emerged. These findings provide the first evidence regarding when and for whom waiting periods are most difficult and thus can serve as the basis for future investigations of waiting experiences. PMID:24841102

  3. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  4. Understanding the Lived Experience of Five Individuals with Mobility Aids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tanja; Petrie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our research is to understand the lived experience of people with mobility aids: How do people use their mobility aids and what is their lived experience with them? What problems do mobility aid users have outside the clinic? Our goal is to further study the needs of mobility aid users, mainly wheelchair, walker and prosthesis users, and furthermore, develop a technology platform and an application that supports more independent life for mobility aid users. In our study we interviewed five individuals about their experiences of using mobility aids. The aim was to recognize the main stages of the lived experience with mobility aids in order to understand how technology could help mobility aid users outside the clinic. The stages found in the lived experience with mobility aids are 1) Expectations 2) Getting the mobility aid 3) Using and living with the aid and 4) Change/Abandonment of the aid. In each of these stages we found important issues concerning the lived experience with mobility aids such as the importance of training to use mobility aids, the meaning of peer support, finding information online, what makes a mobility aid good, what kind of issues other people's perceptions may cause and how the built environment poses challenges for people with mobility aids. PMID:27534353

  5. A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

  6. Agonistic experience and individual recognition in male Quelea quelea.

    PubMed

    Shawcross, J E; Slater, P J

    1984-01-01

    Male Quelea were moved between groups to assess whether experience of winning or losing in new groups was correlated with their success in competition over food when they were returned to their original groups. No such effect was found. However, differences in time spent feeding after deprivation and in aggressive behaviour were found between groups depending on whether they were made up from high- or low-ranking individuals. In paired encounters there was no evidence that birds threatened unfamiliar individuals more than familiar ones or that they avoided sitting next to them more than familiar birds. This suggests that individual recognition, if it exists at all in these groups, is not important in their agonistic relationships. The rank birds occupied was correlated with beak colour, a probable measure of androgen levels, and with the amount of food consumed after deprivation. The latter result suggests that the same period of deprivation may affect some individuals more than others and this in turn may lead them to compete more for food. PMID:24923828

  7. Monitoring Text Comprehension: Individual Differences in Epistemological Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    Individual differences in the reading comprehension standards of 90 undergraduates were examined. Students were classified as having a dualistic or relativistic conception of knowledge by attitude measures. Data suggest that epistemological beliefs may dictate choice of comprehension criteria and that these epistemological standards may control…

  8. Experiences of Individuals With Liver Cirrhosis: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Khorvash, Farzin; Yousefi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Health-related quality of life in cirrhotic patients is affected by the disease's complications. The purpose of this article was to describe the experiences of individuals with liver cirrhosis during critical illness. The aim was to investigate the disease experiences of liver cirrhosis. The authors conducted a phenomenological qualitative study, using a Colaizzi's seven-step method. Ten participants with liver cirrhosis participated in in-depth interviews. The data from this analysis were transformed into 119 codes, 11 subthemes, and 4 main themes including (1) confronting tension, (2) needs, (3) spirituality, and (4) interaction and effective communication. Findings could be used as a basis for information and emotional and social support interventions, as these can be effective in promoting adjustment to complications of cirrhosis by suitable interventions. Adequate adjustment through adaptation leads to successful completion of treatment and improved quality of life. PMID:26226019

  9. Sixteen years of experience with sterilization monitoring.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J A; Gleason, M J; Merchant, V A

    1994-12-01

    Sterilization in the dental office should be monitored to ascertain proper sterilizer function. Biologic monitoring with calibrated preparations of bacterial spores is the preferred, as well as the only method that actually measures sterilization. A dental school-based sterilization monitoring service for dental practices was established in 1978 at the University of Detroit. This service has grown from 20 participating dental offices to more than 1,500. In 1993, 18,137 biologic monitoring tests were performed. The participants in the service primarily use autoclaves (70%) for heat sterilization, while unsaturated chemical-vapor sterilizers (20%) and dry-heat units (10%) are less common. This article describes the history of sterilization monitoring in dental practices from 1978 to the present through a dental school-based service. PMID:7758029

  10. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoen, R.; Stancu, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Leahu, L.; Martin, B.; Al-Shabibi, A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  11. Monitoring of compliance on an individual treatment through mobile innovations.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, A; Giokas, K; Koutsouris, D

    2015-01-01

    The present work examines the potential of smartphone usage for offering health services to elderly patients. The purpose of this work is the design, development, and implementation of a telemedicine application. This application aims to improve the monitoring mode and increase patient adherence to the instructions assigned by the medical staff. It consists of three parts: the doctor's application (Web Application), the patient's application (Android Application) and the Web Server of the platform, where the database is stored necessary for the smooth operation of the platform. Also the Web Server hosts the doctor's Web Application. The Web Application is based on web front-end technologies, providing the medical personnel with a variety of features and useful actions. These actions and capabilities are mainly relevant to the assignment of instructions to patients and the monitoring of their health progress. The Android Application has been implemented and validated for the Android-based mobile devices operating system and consists of a handy and user-friendly environment, equipped with the right tools so that the patient has the ability to update the system on the progress of his/her health by storing the appropriate measurements. Both applications also provide customization capabilities in regards to the patients' and doctors' profile. PMID:26737982

  12. A Control Chart Based on Cluster-Regression Adjustment for Retrospective Monitoring of Individual Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hong Choon; Alih, Ekele

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for experimental and industrial variables to include a certain proportion of outliers has become a rule rather than an exception. These clusters of outliers, if left undetected, have the capability to distort the mean and the covariance matrix of the Hotelling’s T2 multivariate control charts constructed to monitor individual quality characteristics. The effect of this distortion is that the control chart constructed from it becomes unreliable as it exhibits masking and swamping, a phenomenon in which an out-of-control process is erroneously declared as an in-control process or an in-control process is erroneously declared as out-of-control process. To handle these problems, this article proposes a control chart that is based on cluster-regression adjustment for retrospective monitoring of individual quality characteristics in a multivariate setting. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through Monte Carlo simulation experiments and historical datasets. Results obtained indicate that the proposed method is an improvement over the state-of-art methods in terms of outlier detection as well as keeping masking and swamping rate under control. PMID:25923739

  13. Experiences of Siblings of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Maureen E.; Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identify their self-reported support needs. We conducted in-person semi-structured interviews with 12 siblings aged 7 to 15 of children aged 6 to 15 with ASDs. Employing a qualitative collective case study research method, we conducted cross-case analyses to address our research questions. Three major themes emerged: (a) descriptions of the sibling subsystem (b) cohesion between and among the siblings, and (c) adaptability of the participant siblings to having family members with ASDs. Discussion of these findings and recommendations for future research contributes to the existing literature on siblings of children with disabilities. PMID:22928104

  14. The run control and monitoring system of the CMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Gerry; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; O'Dell, Vivian; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; /CERN /Kyungpook Natl. U. /MIT /UCLA /CERN /INFN, Legnaro

    2007-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN will start taking data in 2008. To configure, control and monitor the experiment during data-taking the Run Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) was developed. This paper describes the architecture and the technology used to implement the RCMS, as well as the deployment and commissioning strategy of this important component of the online software for the CMS experiment.

  15. Multidisciplinary Monitoring Experiments at Kawah Ijen Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Hendra; Pallister, John; Caudron, Corentin

    2014-12-01

    "Wet volcanoes" with crater lakes and extensive hydrothermal systems pose challenges for monitoring and forecasting eruptions. That's because their lakes and hydrothermal systems serve as reservoirs for magmatic heat and fluid emissions, filtering and delaying the surface expressions of magmatic unrest.

  16. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  17. Experiment Dashboard for Monitoring of the LHC Distributed Computing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Devesas Campos, M.; Tarragon Cros, J.; Gaidioz, B.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Lanciotti, E.; Maier, G.; Ollivier, W.; Nowotka, M.; Rocha, R.; Sadykov, T.; Saiz, P.; Sargsyan, L.; Sidorova, I.; Tuckett, D.

    2011-12-01

    LHC experiments are currently taking collisions data. A distributed computing model chosen by the four main LHC experiments allows physicists to benefit from resources spread all over the world. The distributed model and the scale of LHC computing activities increase the level of complexity of middleware, and also the chances of possible failures or inefficiencies in involved components. In order to ensure the required performance and functionality of the LHC computing system, monitoring the status of the distributed sites and services as well as monitoring LHC computing activities are among the key factors. Over the last years, the Experiment Dashboard team has been working on a number of applications that facilitate the monitoring of different activities: including following up jobs, transfers, and also site and service availabilities. This presentation describes Experiment Dashboard applications used by the LHC experiments and experience gained during the first months of data taking.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. PMID:26443545

  19. Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

    2000-04-01

    The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

  20. Space motion sickness monitoring experiment - Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed firsthand report on symptoms and signs of space motion sickness and fluid shift observed by four specially trained crewmembers during Shuttle/Spacelab 1, launched on November 28, 1983 is presented. Results show that three crewmen experienced persistent overall discomfort and vomited repeatedly. Symptom pattern was generally similar to that seen in the individuals preflight, except that prodromalnausea was brief or absent in some cases. Symptoms were clearly modulated by head movement, were exacerbated by unfamiliar visual cues, and could be reduced by physical restraint providing contact cues around the body. The results support the view that space sickness is a form of motion sickness.

  1. Experiences of Self-Monitoring: Successes and Struggles during Treatment for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Lora E.; Swigart, Valerie; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Derro, Nicole; Ewing, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 15 individuals who completed a behavioral weight loss treatment study with the aim of exploring participants’ reflections on their feelings, attitudes and behaviors while using a paper diary to self-monitor their diet. Constant comparative and matrix analysis procedures were used to analyze interview data; the qualitative results were then interfaced with descriptive numerical data on individuals’ adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss. Three categories of self-monitoring experience were identified (a) Well-Disciplined – those who had high adherence to self-monitoring, high weight loss and a “can do” positive approach, (b) Missing the Connection – those who had moderate adherence, moderate to low weight loss, and an “it’s an assignment” approach without integrating self-monitoring into every day life, and (c) Diminished Support – those who had poor adherence, poor weight control, and were adversely affected by co-existing negative factors. Given the variations in how individuals integrated the process of self-monitoring, we need to consider individualizing self-monitoring strategies to improve adherence. PMID:19365099

  2. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  3. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  4. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  5. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  6. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolos, S.; Alexandrov, E.; Feng, E.; Hauser, R.; Iakovlev, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2011-12-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ(TDAQ) community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available to remote users through the same set of software tools as being used in the main ATLAS control room. The remote monitoring facilities have been put in place in 2009 to support the ATLAS commissioning and have been improved in face of the first collisions runs based on the feedback which was received from the users. Now the remote monitoring system are in mature state and being actively used by the ATLAS collaboration for running the experiment.

  7. Smart Dynamic Monitoring and Tracking of Individual Sediment Grains: Design Framework and Experimental Evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, G.; Hoey, T.; Sventek, J.; Drysdale, T.; Markham, A.; Hodge, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary sensing equipment is miniaturized to scales that enable implementation of dynamic micro-sensors within natural sediment particles (>c.80mm diameter) containing artificial enclosures. The resulting mobile sensing units record the dynamics of sediment transport from the inertial frame of individual particles, giving an insight on how individual grains experience transporting forces. However, it remains difficult to obtain accurate real-time positional information which is critical for understanding the dynamic data. We have developed a sensing system optimized for monitoring the movement of sediment grains in rivers, which comprises a high-frequency 3-D force unit and an external magnetic telemetry system for accurate positional information. Here we present results from the experimental evaluation of two prototype mobile sensors: the first prototype is a spherically enclosed wireless accelerometer platform (± 6g range) tested through a series of incipient motion experiments under varying slope conditions (0.8 m x 5 m flume, slope range: 0.026 to 0.57, flow increase: 0.037 l.s-2, University of British Columbia). The second prototype is a complete Inertial Measurement Unit (assembly of a 3-axis micro-accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer capable of resolving 9 Degrees Of Freedom for the movement of the unit), enhanced with a 3-axis high-resolution impact sensor calibrated for low frequency/high magnitude impacts (±150g range) and equipped with a system of magnetic coil receivers permitting telemetric tracking of the unit with a 4 Hz frequency. This unit was tested through experiments of sequential displacements under varying flow increase (gradual increase: 0.04 l.s-2, episodic increase: 0.1 l.s-2, 0.9 m x 7.5 m flume, slope: 0.02, University of Glasgow). The position was recorded from a lab-scale Magneto-Inductive tracking system and the positional accuracy was tested by cross-comparison with a video recording. Along with the presented results we

  8. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  9. Monitoring the Progress of the Group in an Individualized Reading Program Based on Behavioral Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Anne; And Others

    An alternative to monitoring instruction via standardized tests is proposed for objective-based individualized instructional programs. The set of behavioral objectives upon which the procedures are based is taken from the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development. Procedures that can be computerized and applied to data from…

  10. Tailoring Messages to Individual Differences in Monitoring-Blunting Styles to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Latimer, Amy E.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Cox, Ashley; Silvera, Stephanie A. N.; Mowad, Linda; Salovey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether messages matched to individuals' monitoring-blunting coping styles (MBCS) are more effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake than mismatched messages. MBCS refers to the tendency to either attend to and amplify, or distract oneself from and minimize threatening information. Design/Setting: Randomly assigned…

  11. Aspects of harmonisation of individual monitoring for external radiation in Europe: conclusions of a EURADOS action.

    PubMed

    Kamenopoulou, V; van Dijk, J W E; Ambrosi, P; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Castellani, C M; Currivan, L; Falk, R; Fantuzzi, E; Figel, M; Alves, J Garcia; Ginjaume, M; Janzekovic, H; Kluszczynski, D; Lopez, M A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Olko, P; Roed, H; Stadtmann, H; Vanhavere, F; Vartiainen, E; Wahl, W; Weeks, A; Wernli, C

    2006-01-01

    Following the publication of the EU Council Directive 96/29, EURADOS coordinated two working groups (WGs) for promoting the process of harmonisation on individual monitoring of occupationally exposed persons in Europe. An overview of the major findings of the second WG is presented. Information on the technical and quality standards and on the accreditation and approval procedures has been compiled. The catalogue of dosimetric services has been updated and extended. An overview of national regulations and standards for protection from radon and other natural sources in workplaces has been made, attempting to combine the results from individual monitoring for external, internal and workplace monitoring. A first status description of the active personal dosemeters, including legislative and technical information, and their implementation has been made. The importance of practical factors on the uncertainty in the dose measurement has been estimated. Even if a big progress has been made towards harmonisation, there is still work to be done. PMID:16581923

  12. Monitoring the growth of individual bacteria using asynchronous magnetic bead rotation sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Paivo; Sinn, Irene; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Newton, Duane W.; Burns, Mark A.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    Continuous growth of individual bacteria has been previously studied by direct observation using optical imaging. However, optical microscopy studies are inherently diffraction limited and limited in the number of individual cells that can be continuously monitored. Here we report on the use of the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) sensor, which is not diffraction limited. The AMBR sensor allows for the measurement of nanoscale growth dynamics of individual bacterial cells, over multiple generations. This torque-based magnetic bead sensor monitors variations in drag caused by the attachment and growth of a single bacterial cell. In this manner, we observed the growth and division of individual E. coli bacteria, with 80 nanometer sensitivity to the cell length. Over the life cycle of a cell we observed up to 300 % increase in the rotational period of the biosensor due to increased cell volume. In addition, we observed single bacterial cell growth response to antibiotics. This work demonstrates a non-microscopy based approach for monitoring individual cell growth dynamics, including cell elongation, generation time, lag time, and division, as well as their sensitivity to antibiotics. PMID:21095112

  13. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciabà, Andrea; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  14. Off-line data quality monitoring for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarise, P.; Agostini, M.; Machado, A. A.; Pandola, L.; Volynets, O.

    2012-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless ββ decay of 76Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda recently started the physics data taking using eight enriched coaxial detectors. The status of the experiment has to be closely monitored in order to promptly identify possible instabilities or problems. The on-line slow control system is complemented by a regular off-line monitoring of data quality. This ensures that data are qualified to be used in the physics analysis and allows to reject data sets which do not meet the minimum quality standards. The off-line data monitoring is entirely performed within the software framework Gelatio. In addition, a relational database, complemented by a web-based interface, was developed to support the off-line monitoring and to automatically provide information to daily assess data quality. The concept and the performance of the off-line monitoring tools were tested and validated during the one-year commissioning phase.

  15. System Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, L.

    2001-01-01

    This systems report describes how the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment was developed. Pertinent design parameters are discussed, along with mission information and system requirements to successfully complete the mission. Environmental testing was performed on the OPM to certify it for spaceflight. This testing included vibration, thermal vacuum, electromagnetic interference and conductance, and toxicity tests. Instrument and monitor subsystem performances, including the reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet, total integrated scatter, atomic oxygen monitor, irradiance monitor, and molecular contamination monitor during the mission are discussed. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. The OPM conducted in situ measurements of a number of material samples. These data may be found in the OPM Science Report. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  16. A new device for monitoring individual activity rhythms of honey bees reveals critical effects of the social environment on behavior.

    PubMed

    Beer, Katharina; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Härtel, Stephan; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    Chronobiological studies of individual activity rhythms in social insects can be constrained by the artificial isolation of individuals from their social context. We present a new experimental set-up that simultaneously measures the temperature rhythm in a queen-less but brood raising mini colony and the walking activity rhythms of singly kept honey bees that have indirect social contact with it. Our approach enables monitoring of individual bees in the social context of a mini colony under controlled laboratory conditions. In a pilot experiment, we show that social contact with the mini colony improves the survival of monitored young individuals and affects locomotor activity patterns of young and old bees. When exposed to conflicting Zeitgebers consisting of a light-dark (LD) cycle that is phase-delayed with respect to the mini colony rhythm, rhythms of young and old bees are socially synchronized with the mini colony rhythm, whereas isolated bees synchronize to the LD cycle. We conclude that the social environment is a stronger Zeitgeber than the LD cycle and that our new experimental set-up is well suited for studying the mechanisms of social entrainment in honey bees. PMID:27380473

  17. The radon monitoring system in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, M. C.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Pun, C. S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H3) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H3 is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10% in a 1-h measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5% at 25 °C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m3. This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor α-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  18. The radiation monitor cosmic X-ray experiment OSO-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive technical description is presented of the Radiation Monitor which is part of the GSFC cosmic X-ray experiment to be flown on the OSO-1 satellite. The theory of operation, fabrication and assembly, and cone angle determination are reported.

  19. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  20. Monitoring the delivery of virtualized resources to the LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Giordano, D.; Field, L.; Spiga, D.; Villazon, L.

    2015-12-01

    The adoption of cloud technologies by the LHC experiments places the fabric management burden of monitoring virtualized resources upon the VO. In addition to monitoring the status of the virtual machines and triaging the results, it must be understood if the resources actually provided match with any agreements relating to the supply. Monitoring the instantiated virtual machines is therefore a fundamental activity and hence this paper describes how the Ganglia monitoring system can be used for the cloud computing resources of the LHC experiments. Expanding upon this, it is then shown how the integral of the time-series monitoring data obtained can be re-purposed to provide a consumer-side accounting record, which can then be compared with the concrete agreements that exist between the supplier of the resources and the consumer. From this alone, it is not clear though how the performance of the resources differ both within and between providers. Hence, the case is made for a benchmarking metric to normalize the data along with some results from a preliminary investigation on obtaining such a metric.

  1. The Planeterrella experiment: from individual initiative to networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, Jean; Provan, Gabrielle; Grimald, Sandrine; Brekke, Asgeir; Flückiger, Erwin; Vanlommel, Petra; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Barthélémy, Mathieu; Garnier, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Space weather is a relatively new discipline, which is still largely unknown amongst the wider public despite its increasing importance in all of our daily lives. Outreach activities can promote awareness of space weather. In particular the visual beauty and excitement of the aurora make these lights a wonderful inspirational hook to enhance understanding of space weather in a general audience. A century ago, the Norwegian experimental physicist Kristian Birkeland, one of the founding fathers of modern space science, demonstrated with his Terrella experiment the formation of the aurora. Recently, a modernized version of the Terrella has been designed. This "Planeterrella" experiment allows the visualization of many phenomena that occur in our space environment. Although the Planeterrella was originally a local project, it has developed to become a very successful international public outreach experiment. We believe that its success is due to mainly two factors (i) the Planeterrella is not patented and the plans are free to any public institute and (ii) the project is widely advertised using national and European scientific networks such as COST ES 0803, as well as press releases, books and web sites. Today, seven Planeterrellas are in operation, four more are under construction in four different countries and several more are being planned. During the last five years, about 50 000 people in Europe have attended live Planeterrella demonstration on the formation of auroral light, the space environment and space weather. Many more have seen the Planeterrella being demonstrated on TV. The Planeterrella received the first international prize for outreach activities from the Europlanet Framework 7 program in 2010 and the French Ministry of Science outreach prize "Le goût des sciences" in November 2012. This paper describes the process that led to the construction of the first Planeterrella and discusses how the Planeterrella project developed to become an international

  2. The Planeterrella experiment: from individual initiative to networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, J.; Provan, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Gronoff, G.; Vanlommel, P.; Brekke, A.; Garnier, P.; Grimald Rochel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather is a relatively new discipline, which is still largely unknown amongst the wider public despite its increasing importance in all of our daily lives. Outreach activities can promote awareness of space weather. In particular the visual beauty and excitement of the aurora make these lights a wonderful inspirational hook to enhance understanding of space weather in a general audience. A century ago, the Norwegian experimental physicist Kristian Birkeland, one of the founding fathers of modern space science, demonstrated with his Terrella experiment the formation of the aurora. Recently, a modernized version of the Terrella has been designed in France. This ';';Planeterrella'' experiment allows the visualization of many phenomena that occur in our space environment. Although the Planeterrella was originally a local project, it has developed to become a very successful international public outreach experiment. We believe that its success is due to mainly two factors (i) the Planeterrella is not patented and the plans are free to any public institute and (ii) the project is widely advertised using national and scientific networks, as well as press releases, books and web sites. Today, nine Planeterrellas are in operation, six more are under construction in five different countries including in the US and several more are being planned. During the last five years, about 55 000 people in Europe have attended live Planeterrella demonstration on the formation of auroral light, the space environment and space weather. Many more have seen the Planeterrella being demonstrated on TV. It is now used for education, outreach, scientific, and artistic purposes. We will describes this process and discuss how the Planeterrella project developed to become an international public outreach phenomenon. We also examine some of the lessons learnt along the way such as patented or not, big or small, automatized or hand-operated, and the cost of the overall project. A star (close

  3. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Thomas F.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. PMID:26529025

  4. Early experience with individual plant evaluations at Davis-Besse

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.L.; Deng, S.F.; Flaherty, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A level 1 probability risk assessment (PRA), including internal floods, is being completed for Toledo Edison's Davis-Besse plant. This effort will be finished by December 1989. A combination of in-house and contractor support has been used in this study. Contractor support focused on transfer of methodology and review of results, while in-house support focused on applications of the methodology. The PRA will form the basis for performing an individual plant examination (IPE) at Davis-Besse. The goals of the IPE must be clearly established before the program is instituted. If the IPE results are to be used for more than meeting the minimum U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, then the complexity of the program increases. For example, use of the IPE results to support changes to technical specifications or emergency operation procedures mandates a more sophisticated approach. Toledo Edison is evaluating how to extend the level 1 PRA to fulfill IPE requirements. Containment analysis is less familiar to in-house staff than is analysis of core cooling systems; contractor support will be required to understand the methods to analyze containment performance and to properly consider uncertainties. An ultimate containment failure analysis is a prerequisite for completing the IPE. Also, the containment analysis must be integrated with, not merely appended to, the core damage analysis.

  5. International project on individual monitoring and radiation exposure levels in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Padovani, R; Le Heron, J; Cruz-Suarez, R; Duran, A; Lefaure, C; Miller, D L; Sim, H K; Vano, E; Rehani, M; Czarwinski, R

    2011-03-01

    Within the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR), a new International Atomic Energy Agency initiative, a Working Group on interventional cardiology, aims to assess staff radiation protection (RP) levels and to propose an international database of occupational exposures. A survey of regulatory bodies (RBs) has provided information at the country level on RP practice in interventional cardiology (IC). Concerning requirements for wearing personal dosemeters, only 57 % of the RB specifies the number and position of dosemeters for staff monitoring. Less than 40 % of the RBs could provide occupational doses. Reported annual median effective dose values (often <0.5 mSv) were lower than expected considering validated data from facility-specific studies, indicating that compliance with continuous individual monitoring is often not achieved in IC. A true assessment of annual personnel doses in IC will never be realised unless a knowledge of monitoring compliance is incorporated into the analysis. PMID:21051431

  6. Negotiating multiple marginalizations: experiences of South Asian LGBQ individuals.

    PubMed

    Sandil, Riddhi; Robinson, Matthew; Brewster, Melanie E; Wong, Stephanie; Geiger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from minority stress (Meyer, 2003) and feminist multicultural (Brown, 1994) theories, the present study investigated the additive and interactive relations between 2 types of external minority stress (heterosexist discrimination and racist events) and 4 internal stress processes related to identifying as a South Asian American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) person (internalized heterosexism, acculturation, enculturation, and outness as LGBQ) with psychological distress. With 142 participants, Pearson's correlations, multiple regression, and simultaneous multiple moderation analyses were conducted. Experiences of heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism were correlated positively with psychological distress and enculturation was correlated negatively. In a test of the additive model, heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism accounted for significant and unique variance in psychological distress, but outness, acculturation, and enculturation did not. To test the interactive model, the simultaneous moderating roles of the internal stress processes were examined in the links between the external minority stressors to psychological distress. Only outness as LGBQ emerged as a moderator. The link between racist events and psychological distress was exacerbated in instances of higher outness, such that respondents with high racist events and high outness reported the highest levels of psychological distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed and future research directions focused on the needs of South Asian American LGBQ people are suggested. PMID:25111543

  7. The Experience of Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacy E.; McMorris, Carly; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience significant stress in their caregiving role, and research findings indicate that chronic stressors can act as a precipitant to crisis. In the present study, we examined the experience of crisis in families of individuals with ASD from early childhood…

  8. Results from radiation monitoring equipment experiment on STS-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, R. G.; Amico, R. L.; Brown, V. L.; Kidd, V. R.

    1984-07-01

    The results from the Radiation Equipment Monitoring (RME) experiment, flown onboard STS-8 are presented and discussed. The RME consists of the HRM-III gamma ray counter and PRM neutron/proton dosimeter. The gamma ray data agree wtih data from previous flights. Large increases in count rates are observed when the Orbiter is in the South Atlantic Anomaly. Neutron/proton dosage is consistent with NASA predictions for STS-8.

  9. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Individuals with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Shia T.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Burkholder, Greer A.; Falzon, Louise; Oparil, Suzanne; Overton, Edgar T.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms may contribute to the high cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. To synthesize the current literature on ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in HIV+ individuals, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods Medical databases were searched through November 11, 2015 for studies that reported ABPM results in HIV+ individuals. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled differences between HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals in clinic BP and ABPM measures were calculated using random-effects inverse variance weighted models. Results Of 597 abstracts reviewed, 8 studies with HIV+ cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The 420 HIV+ and 714 HIV- individuals in 7 studies with HIV- comparison groups were pooled for analyses. The pooled absolute nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP declines were 3.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13%, 5.20%) and 2.92% (95% CI: 1.64%, 4.19%) less, respectively, in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. The pooled odds ratio for non-dipping systolic BP (nocturnal systolic BP decline <10%) in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals was 2.72 (95% CI: 1.92, 3.85). Differences in mean clinic, 24-hour, daytime, or nighttime BP were not statistically significant. I2 and heterogeneity chi-squared statistics indicated the presence of high heterogeneity for all outcomes except percent DBP dipping and non-dipping SBP pattern. Conclusions An abnormal diurnal BP pattern may be more common among HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. However, results were heterogeneous for most BP measures, suggesting more research in this area is needed. PMID:26882469

  10. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Zwiener, J. M.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This science data report describes the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment and the data gathered during its 9-mo exposure on the Mir space station. Three independent optical instruments made up OPM: an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a total integrated scatter instrument. Selected materials were exposed to the low-Earth orbit, and their performance monitored in situ by the OPM instruments. Coinvestigators from four NASA Centers, five International Space Station contractors, one university, two Department of Defense organizations, and the Russian space company, Energia, contributed samples to this experiment. These materials included a number of thermal control coatings, optical materials, polymeric films, nanocomposites, and other state-of-the-art materials. Degradation of some materials, including aluminum conversion coatings and Beta cloth, was greater than expected. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  11. Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1993-02-01

    The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

  12. Individualized Mutation Detection in Circulating Tumor DNA for Monitoring Colorectal Tumor Burden Using a Cancer-Associated Gene Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kei A.; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Iwaya, Takeshi; Kume, Kohei; Matsuo, Teppei; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Abiko, Yukito; Akasaka, Risaburo; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Otsuka, Koki; Nishizuka, Satoshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) carries information on tumor burden. However, the mutation spectrum is different among tumors. This study was designed to examine the utility of ctDNA for monitoring tumor burden based on an individual mutation profile. Methodology DNA was extracted from a total of 176 samples, including pre- and post-operational plasma, primary tumors, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), from 44 individuals with colorectal tumor who underwent curative resection of colorectal tumors, as well as nine healthy individuals. Using a panel of 50 cancer-associated genes, tumor-unique mutations were identified by comparing the single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from tumors and PBMCs with an Ion PGM sequencer. A group of the tumor-unique mutations from individual tumors were designated as individual marker mutations (MMs) to trace tumor burden by ctDNA using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). From these experiments, three major objectives were assessed: (a) Tumor-unique mutations; (b) mutation spectrum of a tumor; and (c) changes in allele frequency of the MMs in ctDNA after curative resection of the tumor. Results A total of 128 gene point mutations were identified in 27 colorectal tumors. Twenty-six genes were mutated in at least 1 sample, while 14 genes were found to be mutated in only 1 sample, respectively. An average of 2.7 genes were mutated per tumor. Subsequently, 24 MMs were selected from SNVs for tumor burden monitoring. Among the MMs found by ddPCR with > 0.1% variant allele frequency in plasma DNA, 100% (8 out of 8) exhibited a decrease in post-operation ctDNA, whereas none of the 16 MMs found by ddPCR with < 0.1% variant allele frequency in plasma DNA showed a decrease. Conclusions This panel of 50 cancer-associated genes appeared to be sufficient to identify individual, tumor-unique, mutated ctDNA markers in cancer patients. The MMs showed the clinical utility in monitoring curatively-treated colorectal tumor burden if the allele

  13. Antipsychotic Use and Metabolic Monitoring in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Served in a Medicaid Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lisa M; Damron, Mackenzie; Jones, Kyle B; Weedon, Dean; Carbone, Paul S; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    This study describes antipsychotic use and metabolic monitoring rates among individuals with developmental disabilities enrolled in a subspecialty medical home (N = 826). Four hundred ninety-nine participants (60.4 %) were taking antipsychotics, which was associated with male gender (p = 0.01), intellectual disability with and without autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively), and inversely associated with the youngest and oldest age categories (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Among those taking antipsychotics, annual metabolic monitoring rates ranged from 89 % (lipids) to 99 % (weight). Age was positively associated with glucose (p < 0.001) and lipid monitoring (p < 0.001). Adult participants with dyslipidemia (p < 0.01), prediabetes/diabetes (p = 0.04), and hypertension (p = 0.02) were significantly more likely to obtain lipid monitoring. These values exceeded previously reported rates suggesting the importance of an integrated care model. PMID:26818535

  14. Monitoring of radioactivity in imported foodstuffs - experience gained and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Fattah, A.F.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdul-Majid, S.

    1987-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has had a unique experience in radiation monitoring of imported foodstuffs for possible contamination due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. A considerable amount of various food items is imported by Saudi Arabia and much of it comes from European countries. The quantity of imported food items is greatly increased around the time of the Moslem pilgrimage to Holy Mecca. Furthermore, many additional thousands of live animals (mainly sheep and cows) are imported for sacrificing on a certain day for religious reasons. The radiation monitoring of food items at inlets to the county was not done before and a lot of preparatory work and planning had to be done to initiate the monitoring process. The experience gained in this respect might be of value to other developing countries in a similar position. King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) was directed by the government in about mid-June 1986 to carry out radiological inspection of food items reaching the Jeddah, Yanbu, and Jizan seaports as well as food arrivals at King Abdulaziz International Airport at Jeddah. The KAU team has met with some difficulties in carrying out its inspection responsibilities. These difficulties are of a general nature and might occur, in a similar inspection process, in other developing countries. The problems can be classified essentially into the two categories discussed: (1) problems of an administrative and management nature, and (2) problems of a technical nature.

  15. Novel Diagnostic and Monitoring Tools in Stroke: an Individualized Patient-Centered Precision Medicine Approach.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Sulette; Swanepoel, Albe; Bester, Janette; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-05-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke are the normally protective processes of platelet adhesion and activation. Experimental evidence has shown that the ligand-receptor interactions in ischaemic stroke represent a thrombo-inflammatory cascade, which presents research opportunities into new treatment. However, as anti-platelet drugs have the potential to cause severe side effects in ischaemic stroke patients (as well as other vascular disease patients), it is important to carefully monitor the risk of bleeding and risk of thrombus in patients receiving treatment. Because thrombo-embolic ischaemic stroke is a major health issue, we suggest that the answer to adequate treatment is based on an individualized patient-centered approach, inline with the latest NIH precision medicine approach. A combination of viscoelastic methodologies may be used in a personalized patient-centered regime, including thromboelastography (TEG®) and the lesser used scanning electron microscopy approach (SEM). Thromboelastography provides a dynamic measure of clot formation, strength, and lysis, whereas SEM is a visual structural tool to study patient fibrin structure in great detail. Therefore, we consider the evidence for TEG® and SEM as unique means to confirm stroke diagnosis, screen at-risk patients, and monitor treatment efficacy. Here we argue that the current approach to stroke treatment needs to be restructured and new innovative thought patterns need to be applied, as even approved therapies require close patient monitoring to determine efficacy, match treatment regimens to each patient's individual needs, and assess the risk of dangerous adverse effects. TEG® and SEM have the potential to be a useful tool and could potentially alter the clinical approach to managing ischaemic stroke. As envisaged in the NIH precision medicine approach, this will involve a number of role players and innovative new research ideas, with benefits that will ultimately only be realized in a

  16. ERS-1 and Almaz ocean wave monitoring experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Tilley, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from two ocean wave monitoring experiments conducted in 1991 using the high-altitude ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the low-altitude ex-USSR Almaz 1 SAR are presented. ERS-1 imagery of the Gulf Stream supports the idea that a future wide-swath scansar will be a valuable tool for monitoring large-scale ocean dynamics at high resolution. A direct comparison of ERS-1 and Almaz 1 ocean wave spectra shows major deficiencies in the ERS-1 high range-to-velocity ratio R/V sensor that are partially resolved with the lower-altitude Almaz platform. Optimum wave imaging from space will require both a low R/V and low off-nadir angle.

  17. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T. F.; Kehl, S. R.; Martinelli, R. E.; Hickman, R. E.; Hickman, D. P.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Langston, R. G.; Tamblin, M. W.; Tibon, S.; Chee, L.; Aisek, Jr., A.; DeDrum, Z.; Mettao, M.; Henson, J.

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  18. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  19. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring of Voids: Results of Dynamic Modeling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2006-05-01

    Remote, non-invasive detection of voids is a challenging problem for environmental and engineering investigations in karst terrain. Many geophysical methods including gravity, electrical, electromagnetic, magnetic, and seismic have potential to detect voids in the subsurface; lithologic heterogeneity and method- specific sources of noise, however, can mask the geophysical signatures of voids. New developments in automated, autonomous geophysical monitoring technology now allow for void detection using differential geophysics. We propose automated collection of electrical resistivity measurements over time. This dynamic approach exploits changes in subsurface electrical properties related to void growth or water-table fluctuation in order to detect voids that would be difficult or impossible to detect using static imaging approaches. We use a series of synthetic modeling experiments to demonstrate the potential of difference electrical resistivity tomography for finding (1) voids that develop vertically upward under a survey line (e.g., an incipient sinkhole); (2) voids that develop horizontally toward a survey line (e.g., a tunnel); and (3) voids that are influenced by changing hydrologic conditions (e.g., void saturation and draining). Synthetic datasets are simulated with a 3D finite-element model, but the inversion assumes a 2D forward model to mimic conventional practice. The results of the synthetic modeling experiments provide insights useful for planning and implementing field-scale monitoring experiments using electrical methods.

  20. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Zwiener, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Long term stability of spacecraft materials when exposed to the space environment continues to be a major area of investigation. The natural and induced environment surrounding a spacecraft can decrease material performance and limit useful lifetimes. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment provided the capability to perform the important flight testing of materials and was flown on the Russian Mir Station to study the long term effects of the natural and induced space environment on materials. The core of the OPM in-flight analysis was three independent optical instruments. These instruments included an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a Total Integrated Scatter instrument. The OPM also monitored selected components of the environment including molecular contamination. The OPM was exposed on the exterior of the Mir Docking Module for approximately 8-1/2 months. This report describes the OPM experiment, a brief background of its development, program organization, experiment description, mission overview including space environment definition, performance overview, materials data including flight and ground data, in-depth post flight analysis including ground analysis measurements and a summary discussion of the findings and results.

  1. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  2. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  3. Focus of attention in systems for visual monitoring of experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. E.; Martin, W. N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing a computerized experiment monitoring system for use in a space station or elsewhere is examined. It is shown that the essential challenge of such a system - attaining a reasonable expected running time - can be attacked using the concept of focus of attention and by exploiting parallelism. The use of the Contract Net Protocol for the latter purpose is discussed. The use of ideas from information science to help focus a programs's efforts on those computations likely to bring results is addressed, and the incorporation of those ideas into a design in order to aid the system in deciding upon the best course of action is considered.

  4. The new EC technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Ambrosi, P; Bartlett, D T; Currivan, L; van Dijk, J W E; Fantuzzi, E; Kamenopoulou, V

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the European Commission technical recommendations (TR) for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation is to provide guidance on those aspects of the implementation of the European Union Parliament and Council Directives directly related to individual monitoring of external radiation, and to encourage harmonisation thereof. They are mainly aimed at the management and staff of IM services but also at manufacturers, laboratories supplying type-testing services, national authorities trying to harmonise approval procedures, and government bodies to harmonise regulations and guidance. The TR main topics are: objectives and aims of IM for external radiation; dosimetry concepts; accuracy requirements; calibration, type testing and performance testing; approval procedures; quality assurance and quality control; and dose record keeping. Attention is paid to particular aspects, such as wide energy ranges for the use of personal dosemeters, pulsed fields and non-charged particle equilibrium; and use of active personal dosemeters. The TR give proposals towards achieving harmonisation in IM and the eventual mutual recognition of services and of dose results. PMID:20959338

  5. Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.

    PubMed

    Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

    2006-07-01

    Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

  6. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  7. The Work Experiences of Transgender Individuals: Negotiating the Transition and Career Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Stephanie L.; Tebbe, Esther N.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the work experiences of individuals who have started transitioning from their biological sex to a different gender expression through 18 interviews of transgender-identified individuals. Thirteen of the participants identified as male-to-female transsexuals, 2 participants identified as female-to-male transsexuals, 2…

  8. Asset Building in Rural Communities: The Experience of Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Curley, Jami; Charles, Pajarita

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of low-income rural participants in an asset building program--the Individual Development Account. Using data from the American Dream Demonstration, this study addresses three main questions: (1) What are the individual characteristics associated with saving outcomes among rural IDA participants? (2) What…

  9. Excretion of dengue virus RNA by Aedes aegypti allows non-destructive monitoring of viral dissemination in individual mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Albin; Jiolle, Davy; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Successful transmission of a vector-borne pathogen relies on a complex life cycle in the arthropod vector that requires initial infection of the digestive tract followed by systemic viral dissemination. The time interval between acquisition and subsequent transmission of the pathogen, called the extrinsic incubation period, is one of the most influential parameters of vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the dynamic nature of this process is often ignored because vector competence assays are sacrificial and rely on end-point measurements. Here, we report that individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes release large amounts of dengue virus (DENV) RNA in their excreta that can be non-sacrificially detected over time following oral virus exposure. Further, we demonstrate that detection of DENV RNA in excreta from individual mosquitoes is correlated to systemic viral dissemination with high specificity (0.9–1) albeit moderate sensitivity (0.64–0.89). Finally, we illustrate the potential of our finding to detect biological differences in the dynamics of DENV dissemination in a proof-of-concept experiment. Individual measurements of the time required for systemic viral dissemination, a prerequisite for transmission, will be valuable to monitor the dynamics of DENV vector competence, to carry out quantitative genetics studies, and to evaluate the risk of DENV transmission in field settings. PMID:27117953

  10. Excretion of dengue virus RNA by Aedes aegypti allows non-destructive monitoring of viral dissemination in individual mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Jiolle, Davy; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Successful transmission of a vector-borne pathogen relies on a complex life cycle in the arthropod vector that requires initial infection of the digestive tract followed by systemic viral dissemination. The time interval between acquisition and subsequent transmission of the pathogen, called the extrinsic incubation period, is one of the most influential parameters of vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the dynamic nature of this process is often ignored because vector competence assays are sacrificial and rely on end-point measurements. Here, we report that individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes release large amounts of dengue virus (DENV) RNA in their excreta that can be non-sacrificially detected over time following oral virus exposure. Further, we demonstrate that detection of DENV RNA in excreta from individual mosquitoes is correlated to systemic viral dissemination with high specificity (0.9-1) albeit moderate sensitivity (0.64-0.89). Finally, we illustrate the potential of our finding to detect biological differences in the dynamics of DENV dissemination in a proof-of-concept experiment. Individual measurements of the time required for systemic viral dissemination, a prerequisite for transmission, will be valuable to monitor the dynamics of DENV vector competence, to carry out quantitative genetics studies, and to evaluate the risk of DENV transmission in field settings. PMID:27117953

  11. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  12. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W.; de Craen, Anton J.; Ballieux, Bart E.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background The validity of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is well established in diabetic patients. CGM is also increasingly used for research purposes in normo-glycemic individuals, but the CGM validity in such individuals is unknown. We studied the accuracy of CGM measurements in normo-glycemic individuals by comparing CGM-derived versus venous blood-derived glucose levels and measures of glycemia and glycemic variability. Methods In 34 healthy participants (mean age 65.7 years), glucose was simultaneously measured every 10 minutes, via both an Enlite® CGM sensor, and in venous blood sampled over a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. Results The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40–0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure of glycemia during daytime was 0.22 mmol/L higher when derived from CGM, but no difference was observed during nighttime. Most measures of glycemic variability were lower with CGM than with venous blood sampling (e.g., 24h SD: 1.07 with CGM and 1.26 with venous blood; p-value = 0.004). Conclusion In normo-glycemic individuals, CGM-derived glucose measurements had good agreement with venous glucose levels. However, the measure of glycemia was higher during the day and most measures of glycemic variability were lower when derived from CGM. PMID:26445499

  13. Internal monitoring of GBTx emulator using IPbus for CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Swagata; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Sau, Suman; Chkrabarti, Amlan; Saini, Jogender; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Pal, Sushanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt at GSI. In CBM experiment a precisely time synchronized fault tolerant self-triggered electronics is required for Data Acquisition (DAQ) system in CBM experiments which can support high data rate (up to several TB/s). As a part of the implementation of the DAQ system of Muon Chamber (MUCH) which is one of the important detectors in CBM experiment, a FPGA based Gigabit Transceiver (GBTx) emulator is implemented. Readout chain for MUCH consists of XYTER chips (Front end electronics) which will be directly connected to detector, GBTx emulator, Data Processing Board (DPB) and First level event selector board (FLIB) with backend software interface. GBTx emulator will be connected with the XYTER emulator through LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signalling) line in the front end and in the back end it is connected with DPB through 4.8 Gbps optical link. IPBus over Ethernet is used for internal monitoring of the registers within the GBTx. In IPbus implementation User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack is used in transport layer of OSI model so that GBTx can be controlled remotely. A Python script is used at computer side to drive IPbus controller.

  14. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  15. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  16. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  17. Individuation Experience Predicts Other-Race Effects in Holistic Processing for Both Caucasian and Black Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Cottle, Jasmine; Ubiwa, JoAnna; Miller, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Same-race (SR) faces are recognized better than other-race (OR) faces, and this other-race effect (ORE) is correlated with experience. SR faces are also processed more holistically than OR faces, suggesting one possible mechanism for poorer performance on OR faces. Studies of object expertise have shown that individuating experiences are necessary…

  18. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  19. Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, Sławomir; Krajewski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time

  20. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  1. Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere /LIMS/ experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozewski, R. W.; Hatch, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) radiometer is a satellite-borne six-channel multispectral scanning radiometer using a two-stage methane and ammonia solid-cryogen cooler to cool the (Hg, Cd)Te focal plane to 65 K. The LIMS experiment employs thermal IR limb sounding to provide vertical-profile measurement of temperature and of concentrations of O3, NO3, and H2O in the stratosphere on a global scale. The goals of the experiment and the expected accuracies of the measurements are outlined, and the radiance measured by the radiometer is analyzed. A program of correlative measurements designed for verification and augmentation of the LIMS data is discussed. Detailed descriptions are given of the LIMS components and optics, the detector capsule assembly, the solid-cryogen cooler, the four operational modes of the LIMS system, and the data-processor electronics. It is noted that prelaunch acceptance testing thus far completed indicates that the LIMS specification design requirements have been met, and the experiment's performance goals can be achieved.

  2. Monitoring evolution of stress in individual grains and twins in a magnesium alloy aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Bjorn; Aydiner, Cahit C; Tome, Carlos N; Brown, Donald W; Bernier, Joel V; Lienert, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Crystallographic twinning is a strain accommodation mechanism extensively observed in low-symmetry crystals. In hexagonal metals (HCP), twinning transformation results in abrupt crystallographic reorientation of grain domains, and strongly affects the mechanical response, texture evolution, plastic formability and internal stress evolution. Recent fundamental advances in constitutive descriptions ofHCP's indicate the need for a basic characterization oftwinning mechanisms. Here we use the emerging technique of 3DXRD [9-12], for the first time, to in-situ monitor the twin nucleation and growth in individual grains inside the bulk of a magnesium alloy aggregate. At the same time, we accomplish the first direct measurement of the evolving triaxial stress states in both the parent grain and its twin. We show that the stress state of the twin is radically different from that of the parent and interpret the three-dimensional response in the light of the constraints placed on the parent and the twin by the surrounding polycrystalline medium.

  3. Electronic monitoring device event modelling on an individual-subject basis using adaptive Poisson regression.

    PubMed

    Knafl, George J; Fennie, Kristopher P; Bova, Carol; Dieckhaus, Kevin; Williams, Ann B

    2004-03-15

    An adaptive approach to Poisson regression modelling is presented for analysing event data from electronic devices monitoring medication-taking. The emphasis is on applying this approach to data for individual subjects although it also applies to data for multiple subjects. This approach provides for visualization of adherence patterns as well as for objective comparison of actual device use with prescribed medication-taking. Example analyses are presented using data on openings of electronic pill bottle caps monitoring adherence of subjects with HIV undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapies. The modelling approach consists of partitioning the observation period, computing grouped event counts/rates for intervals in this partition, and modelling these event counts/rates in terms of elapsed time after entry into the study using Poisson regression. These models are based on adaptively selected sets of power transforms of elapsed time determined by rule-based heuristic search through arbitrary sets of parametric models, thereby effectively generating a smooth non-parametric regression fit to the data. Models are compared using k-fold likelihood cross-validation. PMID:14981675

  4. Integrated Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Vulnerable Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heatley, D. J. T.; Kalawsky, R. S.; Neild, I.; Bowman, P. A.

    The inescapable fact that people are living longer today than ever before means that the number of elderly people needing care or medical treatment has never been higher. In response to this there is a growing trend to place the elderly and infirm in residential homes or in sheltered accommodation, where they live in a protective environment while retaining some independence. Current healthcare systems in residential, sheltered, and community settings generally operate on a reactive basis rather than a pre-emptive basis [1]. This means that the people being cared for (the 'clients') are often already clinically ill and in need of medical attention, sometimes urgently, by the time the healthcare system engages, whereupon the treatment and recovery regime can be protracted and costly [2]. Unfortunately, a significant majority of our ageing population do not have the benefit of this level of healthcare [3], despite the evidence that our ageing population are regarded to be at an increased risk of falls [4], malnutrition [5], and failure to take prescribed medication [6]. It is this self-neglect that is of great concern. A far better scheme for all parties is one that continuously monitors clients who, although in fine health at that time, are considered to be at risk and likely to need attention at a time in the future, particularly if they are elderly and live alone. By continually monitoring certain behavioural characteristics of an individual, it is feasible to ascertain their well-being or detect when things deviate from the norm.

  5. Performance of a Portable Sleep Monitoring Device in Individuals with High Versus Low Sleep Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Bessman, Sara C.; Reini, Seth A.; Drummond, Sean P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Portable and automated sleep monitoring technology is becoming widely available to consumers, and one wireless system (WS) has recently surfaced as a research tool for sleep and sleep staging assessment outside the hospital/laboratory; however, previous research findings indicate low sensitivity for wakefulness detection. Because difficulty discriminating between wake and sleep is likely to affect staging performance, we sought to further evaluate the WS by comparing it to the gold-standard polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy (ACT) for overall sleep/wakefulness detection and sleep staging, within high and low sleep efficiency sleepers. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy adults (eight females) underwent concurrent WS, PSG, and ACT assessment in an overnight laboratory study. Epoch-by-epoch agreement was determined by comparing sleep/wakefulness decisions between the WS to both PSG and ACT, and for detection of light, deep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages between the WS and PSG. Results: Sensitivity for wakefulness was low (40%), and an overestimation of total sleep time and underestimation of wake after sleep onset was observed. Prevalence and bias adjusted kappa statistic indicated moderate-to-high agreement between the WS and PSG for sleep staging. However, upon further inspection, WS performance varied by sleep efficiency, with the best performance during high sleep efficiency. Conclusions: The benefit of the WS as a sleep monitoring device over ACT is the ability to assess sleep stages, and our findings suggest this benefit is only realized within high sleep efficiency. Care should be taken to collect data under conditions where this is expected. Citation: Markwald RR, Bessman SC, Reini SA, Drummond SP. Performance of a portable sleep monitoring device in individuals with high versus low sleep efficiency. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):95–103. PMID:26285110

  6. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing; Jensen, Anne; Marcussen, Laurits Faarup; Nielsen, Majken Elley; Roslev, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic pollutants are often biologically active at low concentrations and impact on biota in combination with other abiotic stressors. Traditional toxicity tests may not detect these effects, and there is a need for sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting sublethal effects. We have evaluated an automated infra-red (IR) light-based monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant effects on an individual level. Activity was recorded for 48 h and the sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to the reference chemicals K2 Cr2 O7 at 15, 20 and 25 °C and 2,4-dichlorophenol at 20 °C. Significant effects (P < 0.001) of toxicant concentrations, exposure time and incubation temperatures were observed. At 15 °C, the swimming activity remained unchanged for 48 h at sublethal concentrations of K2 Cr2 O7 whereas activity at 20 and 25 °C was more biphasic with decreases in activity occurring after 12-18 h. A similar biphasic pattern was observed after 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure at 20 °C. EC50 values for 2,4-dichlorophenol and K2 Cr2 O7 determined from automated recording of swimming activity showed increasing toxicity with time corresponding to decreases in EC50 of 0.03-0.07 mg l(-1) h(-1) . EC50 values determined after 48 h were comparable or lower than EC50 values based on visual inspection according to ISO 6341. The results demonstrated that the swimming activity monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent. The method allows EC values to be established at different time points and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26198804

  7. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  8. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, David; Dimitrov, Gancho; Vukotic, Ilija; Aidel, Osman; Schaffer, Rd; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-12-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  9. Spinal-Cord-Injured Individual's Experiences of Having a Partner: A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study.

    PubMed

    Angel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Having a partner is a strong factor in adaptation to the new life situation with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Still, more knowledge in detail about the partner's influences according to the experiences of individuals with SCI could contribute to the understanding of the situation after an injury. The aim of this phenomenological-hermeneutic article is to achieve a deeper understanding of nine individuals' experiences the first 2 years after SCI. In rehabilitation after SCI, the partner supported the SCI individual's life spirit by not giving up and by still seeing possibilities in the future. The partner reinforced the SCI individual's commitment to life by sharing experiences; providing love, trust, and hope; and giving priority to the best things in life for the SCI individual. This implied cohabitation providing concrete help and an intimacy that helped to cope with problems and anxieties and allowed SCI individuals the ability to self-realize. This promoted feelings of profound gratitude but also dependency. Thus, the SCI individual benefitted from the partner's support mentally and physically, which enabled a life that would not otherwise be possible. PMID:25944001

  10. HappyFace as a generic monitoring tool for HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the information and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are always under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the different HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repository, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, the so-called grid-enabled HappyFace. It allows its basic framework to connect directly to the grid user applications and the grid collective services, without involving the monitoring resources in the HEP grid systems. This approach gives HappyFace several advantages: Portability, to provide an independent and generic monitoring system among the HEP grid systems. Eunctionality, to allow users to perform various diagnostic tools in the individual HEP grid systems and grid sites. Elexibility, to make HappyFace beneficial and open for the various distributed grid computing environments. Different grid-enabled modules, to connect to the Ganga job monitoring system and to check the performance of grid transfers among the grid sites, have been implemented. The new HappyFace system has been successfully integrated and now it displays the information and the status of both the monitoring resources and the direct access to the grid user applications and the grid collective

  11. Towards the Disease Biomarker in an Individual Patient Using Statistical Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jasper; Blanchet, Lionel; Engelke, Udo F. H.; Wevers, Ron A.; Buydens, Lutgarde M. C.

    2014-01-01

    In metabolomics, identification of complex diseases is often based on application of (multivariate) statistical techniques to the data. Commonly, each disease requires its own specific diagnostic model, separating healthy and diseased individuals, which is not very practical in a diagnostic setting. Additionally, for orphan diseases such models cannot be constructed due to a lack of available data. An alternative approach adapted from industrial process control is proposed in this study: statistical health monitoring (SHM). In SHM the metabolic profile of an individual is compared to that of healthy people in a multivariate manner. Abnormal metabolite concentrations, or abnormal patterns of concentrations, are indicated by the method. Subsequently, this biomarker can be used for diagnosis. A tremendous advantage here is that only data of healthy people is required to construct the model. The method is applicable in current–population based –clinical practice as well as in personalized health applications. In this study, SHM was successfully applied for diagnosis of several orphan diseases as well as detection of metabotypic abnormalities related to diet and drug intake. PMID:24691487

  12. Airborne Monitoring of Pollution from Individual Ships in the Framework of the IGPS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecken, Jörg; Mellqvist, Johan; Salo, Kent; Ekholm, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The environmental impact of maritime transport has been recognized by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) which sets limits on fuel quality and emission characteristics of ships. The IGPS project (Identification of Gross-Polluting Ships) is a Swedish project aimed at developing a surveillance system for measuring emissions of SO2, NOx and particulate matter from individual vessels at sea as well as at harbors. Equipped on aircrafts, this system can be used for efficient compliance monitoring of ships at open sea. Additionally plumes can be sampled several times to increase the measurement quality. This operation environment also sets special demands on the instrumentation such as fast response times for example. The presented results cover the measurements of four airborne campaigns which were conducted during 2011 and 2012, covering the western Baltic Sea between Denmark, Sweden and Germany as well as the German Bight and the English Channel regions of the North Sea. As platforms, two different airplanes and a helicopter were used respectively. Emission data of more than 150 different vessels was obtained. From the measured emissions the sulfur content in the fuel and the emitted NOx per main engine speed as reference characteristics were determined for the individual ships. Additionally, measurements on the particle size distributions of ship plumes were studied. Furthermore the conducted measurements also showed that the system is flight functional and works fine independent from the type of aircraft.

  13. The Experience of Social Participation in Everyday Contexts among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Experience Sampling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16-45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days.…

  14. Experience with Malleable Objects Influences Shape-based Object Individuation by Infants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Schuler, Jena

    2014-01-01

    Infants’ ability to accurately represent and later recognize previously viewed objects, and conversely, to discriminate novel objects from those previously seen improves remarkably over the first two years of life. During this time, infants acquire extensive experience viewing and manipulating objects and these experiences influence their physical reasoning. Here we posited that infants’ observations of object feature stability (rigid versus malleable) can influence use of those features to individuate two successively viewed objects. We showed 8.5-month-olds a series of objects that could or could not change shape then assessed their use of shape as a basis for object individuation. Infants who explored rigid objects later used shape differences to individuate objects; however, infants who explored malleable objects did not. This outcome suggests that the latter infants did not take into account shape differences during the physical reasoning task and provides further evidence that infants’ attention to object features can be readily modified based on recent experiences. PMID:24561541

  15. A Novel Temperature Monitoring Sensor for Gas-Based Detectors in Large HEP Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Ferrini, M.; Felli, F.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Polimadei, A.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Vendittozzi, C.

    Gaseous detectors are commonly used in HEP (High Energy Physics) experiments to reconstruct the track of elementary particles. They are often made by a very large number of chambers with relatively small individual volume, arranged in thick layers placed approximately all around the vertex of the experiment in order to detect elementary particles produced in any direction. The large volume of gas inside the detector must be monitored for many parameters as they can affect both the efficiency and the working life of the detector. The temperature of the gas inside the individual chambers is a critical parameter to be monitored, as it can both affect the efficiency of the detector and point out on-board electronic circuitry overheating. In this paper we propose a novel gas temperature sensing system based on optical fibre technology. The adopted technology is well suited to make distributed sensing systems with large number of sensors, it is immune to electromagnetic disturbances and it has adequate radiation hardness. A prototype of the basic sensor of the proposed system was tested at the experimental facility for Resistive Plate Chamber characterization available at the INFN laboratories in Frascati. Results are presented and discussed.

  16. Game: GRB and All-Sky Monitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ˜1 keV up to ˜20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of ~1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g., by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB / transient triggers.

  17. GAME: GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João; Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2014-05-01

    We describe the GRB and all-sky monitor experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors ( 1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors ( 15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration ( 20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of 250 kg and a required power of 240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy band extending from 1 keV up to 20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as 250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of 1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g. by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB/transient triggers.

  18. Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

  19. Dried blood spots for monitoring and individualization of antiepileptic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Milosheska, Daniela; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaž

    2015-07-30

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a multi-disciplinary clinical specialty used for optimization and individualization of drug therapy in the general and special populations. Since most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are characterized by pronounced intra- and inter-individual variability, it can be especially valuable as an aid for dosing adjustments in patients with epilepsy. Dried blood spots (DBS) sampling technique is recognized as a suitable alternative for conventional sampling methods as TDM interventions should be applied in the most cost-effective, rational and clinically useful manner. In the present review we summarize the latest trends and applications of DBS in TDM of epilepsy. Quantification of AEDs in DBS was employed in various clinical settings and has been already reported for phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, clonazepam, clobazam, carbamazepine, topiramate, rufinamide, lamotrigine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine and levetiracetam. The major limitation of the published studies are restricted evaluation of critical parameters such as the impact of spotted blood volume, spot homogeneity and haematocrit effect, limited clinical validation and non-established correlations between the DBS and plasma concentrations of AEDs. Standardization of critical technical aspects for appropriate sampling, sample preparation and validation of the analytical procedures for quantification of the drugs, as well as appropriate interpretation of the results are the fields which should get more attention in upcoming studies. Limited data on clinical validation and the fact that this technique has been used in practice only for a few AEDs makes the routine implementation of TDM of AEDs using DBS method a big challenge that should be faced by the pharmaceutical scientists in the future. PMID:25896371

  20. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  1. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  2. Vulnerability and Experiences Related to Social Victimization among Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Moskowitz, Andrew L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to adults without disabilities, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are more likely to experience social victimization. This study examined responses of caregivers of 146 adults with IDD on questionnaires concerning demographics and behavioral characteristics as well as a newly developed Social Vulnerability…

  3. Understanding the Friendship Processes of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kammie Bohlken

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study shed light on the reflective college experiences of 11 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism from a competence rather than a deficit model of disability (Biklen, 2005). Using Goleman's model of Social Intelligence (2006) as a theoretical framework, the cognitive, behavioral, and affective…

  4. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  5. Developing School Laboratories To Promote the Establishment of Individual Experience Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley Springs School District 2, AR.

    A project was conducted to promote and develop individual Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs in Arkansas through the development of laboratories. It was felt that strong SAE programs enhance the instructional portion of agriculture education, serve as a motivational tool, and improve the relations between the local school and…

  6. The Production and Destruction of Individual Competence: The Role of Vocational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Fatima; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact on individual skill levels of the variables traditionally represented by human capital. The discussion is centred around the way in which education and vocational experience contribute to the process of producing useful skills in the job market or, conversely, of making them obsolete.…

  7. Individual Differences and the Conundrums of User-Centered Design: Two Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce

    2000-01-01

    Discusses individual differences between users of information systems that can influence search performance, and describes two experiments that addressed user-centered design of information systems. Highlights include interaction between cognitive abilities and design features; compensation and capitalization perspectives; recall and precision;…

  8. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  9. Monitoring hyporheic exchanges during a dam controlled experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzé, Clémence; Varnède, Lucie; Durand, Véronique; Pessel, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Precise understanding of the hyporheic exchanges response to stream flow fluctuations remains a great challenge for many environmental and hydrological problems. Multiplication of natural stream restoration programs and anthropic structures removal highlight that a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and ecological functioning of hyporheic exchanges is critical . The objective of this field experiment was to monitor the dynamic exchanges within the hyporheic zone due to an artificial stream head variation. Various types of measurements were performed, using natural tracers and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The dam downstream the studied river reach was successively lowered during two days, and raised during three days, implying river heads variations of about 15cm. The studied area was equipped with CTD probes (measuring the head and the conductivity) within the river, 2 multi-depths water sampling tubes inserted up to one meter depth within the riverbed deposits and 3 ERT profiles with various electrode spacing (20 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm). During the 5 days experiment, water sampling and ERT profiles were done regularly. Estimations of the sediments hydraulic conductivity were obtained by several slug tests in plastic tubes at different depths within the streambed. First results showed that stream fluctuation leads to a rapid hyporheic response according to chloride variations between stream and riverbed sediments. Similar results between geochemical and geophysical tools were found. A decrease in stream head leads to reduce the depth of the mixing zone, as the river gaining conditions intensify. On the contrary, we observed that an increased river head tends to deepen the hyporheic exchange zone.

  10. Individual recognition in crayfish (Cherax dispar): the roles of strength and experience in deciding aggressive encounters.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Wilson, Robbie S

    2007-10-22

    The outcomes of agonistic interactions modulate access to resources and thereby affect fitness. Success in agonistic encounters may depend on intrinsic physical and physiological performance, and on social experience. Here we test the hypothesis that previous experience will override physical strength in determining the outcome of fights in the freshwater crayfish Cherax dispar. Between unfamiliar opponents, greater chelae closing force significantly increases the chances of winning. However, even when the chelae of the original winners were disabled, the winners kept on winning against the same opponents after 30min and 24h. This winner effect disappeared when previous winners encountered unfamiliar individuals. Similarly, a previous loss did not affect the outcomes of subsequent encounters with unknown crayfish. We suggest that this prolonged recognition of individuals and their relative fighting ability is a mechanism that can reduce the number of agonistic encounters experienced by individuals. PMID:17623630

  11. ECOLOGICALLY VALID LONG-TERM MOOD MONITORING OF INDIVIDUALS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER USING SPEECH

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Zahi N.; Provost, Emily Mower; Singh, Satinder; Montgomery, Jennifer; Archer, Christopher; Harrington, Gloria; Mcinnis, Melvin G.

    2016-01-01

    Speech patterns are modulated by the emotional and neurophysiological state of the speaker. There exists a growing body of work that computationally examines this modulation in patients suffering from depression, autism, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the majority of the work in this area focuses on the analysis of structured speech collected in controlled environments. Here we expand on the existing literature by examining bipolar disorder (BP). BP is characterized by mood transitions, varying from a healthy euthymic state to states characterized by mania or depression. The speech patterns associated with these mood states provide a unique opportunity to study the modulations characteristic of mood variation. We describe methodology to collect unstructured speech continuously and unobtrusively via the recording of day-to-day cellular phone conversations. Our pilot investigation suggests that manic and depressive mood states can be recognized from this speech data, providing new insight into the feasibility of unobtrusive, unstructured, and continuous speech-based wellness monitoring for individuals with BP.

  12. Monitoring exocytosis and release from individual mast cells by capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, E.S. |; Lillard, S.J.; McCloskey, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The complex temporal evolution of on-column exocytotic release of serotonin from individual peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored by using capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection with 275-nm excitation was used, and a detection limit of 1.7 amol (S/N = 3; rms) was obtained for serotonin. A physiological running buffer was used to ensure that the cell remained viable throughout. The secretagogue was polymyxin B sulfate (Pmx). Following the injection of a single mast cell into the capillary, electromigration of Pmx toward and past the cell induced degranulation and release of serotonin. The time course of release was registered in the electropherograms with subsecond resolution. Subsequent introduction of SDS caused the cell to lyse completely and allowed the residual serotonin to be quantified. The average amount of serotonin observed per RPMC was 1.6 {+-} 0.6 fmol; the average percentage of serotonin released was 28 {+-} 14%. Events that are consistent with released serontonin from single submicron granules (250 aL each) were evident, each of which contained an average amount of 5.9 {+-} 3 amol. Alternatively, UV movies can be taken of the entire event to provide temporal and spatial information.

  13. [Individual peculiarities of adaptation to long-term space flights: 24-hour heart rhythm monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevskii, R. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Gol'dberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.; Charl'z, D. B.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Charles, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Presented are results of studying 24-hr variability of the cardiac rhythm which characterizes individual difference in reactions of two crew members to the same set of stresses during a 115-day MIR mission. Spacelab (USA) cardiorecorders were used. Data of monitoring revealed significantly different baseline health statuses of the cosmonauts. These functional differences were also observed in the mission. In one of the cosmonauts, the cardiac regulation changed over to a more economic functioning with the autonomous balance shifted towards enhanced sympathetic activity. After 2-3 months on mission he had almost recovered pre-launch level of regulation. In the other, the regulatory system was appreciably strained at the beginning of the mission as compared with preflight baseline. Later on, on flight months 2-3, this strain kept growing till a drastic depletion of the functional reserve. On return to Earth, this was manifested by a strong stress reaction with a sharp decline in power of high-frequency and grow in power of very low frequency components of the heart rhythm. The data suggest that adaptation to space flight and reactions in the readaptation period are dependent on initial health status of crew members, and functional reserve.

  14. Self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose: changing the performance of individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mazze, R S; Pasmantier, R; Murphy, J A; Shamoon, H

    1985-01-01

    Standard reflectance meters were modified by the addition of memory chips capable of storing 440 glucose determinations with corresponding time and date. These modified reflectance meters (MR) were given to 20 individuals with type I diabetes in an effort to determine the level of reliability and accuracy they could achieve on a self-monitoring regimen. During a 6-wk period these subjects measured their capillary blood glucose and recorded the results in a logbook (LB). At 2-wk intervals they visited the clinic. Data from the MR was offloaded onto an Apple IIe microcomputer (Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, California) and presented to the subjects in a graphic format, depicting the level of metabolic control over the previous 2 wk. The performance of subjects for the 6-wk period showed that they averaged 7 omissions from the LB for every 100 MR recordings; 1 added value in the LB for every 200 MR recordings; and 1 error in accurately copying the test value for every 100 determinations. In comparison with subjects who participated in an earlier study in which they were unaware of the memory function of the reflectance meter, performance during the current study improved in all categories. It was also observed that consistency in reliable and accurate record keeping did not diminish throughout the study period. Despite these positive changes in performance, no alteration in glycemic control was found. PMID:4006654

  15. Digital Beam Position Monitor for the Happex Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Kauffman; H. Dong; A. Freyberger; L. Kaufman; J. Musson

    2005-05-16

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high-precision (1 mm), high-bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM-010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The Multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a digital receiver daughter board and digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 4 MHz, and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with a resolution of one mm, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of ten microseconds. The results are available in both analog and digital format.

  16. Digital beam position monitor for the HAPPEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlon Kauffman; John Musson; Hai Dong; Lisa Kaufman; Arne Freyberger

    2005-05-01

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high precision (1um), high bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a RF receiver daughter board and a digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 3 MHz and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with resolution of 1um, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of 1us. The results are available in both the analog and digital format.

  17. Development of the GRB Monitor for the CALET Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Kotani, Taro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kei; Ohyama, Takuya; Doshida, Takaaki; Kojima, Tohru; Shiraki, Takayuki; Kataoka, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Tomida, Hiroshi; Torii, Shoji

    2009-05-25

    The CALET mission is a Japanese-led effort involving candidate experiments on the International Space Station, planned for launch in 2013. The CALET main detector is a pair conversion telescope which is dedicated to observing high energy electrons and gamma-rays in the GeV-TeV range. CALET can observe gamma-ray bursts over an unprecedented 9 decade energy range from {approx}keV to {approx}TeV with a combination of a gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) with low energy coverage. GBM is now designed as multiple scintillators made of BGO and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators. The prototype LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal with 3 inch diameter and 0.5 inch thickness displays a very good performance: 2.9{+-}0.1% FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV and 4 keV lower energy threshold. Furthermore, degradations in performance by the anticipated proton irradiation in the orbit are not significant. Results on proton-induced background are also presented.

  18. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education. PMID:21305979

  19. Macro and micro structures in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex contribute to individual differences in self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Tian, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Kangcheng; Chen, Qunlin; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Individual differences in self-monitoring, which are the capability to adjust behavior to adapt to social situations, influence a wide range of social behaviors. However, understanding of focal differences in brain structures related to individual self-monitoring is minimal, particularly when micro and macro structures are considered simultaneously. The present study investigates the relationship between self-monitoring and brain structure in a relatively large sample of young adults. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and gray matter volume in the dorsal cingulate anterior cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral ventral striatum (VS). Further analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between self-monitoring and white matter (WM) integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior cingulum (ACG) bundle. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and mean radius diffusion (RD). These results shed light on the structural neural basis of variation in self-monitoring. PMID:25958159

  20. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  1. Generalization on the Basis of Prior Experience Is Predicted by Individual Differences in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lenaert, Bert; van de Ven, Vincent; Kaas, Amanda L; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-01-01

    Generalization on the basis of prior experience is a central feature of human and nonhuman behavior, and anomalies in generalization can give rise to a wide array of problems. For instance, elevated levels of generalization have been shown in individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder. Identifying the individual difference variables that influence the extent to which behavior generalizes to novel stimuli may help our understanding of generalization and its potential maladaptive consequences. In this study, we first present an index of generalization that captures individual differences in generalization in a single continuous measure, thereby surpassing problems associated with traditional analyzing techniques. Further, we investigate whether generalization is predicted by working memory capacity. More precisely, it is hypothesized that generalization is a function of individual differences in the capacity to compare the current situation with previous learning experiences in working memory, and to adjust subsequent behavior accordingly. In a community sample, we found higher levels of generalization in individuals who were less efficient at filtering out irrelevant information from access to working memory. These results suggest that working memory impairments may contribute to elevated and potentially maladaptive levels of generalization. PMID:26763503

  2. Emotional granularity and social functioning in individuals with schizophrenia: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ballon, Jacob S; Malaspina, Dolores; Gross, James J

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that healthy individuals who fail to differentiate among emotional states (i.e., those with low emotional granularity; EG) have poorer social functioning (SF) than those with high EG. It is unknown, however, whether these associations extend to clinical disorders characterized by impaired SF, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, we compared SF and EG in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and then, within the schizophrenia group, we examined the links between EG and SF. Employing an Experience Sampling Method approach, 77 individuals with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls rated their momentary emotions (sadness, anxiety, anger, and happiness) up to 10 times/day over a two-day period using mobile electronic devices. For each participant, we then calculated the within-subject average correlations among the momentary emotion ratings, producing two EG indices - EGIall for all emotions and EGIneg for negative ones. A subsample of participants with schizophrenia also completed self-report, interview, and ability-based measures of SF. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia displayed significantly poorer SF and lower EGIall, but comparable EGIneg. Within the schizophrenia group, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that EGIall, but not EGIneg, significantly predicted social dysfunction after controlling for emotional awareness, symptoms, and emotional intensity and variability. Our findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia have a relatively intact ability to differentiate among negative emotions in everyday life. However, they experience significant difficulties differentiating between positive and negative emotions, and this may contribute to their social difficulties. PMID:24561000

  3. The Experience of Social Participation in Everyday Contexts Among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16-45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days. Multilevel analyses showed that 'solitary/parallel leisure' and 'social activities' were positively associated with interest and involvement. Engaging in these two activities and interacting with friends were positively associated with enjoyment. However, engaging in 'social activities' and having less severe ASD symptoms were associated with in-the-moment anxiety. Severity of ASD and social anxiety moderated experience in social situations. The findings highlight the importance of considering the in-the-moment experience of people with ASD. PMID:26687569

  4. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  5. Use of energy deposition spectrometer Liulin for individual monitoring of aircrew.

    PubMed

    Ploc, O; Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Spurny, F; Malušek, A; Dachev, T

    2011-03-01

    Silicon energy deposition spectrometer Liulin was primarily developed for cosmic radiation monitoring onboard spacecrafts. Nowadays, Liulin type detectors are also used to characterise radiation field on board aircraft, at alpine observatories and behind the shielding of heavy ion accelerators. In this work, experiments and calibrations performed in these radiation fields are presented and the method developed for calculation of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) on board aircraft is described. Since 2001, a simple method employing the energy deposition spectra had been used to determine H*(10) on board aircraft but, in 2004, it became clear that the resulting values were strongly biased at locations close to Earth's equator. An improved method for the determination of H*(10) on board aircraft using the Liulin detector was developed. It took into account the composition of the radiation field via the ratio of absorbed doses D(low) and D(neut) reflecting the contributions from low-LET particles and neutrons, respectively. It resulted in much better agreement with the EPCARD computer code for all aircraft locations; relative differences were within 11 % for low-LET and 20 % for neutron components of H*(10). PMID:21186209

  6. The Los Angeles Experience in Monitoring Desegregation: Progress and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicelma J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a case analysis of the role of the Los Angeles (California) School Monitoring Committee in the implementation of school desegregation. Demonstrates how citizen monitoring advisory committees work in desegregated settings and discusses the challenges, problems, and opportunities they are likely to face. (Author/MK)

  7. The Los Angeles Experience in Monitoring Desegregation: Progress and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicelma J.

    This paper presents a case analysis of the role of the Los Angeles School Monitoring Committee in the implementation of school desegregation. The analysis provides information about how citizens' monitoring committees (CMCs) work in the desegregated setting, along with the challenges, problems and opportunities they are likely to face. The paper…

  8. A New Monitoring Method of Individual Particles During Bed Load Transport in a Gravel Bed River.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, M.; Marquis, G.; Roy, A.; Lamarre, H.

    2009-05-01

    Many particle tracers (passive or active) have been developed to study gravel movement in rivers. It remains difficult however to document resting and moving periods and to know how particles travel from one sedimentation site to another. We have developed a new tracking method using the Hobo Pendant G acceleration Data Logger, to quantitatively describe the motion of individual particles from the initiation of movement, through the displacement and to the rest, in a natural gravel river. The Hobo measures the acceleration in three dimensions at a chosen frequency. Hobo Pendant G Acceleration data logger were inserted into 11 artificial rocks and seeded in Ruisseau Béard, a small gravel river in the Yamaska drainage basin (Québec). The hydraulics, particle sizes and bed characteristics of this site are well known. Controlled tests have been performed before the field experiment to understand the response of the instrument. The results allow us to develop an algorithm which classifies the signal into periods of rest and motion. The algorithm can also differentiate the type of motion: vibration, rolling and sliding of the particles. The data allow us to describe the time of movement, the path length and the velocity of the particles. The comparison of the movement and rest periods to the hydraulic conditions (discharge, shear stress, stream power) established the movement threshold and response times. Relations with bed roughness and morphology were also established. Finally, the development of a 2-dimension model helps visualizing the angular variation motion and a 3D model allows the reconstitution of the particle trajectories on the bed. This method offers great potential to track individual particles and to study bedload transport in rivers. This first attempt needs to be further improved especially to retire the degree of precision of the movement detection. The method should also be tested with frequencies higher than one minute, with more particles of

  9. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  10. The Use of Individual Growth and Developmental Indicators for Progress Monitoring and Intervention Decision Making in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring tools have been shown to be essential elements in current approaches to intervention problem-solving models. Such tools have been valuable not only in marking individual children's level of performance relative to peers but also in measuring change in skill level in a way that can be attributed to intervention and development.…

  11. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  12. Experience-Dependent Plasticity Drives Individual Differences in Pheromone-Sensing Neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei Sabrina; Lee, Donghoon; Holy, Timothy E

    2016-08-17

    Different individuals exhibit distinct behaviors, but studying the neuronal basis of individuality is a daunting challenge. Here, we considered this question in the vomeronasal organ, a pheromone-detecting epithelium containing hundreds of distinct neuronal types. Using light-sheet microscopy, we characterized in each animal the abundance of 17 physiologically defined types, altogether recording from half a million sensory neurons. Inter-animal differences were much larger than predicted by chance, and different physiological cell types showed distinct patterns of variability. One neuronal type was present in males and nearly absent in females. Surprisingly, this apparent sexual dimorphism was generated by plasticity, as exposure to female scents or single ligands led to both the elimination of this cell type and alterations in olfactory behavior. That an all-or-none apparent sex difference in neuronal types is controlled by experience-even in a sensory system devoted to "innate" behaviors-highlights the extraordinary role of "nurture" in neural individuality. PMID:27537487

  13. Fission Product Monitoring and Release Data for the Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Mark W. Drigert; Edward L. Reber

    2010-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 26, 2006 until November 6, 2009 in support of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Fuel Development and Qualification program. An important measure of the fuel performance is the quantification of the fission product releases over the duration of the experiment. To provide this data for the inert fission gasses(Kr and Xe), a fission product monitoring system (FPMS) was developed and implemented to monitor the individual capsule effluents for the radioactive species. The FPMS continuously measured the concentrations of various krypton and xenon isotopes in the sweep gas from each AGR-1 capsule to provide an indicator of fuel irradiation performance. Spectrometer systems quantified the concentrations of Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89, Kr-90, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe 135, Xe 135m, Xe-137, Xe-138, and Xe-139 accumulated over repeated eight hour counting intervals.-. To determine initial fuel quality and fuel performance, release activity for each isotope of interest was derived from FPMS measurements and paired with a calculation of the corresponding isotopic production or birthrate. The release activities and birthrates were combined to determine Release-to-Birth ratios for the selected nuclides. R/B values provide indicators of initial fuel quality and fuel performance during irradiation. This paper presents a brief summary of the FPMS, the release to birth ratio data for the AGR-1 experiment and preliminary comparisons of AGR-1 experimental fuels data to fission gas release models.

  14. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage. PMID:25673665

  15. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr.; Houde, E.D.; Rose, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual ``theoretical`` ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a ``switch`` occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  16. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Marine Sciences); Houde, E.D. . Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual theoretical'' ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a switch'' occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  17. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  18. SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans - Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, K.; Balfors, B.; Folkeson, L.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  19. Appraisals and Responses to Experimental Symptom Analogues in Clinical and Nonclinical Individuals With Psychotic Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Thomas A.; Gaynor, Keith J.; Hunter, Mike D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Garety, Philippa A.; Peters, Emmanuelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive models of psychosis suggest that anomalous experiences alone do not always lead to clinical psychosis, with appraisals and responses to experiences being central to understanding the transition to “need for care”. Methods: The appraisals and response styles of Clinical (C; n = 28) and Nonclinical (NC; n = 34) individuals with psychotic experiences were compared following experimental analogues of thought interference (Cards Task) and auditory hallucinations (Virtual Acoustic Space Paradigm). Results: The groups were matched in terms of their psychotic experiences. As predicted, the C group scored higher than the NC group on maladaptive appraisals following both tasks, rated the experience as more personally significant, and was more likely to incorporate the experimental setup into their ongoing experiences. The C group also appraised the Cards Task as more salient, distressing, and threatening; this group scored higher on maladaptive—and lower on adaptive—response styles, than the NC group on both tasks. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with cognitive models of psychosis, with maladaptive appraisals and response styles characterizing the C group only. Clinical applications of both tasks are suggested to facilitate the identification and modification of maladaptive appraisals. PMID:23858493

  20. IDP Camp and Reconstruction Monitoring Experience at SERTIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Allenbach, Bernard; Battiston, Stephanie; Caspard, Mathilde; Fellah, Kader; Giraud, Henri; Montabord, Myldred; Tholey, Nadine; Uribe, Carlos; Yesou, Herve; de Fraipont, Paul

    2010-12-01

    SERTIT's rapid mapping activities covering disasters and damage mapping after a major catastrophic event such as those realized within the framework of International Charter "Space and major disasters" (Charter) and GMES1 programmes are relatively well known, whereas the work carried since 2004 on the exploitation of Earth Observation data for humanitarian aid is less often presented. The aim of this paper is to present this work from mapping and monitoring IDP camp related emergencies to supporting recovery and reconstruction and the context, procedures and examples of this work. A brief introduction to the world of rapid mapping will be given within the context of emergency mapping and monitoring and why this need arises. This is combined with a word on the development of this service with respect to the Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camp mapping. Then, the cases of Sudan 2004, Chad & Sudan 2008 and Yemen 2009 will be treated to show that the Emergency Mapping and Monitoring Service for Displaced Populations is operational. Afterwards, SERTIT's complementary Emergency Recovery Support Service will be demonstrated through the long- term reconstruction monitoring work carried out, post- disaster, following the 2003 Boumerdès earthquake event. Finally, the need for the availability and deployment of this kind of services is highlighted by the reconstruction planning and monitoring requirements in Haiti, amongst other places.

  1. Schizophrenia‐like topological changes in the structural connectome of individuals with subclinical psychotic experiences

    PubMed Central

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Dutt, Anirban; Zammit, Stanley; Evans, C. John; Reichenberg, Abraham; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S.; Jones, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Schizophrenia is often regarded as a “dysconnectivity” disorder and recent work using graph theory has been used to better characterize dysconnectivity of the structural connectome in schizophrenia. However, there are still little data on the topology of connectomes in less severe forms of the condition. Such analysis will identify topological markers of less severe disease states and provide potential predictors of further disease development. Individuals with psychotic experiences (PEs) were identified from a population‐based cohort without relying on participants presenting to clinical services. Such individuals have an increased risk of developing clinically significant psychosis. 123 individuals with PEs and 125 controls were scanned with diffusion‐weighted MRI. Whole‐brain structural connectomes were derived and a range of global and local GT‐metrics were computed. Global efficiency and density were significantly reduced in individuals with PEs. Local efficiency was reduced in a number of regions, including critical network hubs. Further analysis of functional subnetworks showed differential impairment of the default mode network. An additional analysis of pair‐wise connections showed no evidence of differences in individuals with PEs. These results are consistent with previous findings in schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in critical core hubs suggests the brains of individuals with PEs may be particularly predisposed to dysfunction. The absence of any detectable effects in pair‐wise connections illustrates that, at less severe stages of psychosis, white‐matter alterations are subtle and only manifest when examining network topology. This study indicates that topology could be a sensitive biomarker for early stages of psychotic illness. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2629–2643, 2015.© 2015 TheAuthors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25832856

  2. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  3. Temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration in Austria using a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Bliem, Markus; Getzner, Michael; Rodiga-Laßnig, Petra

    2012-07-30

    Temporal stability of values (environmental preferences) is usually considered to be an indicator of the reliability of a valuation instrument because the values can be "reproduced" by follow-up experiments. The objective of this paper is to test temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration by employing two identical choice experiments with a time difference of one year. We compared the results of two surveys carried out on the stretch of the Danube River between the Austrian capital of Vienna and the border to the Slovak Republic in 2007 and 2008. The choice experiment method considered economic costs and benefits of ecological improvements along the river, in order to value environmental resources. Using a multinomial logit and a mixed logit model for the two samples and a pooled sample, we found that preferences and willingness-to-pay estimates for program attributes are not sensitive to time. The results suggest that, in the absence of an extreme event, individual preferences are robust over a short time period. PMID:22459072

  4. Towards a comprehensive model for predicting the quality of individual visual experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Hanjalic, Alan; Redi, Judith A.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a lot of effort has been devoted to estimating the Quality of Visual Experience (QoVE) in order to optimize video delivery to the user. For many decades, existing objective metrics mainly focused on estimating the perceived quality of a video, i.e., the extent to which artifacts due to e.g. compression disrupt the appearance of the video. Other aspects of the visual experience, such as enjoyment of the video content, were, however, neglected. In addition, typically Mean Opinion Scores were targeted, deeming the prediction of individual quality preferences too hard of a problem. In this paper, we propose a paradigm shift, and evaluate the opportunity of predicting individual QoVE preferences, in terms of video enjoyment as well as perceived quality. To do so, we explore the potential of features of different nature to be predictive for a user's specific experience with a video. We consider thus not only features related to the perceptual characteristics of a video, but also to its affective content. Furthermore, we also integrate in our framework the information about the user and use context. The results show that effective feature combinations can be identified to estimate the QoVE from the perspective of both the enjoyment and perceived quality.

  5. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  6. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  7. Experiences in monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sustainable land management (SLM) is widely promoted to prevent and mitigate land degradation and desertification, its monitoring and assessment has received much less attention. This paper compiles methodological approaches which to date have been little reported in literature. It draws le...

  8. Monitoring Processes and Metamemory Experience in Patients with Dysexecutive Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Karine; Allain, Phillipe; Kefi, Mohamed Zied; Dubas, Frederic; Le Gall, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether monitoring measures are differentially disturbed in dysexecutive patients after frontal lesions. Twelve dysexecutive patients and 12 healthy controls were administered a paired-associates learning task. Their performances on recall prediction, judgment-of-learning (JOL), and feeling-of-knowing…

  9. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  10. The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M.; Gille, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere is used to obtain vertical profiles and maps of temperature and the concentration of ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid for the region of the stratosphere bounded by the upper troposphere and the lower mesosphere.

  11. Monitoring Urban Quality of Life: The Porto Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Luis Delfim; Martins, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the monitoring system of the urban quality of life developed by the Porto City Council, a new tool being used to support urban planning and management. The two components of this system--a quantitative approach based on statistical indicators and a qualitative analysis based on the citizens' perceptions of the conditions of…

  12. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; /SLAC

    2004-12-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centers. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  13. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  14. Mothers' Experiences of Facilitated Peer Support Groups and Individual Child Health Nursing Support: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kruske, Sue; Schmied, Virginia; Sutton, Ivy; O'Hare, Joan

    2004-01-01

    The “Early Bird Program” is a support group facilitated by child and family health nurses and offered to families of infants aged 0–8 weeks in South East Sydney, Australia. This paper describes the experiences of 20 women who participated in the Early Bird groups and 20 women who chose to use individual consultations with the child and family health nurse. The qualitative evaluation used focus groups and interviews with the 40 women, and data were analysed using content analysis. Key findings show the Early Bird Program mothers received support and knowledge from both the nurses and each other, while the women who utilised the individual consultations with the nurses sought out and received specific services and information that focused on the baby. The group approach appears to promote group relationships and to empower mothers as a group by de-emphasising the power and expertise of the professional. PMID:17273398

  15. Comparing sensory experiences across individuals: recent psychophysical advances illuminate genetic variation in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M

    2000-08-01

    Modern psychophysics has traveled considerably beyond the threshold measures that dominated sensory studies in the first half of this century. Current methods capture the range of perceived intensity from threshold to maximum and promise to provide increasingly accurate comparisons of perceived intensities across individuals. The application of new psychophysical tools to genetic variation in taste allowed us to discover supertasters, individuals who live in particularly intense taste worlds. Because of the anatomy of the taste system, supertasters feel more burn from oral irritants like chili peppers, more creaminess/ viscosity from fats and thickeners in food and may also experience more intense oral pain. Not surprisingly, these sensory differences influence food choices and thus health. A discussion of the milestones on the road to understanding genetic variation in taste must include discussion of some potholes as well. Often our failures have been as instructive as our successes in the effort to evaluate the impact of genetic variation in taste. PMID:10944509

  16. Error-Monitoring in Response to Social Stimuli in Individuals with Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Error-monitoring, or the ability to recognize one's mistakes and implement behavioral changes to prevent further mistakes, may be impaired in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children and adolescents (ages 9-19) with ASD (n = 42) and typical development (n = 42) completed two face processing tasks that required discrimination of either the gender or affect of standardized face stimuli. Post-error slowing and the difference in Error-Related Negativity amplitude between correct and incorrect responses (ERNdiff) were used to index error-monitoring ability. Overall, ERNdiff increased with age. On the Gender Task, individuals with ASD had a smaller ERNdiff than individuals with typical development; however, on the Affect Task, there were no significant diagnostic group differences on ERNdiff. Individuals with ASD may have ERN amplitudes similar to those observed in individuals with typical development in more social contexts compared to less social contexts due to greater consequences for errors, more effortful processing, and/or reduced processing efficiency in these contexts. Across all participants, more post-error slowing on the Affect Task was associated with better social cognitive skills. PMID:25066088

  17. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KITO, Aiko; UENO, Takeji

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants’ previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  18. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  19. Experience of Primary Care among Homeless Individuals with Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chrystal, Joya G.; Glover, Dawn L.; Young, Alexander S.; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, Nancy K.; Pollio, David E.; Holt, Cheryl L.; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J.; Kim, Theresa A.; Daigle, Shanette G.; Steward, Jocelyn L.; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons’ needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers. PMID:25659142

  20. The Experiment and Simulation Method to Calibrate the Shear Modulus of Individual ZnO Nanorod.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangbin; Jiang, Chengming; Dai, Bing; Song, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    A general method is presented to directly measure the shear modulus of an individual nanorod using atomic force microscope (AFM). To obtain shear modulus with less experiment error, finite element simulation is employed to simulate the twisting process of a ZnO nanorod. Based on the experimental measurements, the shear modulus of ZnO nanorod with 4 µm in length and 166 nm in radius is characterized to be 9.1 ± 0.2 GPa, which is obviously more accurate than the simple averaged experimental result. PMID:27451763

  1. Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Individual Monitoring of Panels in a Photovoltaic Plant

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Miguel J.; Pernía, Alberto M.; Nuño, Fernando; Díaz, Juan; Villegas, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems proliferating in the last few years due to the high prices of fossil fuels and pollution issues, among others, it is extremely important to monitor the efficiency of these plants and optimize the energy production process. This will also result in improvements related to the maintenance and security of the installation. In order to do so, the main parameters in the plant must be continuously monitored so that the appropriate actions can be carried out. This monitoring should not only be carried out at a global level, but also at panel-level, so that a better understanding of what is actually happening in the PV plant can be obtained. This paper presents a system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that includes all the components required for such monitoring as well as a power supply obtaining the energy required by the sensors from the photovoltaic panels. The system proposed succeeds in identifying all the nodes in the network and provides real-time monitoring while tracking efficiency, features, failures and weaknesses from a single cell up to the whole infrastructure. Thus, the decision-making process is simplified, which contributes to reducing failures, wastes and, consequently, costs. PMID:24487622

  2. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  3. Resilient Individuals Use Positive Emotions to Bounce Back From Negative Emotional Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Tugade, Michele M.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory indicates that resilient individuals “bounce back” from stressful experiences quickly and effectively. Few studies, however, have provided empirical evidence for this theory. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (B. L. Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) is used as a framework for understanding psychological resilience. The authors used a multimethod approach in 3 studies to predict that resilient people use positive emotions to rebound from, and find positive meaning in, stressful encounters. Mediational analyses revealed that the experience of positive emotions contributed, in part, to participants’ abilities to achieve efficient emotion regulation, demonstrated by accelerated cardiovascular recovery from negative emotional arousal (Studies 1 and 2) and by finding positive meaning in negative circumstances (Study 3). Implications for research on resilience and positive emotions are discussed. PMID:14769087

  4. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation. 4. Individual experience, personal adaptation, and social perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stiens, S A; Bergman, S B; Formal, C S

    1997-03-01

    This learner-directed module highlights contemporary perspectives on personal success in the adjustment and adaptation of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It is the fourth in a series of five modules within the chapter on spinal cord injury rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This module explores models of the multisystem effects on a person after SCI, disablement, theories of adjustment, patient autonomy, quality of life, community experience, adaptations enhancing sexuality, and minimization of pain after SCI. Perspectives of the patient's experience in disablement, interdisciplinary person-centered rehabilitation, and success of the individual in chosen life roles are emphasized. The module is designed to update SCI issues reviewed in past syllabi. PMID:9084370

  5. Three years of operational experience from Schauinsland CTBT monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C

    2008-04-01

    Data from three years of operation of a low-level aerosol sampler and analyzer (RASA) at Schauinsland monitoring station are reported. The system is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The fully automatic system is capable to measure aerosol borne gamma emitters with high sensitivity and routinely quantifies 7Be and 212Pb. The system had a high level of data availability of 90% within the reporting period. A daily screening process rendered 66 tentative identifications of verification relevant radionuclides since the system entered IMS operation in February 2004. Two of these were real events and associated to a plausible source. The remaining 64 cases can consistently be explained by detector background and statistical phenomena. Inter-comparison with data from a weekly sampler operated at the same station shows instabilities of the calibration during the test phase and a good agreement since certification of the system. PMID:18053622

  6. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  7. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  8. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-09-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  9. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort With Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships With Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort, the ratio of sound pressure level to subglottal pressure level, were estimated from the aerodynamic and acoustic signals. Twelve listeners also judged the speech samples for vocal effort using the visual sort and rate method. Results Relationships between RFF and both the aerodynamic and perceptual measures of vocal effort were weak across speakers (R2 = .06–.26). Within speakers, relationships were variable but much stronger on average (R2 = .45–.56). Conclusions RFF showed stronger relationships between both the aerodynamic and perceptual measures of vocal effort when examined within individuals versus across individuals. Future work is necessary to establish these relationships in individuals with voice disorders across the therapeutic process. PMID:25675090

  10. Experiments on individual strategy updating in iterated snowdrift game under random rematching.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning; Wang, Guangchao

    2015-03-01

    How do people actually play the iterated snowdrift games, particularly under random rematching protocol is far from well explored. Two sets of laboratory experiments on snowdrift game were conducted to investigate human strategy updating rules. Four groups of subjects were modeled by experience-weighted attraction learning theory at individual-level. Three out of the four groups (75%) passed model validation. Substantial heterogeneity is observed among the players who update their strategies in four typical types, whereas rare people behave like belief-based learners even under fixed pairing. Most subjects (63.9%) adopt the reinforcement learning (or alike) rules; but, interestingly, the performance of averaged reinforcement learners suffered. It is observed that two factors seem to benefit players in competition, i.e., the sensitivity to their recent experiences and the overall consideration of forgone payoffs. Moreover, subjects with changing opponents tend to learn faster based on their own recent experience, and display more diverse strategy updating rules than they do with fixed opponent. These findings suggest that most of subjects do apply reinforcement learning alike updating rules even under random rematching, although these rules may not improve their performance. The findings help evolutionary biology researchers to understand sophisticated human behavioral strategies in social dilemmas. PMID:25542641

  11. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  12. RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF NO, NO2, NOY, AND INDIVIDUAL NOZ SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most appropriate monitoring methods for reactive nitrogen oxides are identified subject to the requirements for diagnostic testing of air quality simulation models. Measurements must be made over 1 h or less and with an uncertainty of

  13. Using a Web-Based Database to Record and Monitor Athletic Training Students' Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk W.; Williams, Lisa; Janicki, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a documentation recording system employing the Microsoft Structured Query Language (MS-SQL) database used by the Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) for recording and monitoring of athletic training student (ATS) clinical experiences and hours. Background: Monitoring ATSs clinical…

  14. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  15. Dental students' glucometer experience and attitudes toward diabetes counseling, monitoring, and screening: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare glucometer experience and attitudes toward counseling, monitoring, and screening for diabetes between two classes of graduating students at one dental school to determine if there were differences by experience and year of graduation. Dental students graduating in 2010 and 2013 completed a survey about their experience with use of a glucometer as well as their attitudes toward and perceived barriers to performing glucose monitoring, screening, and counseling. Response rates for the two classes were 100 percent and 95.7 percent, respectively. Students in the two classes were in general agreement that activities related to glucose monitoring and counseling of patients with diabetes are within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. Examination of their attitudes toward diabetes monitoring and counseling activities by level of glucometer experience indicated that students with more experience using a glucometer were more likely to consider these activities to be within the scope of dental practice and less likely to perceive barriers to such activities compared to those with little or no experience. In addition, regardless of experience, there was significantly higher endorsement for monitoring of patients who had already been diagnosed than for screening of patients who had not been diagnosed. This study suggests that any strategy to encourage dental students' and dentists' involvement in nontraditional health promotion activities should include ample direct clinical experience with these activities. PMID:25179922

  16. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  17. Hardware report for experiment M133, sleep monitoring on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booher, C. R.; Larue, E. F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was objectively to measure sleep quantity and quality during prolonged space flight with the use of automatic equipment for onboard analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electro-oculographic (EOG) activity and telemetry of sleep stage data.

  18. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  19. Seismogeodetic Monitoring of Structural Deformation during Shaketable Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Saunders, J. K.; Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Melgar, D.; Restrepo, J. I.; Nema, A.; Fleischman, R. B.; Zhang, Z.; Offield, D. G.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate low frequency strong motion recordings are important for understanding free field and building response in large engineered structures. We have developed a seismogeodetic monitoring system based on GPS technology for real-time observations of large earthquakes that can also be used for structural monitoring. The data analysis method implements in a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic displacement, velocity, and tilt from GPS and accelerometer observations. Tilt is one of the major error sources that prevents accelerometer data from being integrated correctly to displacements. The technology is currently operational and streaming real-time observations from remote SIO Geodetic Module packages containing MEMS accelerometers at 17 GPS sites in southern California for the purposes of earthquake early warning and rapid response. The instruments were run in real-time on a four-story structure at the UCSD NEES shaketable to test an inertial force-limiting floor anchorage system as an emerging technology for new seismically resistant buildings. Observations were made during a series of earthquake simulations at five points on the roof of the structure, at the base, and at two nearby reference sites off the structure. Two of the points were also observed with observatory-grade Kinemetrics Episensor accelerometers to compare the performance of the MEMS sensors. The unique asymmetric design of the engineered structure deliberately induced large out-of-plane torsion and tilts of the building. This tested the performance of anchorage components to motions in two lateral directions even though the shaketable generated motions in only one component. We performed a seismogeodetic combination of the accelerometer and GPS data in which we simultaneously estimated tilts to take into account the impact of the rotations on vertical tilts of the accelerometers. The seismogeodetic combination reliably recovers drift at the rooftop, demonstrated

  20. Individual patient data meta-analysis of self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP-SMART): a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; Sheppard, James P; Stevens, Richard; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bove, Alfred; Bray, Emma P; Godwin, Marshal; Green, Beverly; Hebert, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Kantola, Ilkka; Kerry, Sally; Magid, David J; Mant, Jonathan; Margolis, Karen L; McKinstry, Brian; Omboni, Stefano; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Parati, Gianfranco; Qamar, Nashat; Varis, Juha; Verberk, Willem; Wakefield, Bonnie J; McManus, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-monitoring of blood pressure is effective in reducing blood pressure in hypertension. However previous meta-analyses have shown a considerable amount of heterogeneity between studies, only part of which can be accounted for by meta-regression. This may be due to differences in design, recruited populations, intervention components or results among patient subgroups. To further investigate these differences, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of self-monitoring of blood pressure will be performed. Methods and analysis We will identify randomised trials that have compared patients with hypertension who are self-monitoring blood pressure with those who are not and invite trialists to provide IPD including clinic and/or ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure at baseline and all follow-up points where both intervention and control groups were measured. Other data requested will include measurement methodology, length of follow-up, cointerventions, baseline demographic (age, gender) and psychosocial factors (deprivation, quality of life), setting, intensity of self-monitoring, self-monitored blood pressure, comorbidities, lifestyle factors (weight, smoking) and presence or not of antihypertensive treatment. Data on all available patients will be included in order to take an intention-to-treat approach. A two-stage procedure for IPD meta-analysis, stratified by trial and taking into account age, sex, diabetes and baseline systolic BP will be used. Exploratory subgroup analyses will further investigate non-linear relationships between the prespecified variables. Sensitivity analyses will assess the impact of trials which have and have not provided IPD. Ethics and dissemination This study does not include identifiable data. Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and by international conference presentations. Conclusions IPD analysis should help the understanding of which self-monitoring interventions for which

  1. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  2. Stability of monitoring weak changes in multiply scattering media with ambient noise correlation: laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Hadziioannou, Céline; Larose, Eric; Coutant, Olivier; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that small changes can be monitored in a scattering medium by observing phase shifts in the coda. Passive monitoring of weak changes through ambient noise correlation has already been applied to seismology, acoustics, and engineering. Usually, this is done under the assumption that a properly reconstructed Green function (GF), as well as stable background noise sources, is necessary. In order to further develop this monitoring technique, a laboratory experiment was performed in the 2.5 MHz range in a gel with scattering inclusions, comparing an active (pulse-echo) form of monitoring to a passive (correlation) one. Present results show that temperature changes in the medium can be observed even if the GF of the medium is not reconstructed. Moreover, this article establishes that the GF reconstruction in the correlations is not a necessary condition: The only condition to monitoring with correlation (passive experiment) is the relative stability of the background noise structure. PMID:19507951

  3. Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Maritza; Seijas, David; Agreda, Olga; Rodríguez, Maritza

    2006-02-01

    People in developing countries are often considered at greater risk of mercury (Hg) poisoning due to a variety of factors including a lack of awareness regarding their occupational risks. Individuals requiring urine mercury (U-Hg) analysis at the Center for Toxicological Investigations of the University of Carabobo (CITUC), between 1998 and 2002 were studied to identify demographic characteristics associated to U-Hg levels. The studied population included individuals with a history of exposure (or related exposures) to Hg processes, and was comprised of 1159 individuals (65 children, 1094 adults) ages 0.58-79 years old, mean 36.63+/-12.4. Children's geometric mean U-Hg levels were 2.73 microg/g Creatinine (Ct) and in adults 2.55 microg/g Ct. The highest frequency of adults' occupations were shipyard workers (35.47%), dentists (23.5%), lab technicians (11.43%), dental employees 10.42% and miners (10.2%). Chemical laboratory technicians had the highest mean U-Hg (4.46 microg/g Ct). Mean U-Hg levels in female adults (3.45 microg/g Ct) were statistically superior to levels in male adults (2.15 microg/g Ct). Two of the 172 women in reproductive age, had U-Hg levels higher than 78 microg/g Ct. Individuals from Falcon State were found to have the highest mean U-Hg (4.53 microg/g Ct). U-Hg levels higher than permissible limits were found in only 2 states (Carabobo and Bolivar) with a total of 24 cases. Although the results of this investigation were highly variable, the findings can be used to examine circumstances which influence mercury toxicity trends, and possibly used in future studies working to identify Hg exposures. PMID:16399001

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of eculizumab: Rationale for an individualized dosing schedule

    PubMed Central

    Gatault, Philippe; Brachet, Guillaume; Ternant, David; Degenne, Danielle; Récipon, Guillaume; Barbet, Christelle; Gyan, Emmanuel; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Bordes, Cécile; Farrell, Alexandra; Halimi, Jean Michel; Watier, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The annual cost of eculizumab maintenance therapy in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome (aHUS) exceeds $300,000 per patient. A better understanding of eculizumab pharmacokinetics and subsequent individual dose adjustment could reduce this cost. We measured the trough eculizumab concentration in 9 patients with maintenance therapy (aHUS, n = 7; PNH, n = 2) and determined: 1) the intra- and inter-individual variability; 2) the influence of weight on eculizumab pharmacokinetics; and 3) the rate of elimination of eculizumab following discontinuation. A one-compartment model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of eculizumab and predicted complement activity by body weight. Trough eculizumab concentrations were >50 µg/mL in 9/9, >100 µg/mL in 8/9, and >300 µg/mL in 5/9 of patients. Intra-individual variability was low but eculizumab concentrations, closely correlated with patient weight (R2 = 0.66, p = 0.034), varied broadly (55 ± 12 to 733 ± 164 µg/mL). Pharmacokinetic modeling showed that the elimination half-life varied greatly, with an increase from 7.8 d in a patient weighing 100 kg to 19.5 d in a 40 kg patient. We predicted that infusions of 1200 mg could be spaced every 4 or 6 weeks in patients weighing <90 and <70 kg, respectively. In this pilot study, the current recommended use of a fixed eculizumab dose for maintenance therapy is associated with excessively high trough concentrations in many patients. Further prospective larger studies are now required to support an individualized schedule adjusted for patient weight and based on the observed trough serum eculizumab concentration. PMID:26337866

  5. Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachab, A.

    2007-03-28

    The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

  6. A panel of microsatellites to individually identify leopards and its application to leopard monitoring in human dominated landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Leopards are the most widely distributed of the large cats, ranging from Africa to the Russian Far East. Because of habitat fragmentation, high human population densities and the inherent adaptability of this species, they now occupy landscapes close to human settlements. As a result, they are the most common species involved in human wildlife conflict in India, necessitating their monitoring. However, their elusive nature makes such monitoring difficult. Recent advances in DNA methods along with non-invasive sampling techniques can be used to monitor populations and individuals across large landscapes including human dominated ones. In this paper, we describe a DNA-based method for leopard individual identification where we used fecal DNA samples to obtain genetic material. Further, we apply our methods to non-invasive samples collected in a human-dominated landscape to estimate the minimum number of leopards in this human-leopard conflict area in Western India. Results In this study, 25 of the 29 tested cross-specific microsatellite markers showed positive amplification in 37 wild-caught leopards. These loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (four-12 alleles) and heterozygosity (0.05-0.79). Combining data on amplification success (including non-invasive samples) and locus specific polymorphisms, we showed that eight loci provide a sibling probability of identity of 0.0005, suggesting that this panel can be used to discriminate individuals in the wild. When this microsatellite panel was applied to fecal samples collected from a human-dominated landscape, we identified 7 individuals, with a sibling probability of identity of 0.001. Amplification success of field collected scats was up to 72%, and genotype error ranged from 0-7.4%. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the selected panel of eight microsatellite loci can conclusively identify leopards from various kinds of biological samples. Our methods can be used to monitor leopards over small

  7. The fate of early experience following developmental change: longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B; Kreutzer, T

    1990-10-01

    2 strategies were used to investigate the continued impact of early experience and adaptation given subsequent experience and/or developmental change in a poverty sample (N = 190). Groups were defined whose adaptation was similar during the preschool years but consistently different earlier; then these 2 groups were compared in elementary school. In addition, a series of regression analyses was performed in which variance accounted for by near-in or contemporary predictors of adaptation in middle childhood was removed before adding earlier adaptation in subsequent steps. Children showing positive adaptation in the infant/toddler period showed greater rebound in the elementary school years, despite poor functioning in the preschool period. Regression analyses revealed some incremental power of early predictors with intermediate predictors removed. The results were interpreted as supporting Bowlby's thesis that adaptation is always a product of both developmental history and current circumstances. While this research cannot resolve such a complicated issue, it does point to the need for complex formulations to guide research on individual development. PMID:2245730

  8. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  9. Monitoring the Veterinary Medical Student Experience: An Institutional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success. PMID:26421517

  10. The application of multi-parameter flow cytometry to monitor individual microbial cell physiological state.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Christopher J; Nebe-Von-Caron, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The development of multi-parameter flow cytometric techniques in our laboratories has led to a functional classification of the physiological state of single celled micro-organisms, including both yeast and bacteria. This classification is based on the presence or absence of an intact fully polarized cytoplasmic membrane and the transport systems across it. Using these techniques it is possible to resolve a cells physiological state, beyond culturability to include metabolic activity enabling assessment of population heterogeneity. Importantly results are available in real-time, 1-2 min after a sample is taken, enabling informed decisions to be taken about a process. These techniques have been extensively applied by us for monitoring the stress responses of micro-organisms in such diverse areas as brewing, bio-remediation, bio-transformation, food processing and pharmaceutical fermentation, some of which are discussed here. PMID:15217160

  11. Deformation Monitoring of Materials Under Stress in Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarlatos, D.; Yiatros, S.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  12. Monitoring individual cow udder health in automated milking systems using online somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L P; Bjerring, M; Løvendahl, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a detection and monitoring model for mastitis based on automated frequent sampling of online cell count (OCC). Initially, data were filtered and adjusted for sensor drift and skewed distribution using ln-transformation. Acceptable data were passed on to a time-series model using double exponential smoothing to estimate level and trends at cow level. The OCC levels and trends were converted to a continuous (0-1) scale, termed elevated mastitis risk (EMR), where values close to zero indicate healthy cow status and values close to 1 indicate high risk of mastitis. Finally, a feedback loop was included to dynamically request a time to next sample, based on latest EMR values or errors in the raw data stream. The estimated EMR values were used to issue 2 types of alerts, new and (on-going) intramammary infection (IMI) alerts. The new alerts were issued when the EMR values exceeded a threshold, and the IMI alerts were issued for subsequent alerts. New alerts were only issued after the EMR had been below the threshold for at least 8d. The detection model was evaluated using time-window analysis and commercial herd data (6 herds, 595,927 milkings) at different sampling intensities. Recorded treatments of mastitis were used as gold standard. Significantly higher EMR values were detected in treated than in contemporary untreated cows. The proportion of detected mastitis cases using new alerts was between 28.0 and 43.1% and highest for a fixed sampling scheme aiming at 24h between measurements. This was higher for IMI alerts, between 54.6 and 89.0%, and highest when all available measurements were used. The lowest false alert rate of 6.5 per 1,000 milkings was observed when all measurements were used. The results showed that a dynamic sampling scheme with a default value of 24h between measurements gave only a small reduction in proportion of detected mastitis treatments and remained at 88.5%. It was concluded that filtering of raw data

  13. Individual neutron monitoring in workplaces with mixed neutron/photon radiation.

    PubMed

    Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Bartlett, D; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Giusti, V; Gressier, V; Kyllönen, J; Lacoste, V; Lindborg, L; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Molinos, C; Pelcot, G; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F; Derdau, D

    2004-01-01

    EVIDOS ('evaluation of individual dosimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields') is an European Commission (EC)-sponsored project that aims at a significant improvement of radiation protection dosimetry in mixed neutron/photon fields via spectrometric and dosimetric investigations in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry. In particular, new spectrometry methods are developed that provide the energy and direction distribution of the neutron fluence from which the reference dosimetric quantities are derived and compared to the readings of dosemeters. The final results of the project will be a comprehensive set of spectrometric and dosimetric data for the workplaces and an analysis of the performance of dosemeters, including novel electronic dosemeters. This paper gives an overview of the project and focuses on the results from measurements performed in calibration fields with broad energy distributions (simulated workplace fields) and on the first results from workplaces in the nuclear industry, inside a boiling water reactor and around a spent fuel transport cask. PMID:15353743

  14. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  15. SQUID-based beam position monitoring for proton EDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haciomeroglu, Selcuk

    2014-09-01

    One of the major systematic errors in the proton EDM experiment is the radial B-field, since it couples the magnetic dipole moment and causes a vertical spin precession. For a proton with EDM at the level of 10-29 e.cm, 0.22 pG of B-field and 10.5 MV/m of E-field cause same vertical spin precession. On the other hand, the radial B-field splits the counter-rotating beams depending on the vertical focusing strength in the ring The magnetic field due to this split modulated at a few kHz can be measured by a SQUID-magnetometer. This measurement requires the B-field to be kept less than 1 nT everywhere around the ring using shields of mu-metal and aluminum layers. Then, the SQUID measurements involve noise from three sources: outside the shields, the shields themselves and the beam. We study these three sources of noise using an electric circuit (mimicking the beam) inside a magnetic shielding room which consists two-layers of mu-metal and an aluminum layer.

  16. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  17. Transport and sorption behavior of individual phthalate esters in sandy aquifer: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Sissou; Liu, Hui; Li, Yan-Xi; He, Xi; Tong, Lei

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to quantify the transport and sorption behavior of four individual phthalate esters (PAEs) in sandy aquifer using column experiments so as to provide important parameters for the prediction and control of PAEs pollution plume in groundwater system. The transport curves of four individual PAEs were simulated with HYDRUS-1D through fitting linear and nonlinear equilibrium (LE/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, one-site non-equilibrium (LO/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, two-site non-equilibrium (LFO/NFO) sorption models. Simulation results showed that two-site models (LFO and NFO) displayed similar best fittings. The results from LFO model simulation showed that when water flowed 1000 m in sandy aquifer, PAEs with shorter carbon chains (DMP and DEP) transport 31.6 and 22.2 m, respectively. Unexpectedly for the same water transport distance, PAEs with longer carbon chains (DBP and DiBP) transported 40.2 and 60.7 m, respectively, which were faster than DMP and DEP, mainly due to the limited accessibility of type-2 sorption sites. The retardations were mainly caused by the sorption of PAEs on the time-dependent type-2 sites. DBP and DiBP exhibited higher mass transfer speed to and fro type-2 sites but showed lower total sorption coefficient (K) due to the limited accessibility of sorption sites. Coexistence of PAEs and smaller sorbent particles increased total K values of DBP and DiBP due to synergic development of more sorption sites with DMP and DEP. PMID:27146532

  18. Incidence of and significant risk factors for aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity in patients dosed by using individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bertino, J S; Booker, L A; Franck, P A; Jenkins, P L; Franck, K R; Nafziger, A N

    1993-01-01

    Incidence of and risk factors for aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity (AAN) were evaluated in 1489 patients prospectively monitored with individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring (IPM). Incidence of AAN was 7.9% with individual (univariate) risk factors including advanced age, decreased albumin, poor nutritional status, pneumonia, concurrent furosemide, amphotericin B, vancomycin, cephalosporin, or piperacillin, intensive care unit treatment, leukemia, rapidly fatal illness, liver or renal disease, reduced aminoglycoside clearance, elevated initial steady-state trough concentration (Cminss), volume of distribution or half-life, duration of therapy, total dose, fever, male gender, shock, pleural effusion, and ascites. Multiple logistic regression revealed that Cminss, concurrent clindamycin, vancomycin, piperacillin, or cephalosporin, ascites, advanced age, male gender, decreased albumin, duration of therapy, and leukemia were significant independent risk factors for AAN. Positive predictive value of the model was 30.8%; negative predictive value was 91.7%. No identifiable risk factor alone or in combination was of sufficient sensitivity to reliably predict AAN, but use of IPM may lower the incidence of AAN. PMID:8418164

  19. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru; Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku; Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Naoto

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  20. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations. PMID:27192958

  1. Real-time luminescence microspectroscopy monitoring of singlet oxygen in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Valenta, Jan; Breitenbach, Thomas; Hála, Jan

    2014-08-01

    A new setup for direct microspectroscopic monitoring of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) has been developed in our laboratory using a novel near-infrared sensitive InGaAs 2D-array detector. An imaging spectrograph has been inserted in front of the 2D-array detector, which allows us to acquire spectral images where one dimension is spatial and the other is spectral. The work presents a detailed examination of sensitivity and noise characteristics of the setup and its ability to detect (1)O2. The (1)O2 phosphorescence-based images and near-infrared luminescence spectral images recorded from single TMPyP-containing fibroblast cells reflecting spectral changes during irradiation are demonstrated. The introduction of spectral images addresses the issue of a potential spectral overlap of (1)O2 phosphorescence with near-infrared-extended luminescence of the photosensitizer and provides a powerful tool for distinguishing and separating them, which can be applied to any photosensitizer manifesting near-infrared luminescence. PMID:24954013

  2. Monitoring Integrated Activity of Individual Neurons Using FRET-Based Voltage-Sensitive Dyes.

    PubMed

    Briggman, Kevin L; Kristan, William B; González, Jesús E; Kleinfeld, David; Tsien, Roger Y

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of membrane-associated molecules exhibiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) provide a sensitive technique to measure changes in a cell's membrane potential. One of the FRET pair binds to one surface of the membrane and the other is a mobile ion that dissolves in the lipid bilayer. The voltage-related signal can be measured as a change in the fluorescence of either the donor or acceptor molecules, but measuring their ratio provides the largest and most noise-free signal. This technology has been used in a variety of ways; three are documented in this chapter: (1) high throughput drug screening, (2) monitoring the activity of many neurons simultaneously during a behavior, and (3) finding synaptic targets of a stimulated neuron. In addition, we provide protocols for using the dyes on both cultured neurons and leech ganglia. We also give an updated description of the mathematical basis for measuring the coherence between electrical and optical signals. Future improvements of this technique include faster and more sensitive dyes that bleach more slowly, and the expression of one of the FRET pair genetically. PMID:26238052

  3. Use of a digital camera onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor spring phenology at individual tree level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, Elias; Gaulton, Rachel; Barr, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of forest phenology, in a cost-effective manner, at a fine spatial scale and over relatively large areas remains a significant challenge. To address this issue, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) appear as a potential new option for forest phenology monitoring. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of imagery acquired from a UAV to track seasonal changes in leaf canopy at individual tree level. UAV flights, deploying consumer-grade standard and near-infrared modified cameras, were carried out over a deciduous woodland during the spring season of 2015, from which a temporal series of calibrated and georeferenced 5 cm spatial resolution orthophotos was generated. Initial results from a subset of trees are presented in this paper. Four trees with different observed Start of Season (SOS) dates were selected to monitor UAV-derived Green Chromatic Coordinate (GCC), as a measure of canopy greenness. Mean GCC values were extracted from within the four individual tree crowns and were plotted against the day of year (DOY) when the data were acquired. The temporal GCC trajectory of each tree was associated with the visual observations of leaf canopy phenology (SOS) and also with the development of understory vegetation. The chronological order when sudden increases of GCC values occurred matched with the chronological order of observed SOS: the first sudden increase in GCC was detected in the tree which first reached SOS; 18.5 days later (on average) the last sudden increase of GCC was detected in the tree which last reached SOS (18 days later than the first one). Trees with later observed SOS presented GCC values increasing slowly over time, which were associated with development of understory vegetation. Ongoing work is dealing with: 1) testing different indices; 2) radiometric calibration (retrieving of spectral reflectance); 3) expanding the analysis to more tree individuals, more tree species and over larger forest areas, and; 4) deriving

  4. Long-Term Effects of Individual Development Accounts on Postsecondary Education: Follow-Up Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G.; Rohe, William M.; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a 3-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level.…

  5. How are the Experiences and Needs of Families of Individuals with Mental Illness Reflected in Medical Education Guidelines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Scheid, Jeanette; Luz, Clare; Mickus, Maureen; Liszewski, Christine; Eaton, Monaca

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive study explored the extent that medical education curriculum guidelines contained content about the experiences and needs of family members of people with serious mental illness. Methods: Key family-focused-literature themes about the experiences and needs of families of individuals with mental illness were drawn from a…

  6. Grief and Personal Growth Experience of Spouses and Adult-Child Caregivers of Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…

  7. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone. PMID

  8. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  9. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  10. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for determination of size of individual immobilized vesicles: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Thomas; Zhdanov, Vladimir P.; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-08-01

    Lipid vesicles immobilized via molecular linkers at a solid support represent a convenient platform for basic and applied studies of biological processes occurring at lipid membranes. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), one can track such processes at the level of individual vesicles provided that they contain dyes. In such experiments, it is desirable to determine the size of each vesicle, which may be in the range from 50 to 1000 nm. Fortunately, TIRFM in combination with nanoparticle tracking analysis makes it possible to solve this problem as well. Herein, we present the formalism allowing one to interpret the TIRFM measurements of the latter category. The analysis is focused primarily on the case of unpolarized light. The specifics of the use of polarized light are also discussed. In addition, we show the expected difference in size distribution of suspended and immobilized vesicles under the assumption that the latter ones are deposited under diffusion-controlled conditions. In the experimental part of our work, we provide representative results, showing explicit advantages and some shortcomings of the use of TIRFM in the context under consideration, as well as how our refined formalism improves previously suggested approaches.

  11. Dual-monitor deterministic hardware for visual stimuli generation in neuroscience experiments.

    PubMed

    Gazziro, Mario; Almeida, Lirio

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of a dual-monitor visual stimulus generator that is used in neuroscience experiments with invertebrates such as flies. The experiment consists in the visualization of two fixed images that are displaced horizontally according to the stimulus data. The system was developed using off-the-shelf FPGA kits and it is capable of displaying 640x480 pixels with 256 intensity levels at 200 frames per second (FPS) on each monitor. A Raster plot of the experiment with the superimposed stimuli was generated as the result of this work. A novel architecture was developed, using the same DOT Clock for both monitors, and its implementation generates a perfect synchronism in both devices. PMID:21096378

  12. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  13. A Distributed, Real-Time Data Monitoring System as Ground Support Equipment for Balloon-Borne Astronomy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. M. H.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cook, W. R.; Davis, A. J.; Harrison, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    We present a real-time data-monitoring software suite that we developed for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT). HEFT was one of the first projects to develop focusing mirrors and detectors for hard X-ray astronomy. We deployed these new technologies on the scientific ballooning platform. During a balloon flight, this so-called ‘ground support equipment’ (GSE) allows us to monitor the physical condition of the payload, and to inspect preliminary science data in real time, through displays of tables of frequently updated quantities and their averages, time-series plots, histograms, spectra, and images. Unique from previous implementations of GSE s for other experiments, our system is a server-client network that utilises TCP/IP unicast and UDP multicast to enable multiple, concurrent and independent display clients. Most of the code is in Java, and thus platform-independent. We verified that the software suite works on Linux, Mac OS/X and Windows XP, deployed it in two flight campaigns for use during on-site calibration, pre-launch practice drills, and an observation flight of 24 hours. This system, and individual ideas of its implementation, can be adapted for use in future experiments requiring sophisticated real-time monitoring and data display.

  14. Monitoring conformational dynamics with solid-state R 1rho experiments.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Caitlin M; McDermott, Ann E

    2009-09-01

    A new application of solid-state rotating frame (R(1rho)) relaxation experiments to observe conformational dynamics is presented. Studies on a model compound, dimethyl sulfone (DMS), show that R(1rho) relaxation due to reorientation of a chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensor undergoing chemical exchange can be used to monitor slow-to-intermediate timescale conformational exchange processes. Control experiments used d ( 6 ) -DMS and alanine to confirm that the technique is monitoring reorientation of the CSA tensor rather than dipolar interactions or methyl group rotation. The application of this method to proteins could represent a new site-specific probe of conformational dynamics. PMID:19636799

  15. Chemical Explosion Experiments to Improve Nuclear Test Monitoring [Developing a New Paradigm for Nuclear Test Monitoring with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Snelson, Catherine M.; Abbott, Robert E.; Broome, Scott T.; Mellors, Robert J.; Patton, Howard J.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Townsend, Margaret J.; Walter, William R.

    2013-07-02

    A series of chemical explosions, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to develop a new more physics-based paradigm for nuclear test monitoring. Currently, monitoring relies on semi-empirical models to discriminate explosions from earthquakes and to estimate key parameters such as yield. While these models have been highly successful monitoring established test sites, there is concern that future tests could occur in media and at scale depths of burial outside of our empirical experience. This is highlighted by North Korean tests, which exhibit poor performance of a reliable discriminant, mb:Ms (Selby et al., 2012), possibly due to source emplacement and differences in seismic responses for nascent and established test sites. The goal of SPE is to replace these semi-empirical relationships with numerical techniques grounded in a physical basis and thus applicable to any geologic setting or depth.

  16. Chemical Explosion Experiments to Improve Nuclear Test Monitoring [Developing a New Paradigm for Nuclear Test Monitoring with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Snelson, Catherine M.; Abbott, Robert E.; Broome, Scott T.; Mellors, Robert J.; Patton, Howard J.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Townsend, Margaret J.; Walter, William R.

    2013-07-02

    A series of chemical explosions, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to develop a new more physics-based paradigm for nuclear test monitoring. Currently, monitoring relies on semi-empirical models to discriminate explosions from earthquakes and to estimate key parameters such as yield. While these models have been highly successful monitoring established test sites, there is concern that future tests could occur in media and at scale depths of burial outside of our empirical experience. This is highlighted by North Korean tests, which exhibit poormore » performance of a reliable discriminant, mb:Ms (Selby et al., 2012), possibly due to source emplacement and differences in seismic responses for nascent and established test sites. The goal of SPE is to replace these semi-empirical relationships with numerical techniques grounded in a physical basis and thus applicable to any geologic setting or depth.« less

  17. Application of the object-oriented paradigm for scientific experiment monitoring & control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racaud, Thierry; Assis-Arantes, Patrick

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the monitoring and control of scientific experiments. This new approach is based on an object-oriented environment composed of three elements: (a) A graphical environment that allows the creation of an object-oriented model of the experiment based on objects, attributes and methods. (b) A language for writing procedures to access the model by sending messages in order to operate the experiment. (c) A man-machine interface based on an interactive graphical layer above the object-oriented representation for controlling and monitoring the experiment. This new approach has been prototyped in a project called "Man-Machine Interface Software for Ground User Terminal", or User Terminal in short. The project is carried out by SPACEBEL Informatique on behalf of the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC). Although this project has been undertaken for the operation of scientific experiments in space, User Terminal can naturally be used for the monitoring and control of ground based experiments. This article presents the User Terminal system as well as one of the first practical exercises performed in the context of the teleoperation of a liquid science experiment to be shipped into space.

  18. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active. Methods Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi. Results Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They acknowledged physical and mental limitations, yet they felt they were in good health. Conclusion Health professionals and politicians should identify places where fellowship and relationships can be built, as well as encourage older people to use their competence by engagement in volunteering. These interventions are important to support older people’s self-care and health. This may also be a way to reduce ageism in Western societies. PMID:23390363

  19. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  20. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment. PMID:27245868

  1. A system utilizing radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to monitor individual rodent behavior in complex social settings.

    PubMed

    Howerton, Christopher L; Garner, Joseph P; Mench, Joy A

    2012-07-30

    Pre-clinical investigation of human CNS disorders relies heavily on mouse models. However these show low predictive validity for translational success to humans, partly due to the extensive use of rapid, high-throughput behavioral assays. Improved assays to monitor rodent behavior over longer time scales in a variety of contexts while still maintaining the efficiency of data collection associated with high-throughput assays are needed. We developed an apparatus that uses radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology to facilitate long-term automated monitoring of the behavior of mice in socially or structurally complex cage environments. Mice that were individually marked and implanted with transponders were placed in pairs in the apparatus, and their locations continuously tracked for 24 h. Video observation was used to validate the RFID readings. The apparatus and its associated software accurately tracked the locations of all mice, yielding information about each mouse's location over time, its diel activity patterns, and the amount of time it was in the same location as the other mouse in the pair. The information that can be efficiently collected in this apparatus has a variety of applications for pre-clinical research on human CNS disorders, for example major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder, in that it can be used to quantify validated endophenotypes or biomarkers of these disorders using rodent models. While the specific configuration of the apparatus described here was designed to answer particular experimental questions, it can be modified in various ways to accommodate different experimental designs. PMID:22698663

  2. Individual rights over public good? The future of anthropometric monitoring of school children in the fight against obesity.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Joanne M; Achat, Helen M

    2009-02-01

    Available evidence indicates that rates of childhood overweight and obesity have been increasing over the past two decades, but inconsistencies between study methods moderate the strength of this evidence. Concomitant health problems and associated costs make it imperative that primary prevention initiatives are introduced to combat the obesity epidemic. Fundamental to informed action is anthropometric monitoring, which if properly implemented will identify changes over time in specific populations to inform policies, practices and services aimed at prevention and treatment. Sample representativeness is essential for valid trend and prevalence data, but efforts to obtain population-based anthropometric data from school children with the required written parental consent have been thwarted by low participation rates. Notable improvements in participation rates when utilising opt-out consent, in which participation is assumed unless otherwise indicated, are evident from local as well as international studies. Opt-out consent can facilitate anthropometric monitoring, delivering a more informed, best-value-for-money response to the obesity epidemic. Health and education ethics committees need to acknowledge the benefits of opt-out consent for "low-risk" anthropometric measurement, which ultimately upholds the individual's rights. PMID:19203312

  3. Leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers’ individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Methods Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Results Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. Discussion The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT. PMID:23293119

  4. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

  5. Monitoring Rates and Heterogeneity of High-Pressure Germination of Bacillus Spores by Phase-Contrast Microscopy of Individual Spores

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingbo; Doona, Christopher J.; Setlow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Germination of Bacillus spores with a high pressure (HP) of ∼150 MPa is via activation of spores' germinant receptors (GRs). The HP germination of multiple individual Bacillus subtilis spores in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) was monitored with phase-contrast microscopy. Major conclusions were that (i) >95% of wild-type spores germinated in 40 min in a DAC at ∼150 MPa and 37°C but individual spores' germination kinetics were heterogeneous; (ii) individual spores' HP germination kinetic parameters were similar to those of nutrient-triggered germination with a variable lag time (Tlag) prior to a period of the rapid release (ΔTrelease) of the spores' dipicolinic acid in a 1:1 chelate with Ca2+ (CaDPA); (iii) spore germination at 50 MPa had longer average Tlag values than that at ∼150 MPa, but the ΔTrelease values at the two pressures were identical and HPs of <10 MPa did not induce germination; (iv) B. subtilis spores that lacked the cortex-lytic enzyme CwlJ and that were germinated with an HP of 150 MPa exhibited average ΔTrelease values ∼15-fold longer than those for wild-type spores, but the two types of spores exhibited similar average Tlag values; and (v) the germination of wild-type spores given a ≥30-s 140-MPa HP pulse followed by a constant pressure of 1 MPa was the same as that of spores exposed to a constant pressure of 140 MPa that was continued for ≥35 min; (vi) however, after short 150-MPa HP pulses and incubation at 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure), spore germination stopped 5 to 10 min after the HP was released. These results suggest that an HP of ∼150 MPa for ≤30 s is sufficient to fully activate spores' GRs, which remain activated at 1 MPa but can deactivate at ambient pressure. PMID:24162576

  6. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  7. Evidence from Individual Inference for High-Dimensional Coexistence: Long-Term Experiments on Recruitment Response

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James S.; Soltoff, Benjamin D.; Powell, Amanda S.; Read, Quentin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background For competing species to coexist, individuals must compete more with others of the same species than with those of other species. Ecologists search for tradeoffs in how species might partition the environment. The negative correlations among competing species that would be indicative of tradeoffs are rarely observed. A recent analysis showed that evidence for partitioning the environment is available when responses are disaggregated to the individual scale, in terms of the covariance structure of responses to environmental variation. That study did not relate that variation to the variables to which individuals were responding. To understand how this pattern of variation is related to niche variables, we analyzed responses to canopy gaps, long viewed as a key variable responsible for species coexistence. Methodology/Principal Findings A longitudinal intervention analysis of individual responses to experimental canopy gaps with 12 yr of pre-treatment and 8 yr post-treatment responses showed that species-level responses are positively correlated – species that grow fast on average in the understory also grow fast on average in response to gap formation. In other words, there is no tradeoff. However, the joint distribution of individual responses to understory and gap showed a negative correlation – species having individuals that respond most to gaps when previously growing slowly also have individuals that respond least to gaps when previously growing rapidly (e.g., Morus rubra), and vice versa (e.g., Quercus prinus). Conclusions/Significance Because competition occurs at the individual scale, not the species scale, aggregated species-level parameters and correlations hide the species-level differences needed for coexistence. By disaggregating models to the scale at which the interaction occurs we show that individual variation provides insight for species differences. PMID:22393349

  8. Personal experiences of pregnancy and fertility in individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often face a number of barriers in family planning and pregnancy. These barriers can be structural (i.e. inaccessible health care provider offices and providers unfamiliar with fertility, pregnancy, and SCI) or social (i.e. friends, family, and even providers suggesting that individuals with SCI should not have children), and can affect both men and women. Additionally, much of the information about SCI and pregnancy is from a medical perspective and the psychosocial aspects of pregnancy for individuals with SCI have not been considered. 253 men and women with SCI were asked about the information they received about SCI and pregnancy, where they received this information, and how their SCI affected their family planning. The responses shared in this study can be used to inform individuals who work with people with SCI to better assist their clients or patients who have sustained SCI and are considering pregnancy. PMID:25382883

  9. Multiple early victimization experiences as a pathway to explain physical health disparities among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Judith P; Zou, Christopher; Blosnich, John

    2015-05-01

    Prior research shows that health disparities exist between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. We extend the literature by testing if the higher prevalence of childhood victimization experienced by sexual minority individuals accounts for lifetime health disparities. Heterosexual (n = 422) and sexual minority (n = 681) participants were recruited on-line in North America. Respondents completed surveys about their childhood victimization experiences (i.e., maltreatment by adults and peer victimization) and lifetime physician-diagnosed physical health conditions. Results showed that sexual minority individuals experienced higher prevalence of childhood victimization and lifetime physical health problems than heterosexuals. Mediation analyses indicated that maltreatment by adults and peer bullying explained the health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals. This study is the first to show that multiple childhood victimization experiences may be one pathway to explain lifetime physical health disparities. Intervention programs reducing the perpetration of violence against sexual minority individuals are critical to reduce health care needs related to victimization experiences. PMID:25864147

  10. Design, development, and assembly of sub-orbital space flight structural health monitoring experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, William; Runnels, Brandon; White, Chris; Light-Marquez, Abraham; Zagrai, Andrei; Siler, David; Marinsek, Stephen; Murray, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles; Sansom, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents a discussion of the design, development, and assembly of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) experiments launched in space on a sub-orbital flight. Onboard experiments were focused on investigating the utility of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) as active elements of spacecraft SHM systems and the electro-mechanical impedance method as a promising SHM methodology for space systems. A Magneto-elastic active sensor (MEAS) was used to record in-flight dynamics of the payload. The list of PWAS experiments included a bolted-joint experiment, an adhesive endurance experiment, and an experiment to monitor PWAS condition during spaceflight. Electromechanical impedances of piezoelectric sensors were recorded in-flight at varying input frequencies using onboard microcontroller units. PWAS and MEAS data were recovered from the payload after landing. Details of the sub-orbital flight experiments are considered and conclusions pertaining to flight results are presented. The paper discusses issues encountered during design, development, and assembly of the payload and aspects central to successful demonstration of the SHM during sub-orbital space flight.

  11. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  12. A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Educational, Vocational and Social Experiences of College Educated Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Mary-Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Students who are visually impaired have significantly lower educational and vocational success rates than their nondisabled peers (Hasazi, Johnson, Hasazi, Gordon, & Hull, 1989; Nagle, 2001). A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to explore the educational, vocational and social experiences of college educated individuals who were…

  13. Telephone advice nursing: parents' experiences of monitoring calls in children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Elisabeth Kvilén; Sandelius, Susanna; Wahlberg, Anna Carin

    2015-06-01

    A common reason for calling a telephone advice nurse is gastroenteritis symptoms in children. A monitoring call is a follow-up call from the telephone nurse to the care seeker in order to follow up on given advice and make a new assessment. The aim of the study was to describe the parents' experiences of monitoring calls in telephone advice nursing in children with gastroenteritis. A qualitative interview method was chosen and data were analysed inductively with a qualitative latent content analysis. Ten parents, nine mothers and one father were interviewed. Four main categories and 13 subcategories were identified and described as useful, and the main categories were convenience - parents found it convenient to get access to self-care advice at home, confirmation - the interaction between the telephone nurse and the parent seemed to become deeper and closer as a result of the monitoring call, support - in a vulnerable situation receiving further information and an opportunity to let the telephone nurse monitor the sick child and guidance - to be guided through the most acute phase in the child's gastroenteritis symptoms. Monitoring calls seemed to be experienced as a security enhancing, positive opportunity and a robust complement to seeking care at a healthcare facility. The results of the study indicate how inhabitants can receive expert advice, support and guidance for care and provide a useful basis for Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) to develop the modalities for monitoring calls. PMID:25236581

  14. Calibration and monitoring of the air fluorescence detector for the Telescope Array experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuno, H.; Azuma, R.; Fukushima, M.; Higashide, Y.; Inoue, N.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kawana, S.; Murano, Y.; Ogio, S.; Sakurai, N.; Sagawa, H.; Shibata, T.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Udo, S.; Yoshida, S.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    The air fluorescence detectors (FDs) of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment have been constructed in a dessert of Utah, USA. We can measure the longitudinal developments of EASs directly with the FDs by detecting air fluorescence lights and determine the primary energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In order for accurate observation and measurements of EASs, elaborate detector calibrations and monitoring systems are required. We will present the result of calibration and monitoring systems for the reflectance and curvature radius of segment mirrors, the characteristics of PMT (absolute gain, linearity, temperature dependence of gain), and the uniformity of the camera surface, etc.

  15. Monitoring circadian rhythms of individual honey bees in a social environment reveals social influences on postembryonic ontogeny of activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Meshi, A; Bloch, G

    2007-08-01

    Social factors constitute an important component of the environment of many animals and have a profound influence on their physiology and behavior. Studies of social influences on circadian rhythms have been hampered by a methodological trade-off: automatic data acquisition systems obtain high-quality data but are effective only for individually isolated animals and therefore compromise by requiring a context that may not be sociobiologically relevant. Human observers can monitor animal activity in complex social environments but are limited in the resolution and quality of data that can be gathered. The authors developed and validated a method for prolonged, automatic, high-quality monitoring of focal honey bees in a relatively complex social environment and with minimal illumination. The method can be adapted for studies on other animals. The authors show that the system provides a reliable estimation of the actual path of a focal bee, only rarely misses its location for > 1 min, and removes most nonspecific signals from the background. Using this system, the authors provide the first evidence of social influence on the ontogeny of activity rhythms. Young bees that were housed with old foragers show ~24-h rhythms in locomotor activity at a younger age and with stronger rhythms than bees housed with a similar number of young bees. By contrast, the maturation of the hypopharyngeal glands was slower in bees housed with foragers, similar to findings in previous studies. The morphology and function of the hypopharyngeal glands vary along with age-based division of labor. Therefore, these findings indicate that social inhibition of task-related maturation was effective in the experimental setup. This study suggests that although the ontogeny of circadian rhythms is typically correlated with the age-based division of labor, their social regulation is different. PMID:17660451

  16. Bioanalytical Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Monitoring Glucose in Sports Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, J. Justin; Yang, Wenrong; Situmorang, Manihar

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes two complementary bioanalytical experiments for analyzing the concentration of glucose in sports drinks. The first experiment is a spectrophotometric enzyme assay employing the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The glucose is oxidized by the GOx, producing hydrogen peroxide, which is the substrate for HRP. In the reduction of the H2O2 a chromogen is oxidized, causing a color change. In the partner experiment, the GOx is immobilized on a platinum electrode using a dialysis membrane. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the enzyme reaction is monitored amperometrically by oxidizing the hydrogen peroxide produced. The simple method of preparing the enzyme electrode is useful in demonstrating the important parameters in defining the response of enzyme electrodes. The same sports drinks are analyzed in both experiments. The two experiments together illustrate the advantage of bioanalysis in analyzing complex samples with minimal sample preparation.

  17. Adaptive behavior can produce maladaptive anxiety due to individual differences in experience.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Frazer; T Bergstrom, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Normal anxiety is considered an adaptive response to the possible presence of danger, but is susceptible to dysregulation. Anxiety disorders are prevalent at high frequency in contemporary human societies, yet impose substantial disability upon their sufferers. This raises a puzzle: why has evolution left us vulnerable to anxiety disorders? We develop a signal detection model in which individuals must learn how to calibrate their anxiety responses: they need to learn which cues indicate danger in the environment. We derive the optimal strategy for doing so, and find that individuals face an inevitable exploration-exploitation tradeoff between obtaining a better estimate of the level of risk on one hand, and maximizing current payoffs on the other. Because of this tradeoff, a subset of the population can become trapped in a state of self-perpetuating over-sensitivity to threatening stimuli, even when individuals learn optimally. This phenomenon arises because when individuals become too cautious, they stop sampling the environment and fail to correct their misperceptions, whereas when individuals become too careless they continue to sample the environment and soon discover their mistakes. Thus, over-sensitivity to threats becomes common whereas under-sensitivity becomes rare. We suggest that this process may be involved in the development of excessive anxiety in humans. PMID:27530544

  18. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center Monitor and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan (Cindy); Torgerson, J. Leigh; Schoolcraft, Joshua; Brenman, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) software at JPL is an implementation of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) which has been proposed as an interplanetary protocol to support space communication. The JPL Deep Impact Network (DINET) is a technology development experiment intended to increase the technical readiness of the JPL implemented ION suite. The DINET Experiment Operations Center (EOC) developed by JPL's Protocol Technology Lab (PTL) was critical in accomplishing the experiment. EOC, containing all end nodes of simulated spaces and one administrative node, exercised publish and subscribe functions for payload data among all end nodes to verify the effectiveness of data exchange over ION protocol stacks. A Monitor and Control System was created and installed on the administrative node as a multi-tiered internet-based Web application to support the Deep Impact Network Experiment by allowing monitoring and analysis of the data delivery and statistics from ION. This Monitor and Control System includes the capability of receiving protocol status messages, classifying and storing status messages into a database from the ION simulation network, and providing web interfaces for viewing the live results in addition to interactive database queries.

  19. Individual Differences in Negative Group Work Experiences in Collaborative Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Regina; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bray, Diane; Michie, Fran; Street, Becky

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the Negative Group Work Experiences questionnaire (NGWE), an assessment tool for measuring negative experiences of group work. Study 1 involved two samples of undergraduate psychology students (second-year sample n = 425; first-year sample n = 443), who completed research modules incorporating substantial…

  20. Heterosexual College Student Sexual Experiences, Feminist Identity, and Attitudes toward LGBT Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…

  1. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Goh, J.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J. W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Chudasama, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Mehta, A.; Kumar, R.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Costantini, S.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Ocampo, A.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Doninck, W. V.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro, L.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Avila, C.; Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, S.; Shoaib, M.; Hoorani, H.; Awan, I.; Ali, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Shahzad, H.; Sayed, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Sharma, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Venditti, R.; Verwillingen, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Merola, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, O. M.; Braghieri, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Vai, I.; Magnani, A.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Hadjiiska, R.; Ibargüen, H. S.; Morales, M. I. P.; Bernardino, S. C.; Bagaturia, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Crotty, I.

    2014-10-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time.

  2. A common neural code for similar conscious experiences in different individuals

    PubMed Central

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Anello, Mimma; Owen, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of human consciousness from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. We asked whether there is a common neural code that underpins similar conscious experiences, which could be used to decode these experiences in the absence of behavior. To this end, we used richly evocative stimulation (an engaging movie) portraying real-world events to elicit a similar conscious experience in different people. Common neural correlates of conscious experience were quantified and related to measurable, quantitative and qualitative, executive components of the movie through two additional behavioral investigations. The movie’s executive demands drove synchronized brain activity across healthy participants’ frontal and parietal cortices in regions known to support executive function. Moreover, the timing of activity in these regions was predicted by participants’ highly similar qualitative experience of the movie’s moment-to-moment executive demands, suggesting that synchronization of activity across participants underpinned their similar experience. Thus we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that a neural index based on executive function reliably predicted every healthy individual’s similar conscious experience in response to real-world events unfolding over time. This approach provided strong evidence for the conscious experience of a brain-injured patient, who had remained entirely behaviorally nonresponsive for 16 y. The patient’s executive engagement and moment-to-moment perception of the movie content were highly similar to that of every healthy participant. These findings shed light on the common basis of human consciousness and enable the interpretation of conscious experience in the absence of behavior. PMID:25225384

  3. A psychological flexibility conceptualisation of the experience of injustice among individuals with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lance M; Trost, Zina

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the experience of injustice in patients with chronic pain is associated with poorer pain-related outcomes. Despite this evidence, a theoretical framework to understand this relationship is presently lacking. This review is the first to propose that the psychological flexibility model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may provide a clinically useful conceptual framework to understand the association between the experience of injustice and chronic pain outcomes. A literature review was conducted to identify research and theory on the injustice experience in chronic pain, chronic pain acceptance, and ACT. Research relating injustice to chronic pain outcomes is summarised, the relevance of psychological flexibility to the injustice experience is discussed, and the subprocesses of psychological flexibility are proposed as potential mediating factors in the relationship between injustice and pain outcomes. Application of the psychological flexibility model to the experience of pain-related injustice may provide new avenues for future research and clinical interventions for patients with pain. Summary points • Emerging research links the experience of pain-related injustice to problematic pain outcomes. • A clinically relevant theoretical framework is currently lacking to guide future research and intervention on pain-related injustice. • The psychological flexibility model would suggest that the overarching process of psychological inflexibility mediates between the experience of injustice and adverse chronic pain outcomes. • Insofar as the processes of psychological inflexibility account for the association between injustice experiences and pain outcomes, methods of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may reduce the impact of injustice of pain outcomes. • Future research is needed to empirically test the proposed associations between the experience of pain-related injustice, psychological

  4. Families of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Policy, Funding, Services, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Amy; Agosta, John; Heller, Tamar; Williams, Ann Cameron; Reinke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Families are critical in the provision of lifelong support to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Today, more people with IDD receive long-term services and supports while living with their families. Thus, it is important that researchers, practitioners, and policy makers understand how to best support families who…

  5. When Experience Meets Language Statistics: Individual Variability in Processing English Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkauskas, Kaitlin; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Statistical patterns of language use demonstrably affect language comprehension and language production. This study set out to determine whether the variable amount of exposure to such patterns leads to individual differences in reading behavior as measured via eye-movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that more proficient readers are less…

  6. Promoting Individual and Group Regulated Learning in Collaborative Settings: An Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onrubia, Javier; Rochera, Maria José; Engel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present a teaching innovation intervention aimed at promoting individual and group learning regulation in undergraduate students working in a computer supported collaborative learning environment. Participants were 127 students and three teachers of a compulsory course on Educational Psychology at the University of Barcelona (Spain). As a…

  7. Language Experience Interviews: What Can They Tell Us about Individual Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    While language learners and teachers have long known that individual differences (IDs) among students result in differential learning, we still do not know how traditional ID variables interact or the specific impact each one has on language learning. The present study proposes that instead of looking at isolated variables, researchers should…

  8. Evidence of Reflective Thinking across the Curriculum: College Experience versus Individual Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Carol Springer

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how individual and course-level variables across the curriculum at a four-year college (college here refers to a higher education institution that offers undergraduate education but not graduate degrees) in the southeastern US impacted student reflective thinking as measured by Kember and colleagues' [2000. Development of a…

  9. Monitoring of debris flows and landslides by wired and wireless systems. Experiences from the Catalan Pyrenees.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, José; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Llosa, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    Sophisticated monitoring of landslides for research purpose has started in the 1990thies in the Catalan Pyrenees. Since then several types of mass movements (large landslides, debris flows, shallow landslides and rock falls) and multiples techniques have been applied. In this contribution, special attention will be given to the debris-flow monitoring system installed since summer 2009 in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees. The monitoring system has continuously been improved during the last years and nowadays includes devices studying the three major aspects: 1) initiation, 2) flow dynamics, and 3) accumulation. While some parts of the monitoring network include a traditional wired system, the newer parts were installed using low-power wireless devices. Two major aspects will be discussed. First, results of the Rebaixader monitoring site will be presented. Second, experience regarding the monitoring will be evaluated focussing on technical aspects and the comparison between wired and wireless techniques. In the Rebaixader catchment, 6 debris flows and 11 debris floods were observed between August 2009 and October 2012. Surprisingly, also 4 major rock falls were recorded. The rainfall analysis shows that the debris flows were triggered by short, high-intensity rainstorms with a preliminary threshold of about 15 mm during 1 hour. In addition, there was observed a positive trend between event volume and rainfall amount or intensity. The analysis of the ground vibration signals shows significant differences between the time series recorded at the different geophones. These differences are associated with the geophone location in the channel (distance and material), the mounting or the data acquisition system. For instance, the most downstream geophone, installed in bedrock, shows the clearest debris-flows vibration time series, while the uppermost is the most reliable regarding the detection of rockfalls. An evaluation of wired versus wireless monitoring

  10. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  11. Variation among individuals in photoperiod responses: Effects of breeding schedule, photoperiod, and age-related photoperiodic experience in birds.

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; Hahn, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Many organisms use environmental cues to regulate reproductive function in order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. Whereas we understand much about how environmental cues are used to time reproduction, we know relatively little about variation among individuals in responsiveness to environmental cues. However, this variation among individuals may represent a crucial component of a population's capacity to respond to changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantify variation among individuals in photoperiod responsiveness of the avian reproductive system and investigate three potential underlying sources of this variation in environmental cue responsiveness. Specifically, we tested whether age-related photoperiodic experience, strength of the photoperiodic cue (day length), and degree of flexibility in breeding schedule influenced the degree of variation observed in experimental studies of seven species of cardueline finches. Overall, we found a high degree of variation among individuals in photoperiod response, and this was influenced by experimental photoperiod and breeding schedule. As experimental photoperiod became longer, the degree of variation declined. Opportunistic breeders showed greater variation in response compared with more seasonal breeders. We found no effect of age-related photoperiodic experience in one species for which we could examine this factor. The results of this study highlight the extent to which individuals can vary in their response to environmental cues and point to both species ecology and characteristics of the cue as important influences on the degree of this variation. PMID:25865942

  12. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  13. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  14. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  15. Diamond detector for beam profile monitoring in COMET experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    &Cbreve; erv, M.; Sarin, P.; Pernegger, H.; Vageeswaran, P.; Griesmayer, E.

    2015-06-01

    We present the design and initial prototype results of a proton beam profile monitor for the COMET experiment at J-PARC. The goal of COMET is to look for charged lepton flavor violation by direct μ to e conversion at a sensitivity of 10-19. The 8 GeV proton beam pulsed at 100 ns with 1010 protons/s will be used to create muons through pion production and decay. In the final experiment, the proton flux will be raised to 1014 protons/s to increase the sensitivity. These requirements of harsh radiation tolerance and fast readout make diamond a good choice for constructing a beam profile monitor in COMET. We present first results of the characterization of single crystal diamond (scCVD) sourced from a new company 2A SYSTEMS Singapore. Our measurements indicate excellent charge collection and high carrier mobility down to cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Is long-term structural priming affected by patterns of experience with individual verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these long-term priming effects are modulated by the participants’ patterns of experience with particular verbs within the double object and prepositional object constructions. The results of three experiments show that patterns of experience with particular verbs using the double object or prepositional object constructions do not have much effect on the shape of the longterm structural priming effects reported elsewhere in the literature. These findings lend support to the claim that structural priming is the result of adaptations to the language production system that occur on an abstract, structural level of representation that is separate from representations regarding the behavior of particular lexical items in particular constructions [e.g., Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113, 234–272]. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26500391

  17. Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Alayon, Silvia; Do, Tran Thanh; Ngan, Tran Thi; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available about how to build a monitoring system to measure the output of preventive nutrition interventions, such as counselling on infant and young child feeding. This paper describes the Alive & Thrive Vietnam (A&T) project experience in nesting a large-scale project monitoring system into the existing public health information system (e.g. using the system and resources), and in using monitoring data to strengthen service delivery in 15 provinces with A&T franchises. From January 2012 to April 2014, the 780 A&T franchises provided 1,700,000 counselling contacts (~3/4 by commune franchises). In commune franchises in April 2014, 80% of mothers who were pregnant or with children under two years old had been to the counselling service at least one time, and 87% of clients had been to the service earlier. Monitoring data are used to track the progress of the project, make decisions, provide background for a costing study and advocate for the integration of nutrition counselling indicators into the health information system nationwide. With careful attention to the needs of stakeholders at multiple levels, clear data quality assurance measures and strategic feedback mechanisms, it is feasible to monitor the scale-up of nutrition programmes through the existing routine health information system. PMID:25414946

  18. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K Hartwell; John B. Walter

    2008-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  19. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John b. Walter

    2010-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  20. New methods for microbial contamination monitoring: an experiment on board the MIR orbital station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, V.; Gaia, E.; Battocchio, L.; Pitzurra, M.; Savino, A.; Pasquarella, C.; Vago, T.; Cotronei, V.

    1997-01-01

    Experiment T2, carried out during the Euromir'95 mission, was an important step toward innovative methods for spacecraft microbial contamination monitoring. A new standard sampling technique permitted samples to be analysed by different means. On board, two analysis methods were tested in parallel: Bioluminescence and Miniculture. In turn, downloaded samples are being analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a powerful and promising method for the rapid detection, identification and quantification of pathogens and biofouling agents in closed manned habitats.

  1. Individual design of the anterolateral thigh flap for functional reconstruction after hemiglossectomy: experience with 238 patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Liu, K; Shao, Z; Shang, Z-J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tongue function in patients with oral cancer treated surgically and reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flaps (ALTFs). Patients (N=238) underwent primary reconstruction after hemiglossectomy between September 2012 and October 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to the flap design: 'individual design' (ABC flap) and 'common design'. Patients were followed postoperatively and assessed after 6 months for the following functional outcomes: speech, deglutition, tongue mobility, and donor site morbidity. Intelligibility and deglutition were each scored by an independent investigator. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. No differences in mean speech intelligibility scores were observed between the two groups (good: P=0.908; acceptable: P=0.881). However, the ABC flap offered recovery advantages for swallowing capacity compared to the common design flap (MTF classification good: P=0.028; acceptable: P=0.001). The individualized ABC flap not only provides volume but also preserves mobility, speech intelligibility, and swallowing capacity. ALTFs require further improvement for the individualized functional reconstruction of the tongue after hemiglossectomy, but this work lays the foundation for these improvements. PMID:26826782

  2. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  3. MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with VLBA Experiments. XI. Spectral Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Lister, Matthew L.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 ± 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of -1.04 ± 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about -0.001 to -0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean -1.09 ± 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean -0.80 ± 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ~0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of -0.81 ± 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ~2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall steepening of the

  4. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas; Homan, Daniel C.; Lister, Matthew L.

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 ± 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of –1.04 ± 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about –0.001 to –0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean –1.09 ± 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean –0.80 ± 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ∼0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of –0.81 ± 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ∼2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall

  5. The lived experiences of individuals with Tourette syndrome or tic disorders: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heather; Fox, John R E; Trayner, Penny

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative literature describing the lived experiences of people with tic disorders (TDs). The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of this literature, synthesizing the perspectives of individuals on their experiences. Meta-synthesis methodology was utilized to review and draw together findings from 10 articles, from which key concepts were extracted, and over-arching themes generated. Six themes were identified to encompass the experience of TDs, including (1) cultural, semantic issues of the condition; (2) negative experiences in organizations and treatment; (3) the value and negative impact on interpersonal relationships; (4) personal identity in the constant presence of TDs; (5) concerns for the future; and (6) strategies to control and manage the observable presence of tics. Adaptive coping strategies were found to encompass continuous social adaptation, strategies to manage tics and social perceptions, self-acceptance, advocacy, and support from others. The results highlighted the significant role of social and cultural issues related to understanding and stigma, which underpinned many of the lived experiences. Implications for clinical practice in supporting individuals with TDs were also highlighted. PMID:25721405

  6. Predictive power of individual factors and clinical learning experience on academic success: findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Fabris, Stefano; Palese, Alvisa

    2015-01-01

    Academic failure is the inability of a nursing student to graduate or to complete the nursing degree on time. This longitudinal cohort study, involving 2 Italian universities, documents the effects of selected individual variables and the quality of the clinical learning experience as perceived by students on academic success. Factors related to the clinical learning experience were the quality of the supervisory relationship, pedagogical atmosphere, and commitment of the ward related to the level of personalized nursing care delivered and clarity of nursing documentation. PMID:25643319

  7. Emotional Experiences Predict the Conversion of Individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome to Psychosis: A 6-Month Follow up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa Zhan; Wang, Yi; Sun, Xi Rong; Yao, Yu Hong; Zhang, Ning; Qiao, Hui Fen; Zhang, Lan; Li, Zhan Jiang; Lin, Hong; Lu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Zhao, Xu Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the conversion rate in individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) and potential predictor for transition in mainland China. Sixty-three participants identified as APS were followed up 6 months later. The results showed that 17% of individuals with APS converted to full-blown psychosis. The converters exhibited significantly poorer emotional experience and expression than the non-converters at baseline. A further binary logistic regression analysis showed that emotional experience could predict the transition (Wald = 4.18, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 1.04~6.82). The present study suggests an important role of emotional processing in the prediction of the development of full-blown psychosis. PMID:27313553

  8. TRTViewer: Monitoring and Diagnostic Tool for the TRT Detector of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, S. Yu.; Tikhomirov, V. O.

    TRTViewer is the dedicated software tool for monitoring of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) performance at dif- ferent electronics levels: individual channels, readout chips or electronic boards. It can use several sources of input information - from direct DAQ stream or raw data files to ROOT files with processed analysis histograms. Using TRTViewer one can quickly estimate the TRT operational parameters - occupancy, efficiency, timing, reveal problematic regions with noisy, dead or inefficient channels, check calibration uniformity, etc. This tool is widely used by shifters in ATLAS Control Room and also by TRT experts during electronics installation, tuning, operation control and express-offline data analysis.

  9. Forgetting the Past: Individual Differences in Recency in Subjective Valuations from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nathaniel J. S.; Rakow, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Recent research investigating decisions from experience suggests that not all information is treated equally in the decision process, with more recently encountered information having a greater impact. We report 2 studies investigating how this differential treatment of sequentially encountered information affects subjective valuations of risky…

  10. The Fate of Early Experience Following Developmental Change: Longitudinal Approaches to Individual Adaptation in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined Bowlby's proposition that early experiences and the adaptations to which they give rise influence later development, even beyond the influence of current circumstances or very recent adaptation. Groups whose adaptation were similar during preschool years but consistently different earlier were defined and compared. Results supported…

  11. On the Outside Looking in: An African American Family's Experience in an Individualized Education Plan Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the educators…

  12. My Hero, My Friend: Exploring Honduran Youths' Lived Experience of the God-Individual Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Monique B.; Silver, Christopher F.; Ross, Christopher F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive social science research has focused on God image and God concept through the lens of attachment theory and the parental relationship. While vast theoretical frameworks exist, the authors suggest that more focused phenomenological research would shed light on adolescent lived experience within experiential descriptive language and…

  13. Dynamical fingerprints for probing individual relaxation processes in biomolecular dynamics with simulations and kinetic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Noe, F; Diadone, Isabella; Lollmann, Marc; Sauer, Marcus; Chondera, John D; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-01-01

    There is a gap between kinetic experiment and simulation in their views of the dynamics of complex biomolecular systems. Whereas experiments typically reveal only a few readily discernible exponential relaxations, simulations often indicate complex multistate behavior. Here, a theoretical framework is presented that reconciles these two approaches. The central concept is dynamical fingerprints which contain peaks at the time scales of the dynamical processes involved with amplitudes determined by the experimental observable. Fingerprints can be generated from both experimental and simulation data, and their comparison by matching peaks permits assignment of structural changes present in the simulation to experimentally observed relaxation processes. The approach is applied here to a test case interpreting single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments on a set of fluorescent peptides with molecular dynamics simulations. The peptides exhibit complex kinetics shown to be consistent with the apparent simplicity of the experimental data. Moreover, the fingerprint approach can be used to design new experiments with site-specific labels that optimally probe specific dynamical processes in the molecule under investigation.

  14. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  15. Monitoring System for the GRID Monte Carlo Mass Production in the H1 Experiment at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritskaya, Elena; Fomenko, Alexander; Gogitidze, Nelly; Lobodzinski, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    The H1 Virtual Organization (VO), as one of the small VOs, employs most components of the EMI or gLite Middleware. In this framework, a monitoring system is designed for the H1 Experiment to identify and recognize within the GRID the best suitable resources for execution of CPU-time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tasks (jobs). Monitored resources are Computer Elements (CEs), Storage Elements (SEs), WMS-servers (WMSs), CernVM File System (CVMFS) available to the VO HONE and local GRID User Interfaces (UIs). The general principle of monitoring GRID elements is based on the execution of short test jobs on different CE queues using submission through various WMSs and directly to the CREAM-CEs as well. Real H1 MC Production jobs with a small number of events are used to perform the tests. Test jobs are periodically submitted into GRID queues, the status of these jobs is checked, output files of completed jobs are retrieved, the result of each job is analyzed and the waiting time and run time are derived. Using this information, the status of the GRID elements is estimated and the most suitable ones are included in the automatically generated configuration files for use in the H1 MC production. The monitoring system allows for identification of problems in the GRID sites and promptly reacts on it (for example by sending GGUS (Global Grid User Support) trouble tickets). The system can easily be adapted to identify the optimal resources for tasks other than MC production, simply by changing to the relevant test jobs. The monitoring system is written mostly in Python and Perl with insertion of a few shell scripts. In addition to the test monitoring system we use information from real production jobs to monitor the availability and quality of the GRID resources. The monitoring tools register the number of job resubmissions, the percentage of failed and finished jobs relative to all jobs on the CEs and determine the average values of waiting and running time for the

  16. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of CD4 Count in Monitoring HIV Infected Individuals: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Sharda Raju; Jadhav, Meenal Vitthal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction CD4 cell count has been proposed to be substituted by Absolute lymphocyte count in monitoring HIV infected individuals as methods of CD4 cell count and plasma viral estimation require expensive, specialized equipments and highly trained personnel. Aim To assess the clinical utility of the Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 count < 200 cells/μl in patients with HIV infection in resource poor countries. Materials and Methods A prospective study of 61 patients with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of various ALC cut-offs were computed for CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl for age < 30 or age ≥ 30 years. Pearson correlation, Linear regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), were used. Results For patients aged ≥ 30 years, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ALC <1200 cells/μl to predict CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl were 34.48%, 67.5%, 43.48%, 58.69% respectively. For subjects aged < 30 years, these values were 27.27%, 67.5%, 18.75%, 77.14%, respectively. A ALC < 1643 was found to have maximal sensitivity for predicting a CD4 cell count <200/ μl. Conclusion Our data revealed good correlation between ALC and CD4 cell counts but ALC cut-off of 1200 was not a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl. As we increase the cut-off to <1643/ μl it could be the cost-effective surrogate marker for CD4 cell counts < 200 cells/μl in resource limited settings. PMID:27437225

  17. Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV)

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Monte, Milena; Collins, Catherine; Garcia Perez, Sandro; Secombes, Chris J.; Hall, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. “In-tank” anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and γIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or γ IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed. PMID:26397117

  18. Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV).

    PubMed

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Monte, Milena; Collins, Catherine; Garcia Perez, Sandro; Secombes, Chris J; Hall, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. "In-tank" anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and γIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or γ IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed. PMID:26397117

  19. Supporting patients to self-monitor their oral anticoagulation therapy: recommendations based on a qualitative study of patients’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice; Heneghan, Carl; Fitzmaurice, David; Sutton, Stephen; Harrison, Sian; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials suggest that oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) self-monitoring is safe and effective, however little is known about the patient experience of this process. There is a lack of understanding about how best to train and support patients embarking on OAT self-monitoring. Aim To collect in-depth information about patients’ experiences of OAT self-monitoring outside of clinical trial conditions and to produce a set of recommendations on how best to support such patients. Design and setting Semi-structured qualitative interviews with patients who self-monitor and live in England. Method In total, 26 of the 267 (9.7%) who participated in the Cohort study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM) and were still self-monitoring after 12 months’ follow-up were interviewed. Topics discussed included experiences of OAT self-monitoring, healthcare support, training, and decision making. Framework analysis was used. Results Following initial problems using the monitoring device, interviewees described a mostly positive experience. Although less effort was expended attending monitoring appointments with health professionals, effort was required to conduct self-monitoring tests and to interpret and act on the results. Desire to self-manage was variable, especially when dosing advice systems worked promptly and reliably. Interviewees overcame patchy healthcare system knowledge and support of self-monitoring by educating themselves. Family and friends provided support with learning to use the monitor and managing OAT dosage adjustments. Conclusion Better, more-consistent training and health-service support would have alleviated a number of problems encountered by these patients who were self-monitoring. This training and support will become even more important if self-monitoring becomes more accessible to the general population of people on OAT. PMID:26077266

  20. Promoting Individual Learning for Trainees with Perceived High Helplessness: Experiences of a Safety Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohamad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The article arises from a research project investigating the effectiveness of safety training on changing attitudes toward safety issues. Followed by the training intervention was observed that employees’ helplessness decreased. The researchers have come to the idea of investigating how safety training can reduce perceived helplessness. Thus, this research examined the effectiveness of safety training on reducing employees’ helplessness with attention to the mediating role of attitude toward safety issues. Methods: The current study was an experimental study with the control group. A total of 204 (101 experimental group and 103 control group) completed safety attitude questionnaire and perceived helplessness before a safety training course including four 90-min sessions over 4 consecutive days in Esfahan Steel Company in 2012 between October and December. Only members of the experimental group participated in this course. These questionnaires, approximately 30 days later, again were run on members of both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive indexes, t-, and F-test. Results: Results by comparing the two groups showed that safety training was effective only on individuals with perceived low helplessness (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In individuals with perceived high helplessness, safety training only with changing safety attitudes can reduce the perceived helplessness. PMID:25798170

  1. Integrating cortisol and isotopic analyses of archeological hair: reconstructing individual experiences of health and stress.

    PubMed

    Webb, Emily C; White, Christine D; Van Uum, Stan; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2015-04-01

    Archeological hair from 14 adults from the Nasca Region, Peru (c. AD1-1000) was analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and cortisol levels. We investigated the relationship between isotopic compositions, which reflect diet, and cortisol, which reflects biogenic cortisol production and chronic stress. Using a case study approach, we determined that there are consistent changes in cortisol production associated with the rapid dietary change characteristic of local mobility. Moreover, changes in nitrogen- and carbon-isotope compositions, when integrated with cortisol levels, enabled inferences to be made about nitrogen metabolism and carbon routing, and elucidated the nature of potential stressors in the months before death. The isotopic and cortisol data suggested a relatively high rate of exposure to stress that is consistent with what is known about the Nasca Region social and physical environments. Of the 14 adults included in this study, six likely suffered from illness/trauma before death, and a further three experienced stress without an observable associated change in isotopic composition. Five individuals also experienced increased stress related to local mobility, inferred from co-occurring changes in cortisol production and dietary shifting. The integration of cortisol and isotopic data revealed individual characteristics of hidden frailty and risk that would not be apparent using more traditional methods of evaluating health status. This approach will provide a powerful enhancement to the understanding of stress, morbidity, and well-being developed through skeletal analysis. PMID:25470601

  2. Role-Play Experience Facilitates Reading the Mind of Individuals with Different Perception

    PubMed Central

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red). Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read), according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own. PMID:24023966

  3. Database and interactive monitoring system for the photonics and electronics of RPC Muon Trigger in CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiacek, Daniel; Kudla, Ignacy M.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol

    2005-02-01

    The main task of the RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) Muon Trigger monitoring system design for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment (at LHC in CERN Geneva) is the visualization of data that includes the structure of electronic trigger system (e.g. geometry and imagery), the way of its processes and to generate automatically files with VHDL source code used for programming of the FPGA matrix. In the near future, the system will enable the analysis of condition, operation and efficiency of individual Muon Trigger elements, registration of information about some Muon Trigger devices and present previously obtained results in interactive presentation layer. A broad variety of different database and programming concepts for design of Muon Trigger monitoring system was presented in this article. The structure and architecture of the system and its principle of operation were described. One of ideas for building this system is use object-oriented programming and design techniques to describe real electronics systems through abstract object models stored in database and implement these models in Java language.

  4. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  5. Capability of cross-hole electrical configurations for monitoring rapid plume migration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmunt, F.; Marcuello, A.; Ledo, J.; Queralt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool in geotechnical, hydrogeological or fluid/gas plume migration studies. It allows better characterization of deep subsurface structures and monitoring of the involved processes. However, due to the large amount of possible four-electrode combinations between boreholes, the choice of the most efficient ones for rapid plume migration experiments (real-time monitoring), becomes a challenge. In this work, a numerical simulation to assess the capabilities and constraints of the most common cross-hole configurations for real-time monitoring is presented. Four-electrode configurations, sensitivity, dependence on the body location and amount of data were taken into account. The analysis of anomaly detection and the symmetry of the sensitivity pattern of cross-hole configurations allowed significant reduction of the amount of data and maintaining the maximum potential resolution of each configuration for real-time monitoring. The obtained results also highlighted the benefit of using the cross-hole AB-MN configuration (with both current - or potential - electrodes located in the same borehole) combined with other configurations with complementary sensitivity pattern.

  6. LCD Monitors as an Alternative for Precision Demanding Visual Psychophysical Experiments.

    PubMed

    Bognár, Anna; Csibri, Péter; András, Csaba Márk; Sáry, Gyula

    2016-09-01

    Precise timing and presentation of stimuli is critical in vision research, still, the limiting factor in successful recognition is often the monitor itself that is used to present the stimuli. The most widespread method is the use of monitors controlled by personal computers. Traditionally, most experiments used cathode-ray tubes but they are more and more difficult to access, and instead, liquid-crystal displays are getting more and more popular. The two types have fundamentally different working principles and limitations in displaying the stimulus.In our experiments, the temporal precision of the stimulus presentation was in focus. We investigated whether liquid-crystal displays, which are not considered to be fit to display fast successive stimuli, can represent an alternative choice for cathode-ray tubes. We used the double flash and the flicker illusion to compare the technical capabilities of the two monitor types. These illusions not only do require a precise timing but also a very short exposure to the stimuli. At the same time, the interstimulus interval is also of extreme importance. In addition, these illusions require peripheral stimulation of the retina, which is more sensitive to the temporal aspects of the visual stimulus. On the basis of previous studies and our own psychophysical results, we suggest that liquid-crystal displays might be a good alternative for precise, frame-to-frame stimulus presentation even if parts of the stimuli are projected on the peripheral retina. PMID:27271338

  7. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew G; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V; Johnson, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed. PMID:27605921

  8. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Andrew G.; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V.; Johnson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed. PMID:27605921

  9. Interior Vector Magnetic Field Monitoring for the SNS Neutron EDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Nima; Plaster, Brad

    2014-09-01

    A concept has been developed which provides for a real-time determination of the spatial dependence of the vector components of the magnetic field (and, hence, the ∂Bi / ∂xj field gradients) within the interior fiducial volume of the SNS neutron EDM experiment solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. This technique will be especially important during the operation of the experiment, when direct measurements of the field gradients present within the fiducial volume will not be physically possible. Our method, which is based on the solution to the Laplace Equation, is completely general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe the concept and our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements. We also present results from prototyping studies of a field monitoring system deployed within a half-scale prototype of the experiment's magnetic field environment. A concept has been developed which provides for a real-time determination of the spatial dependence of the vector components of the magnetic field (and, hence, the ∂Bi / ∂xj field gradients) within the interior fiducial volume of the SNS neutron EDM experiment solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. This technique will be especially important during the operation of the experiment, when direct measurements of the field gradients present within the fiducial volume will not be physically possible. Our method, which is based on the solution to the Laplace Equation, is completely general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe the concept and our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements. We also present results from prototyping studies of a field monitoring system deployed within a half-scale prototype of the experiment's magnetic field environment. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  10. Data and safety monitoring in social behavioral intervention trials: the REACH II experience

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J; Schulz, Richard; Belle, Steven H; Burgio, Louis D; Armstrong, Nell; Gitlin, Laura N; Coon, David W; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Klinger, Julie; Stahl, Sidney M

    2006-01-01

    variability in practices for data safety and monitoring across psychosocial intervention trials. Conclusions Overall, the REACH II experience demonstrates that existing guidelines regarding safety monitoring and adverse event reporting pose unique challenges for social/behavioral intervention trials. Challenges encountered in the REACH II program included defining and classifying adverse events, defining “resolution” of adverse events and attributing causes for events that occurred. These challenges are highlighted and recommendations for addressing them in future studies are discussed. PMID:16773953

  11. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  12. High-voltage monitoring with a solenoid retarding spectrometer at the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, M.; Bauer, S.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bonn, J.; Drexlin, G.; Goullon, J.; Groh, S.; Glück, F.; Kleesiek, M.; Haußmann, N.; Höhn, T.; Johnston, K.; Kraus, M.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Schlösser, K.; Schupp, M.; Slezák, M.; Thümmler, T.; Vénos, D.; Weinheimer, C.; Wüstling, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2014-06-01

    The KATRIN experiment will measure the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with a sensitivity of mν = 200meV/c2 by means of an electrostatic spectrometer set close to the tritium β-decay endpoint at 18.6keV. Fluctuations of the energy scale must be under control within ±60mV (±3ppm). Since a precise voltage measurement in the range of tens of kV is on the edge of current technology, a nuclear standard will be deployed additionally. Parallel to the main spectrometer the same retarding potential will be applied to the monitor spectrometer to measure 17.8-keV K-conversion electrons of 83mKr. This article describes the setup of the monitor spectrometer and presents its first measurement results.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  14. Experiences and challenges in data monitoring for clinical trials within an international tropical disease research network

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Mok, M; VanRaden, MJ; Higgs, ES; Dominik, R

    2014-01-01

    Background Models for the structure and procedures of data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) continue to evolve in response to issues of new and of old concern. Some authors have called for an open dialogue on these questions through publication of the experiences of DSMBs in addressing them. Purpose The goal of this paper is to add to the current discussion about acceptable models for establishing, serving on, and reporting to monitoring committees, particularly those that oversee multiple studies in less developed countries. The paper seeks to do so by describing the establishment and subsequent operation of one such multi-trial DSMB over a five-year period. This DSMB was formed to monitor trials conducted by members of the International Centers for Tropical Disease Research (ICTDR) network of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Methods The operational model and experiences are summarized by the authors, who had immediate responsibilities for directing the DSMB's activities. Results The board played an active, traditional role in assuring that patient safety was maintained and that current standards for clinical research were met. In addition, both NIAID and the board members viewed education of investigators to be an important role for the board to play in this particular setting. This affected the threshold for identifying which trials would be monitored, and it impacted several procedures adopted by the board. Limitations This report reflects the observations of those involved in managing the DSMB, including comments offered by the DSMB and by investigators, but not data gathered in a systematic way. Conclusions The operational model described here has allowed the DSMB to fulfill its role in the oversight of the trials. We hope that the ideas we present may help others facing similar situations and may stimulate further critical thinking about DSMB structure and function. PMID:17060220

  15. Thermal Analysis of the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring Experiment Technology for X-Vehicles (NITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegab, Hisham E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to perform a thermal analysis for the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) Technology Experiment for X-vehicles (NITEX). This electronics package monitors vehicle sensor information in flight and downlinks vehicle health summary information via telemetry. The experiment will be tested on the X-34 in an unpressurized compartment, in the vicinity of one of the vehicle's liquid oxygen tanks. The transient temperature profile for the electronics package has been determined using finite element analysis for possible mission profiles that will most likely expose the package to the most extreme hot and cold environmental conditions. From the analyses, it was determined that temperature limits for the electronics would be exceeded for the worst case cold environment mission profile. The finite element model used for the analyses was modified to examine the use of insulation to address this problem. Recommendations for insulating the experiment for the cold environment are presented, and were analyzed to determine their effect on a nominal mission profile.

  16. Thermal Analysis Of The NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring Experiment Technology For X-Vehicles (NITEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegab, Hisham E.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to perform a thermal analysis for the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) Technology Experiment for X-vehicles (NITEX). This electronics package monitors vehicle sensor information in flight and downlinks vehicle health summary information via telemetry. The experiment will be tested on the X-34 in an unpressurized compartment, in the vicinity of one of the vehicle's liquid oxygen tanks. The transient temperature profile for the electronics package has been determined using finite element analysis for possible mission profiles that will most likely expose the package to the most extreme hot and cold environmental conditions. From the analyses, it was determined that temperature limits for the electronics would be exceeded for the worst case cold environment mission profile. The finite element model used for the analyses was modified to examine the use of insulation to address this problem. Recommendations for insulating the experiment for the cold environment are presented, and were analyzed to determine their effect on a nominal mission profile.

  17. Individual differences in hedonic experience: Further evidence for the construct validity of the ACIPS.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Diane C; Winston, Tina M; Pflum, Madeline J; Burgin, Chris J

    2015-09-30

    We conducted three investigations to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS; Gooding and Pflum, Psychiatry Research, 2014). In Study One, we used Mechanical Turk to individually administer the ACIPS to a diverse group of community adults aged 25-69. Reports of greater social/interpersonal pleasure was associated with greater sense of interpersonal connectedness with others, higher need to belong, and less likelihood of reporting anxiety during social interactions. In Studies Two and Three, participants were tested in group settings. Studies with undergraduate participants indicated that ACIPS scores are associated with measures of prosocial interactions and sociability as well as measures of anhedonia. Despite differences in testing conditions (i.e., online vs. paper administration) and heterogeneity in the samples in terms of educational level, geographical location, and age, the ACIPS demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Taken together, these studies add to the increasing body of evidence for the construct validity of the ACIPS. PMID:26228162

  18. Zebrafish response to robotic fish: preference experiments on isolated individuals and small shoals.

    PubMed

    Polverino, G; Abaid, N; Kopman, V; Macrì, S; Porfiri, M

    2012-09-01

    Recently developed bioinspired robots imitate their live counterparts in both aspect and functionality. Nevertheless, whether these devices can be integrated within the ecological niche inspiring their design is seldom tested experimentally. An elemental research question concerns the feasibility of modulating spontaneous behaviour of animal systems through bioinspired robotics. The following study explores the possibility of engineering a robotic fish capable of influencing the behaviour of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a dichotomous preference test. While we observe that the preference for the robotic fish never exceeds the preference for a conspecific, our data show that the robot is successful in attracting both isolated individuals and small shoals and that such capability is influenced by its bioinspired features. In particular, we find that the robot's undulations enhance its degree of attractiveness, despite the noise inherent in the actuation system. This is the first experimental evidence that live zebrafish behaviour can be influenced by engineered robots. Such robotic platforms may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social behaviour and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. PMID:22677608

  19. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task,…

  20. Experience of pleasure and emotional expression in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-fang; Wang, Yi; Cao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yu-na; Zong, Ji-gang; Xu, Ting; Tse, Vincent W S; Hsi, Xiao-lu; Stone, William S; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties in feeling pleasure and expressing emotions are one of the key features of schizophrenia spectrum conditions, and are significant contributors to constricted interpersonal interactions. The current study examined the experience of pleasure and emotional expression in college students who demonstrated high and low levels of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) traits on self-report questionnaires. One hundred and seventeen subjects with SPD traits and 116 comparison controls were recruited to participate. Cluster analyses conducted in the SPD group identified negative SPD and positive SPD subgroups. The negative SPD group exhibited deficient emotional expression and anticipatory pleasure, but showed intact consummatory pleasure. The positive SPD group reported significantly greater levels of anticipatory, consummatory and total pleasure compared to the control group. Both SPD groups reported significantly more problems in everyday memory and greater levels of depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. PMID:22615731

  1. User Centric Job Monitoring - a redesign and novel approach in the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Zulkarneeva, Y.

    2014-06-01

    User Centric Monitoring (or UCM) has been a long awaited feature in STAR, whereas programs, workflows and system "events" could be logged, broadcast and later analyzed. UCM allows to collect and filter available job monitoring information from various resources and present it to users in a user-centric view rather than an administrative-centric point of view. The first attempt and implementation of "a" UCM approach was made in STAR 2004 using a log4cxx plug-in back-end and then further evolved with an attempt to push toward a scalable database back-end (2006) and finally using a Web-Service approach (2010, CSW4DB SBIR). The latest showed to be incomplete and not addressing the evolving needs of the experiment where streamlined messages for online (data acquisition) purposes as well as the continuous support for the data mining needs and event analysis need to coexists and unified in a seamless approach. The code also revealed to be hardly maintainable. This paper presents the next evolutionary step of the UCM toolkit, a redesign and redirection of our latest attempt acknowledging and integrating recent technologies and a simpler, maintainable and yet scalable manner. The extended version of the job logging package is built upon three-tier approach based on Task, Job and Event, and features a Web-Service based logging API, a responsive AJAX-powered user interface, and a database back-end relying on MongoDB, which is uniquely suited for STAR needs. In addition, we present details of integration of this logging package with the STAR offline and online software frameworks. Leveraging on the reported experience and work from the ATLAS and CMS experience on using the ESPER engine, we discuss and show how such approach has been implemented in STAR for meta-data event triggering stream processing and filtering. An ESPER based solution seems to fit well into the online data acquisition system where many systems are monitored.

  2. Underwater monitoring experiment using hyperspectral sensor, LiDAR and high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chan-Su; Kim, Sun-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    In general, hyper-spectral sensor, LiDAR and high spatial resolution satellite imagery for underwater monitoring are dependent on water clarity or water transparency that can be measured using a Secchi disk or satellite ocean color data. Optical properties in the sea waters of South Korea are influenced mainly by a strong tide and oceanic currents, diurnal, daily and seasonal variations of water transparency. The satellite-based Secchi depth (ZSD) analysis showed the applicability of hyper-spectral sensor, LiDAR and optical satellite, determined by the location connected with the local distribution of Case 1 and 2 waters. The southeast coastal areas of Jeju Island are selected as test sites for a combined underwater experiment, because those areas represent Case 1 water. Study area is a small port (<15m) in the southeast area of the island and linear underwater target used by sewage pipe is located in this area. Our experiments are as follows: 1. atmospheric and sun-glint correction methods to improve the underwater monitoring ability; 2. intercomparison of water depths obtained from three different sensors. Three sensors used here are the CASI-1500 (Wide-Array Airborne Hyperspectral VNIR Imager (0.38-1.05 microns), the Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL) and Korean Multi-purpose Satellite-3 (KOMPSAT-3) with 2.8 meter multi-spectral resolution. The experimental results were affected by water clarity and surface condition, and the bathymetric results of three sensors show some differences caused by sensor-itself, bathymetric algorithm and tide level. It is shown that CASI-1500 was applicable for bathymetry and underwater target detection in this area, but KOMPSAT-3 should be improved for Case 1 water. Although this experiment was designed to compare underwater monitoring ability of LIDAR, CASI-1500, KOMPSAT-3 data, this paper was based on initial results and suggested only results about the bathymetry and underwater target detection.

  3. THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING OF PROTEASE INHIBITORS AND EFAVIRENZ IN HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS WITH ACTIVE SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing; Zingman, Barry S.; Luque, Amneris; Fischl, Margaret A.; Gripshover, Barbara; Venuto, Charles; DiFrancesco, Robin; Forrest, Alan; Morse, Gene D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving targeted antiretroviral (ART) plasma concentrations during long-term treatment in HIV-infected patients with substance related disorders (SRD) may be challenging due to a number of factors including medication adherence, co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus, medication intolerance and drug interactions. One approach to investigate these factors is to conduct therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to measure ART exposure during treatment. The objective of this study was to utilize TDM to compare efavirenz and protease inhibitor pharmacokinetics in patients with and without SRDs. Methods This was a multi-center, cross-sectional open-label study in patients with HIV-1 infection receiving ART, with active (n=129) or without (n=146) SRD according to National Institute on Drug Abuse criteria. 275 subjects who were receiving either protease inhibitor- or efavirenz-based ART regimens for more than 6 months were enrolled at four HIV treatment centers with an equal distribution of SRD and non-SRD at each site. Patients were instructed during enrollment visits with regard to the importance of adherence prior to and after study visits. Demographics and routine clinical laboratory tests were recorded. Results Among the 275 patients, 47% had SRD with at least one substance. There were no significant differences between SRD and non-SRD groups for race, gender, age, or CD4 count at entry. A significantly higher proportion of patients with SRD had an entry HIV RNA plasma concentration > 75 copies/ml compared to patients without SRD (40% vs. 28%, p=0.044). Logistic regression modeling revealed an association between HIV RNA plasma concentration and African-American race (p=0.017). A significantly higher proportion of SRDs also had an efavirenz or protease inhibitor trough concentration below the desired range (23% vs. 9%, p=0.048). Significantly lower trough concentrations were noted in patients with SRDs receiving atazanavir (0.290 vs. 0.976 µg/mL) or lopinavir

  4. Risk of Post-Gastric Bypass Surgery Hypoglycemia in Nondiabetic Individuals: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clare J.; Craig Wood, G.; Lazo, Mariana; Brown, Todd T.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Still, Christopher; Benotti, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective The epidemiology of post-gastric bypass surgery hypoglycemia (PGBH) is incompletely understood. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of PGBH among nondiabetic patients and associated factors. Methods A cohort study of nondiabetic patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was conducted. PGBH was defined by any postoperative record of glucose < 60 mg/dL, diagnosis of hypoglycemia, or any medication use for treatment of PGBH. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to describe PGBH occurrence, log-rank tests, and Cox regression to examine associated factors. Results Of the 1,206 eligible patients, 86% were female with mean age of 43.7 years, mean preoperative BMI of 48.7 kg/m2, and a mean follow-up of 4.8 years. The cumulative incidence of hypoglycemia at 1 and 5 years post-RYGB was 2.7% and 13.3%, respectively. Incidence of PGBH was identified in 158 patients and was associated with lower preoperative BMI (P = 0.048), lower preoperative HbA1c (P = 0.012), and higher 6-month percent of excess body weight loss (%EWL) (P = 0.001). A lower preoperative HbA1c (HR = 1.73, P = 0.0034) and higher 6-month %EWL (HR = 1.96, P = 0.0074) remained independently correlated with increased risk for PGBH in multi-regression analysis. Conclusions The 5-year incidence of PGBH among nondiabetic individuals was 13.3% and was associated with a lower preoperative HbA1c and greater weight loss at 6 months following surgery. PMID:27225597

  5. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  6. Online Data Monitoring for the CUORE Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feintzeig, Jacob; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming bolometric experiment that will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay at Gran Sasso, Italy. Crystals of tellurium dioxide are instrumented with neutron transmutation doped (NTD) thermistors to observe the heat pulse caused by a double beta decay event. Currently under construction, CUORE will contain 988 independent bolometers. The CUORE-0 detector, consisting of the first 52 bolometers, took data from 2013-2015. After briefly reviewing results from a neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE-0, I will outline recent work to improve data analysis and online data quality monitoring for the upcoming CUORE detector.

  7. A qualitative exploration of people's experiences of pain neurophysiological education for chronic pain: The importance of relevance for the individual.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Victoria; King, Richard; Ryan, Cormac G; Martin, Denis J

    2016-04-01

    Pain neurophysiology education (PNE) is a distinct form of patient education in pain management. The aims of this study were to explore the experience of PNE for people with chronic pain and to gain insight into their understanding of their pain after PNE. This was a qualitative study, based on Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis, using individual semi-structured interviews to collect data. We recruited a purposive sample of 10 adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (men and women; mean age 48 years; with a mean pain duration of 9 years) who had recently completed PNE delivered as a single 2-h group session. The interview transcripts were analysed for emerging themes. We identified three themes: perceived relevance for the individual participant; perceived benefits for the individual participant; and evidence of reconceptualisation. An interlinking narrative was the importance of relevance. Eight participants viewed the session as relevant and reported benefits ranging from a better understanding of pain, improved ability to cope with the pain, and some suggested improved levels of physical activity. Four of these participants showed evidence of reconceptualisation, which we describe as partial and patchy. Two participants reported no benefit and did not perceive the material delivered within PNE to be relevant to themselves. Relevance to the individual needs of a person with chronic pain may be a key factor in the success of PNE, and this is a particular challenge when it is delivered in a group situation. PMID:26511524

  8. Performance monitoring and the medial prefrontal cortex: a review of individual differences and context effects as a window on self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    van Noordt, Stefon J. R.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2012-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is central to self-regulation and has been implicated in generating a cluster of event-related potential components, collectively referred to as medial frontal negativities (MFNs). These MFNs are elicited while individuals monitor behavioral and environmental consequences, and include the error-related negativity, Nogo N2, and the feedback-related negativity. A growing cognitive and affective neuroscience literature indicates that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal regions during performance monitoring is not only influenced by task context, but that these patterns of activity also vary as a function of individual differences (e.g., personality, temperament, clinical and non-clinical symptomatology, socio-political orientation, and genetic polymorphisms), as well as interactions between individual differences and task context. In this review we survey the neuroscience literature on the relations between performance monitoring, personality, task context, and brain functioning with a focus on the MPFC. We relate these issues to the role of affect in the paradigms used to elicit performance-monitoring neural responses and highlight some of the theoretical and clinical implications of this research. We conclude with a discussion of the complexity of these issues and how some of the basic assumptions required for their interpretation may be clarified with future research. PMID:22798949

  9. Formation of Plant Canopy Hierarchies and Consequences for Water Use: Insights From Field Experiments and Individual Based Modeling of Weed-Crop Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Riha, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    monitoring of stomatal conductance and end of the season harvest index indicate that corn was no more water stressed in the weedy treatments. It appears that soil water dynamics and drought severity were not significantly affected by weed competition. The similarity of entire canopy light interception for maize systems with and without weeds may explain the somewhat counter- intuitive nature of our findings. Model simulations conform to results from field experiments, and allowed us to estimate the partitioning of water use for each plant and the effects of resource scarcity on the dynamics of growth of individual plants and the formation of hierarchies within the canopy. The model was also used to asses the impact of climate variability on competition conducting simulations for a 40 year period of time and contrasting scenarios of soil nitrogen availability.

  10. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  11. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-08-01

    Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290). PMID:26674396

  12. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kraatz, Miriam; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284–290) PMID:26674396

  13. Action Experience and Action Discovery in Medicated Individuals with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Reynolds, John N J; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-matched controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery (AD) and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, AD was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP), an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected. PMID:27610079

  14. Action Experience and Action Discovery in Medicated Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bednark, Jeffery G.; Reynolds, John N. J.; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-matched controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery (AD) and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, AD was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP), an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected. PMID:27610079

  15. Errorless Learning for Training Individuals With Schizophrenia at a Community Mental Health Setting Providing Work Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Robert S.; Liberman, Robert P.; Becker, Deborah R.; Drake, Robert E.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Green, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance. PMID:18326529

  16. Inter-individual differences in the experience of negative emotion predict variations in functional brain architecture.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Saverino, Cristina; Shayna Rosenbaum, R; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-12-01

    Current evidence suggests that two spatially distinct neuroanatomical networks, the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), support externally and internally oriented cognition, respectively, and are functionally regulated by a third, frontoparietal control network (FPC). Interactions among these networks contribute to normal variations in cognitive functioning and to the aberrant affective profiles present in certain clinical conditions, such as major depression. Nevertheless, their links to non-clinical variations in affective functioning are still poorly understood. To address this issue, we used fMRI to measure the intrinsic functional interactions among these networks in a sample of predominantly younger women (N=162) from the Human Connectome Project. Consistent with the previously documented dichotomous motivational orientations (i.e., withdrawal versus approach) associated with sadness versus anger, we hypothesized that greater sadness would predict greater DMN (rather than DAN) functional dominance, whereas greater anger would predict the opposite. Overall, there was evidence of greater DAN (rather than DMN) functional dominance, but this pattern was modulated by current experience of specific negative emotions, as well as subclinical depressive and anxiety symptoms. Thus, greater levels of currently experienced sadness and subclinical depression independently predicted weaker DAN functional dominance (i.e., weaker DAN-FPC functional connectivity), likely reflecting reduced goal-directed attention towards the external perceptual environment. Complementarily, greater levels of currently experienced anger and subclinical anxiety predicted greater DAN functional dominance (i.e., greater DAN-FPC functional connectivity and, for anxiety only, also weaker DMN-FPC coupling). Our findings suggest that distinct affective states and subclinical mood symptoms have dissociable neural signatures, reflective of the symbiotic relationship

  17. Interior Vector Magnetic Field Monitoring via External Measurements for the SNS Neutron EDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Nima; Brown, Michael; Carr, Robert; Filippone, Bradley; Osthelder, Charles; Plaster, Bradley; Slutsky, Simon; Swank, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    A prototype of a magnetic field monitoring system designed to reconstruct the vector magnetic field components (and, hence, all nine of the ∂Bi / ∂xj field gradients) within the interior measurement fiducial volume solely from external measurements is under development for the SNS neutron EDM experiment. A first-generation room-temperature prototype array has already been tested. A second-generation prototype array consisting of 12 cryogenic-compatible fluxgate magnetometer probes will be deployed within the cold region of the experiment's 1 / 3 -scale cryogenic magnet testing apparatus. We will report progress towards the development of this second-generation prototype. This work was supported in part by the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics under Award No. DE-FG02-08ER41557.

  18. Enhancement of Self-Monitoring in a Web-Based Weight Loss Program by Extra Individualized Feedback and Reminders: Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hutchesson, Melinda Jane; Tan, Chor Yin; Morgan, Philip; Callister, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring is an essential behavioral strategy for effective weight loss programs. Traditionally, self-monitoring has been achieved using paper-based records. However, technology is now more frequently used to deliver treatment programs to overweight and obese adults. Information technologies, such as the Internet and mobile phones, allow innovative intervention features to be incorporated into treatment that may facilitate greater adherence to self-monitoring processes, provide motivation for behavior change, and ultimately lead to greater weight loss success. Objective The objective of our study was to determine whether the consistency of self-monitoring differed between participants randomly assigned to a basic or an enhanced 12-week commercial Web-based weight loss program. Methods We randomly assigned a sample of 301 adults (mean age 42.3 years; body mass index 31.3 kg/m2; female 176/301, 58.5%) to the basic or enhanced group. The basic program included tools for self-monitoring (online food and exercise diary, and a weekly weigh-in log) with some feedback and reminders to weigh in (by text or email). The enhanced program included the basic components, as well as extra individualized feedback on self-monitoring entries and reminders (by text, email, or telephone) to engage with self-monitoring tools. We evaluated the level of self-monitoring by examining the consistency of self-monitoring of food, exercise, and weight during the 12 weeks. Consistency was defined as the number of weeks during which participants completed a criterion number of entries (ie, ≥3 days of online food or exercise diary records per week and ≥1 weigh-in per week). Results The enhanced group’s consistency of use of self-monitoring tools was significantly greater than that of the basic group throughout the 12 weeks (median consistency for food 8 vs 3 weeks, respectively, P<.001; for exercise 2.5 vs 1 weeks, respectively, P=.003). Conclusions Enhanced features

  19. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. [Metrological and operating characteristics of thermoluminescent and photographic film dosimeters for the centralized individual dosimetric monitoring of medical personnel].

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, L Z; Gorelik, G I; Stadnik, L L; Romanova, I N; Kovalevskaia, L N

    1989-07-01

    Characteristics of a TLD thermoluminescent kit with LiF detectors of TLD and DTG-4 types (diameters 3.5 and 5 mm) and TLD-400 were compared with those of a kit of IFKU-1 individual photographic film badges. Individual thermoluminescent dosimeters record a total dose of occupational and background irradiation, and film badges--a dose of occupational irradiation only. It should be taken into account in radiation-hygienic interpretation of individual dosimetric control readings. PMID:2761377

  1. Geophysical Monitoring of Active Infiltration Experiments for Recharge Estimation: Gains and Pains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Lamparter, A.; Houben, G.; Koeniger, P.; Stoeckl, L.; Guenther, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water supply on the island of Langeoog, North Sea, solely depends on groundwater from a freshwater lens. The correct estimation of the recharge rate is critical for a sustainable use of the resource. Extensive hydrogeological and geophysical studies have revealed differences in groundwater recharge by a factor of two and more between the top of the dunes and the dune valleys. The most convincing proof of these differences in recharge is based on isotope analysis (age dating) but boreholes are scarce and a direct proof of recharge is desired. For this purpose active infiltration experiments are performed and geophysically monitored. Former applications of this method in sand and loess soil gave evidence for the applicability of the geophysical observation when combined with tensiometers installed in situ at depth. These results showed firstly that in sandy soil the water reaches the groundwater table quicker than anticipated due to the water repellent characteristic of the dry sand, inhibiting the lateral spreading of the water. The studies also revealed that in loess preferential flow is initiated by ponding and that sprinkling caused very slow movement of water within the unsaturated zone and the water remained near the surface. On the island of Langeoog field experiments underlined the importance of water repellency on the dune surface, indicating that the rain water runs off superficially into the dune valleys where higher recharge is found. The active infiltration zone of the experiment covers an area of some 7m² and includes steeper parts of the dune. The infiltration will vary depending on rainfall intensity and duration, original water content and vegetation cover. What results can we reliably expect from the active experiment and what additional measurements are required to back up the findings? Results are ambiguous with regard to the quantitative assessment but the processes can be visualized by geophysical monitoring in situ.

  2. Experiment Dashboard - a generic, scalable solution for monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Cinquilli, M.; Dieguez, D.; Dzhunov, I.; Karavakis, E.; Karhula, P.; Kenyon, M.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Nowotka, M.; Ro, G.; Saiz, P.; Sargsyan, L.; Schovancova, J.; Tuckett, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Experiment Dashboard system provides common solutions for monitoring job processing, data transfers and site/service usability. Over the last seven years, it proved to play a crucial role in the monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services. It has been one of the key elements during the commissioning of the distributed computing systems of the LHC experiments. The first years of data taking represented a serious test for Experiment Dashboard in terms of functionality, scalability and performance. And given that the usage of the Experiment Dashboard applications has been steadily increasing over time, it can be asserted that all the objectives were fully accomplished.

  3. An Error-Related Negativity Potential Investigation of Response Monitoring Function in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Li, Cui; Zhu, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder. Deficits in executive functioning, including response monitoring, have been proposed as a hallmark feature of impulse control disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN) reflects individual’s ability to monitor behavior. Since IAD belongs to a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, theoretically, it should present response monitoring functional deficit characteristics of some disorders, such as substance dependence, ADHD, or alcohol abuse, testing with an Erikson flanker task. Up to now, no studies on response monitoring functional deficit in IAD were reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics in a modified Erikson flanker task. Twenty-three subjects were recruited as IAD group. Twenty-three matched age, gender, and education healthy persons were recruited as control group. All participants completed the modified Erikson flanker task while measured with event-related potentials. IAD group made more total error rates than did controls (p < 0.01); Reactive times for total error responses in IAD group were shorter than did controls (p < 0.01). The mean ERN amplitudes of total error response conditions at frontal electrode sites and at central electrode sites of IAD group were reduced compared with control group (all p < 0.01). These results revealed that IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics and shares ERN characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder. PMID:24093009

  4. Contributions of the SSBUV Experiment to Long-Term Ozone Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Cebula, R. P.; Bories, M. C.; Cerullo, J. J.; DeCamp, P. W.; Huang, L.-K.; Hui, C. N.; Janz, S. J.; Kelly, T. J.; McCullough, K. R.; Mederios J. J.; Riley, J. T.; Rice, B. K.; Thorpe, C. D.

    1996-01-01

    The SSBUV experiment flew eight Space Shuttle missions from October 1989 to January 1996 in conducted eight missions between October 1989 and support of the US long-term ozone monitoring program. Contributions of the SSBUV experiment are reviewed in this paper. SSBUV data are being used to provide and validate the absolute and long-term calibrations of multiple satellite-based ozone monitoring instruments. SSBUV observed a significant decrease in Northern hemisphere total ozone from the winter of 1992 to the following winter, and SSBUV data were combined with Nimbus-7 data to assess long-term ozone changes during the 1980's. SSBUV solar irradiance measurements are being used to determine the absolute solar spectral irradiance in the middle UV, validate solar data from two UARS instruments, and independently measure long-term solar change at wavelengths important for ozone photochemistry. SSBUV data where also used to study the effects of surface reflectivity and rotational Raman scattering on the ozone retrievals, determine the NO column amount and its altitude distribution, measure the UV lunar albedo, and assist in the optimization of wavelengths for new instruments.

  5. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela Rodriguez, F.

    2011-12-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  6. Lessons Learned During Implementation and Early Operations of the DS1 Beacon Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Wyatt, Jay; Hotz, Henry; Schlutsmeyer, Alan; Sue, Miles

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations will be flight validated on NASA's New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) mission which launched in October 1998. The Beacon Monitor Operations Technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass. Cost savings are achieved by reducing the amount of routine telemetry processing and analysis performed by ground staff. The technology is required for upcoming NASA missions to Pluto, Europa, and possibly some other missions. With beacon monitoring, the spacecraft will assess its own health and will transmit one of four beacon messages each representing a unique frequency tone to inform the ground how urgent it is to track the spacecraft for telemetry. If all conditions are nominal, the tone provides periodic assurance to ground personnel that the mission is proceeding as planned without having to receive and analyze downlinked telemetry. If there is a problem, the tone will indicate that tracking is required and the resulting telemetry will contain a concise summary of what has occurred since the last telemetry pass. The primary components of the technology are a tone monitoring technology, AI-based software for onboard engineering data summarization, and a ground response system. In addition, there is a ground visualization system for telemetry summaries. This paper includes a description of the Beacon monitor concept, the trade-offs with adapting that concept as a technology experiment, the current state of the resulting implementation on DS1, and our lessons learned during the initial checkout phase of the mission. Applicability to future missions is also included.

  7. The LHCb Online Framework for Experiment Protection, and Global Operational Control and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.; Schleich, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and extreme parameters of the LHC, such as the stored energy, the collision frequency, the high risk of adverse background conditions and potentially damaging beam losses have demanded an unprecedented connectivity between the operation of the accelerator and the experiments at both hardware and software level. LHCb has been at the forefront of developing a software framework and hardware which connects to all of the LHC communication interfaces for timing, control and monitoring of the machine and beam parameters, in addition to its own local systems for beam and background monitoring. The framework also includes failsafe connectivity with the beam interlock system. The framework drives the global operation of the detector and is integrated into the readout control. It provides the shifters with the tools needed to take fast and well-guided decisions to run the LHCb experiment safely and efficiently. In particular, it has allowed the detector to be operated with only two shifters already at the LHC pilot run. The requirements include reliability and clarity for the shifters, and the possibility to retrieve the past conditions for offline analysis. All essential parameters are archived and an interactive analysis tool has been developed which provides overviews of the experimental performance and which allows post-analysis of any anomaly in the operation. This paper describes the architecture and the many functions, including the basis of the automation of the LHCb operational procedure and detector controls, and the information exchange between LHCb and the LHC, and finally the shifter and expert tools for monitoring the experimental conditions.

  8. The Real Time Mission Monitor: A Situational Awareness Tool For Managing Experiment Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Goodman, Michael; Parker, Philip; Freudinger, Larry; He, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, airborne and surface data sets; weather information; model and forecast outputs; and vehicle state data (e.g., aircraft navigation, satellite tracks and instrument field-of-views) for field experiment management RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses experiment during summer 2006 in Cape Verde, Africa. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols.

  9. Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana Isabel; Martins, Vera; Cascão, Pedro; Amorim, Jorge Humberto; Valente, Joana; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos; Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, António Jorge; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Ribeiro, Luís Mário; Pita, Luís Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data of individual exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were obtained during experimental field fires for a group of 10 firefighters equipped with portable "in continuum" measuring devices. Measured values are very high exceeding the Occupational Exposure Standard limits, in particular for peak limit thresholds. These are the first measurements and analysis of firefighter's individual exposure to toxic gases and particles in fire smoke experiments in Europe. However, they already indicate that urgent measures to avoid these levels of exposure are needed. PMID:20579737

  10. Factors associated with health care discrimination experiences among a national sample of female-to-male transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Shires, Deirdre A; Jaffee, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Transgender individuals experience harassment, violence, and discrimination in a number of settings. Although health care discrimination against transgender people has been documented, this issue is understudied. Using a national cross-sectional survey data set (N = 1,711), the authors sought to determine how gender identity and presentation predict health care discrimination experiences among female-to-male (FTM) transgender people after demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are controlled. Analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and a two-step logistic regression. The majority of participants were white (73.9 percent) and between 25 and 44 years old (65.2 percent). Overall, 41.8 percent of FTM participants reported verbal harassment, physical assault, or denial of equal treatment in a doctor's office or hospital. When other factors were controlled, being Native American or multiracial, identifying as queer or asexual/other, having a graduate degree, living full-time as nonbirth gender, using hormones or surgery for medical transition, and having identification documents that list one's preferred gender were associated with increased reporting of health care discrimination experiences; being 45 years or older and reporting an annual income of $60,000 or more were associated with decreased risk. The study's findings can be useful to social workers, who play a role in educating health care providers and advocating for policies that improve health care experiences for FTM and other transgender patients. PMID:26027422

  11. “I Felt Like a Superhero”: The Experience of Responding to Drug Overdose Among Individuals Trained in Overdose Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Iverson, Ellen; Washburn, Rachel; Burke, Emily; Kral, Alex H.; McNeeley, Miles; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Overdose prevention programs (OPPs) train people who inject drugs and other community members to prevent, recognise and respond to opioid overdose. However, little is known about the experience of taking up the role of an “overdose responder” for the participants. Methods We present findings from qualitative interviews with 30 participants from two OPPs in Los Angeles, CA, USA from 2010–2011 who had responded to at least one overdose since being trained in overdose prevention and response. Results Being trained by an OPP and responding to overdoses had both positive and negative effects for trained “responders”. Positive effects include an increased sense of control and confidence, feelings of heroism and pride, and a recognition and appreciation of one’s expertise. Negative effects include a sense of burden, regret, fear, and anger, which sometimes led to cutting social ties, but might also be mitigated by the increased empowerment associated with the positive effects. Conclusion Findings suggest that becoming an overdose responder can involve taking up a new social role that has positive effects, but also confers some stress that may require additional support. OPPs should provide flexible opportunities for social support to individuals making the transition to this new and critical social role. Equipping individuals with the skills, technology, and support they need to respond to drug overdose has the potential to confer both individual and community-wide benefits. PMID:23932166

  12. Atmospheric monitoring of a perfluorocarbon tracer at the 2009 ZERT Center experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekney, Natalie; Wells, Arthur; Rodney Diehl, J.; McNeil, Matthew; Lesko, Natalie; Armstrong, James; Ference, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Field experiments at Montana State University are conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Zero Emissions Research and Technology Center (ZERT) to test and verify monitoring techniques for carbon capture and storage (CCS). A controlled release of CO 2 with an added perfluorocarbon tracer was conducted in July 2009 in a multi-laboratory study of atmospheric transport and detection technologies. Tracer plume dispersion was measured with various meteorological conditions using a tethered balloon system with Multi-Tube Remote Samplers (MTRS) at elevations of 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m above ground level (AGL), as well as a ground-based portable tower with monitors containing sorbent material to collect the tracer at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m AGL. Researchers designed a horizontal grid of sampling locations centered at the tracer plume source, with the tower positioned at 10 m and 30 m in both upwind and downwind directions, and the MTRS spaced at 50 m and 90 m downwind and 90 m upwind. Tracer was consistently detected at elevated concentrations at downwind sampling locations. With very few exceptions, higher tracer concentrations correlated with lower elevations. Researchers observed no statistical difference between sampling at 50 m and 90 m downwind at the same elevation. The US EPA AERMOD model applied using site-specific information predicted transport and dispersion of the tracer. Model results are compared to experimental data from the 2009 ZERT experiment. Successful characterization of the tracer plume simulated by the ZERT experiment is considered a step toward demonstrating the feasibility of remote sampling with unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) at future sequestration sites.

  13. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health. PMID:27014077

  14. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health. PMID:27014077

  15. The impact of computer use on the individualization of students' learning experiences in public middle school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, Fiona Mae

    Given the recent emphasis and significant expenditures on technology as a tool in educational reform, policymakers, educators, and taxpayers are seeking accountability in terms of evaluation of its impact. With a view to investigating how the presence of computers in the classroom has affected the process of teaching and learning, this study aims to determine whether and how computer use by public middle school students in the science classroom might facilitate the individualization of students' instructional experiences. Questionnaires from 50 middle school science teachers located in 20 Manhattan public schools were collected to provide background information on each teacher's teaching philosophy, teaching practices, attitude toward technology, technology skills, and technology use in the science classroom. Questionnaires from 673 students of these teachers provided information regarding the students' computer use and skills and addressed issues of classroom environment deemed to be indicators of individualization of instruction. A classroom observation instrument was used to quantitatively track how 191 of these students interacted and worked with peers, the teacher, and resources in the classroom. The relationships between degree of computer use and the indicators of individualization of instruction were investigated using multilevel statistics, accounting for the clustering effect caused by students being grouped together in classrooms, to provide a more reliable analysis than traditional single level, fixed effects models. Random intercept analyses allowed an investigation into the mediating effects of teacher and classroom variables on the various outcomes. An increase in computer use was found to be associated with changes in certain aspects of the learning environment: fewer but more protracted verbal interactions in the classroom; more one-on-one interactions among students and between individual students and the teacher; more time spent working

  16. A new twist to a traditional approach to environmental monitoring: differentiation of oil sands process-affected waters and natural systems by comparison of individual organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, A.; Lengger, S.; West, C.; Rowland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Review panels of both the Canadian Federal and Alberta Provincial governments have recommended a complete overhaul of existing monitoring programs of the Athabasca oil sands industry and have called for a greater understanding of the potential impacts of mining activities to allow for future sustainable development. Due to the no release policy, it is critical that leakages of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) from tailings ponds can be differentiated from natural waters flowing through the McMurray formation into the Athabasca river system. Environmental monitoring of oil contamination usually entails profiling of known compounds, e.g. the US EPA list of priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, but until now a similar approach has not been possible for OSPW due to its extreme complexity. It has been estimated that the number of carboxylic acids, historically referred to as ';naphthenic acids' (NA) in OSPW, to be in excess of 10000 compounds. Until recently, individual structures of these NA were unknown but analyses by tandem gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) have now begun to reveal the individual structures of alicyclic, aromatic and sulphur-containing acids within OSPWs stored in tailings ponds. Now that some individual structures present in OSPW are known and standards are available, a methodological approach similar to traditional oil monitoring can be developed using individual diamondoid NA and recently discovered diacids and applied to tailings pond OSPW and environmental waters. One obstacle to understanding whether the NA present in environmental groundwater samples are associated with particular tailings ponds is the lack of knowledge of the variability of OSPW within and between ponds. In the current study, GCxGC-MS analyses have been applied to statistically compare OSPWs of two industries, both temporally and spatially, using specific, known compounds as well as associated isomers. Although variation within individual ponds was

  17. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  18. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    on the each calibration graphics with different H2 concentration in standard gas mixtures. The graphics represent the power functions. The accuracy of the approximating functions is 3-18 %. At low concentrations (H2 <3 ppm) - error is rather high (about 20%).So we think that 2 ppm is the low limit of measurement. The essential factor is a temperature drift. We estimate this drift as 20mV per 1 degree and make corrections, because measurements were made in wide temperature range (+29 - -20 C). To take this factor we added our network by meteorological sensors. Each sensor network node has a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. All nodes are equal and serve as routers, so there is no need to plan nodes placement in advance Mesh Network protocol. Every node maintains a local routing table with information about one or several neighbors. The signal transmission between nodes and router used radio channel 2.6 GHz. Communication between router and IT server used two methods: cable RS486 and GPRS modem. GPRS connection is unstable and influence on operating stability. There are some problems in using of directional antenna because of the high level of city's radio noises and radio interferences. Nevertheless, a number of experiments with use of different technical solutions allowed us to perform continuous monitoring during 2 months. As a result about 3 million data records were obtained during experimental works. This information provided an opportunity to develop the structure of database management systems to store data and the technology of online data collection from remote sensors. Using the abilities of program software a periodical (12h) automatic export/import was realized. Access to file on remote computers is opened using FTP protocol. Database forms derived tables

  19. Online Meta-data Collection and Monitoring Framework for the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.; Van Buren, G.

    2012-12-01

    The STAR Experiment further exploits scalable message-oriented model principles to achieve a high level of control over online data streams. In this paper we present an AMQP-powered Message Interface and Reliable Architecture framework (MIRA), which allows STAR to orchestrate the activities of Meta-data Collection, Monitoring, Online QA and several Run-Time and Data Acquisition system components in a very efficient manner. The very nature of the reliable message bus suggests parallel usage of multiple independent storage mechanisms for our meta-data. We describe our experience with a robust data-taking setup employing MySQL- and HyperTable-based archivers for meta-data processing. In addition, MIRA has an AJAX-enabled web GUI, which allows real-time visualisation of online process flow and detector subsystem states, and doubles as a sophisticated alarm system when combined with complex event processing engines like Esper, Borealis or Cayuga. The performance data and our planned path forward are based on our experience during the 2011-2012 running of STAR.

  20. Influence of capture method, habitat quality and individual traits on blood parameters of free-ranging lace monitors (Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors. PMID:21864309

  1. MCM'10: An Experiment for satellite Multispectral Crop Monitoring. From high to low resolution observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baup, F.; Fieuzal, R.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Dejoux, J. F.; le Dantec, V.; Mordelet, P.; Claverie, M.; Demarez, V.; Hagolle, O.; Lopes, A.; Keravec, P.; Ceschia, E.; Mialon, A.; Kidd, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a changing climate context, it becomes increasingly important to accurately estimate the physical processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in order to predict climate changes and its impact on ecosystems. Increase of human pressure and changes in land use management contribute to alter water and energy budgets and carbon sequestration in the soils. Therefore, it is essential 1) to work towards a better understanding of the different processes governing water, carbon and energy exchanges between the continental biosphere in anthropised areas and the atmosphere, 2) to monitor land use, vegetation (crop) dynamics, soil and crop management. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the MCM'10 (Multispectral Crop Monitoring) experiment which has been conducted in 2010 (from February to November) by the CESBIO laboratory, in France. This experiment is based on the use of multispectral satellite acquisitions (radar, thermal and optical) and the associated ground measurements performed over about 400 agricultural fields located in the south west of France (43°29'36''N, 1°14'14''E). Optical data are acquired by FORMOSAT-2 and SPOT4-5 satellites. Radar data are provided by SAR sensors onboard TERRASAR-X (X-band), RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band). Thermal data come from the LANDSAT-TM 5 and 7 sensors. Low resolution data have been also collected to further study upscaling and downscaling approaches over a strongly heterogeneous landscape. Analyses of satellite data are performed by comparing them with ground data collected from local to regional scale. At the local scale, 37 fields are systematically monitored for each satellite overpass. Three of them are equipped with meteorological stations (radiations, water and carbon fluxes sensors…). Measures are performed over different soil types (clay, silt, gravels…) and for the main crops encountered in France and Europe (wheat, corn, sunflower, soybean, sorghum…). Soil

  2. Enhanced Monitoring for the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, M. F.; Bond, N.; Fairall, C.; Hare, J.; McPhaden, M. J.; Weller, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC) is a five-year experiment designed to improve understanding of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), its interactions with the cold tongue of water that extends along the equator, and the physics of the cloud deck that forms over the cool waters off South America. EPIC fieldwork began in 1999 and involves short-term process studies, embedded within longer-term (3-4 years) enhanced monitoring, built on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) observing system. As part of EPIC enhanced monitoring, an IMET mooring was deployed at 20°S, 85°W in the stratus deck region, and the easternmost (95°W) Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean (TAO) line of moorings was enhanced with additional sensors and moorings. With 10 EPIC-enhanced TAO moorings between 8°S, 95°W and 12°N, 95°W, the 95°W mooring line provides a picket fence of time series of heat, moisture and momentum fluxes and upper ocean temperature, salinity, and horizontal currents from the stratocumulus region, across the cold tongue / ITCZ complex and into the northeastern tropical Pacific warm pool. Six-monthly TAO maintenance cruises were also specially equipped to monitor air-sea fluxes and boundary layer properties. In this presentation we combine ship transect measurements with moored time series to show the structure and evolution of the cold tongue / ITCZ complex. In addition, southern moorings along 95°W are compared with the 20°S, 85°W stratus mooring to show the meridional extent of the cold season stratiform. Implications for understanding and modeling eastern tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions will be discussed.

  3. The Data Quality Monitoring Software for the CMS experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) Software is a central tool in the CMS experiment. Its flexibility allows for integration in several key environments: Online, for real-time detector monitoring; Offline, for the final, fine-grained data analysis and certification; Release-Validation, to constantly validate the functionality and the performance of the reconstruction software; in Monte Carlo productions. Since the end of data taking at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV, the environment in which the DQM lives has undergone fundamental changes. In turn, the DQM system has made significant upgrades in many areas to respond to not only the changes in infrastructure, but also the growing specialized needs of the collaboration with an emphasis on more sophisticated methods for evaluating data quality, as well as advancing the DQM system to provide quality assessments of various Monte Carlo simulations versus data distributions, monitoring changes in physical effects due to modifications of algorithms or framework, and enabling regression modeling for long-term effects for the CMS detector. The central tool to deliver Data Quality information is an interactive web site for browsing data quality histograms (DQMGUI). In this contribution the usage of the DQM Software in the different environments and its integration in the CMS Reconstruction Software Framework (CMSSW) and in all production workflows are presented, with emphasis on recent developments and improvement in advance of the LHC restart at 13 TeV. The main technical challenges and the adopted solutions to them will be also discussed with emphasis on functionality and long-term robustness.

  4. The RAPTOR experiment: a system for monitoring the optical sky in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Brumby, Steven P.; Casperson, Donald E.; Fenimore, Edward E.; Galassi, Mark C.; McGowan, Katherine; Perkins, Simon J.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Starr, Daniel; White, Robert; Wozniak, Przemek; Wren, James A.

    2002-11-01

    The Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) experiment is a spatially distributed system of autonomous robotic telescopes that is designed to monitor the sky for optical transients. The core of the ystem is composed of two telescope arrays, separated by 38 kilometers, that stereoscopically view the same 1500 square-degree field with a wide-field imaging array and a central 4 square-degree field with a more sensitive narrow-field ``fovea" imager. Coupled to each telescope array is a real-time data analysis pipeline that is designed to identify interesting transients on timescales of seconds and, when a celestial transient is identified, to command the rapidly slewing robotic mounts to point the narrow-field ``fovea'' imagers at the transient. The two narrow-field telescopes then image the transient with higher spatial resolution and at a faster cadence to gather light curve information. Each ``fovea" camera also images the transient through a different filter to provide color information. This stereoscopic monitoring array is supplemented by a rapidly slewing telescope with a low resolution spectrograph for follow-up observations of transients and a sky patrol telescope that nightly monitors about 10,000 square-degrees for variations, with timescales of a day or longer, to a depth about 100 times fainter. In addition to searching for fast transients, we will use the data stream from RAPTOR as a real-time sentinel for recognizing important variations in known sources. All of the data will be publically released through a virtual observatory called SkyDOT (Sky Database for Objects in the Time Domain) that we are developing for studying variability of the optical sky. Altogether, the RAPTOR project aims to construct a new type of system for discovery in optical astronomy---one that explores the time domain by "mining the sky in real time".

  5. Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable

  6. New landslide monitoring techniques - developments and experiences of the alpEWAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuro, Kurosch; Singer, John; Festl, Judith; Wunderlich, Thomas; Wasmeier, Peter; Reith, Christoph; Heunecke, Otto; Glabsch, Jessica; Schuhbäck, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Mainly in the context of global climate change the awareness of landslide hazards has risen considerably in most mountainous regions worldwide in the last years. National and regional hazard mapping programs were set up in many countries and most of the potentially endangered sites have been identified. Although exclusive geodetic and geotechnical instrumentation is available today, due to some economical reasons only few of the identified potentially risky landslides are monitored permanently. The intention of the alpEWAS research project is to develop and to test new techniques suitable for efficient and cost-effective landslide monitoring. These techniques are combined in a geo sensor network with an enclosed geo data base and a developed software package to use the whole system for stakeholder information and early warning purposes. The core of the project is the development and testing of the three innovative measurement systems time domain reflectometry (TDR) for the detection of subsurface displacements in boreholes and reflectorless video tacheometry (VTPS) and a low cost GNSS sensor component for the determination of 3D surface movements. Essential experiences obtained during the project will be described.

  7. Equatorial Precession in the Control Software of the Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakeman, Hali L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring, or KaBOOM, project is designed mainly to track and characterize near Earth objects. However, a smaller goal of the project would be to monitor pulsars and study their radio frequency signals for use as a clock in interstellar travel. The use of pulsars and their timing accuracy has been studied for decades, but never in the Ka-band of the radio frequency spectrum. In order to begin the use of KaBOOM for this research, the control systems need to be analyzed to ensure its capability. Flaws in the control documentation leave it unclear as to whether the control software processes coordinates from the J200 epoch. This experiment will examine the control software of the Intertronic 12m antennas used for the KaBOOM project and detail its capabilities in its "equatorial mode." The antennas will be pointed at 4 chosen points in the sky on several days while probing the virtual azimuth and elevation (horizon coordinate) registers. The input right ascension and declination coordinates will then be converted separately from the control software to horizontal coordinates and compared, thus determining the ability of the control software to process equatorial coordinates.

  8. Indirect monitoring shot-to-shot shock waves strength reproducibility during pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Ozaki, N.; Hartley, N. J.; Albertazzi, B.; Matsuoka, T.; Takahashi, K.; Habara, H.; Tange, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Ochante, R.; Sueda, K.; Sakata, O.; Sekine, T.; Sato, T.; Umeda, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabuuchi, T.; Togashi, T.; Katayama, T.; Yabashi, M.; Harmand, M.; Morard, G.; Koenig, M.; Zhakhovsky, V.; Inogamov, N.; Safronova, A. S.; Stafford, A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Pikuz, S. A.; Okuchi, T.; Seto, Y.; Tanaka, K. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present an indirect method of estimating the strength of a shock wave, allowing on line monitoring of its reproducibility in each laser shot. This method is based on a shot-to-shot measurement of the X-ray emission from the ablated plasma by a high resolution, spatially resolved focusing spectrometer. An optical pump laser with energy of 1.0 J and pulse duration of ˜660 ps was used to irradiate solid targets or foils with various thicknesses containing Oxygen, Aluminum, Iron, and Tantalum. The high sensitivity and resolving power of the X-ray spectrometer allowed spectra to be obtained on each laser shot and to control fluctuations of the spectral intensity emitted by different plasmas with an accuracy of ˜2%, implying an accuracy in the derived electron plasma temperature of 5%-10% in pump-probe high energy density science experiments. At nano- and sub-nanosecond duration of laser pulse with relatively low laser intensities and ratio Z/A ˜ 0.5, the electron temperature follows Te ˜ Ilas2/3. Thus, measurements of the electron plasma temperature allow indirect estimation of the laser flux on the target and control its shot-to-shot fluctuation. Knowing the laser flux intensity and its fluctuation gives us the possibility of monitoring shot-to-shot reproducibility of shock wave strength generation with high accuracy.

  9. Height resolved ozone hole structure as observed by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; de Laat, A. T. J.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; König-Langlo, G.; Wittig, J.

    2009-06-01

    We present Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) ozone profiles that were operationally retrieved with the KNMI Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) algorithm for the period September-December 2008. It is shown that it is possible to accurately measure the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone for Antarctic ozone hole conditions from spectra measured at ultraviolet wavelengths from a nadir viewing instrument. Comparisons with ozone sonde observations from the Neumayer station at the Antarctic coast show a good agreement for various ozone profile shapes representing different phases of the annual recurring ozone hole cycle. A preliminary analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the ozone hole shows for example that at the vortex edges ozone rich mid-latitude middle and upper stratospheric layers can be found over ozone depleted lower stratospheric ‘ozone hole’ layers. These Antarctic ozone profile observations combined with the daily global coverage of GOME-2 enables the monitoring of the three-dimensional structure of the ozone hole on a daily basis.

  10. Monitoring Floods with NASA's ST6 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment: Implications on Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, Felipe; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Castano, B.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A. G.; Doggett, T.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) [1-3] has been successfully demonstrated in Earth-orbit. NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The versatile ASE spacecraft command and control, image formation, and science processing software was uploaded to the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in early 2004 and has been undergoing onboard testing since May 2004 for the near real-time detection of surface modification related to transient geological and hydrological processes such as volcanism [4], ice formation and retreat [5], and flooding [6]. Space autonomy technology developed as part of ASE creates the new capability to autonomously detect, assess, react to, and monitor dynamic events such as flooding. Part of the challenge has been the difficulty to observe flooding in real time at sufficient temporal resolutions; more importantly, it is the large spatial extent of most drainage networks coupled with the size of the data sets necessary to be downlinked from satellites that make it difficult to monitor flooding from space. Below is a description of the algorithms (referred to as ASE Flood water Classifiers) used in tandem with the Hyperion spectrometer instrument on EO-1 to identify flooding and some of the test results.

  11. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o

  12. The evolution of satellite-monitored radio tags for large whales: One laboratory's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mate, Bruce; Mesecar, Roderick; Lagerquist, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Despite several centuries of whaling and directed research, there are only a few whale stocks whose year-round whereabouts are reasonably well known. For the vast majority of depleted populations, the link between seasonal feeding and breeding concentrations remains unknown. This lack of information on range, seasonal distribution, stock structure, and migration routes makes it difficult to design and implement effective conservation measures to promote recovery. The use of such information would have been valuable to develop stock-specific quotas for whaling, but now it may be even more important for recovery of depleted stocks and identifying anthropogenic threats throughout a depleted stock's range. Building upon the preliminary findings of Discovery tags and more recent photo identification studies, satellite-monitored radio tags are now providing range and seasonal distribution information for many stocks of depleted large whales. These parameters are important to better estimate population abundance, characterize habitats, identify threats to recovery, and design effective protection measures when needed. This paper traces one laboratory's experience with the development of satellite-monitored radio tag technology for large whales, including attachment mechanisms and delivery systems, in the hope that others will profit from our successes and our mistakes. Selected examples are used to demonstrate how such tags contribute to new insights about whales' habitats, migrations, behaviour, and management.

  13. Observations of the moon by the global ozone monitoring experiment: radiometric calibration and lunar albedo.

    PubMed

    Dobber, M R; Goede, A P; Burrows, J P

    1998-11-20

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument, which was launched aboard the second European Remoting Sensing satellite ESA-ERS2 in 1995. For its long-term radiometric and spectral calibration the GOME observes the sun and less frequently the moon on a regular basis. These measurements of the lunar radiance and solar irradiance have been used in a study to determine, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, the geometric lunar albedo from 240 to 800 nm at high spectral resolution from space. For a waning moon there is good agreement with ground-based measurements in the visible region and with recent space-based measurements in the ultraviolet region. In addition, the use of these measurements for the characterization of in-orbit degradation of instruments operating in this spectral region has been adequately demonstrated. PMID:18301626

  14. Neural network scheme for the retrieval of total ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment data.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin D; Kaifel, Anton; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P

    2002-08-20

    A novel approach to retrieving total ozone columns from the ERS2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) spectral data has been developed. With selected GOME wavelength regions, from clear and cloudy pixels alike plus orbital and instrument data as input, a feed-forward neural network was trained to determine total ozone in a one-step inverse retrieval procedure. To achieve this training, ground-based total ozone measurements from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center (WOUDC) for the years 1996-2000, supplemented with Dobson-corrected Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data to provide global coverage, were collocated with GOME ground pixels into a training data set. Validation of the neural-network-retrieved ozone values relative to independent ground stations yielded a rms error of better than 11 Dobson units. Comparisons performed on the basis of operationally available TOMS and GOME level-3 maps exhibit good agreement in general, with a latitude-dependent offset. PMID:12206215

  15. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Ginat, Hanan; Shalmon, Benny

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel. The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Therefore, acacia trees in arid zones are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species, i.e., biodiversity. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since 2000, a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava (established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority). The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of 2010. A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools (ground and air-based) along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia

  16. Infiltration and drainage in the unsaturated zone: comparison of numerical simulations to a monitored field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papafotiou, Alexandros; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Noell, Ursula; Neuweiler, Insa

    2010-05-01

    The unsaturated zone has a prominent role for groundwater resources, as it controls through flow and transport any mass exchange between atmosphere and groundwater. However, providing reliable predictions for the unsaturated zone is very demanding, as it is dominated by complex two-phase flow processes that produce high uncertainty with respect to the hydraulic properties. When modeling unsaturated flow, the typically unknown spatial distribution of hydraulic properties in the soil constitutes a primary source of uncertainty. Even if information on the exact distribution is known, additional uncertainty may stem from the non-uniqueness of the hydraulic properties, most profoundly expressed through hysteresis in the capillary pressure-saturation relationship, also known as water retention curve. In this work, we present modeling considerations for predicting an infiltration and drainage event in the unsaturated zone during a field experiment. The experiment was performed by infiltrating brilliant-blue solution while monitoring the plume movement with ERT. After the completion of infiltration (and the consequent drainage), the upper 1 meter of the soil was excavated in slices to obtain the 3D distribution of water saturation and pressure. Numerical simulations are carried out with a two-phase flow model. The results illustrate possibilities and limitations of predicting such flow processes based on the experimental information available. We demonstrate the influence and significance of hysteresis by comparing experimental findings with model runs that explicitly consider wetting and drying conditions in the experiment. Our approach allows us to identify key processes that have to be accounted for. In a feedback loop with the design of future experiments we aim at improving input specifications necessary for reliable predictive modeling of unsaturated flow.

  17. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721

  18. The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for OSI - Experiences from IFE14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Sick, Benjamin; Häge, Martin; Blake, Thomas; Labak, Peter; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is the third of four elements of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The sole purpose of an OSI is to confirm whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the treaty and to gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator. It thus constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT if all other available measures are not able to confirm the nature of a suspicious event. The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) carried out the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in the Dead Sea Area of Jordan from 3 November to 9. December 2014. It was a fictitious OSI whose aim was to test the inspection capabilities in an integrated manner. The technologies allowed during an OSI are listed in the Treaty. The aim of the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) is to detect and localize aftershocks of low magnitudes of the triggering event or collapses of underground cavities. The locations of these events are expected in the vicinity of a possible previous explosion and help to narrow down the search area within an inspection area (IA) of an OSI. The success of SAMS depends on the main elements, hardware, software, deployment strategy, the search logic and not least the effective use of personnel. All elements of SAMS were tested and improved during the Built-Up Exercises (BUE) which took place in Austria and Hungary. IFE14 provided more realistic climatic and hazardous terrain conditions with limited resources. Significant variations in topography of the IA of IFE14 in the mountainous Dead Sea Area of Jordan led to considerable challenges which were not expected from experiences encountered during BUE. The SAMS uses mini arrays with an aperture of about 100 meters and with a total of 4 elements. The station network deployed during IFE14 and results of the data analysis will be presented. Possible aftershocks of

  19. The CareWell in Hospital questionnaire: a measure of frail elderly inpatient experiences with individualized and integrated hospital care.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Franka C; Persoon, Anke; Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2014-05-01

    Given our aging society with an increasing number of frail elderly patients, we must provide integrated care tailored to their complex needs regarding health and well-being. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire designed to assess how frail hospitalized elderly patients experience several important aspects of individualized and integrated care. An 8-item questionnaire was developed using input from a panel representing the target group and administered to patients age ≥70 years from surgical, medical, and geriatric departments to measure data characteristics, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. A total of 470 questionnaires were returned, including 78 for test-retest reliability. Data were missing from 1.7% to 7.0% within the individual questions. The percentage of questions answered with "don't know" ranged 3.8% to 21.9%. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.70. Test-retest intraclass correlation was 0.75. Achievement of goals during the hospital stay was significantly correlated with the questionnaire score. Scores did not differ significantly between departments or between the before and after measurements related to an innovative intervention study in healthcare delivery. The CareWell in Hospital questionnaire has good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability and warrants further research to explore responsiveness. PMID:24474635

  20. Comparing Infants' Use of Featural and Spatiotemporal Information in an Object Individuation Task Using a New Event-Monitoring Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krojgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding "event-mapping" designs" (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996 ), whereas the simpler…

  1. The SfM-monitored rill experiment, a tool to detect decisive processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remke, Alexander-André; Wirtz, Stefan; Brings, Christine; Gronz, Oliver; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The initiation of rill erosion marks the transition from sheet to linear erosion. With this transition, the relevant processes change and therefore, the observation method needs to be changed too: from observing rainfall induced drop impacts to hydraulic observations. For us, the investigation of the decisive processes in eroding rills resulted in a constantly revised and updated rill erosion experiment, that has been used for several years. Within this experiment the sediment transport behavior of rills is simulated and examined. To make the experiment repeatable and replicable, several key-variables have to be kept constant, i.e. water quantity (1000 L), test duration (approx. 4 min.) and the length of the tested rill section (20 m). For each tested rill, the topographic background is determined i.e. catchment area, aspect, slope, position and height of existing knick-points and three cross-sections. After the initial assessment, the rill is flushed with water (250 L min -1) twice in order to determine the modifications of the rill caused by the flowing water. Within these approx. 4 minutes of "controlled destruction" the velocity of the turbulently flowing water at the beginning of the erosional event and after one and two minutes is determined and the corresponding water depth is recorded using three gauges at selected measuring points. At the end of the tested rill segment, the discharge is constantly monitored. Unfortunately, the results of this rill experiment do not directly show the modifications caused by the artificial waterflow. A way out of this knowledge gap is offered by combining this experimental measurement method with a technique already used in different scientific disciplines in more large-scale applications. Structure-from-Motion technology offers the opportunity to get a different, more detailed view inside the erosion rills. A static multi-camera-array and a dynamically moved digital video-frame camera are now used to obtain three

  2. A novel Beam Halo Monitor for the CMS experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanelli, S.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Giunta, M.; Loos, R.; Ambrose, M. J.; Mans, J.; Rusack, R.; Stifter, K.; Stickland, D.; Fabbri, F.; Manna, A.; Montanari, A.; Tosi, N.; Calvelli, V.

    2015-11-01

    A novel Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) has been designed and built for the CMS experiment at the LHC. It will provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of background particles created by interactions of the proton beam with residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber or with collimator material upstream of CMS. The BHM consists of two arrays of twenty detectors that are mounted around the outer forward shielding of the CMS experiment. Each detector is comprised of a cylindrical quartz radiator, optically coupled to a fast ultraviolet-sensitive photomultiplier tube from one end and painted black at the opposite end. Particles moving towards the photomultiplier tube will be detected with time resolution of a few nanoseconds, allowing to measure the flux of background particles produced upstream of CMS and suppress signals from collision-induced products. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to optimise the detector design. Prior to installation, the performance of the prototype detectors was measured in test beams quantifying the detector's direction-sensitive response and time resolution. The BHM was installed during the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) and is currently being commissioned. Design considerations, results from the test-beams supporting the design and the installation of the BHM in the CMS are presented.

  3. Large-scale infiltration experiments into unsaturated stratified loess sediments: Monitoring and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Haim; Shalev, Eyal; Dahan, Ofer; Hatzor, Yossef H.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryTwo large-scale field experiments were conducted to track water flow through unsaturated stratified loess deposits. In the experiments, a trench was flooded with water, and water infiltration was allowed until full saturation of the sediment column, to a depth of 20 m, was achieved. The water penetrated through a sequence of alternating silty-sand and sandy-clay loess deposits. The changes in water content over time were monitored at 28 points beneath the trench, using time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes placed in four boreholes. Detailed records were obtained from a 21-day-period of wetting, followed by a 3-month-period of drying, and finally followed by a second 14-day-period of re-wetting. These processes were simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code that solves the flow equation. The model was calibrated using PEST. The simulations demonstrate that the propagation of the wetting front is hampered due to alternating silty-sand and sandy-clay loess layers. Moreover, wetting front propagation is further hampered by the extremely low values of the initial, unsaturated, hydraulic conductivity; thereby increasing the water content within the onion-shaped wetted zone up to full saturation. Numerical simulations indicate that above-hydrostatic pressure is developed within intermediate saturated layers, enhancing wetting front propagation.

  4. Implications of Childhood Experiences for the Health and Adaptation of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals: Sensitivity to Developmental Process in Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The empirical literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has predominantly focused on sexual-orientation disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals on health and adaptation, as well as on the role of gay-related or minority stress in the health and adaptation of LGB individuals. Aside from demographic control variables, the initial predictor is a marker of sexual orientation or LGB-related experience (e.g., minority stress). Missing are potential strengths and vulnerabilities that LGB individuals develop over time and bring to bear on their sexual identity development and other LGB-related experiences. Those strengths and vulnerabilities may have profound consequences for the sexual identity development, health, and adaptation of LGB individuals. Here, I focus on one such set of strengths and vulnerabilities derived from attachment. I conclude by emphasizing the importance of attachment in the lives of LGB individuals and the need to identify other developmental processes that may be equally consequential. PMID:26900586

  5. PDMS microwells for multi-parametric monitoring of single mitochondria on a large scale: a study of their individual membrane potential and endogenous NADH.

    PubMed

    Vajrala, Venkata Suresh; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Rigoulet, Michel; Devin, Anne; Sojic, Neso; Arbault, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Microwell arrays have been developed to monitor simultaneously, and on a large scale, multiple metabolic responses of single mitochondria. Wells of 50 to 1000 μm-diameter were prepared based on easy structuration of thin polydimethylsiloxane layers (PDMS; 100 μm thickness). Their surface treatment with oxygen plasma allowed the immobilization in situ and observation with time of populations of single isolated mitochondria. Their metabolic activities could be monitored individually by fluorescence microscopy under several activation/inhibition conditions. We measured the concomitant variations of two main metabolic parameters - the endogenous NADH level and the internal membrane potential difference Δψ owing to a cationic fluorescent probe (TMRM) - at energized, uncoupled and inhibited stages of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Microwell arrays allowed analyses on large populations, and consequently statistical studies with a single organelle resolution. Thus, we observed rapid individual polarizations and depolarizations of mitochondria following their supply with the energetic substrate, while an averaged global polarization (increase of TMRM fluorescence within mitochondria) and NADH increase were detected for the whole population. In addition, statistical correlation studies show that the NADH content of all mitochondria tends toward a metabolic limit and that their polarization-depolarization ability is ubiquitous. These results demonstrate that PDMS microwell platforms provide an innovative approach to better characterize the individual metabolic status of isolated mitochondria, possibly as a function of their cell or organ origin or in different physio-pathological situations. PMID:27384613

  6. Exploring Customization in Higher Education: An Experiment in Leveraging Computer Spreadsheet Technology to Deliver Highly Individualized Online Instruction to Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzler, Jayson S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research study designed to explore whether customization of online instruction results in improved learning in a college business statistics course. The study involved utilizing computer spreadsheet technology to develop an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed to: a) collect and monitor individual real-time…

  7. What can we learn from monitoring PCBs in the European eel? A Belgian experience.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Roosens, Laurence; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-02-01

    Between 2000 and 2007 pooled muscle tissue samples of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 48 sites in Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for 30 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. There was a large variation between individual sites (range 11-7752 ng/g wet weight (ww) for the sum of the ICES 7 PCBs), eels from the River Meuse basin (mean 1545 ng/g ww) being considerably more polluted than those from the River Scheldt (615) and IJzer (61) basins. Overall, PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180 were the most prominent congeners, however PCB patterns varied between the monitored locations. Analysis of the weight percentage of congeners demonstrates obvious differences in PCB composition between sites, indicating differential sources of pollution. Due to the variation in patterns, atmospheric fallout does not seem to be the main source of the PCB spread, but instead both local and upstream sources linked to industrial activities seem to be the main cause for PCB presence in Flanders. Considering the levels of the Sum 7 PCBs, eels are not compliant with the Belgian legal limits for consumption (75 ng/g ww) in 71% of the sites. Regular consumption of eels from polluted sites leads to a considerable excess of the WHO Acceptable Daily Intake value. Consumption of wild eels should by all means be prevented, as it presents risks for human health, especially for local anglers consuming their catch. PMID:21075450

  8. Multi-institutional clinical experience with the Calypso System in localization and continuous, real-time monitoring of the prostate gland during external radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kupelian, Patrick . E-mail: patrick.kupelian@orhs.org; Willoughby, Twyla; Mahadevan, Arul; Djemil, Toufik; Weinstein, Geoffrey; Jani, Shirish; Enke, Charles; Solberg, Timothy; Flores, Nicholas

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience with an electromagnetic treatment target positioning and continuous monitoring system in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Calypso System is a target positioning device that continuously monitors the location of three implanted electromagnetic transponders at a rate of 10 Hz. The system was used at five centers to position 41 patients over a full course of therapy. Electromagnetic positioning was compared to setup using skin marks and to stereoscopic X-ray localization of the transponders. Continuous monitoring was performed in 35 patients. Results: The difference between skin mark vs. the Calypso System alignment was found to be >5 mm in vector length in more than 75% of fractions. Comparisons between the Calypso System and X-ray localization showed good agreement. Qualitatively, the continuous motion was unpredictable and varied from persistent drift to transient rapid movements. Displacements {>=}3 and {>=}5 mm for cumulative durations of at least 30 s were observed during 41% and 15% of sessions. In individual patients, the number of fractions with displacements {>=}3 mm ranged from 3% to 87%; whereas the number of fractions with displacements {>=}5 mm ranged from 0% to 56%. Conclusion: The Calypso System is a clinically efficient and objective localization method for positioning prostate patients undergoing radiotherapy. Initial treatment setup can be performed rapidly, accurately, and objectively before radiation delivery. The extent and frequency of prostate motion during radiotherapy delivery can be easily monitored and used for motion management.

  9. An Individual Nanocube-Based Plasmonic Biosensor for Real-Time Monitoring the Structural Switch of the Telomeric G-Quadruplex.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Jingjing; Wu, Lingzhi; He, Hongzhang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Wu, Weibing; Fan, Quli; Huang, Wei; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-06-01

    Promoted by the localized surface plasmon resonance nanotechnology, a simple and sensitive plasmonic aptamer nanosensor (nanoaptasensor) on an individual Au@Ag core-shell nanocube (Au@Ag NC) has been proposed for real-time monitoring of the formation process of G-quadruplex structures and label-free analysis of potassium ions (K(+) ). In particular, the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters indicates that there are two types of binding states accompanied with a remarkable change of free energy (ΔG) in the sequential folding process of telomere DNA sequence. This nanoaptasensor has raised promising applications in monitoring the dynamic process of the structural switch of the G-quadruplex. PMID:27106517

  10. Nondestructive tests for railway monitoring. European Experience in COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontul, Simona; Solla, Mercedes; Loizos, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The railway monitoring is an important issue for a proper maintenance planning. With the increase in loads and travel speed, it is important to be able to diagnose the track defects and to plan the proper maintenance without interfering with the users. Traditionally, the maintenance actions are planned based on the geometric level parameters assessed without contact with the line, at traffic speed, by dedicated inspection vehicles. Nevertheless, the geometric condition of the line does not provide information on the defects causes. In order to complements the information on the causes, geophysics measurements can be performed in a nondestructive way. Among these later methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. A resume of the European experience in COST Action TU1208 of the application of GPR for railway monitoring and the measurement interpretation is presented in this paper. Also complementary nondestructive tests and other geophysical methods are referred, together with case studies of their application. The main troubleshooting and the needs for data analysis

  11. Early Experience of Automated Intraventricular Type Intracranial Pressure Monitoring (LiquoGuard®) for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Sub; Lee, Yun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective The LiquoGuard® system is a new ventricular-type monitoring device that facilitates intracranial pressure (ICP)-controlled or volume-controlled drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The purpose of this study is to report the authors' experience with the LiquoGuard® ICP monitoring system, as well as the clinical safety, usefulness, and limitations of this device in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Intraventricular ICP monitoring was performed on 10 patients with TBI using the LiquoGuard® monitoring system. ICP measurements, volume of drained CSF, and clinical outcomes were analyzed and discussed. Results ICP monitoring was performed on 10 patients for a mean duration of 6.9 days. With a mean 82,718 records per patient, the mean initial ICP was 16.4 mm Hg and the average ICP across the total duration of monitoring was 15.5 mm Hg. The mean volume of drained CSF was 29.2 cc/day, with no CSF drained in 4 patients. Seven of 10 patients showed 1 or 2 episodes of abnormal ICP measurements. No patient exhibited complications associated with ICP monitoring. Conclusion The LiquoGuard® system is a versatile tool in the management of TBI patients. Its use is both reliable and feasible for ICP monitoring and therapeutic drainage of CSF. However, episodes of abnormal ICP measurements were frequently observed in patients with slit ventricles, and further study may be needed to overcome this issue. PMID:27182499

  12. SECONDARY STANDARD CALIBRATION, MEASUREMENT AND IRRADIATION CAPABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICE AT THE HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN: ASPECTS OF UNCERTAINTY AND AUTOMATION.

    PubMed

    Greiter, M B; Denk, J; Hoedlmoser, H

    2016-09-01

    The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has adopted the recommendations of the ISO 4037 and 6980 standards series as base of its dosimetric systems for X-ray, gamma and beta dosimetry. These standards define technical requirements for radiation spectra and measurement processes, but leave flexibility in the implementation of irradiations as well as in the resulting uncertainty in dose or dose rate. This article provides an example for their practical implementation in the Munich IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. It focusses on two aspects: automation issues and uncertainties in calibration. PMID:26838065

  13. Real-time monitoring of changes in plasma membrane potential via imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer at individual cell resolution in suspension.

    PubMed

    Sabati, Tzachi; Galmidi, Bat-Sheva; Korngreen, Alon; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    A method for monitoring heterogeneity in changes of plasma membrane potential (PMP) at an individual cell resolution while in suspension, utilizing a simple and low-cost wide-field illumination arrangement, is presented. The method is modeled via HEK-293 cell line in suspension, double stained with coumarin and oxonol (donor and acceptor), which were loaded into an array of nanoliter wells, each designed to preserve the individuality of the nontethered cell it holds during vigorous biomanipulation. Depolarization of PMP was induced by high K(+) solution, reducing the proximity between the membrane fluorophores and subsequently reducing the efficiency (E%) of resonance energy transfer between them. Spatial plots of E% were produced from both images of fluorescence intensity and polarization. The spatial resolution of E% plots seem to be higher, and their contrast greater, when calculated from the polarization, rather than from the intensity of the fluorescence. PMID:24343441

  14. Real-time monitoring of changes in plasma membrane potential via imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer at individual cell resolution in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabati, Tzachi; Galmidi, Bat-Sheva; Korngreen, Alon; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    A method for monitoring heterogeneity in changes of plasma membrane potential (PMP) at an individual cell resolution while in suspension, utilizing a simple and low-cost wide-field illumination arrangement, is presented. The method is modeled via HEK-293 cell line in suspension, double stained with coumarin and oxonol (donor and acceptor), which were loaded into an array of nanoliter wells, each designed to preserve the individuality of the nontethered cell it holds during vigorous biomanipulation. Depolarization of PMP was induced by high K+ solution, reducing the proximity between the membrane fluorophores and subsequently reducing the efficiency (E%) of resonance energy transfer between them. Spatial plots of E% were produced from both images of fluorescence intensity and polarization. The spatial resolution of E% plots seem to be higher, and their contrast greater, when calculated from the polarization, rather than from the intensity of the fluorescence.

  15. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  16. "I Just Don't Fit Anywhere": Support Experiences and Future Support Needs of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Hastings, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services. In the present research, 11 adults with Asperger syndrome were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the interviews.…

  17. Precise temperature monitoring in boreholes: evidence for oscillatory convection? Part 1: Experiments and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Safanda, Jan; Bodri, Louise

    2008-04-01

    Temperature was monitored in two boreholes in Kamchatka (Russia) in years 2001 2003. Ten-min reading (sampling) interval was selected for the first half-year run followed by shorter (12 days) experiment with 5-s reading interval. A similar experiment was repeated later in the test borehole Sporilov (Prague, Czech Republic), where four temperature time series were performed with reading intervals varying from 1 to 20 s. All temperature time series (except the record from the bottom of the hole) displayed intermittent, non-periodic oscillations of temperature of up to several hundredths of degree with sharp gradients and large fluctuations over all observed time intervals. No such oscillation was detected at the bottom of the hole. The spectral analysis revealed a high level of stochasticity in the measured signal. Calculated spectra showed “band-pass” behavior without any definite peaks, which might characterize certain periodicity. Local growth of the second moment technique revealed the presence of at least two distinct temperature-forming processes. One of them can be related to heat transfer in the structurally and compositionally complex subsurface. The second process, which presents the bulk of the measured signal, probably reflects certain intra-hole convection. We hypothesized that the oscillatory regime of such convection is responsible for the stochastic nature of measured temperatures. Results of numerical modeling describing the fluctuation of water-cells in a vertical slot support the idea of thermally unstable water column in a hole, the instability of which produces a complex oscillation system. Model solutions and their discussion is presented in Part II of this work.

  18. More than 10 years experience of beam monitoring with the Gantry 1 spot scanning proton therapy facility at PSI

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Shixiong; Boehringer, Terence; Coray, Adolf; Grossmann, Martin; Pedroni, Eros

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The beam monitoring equipments developed for the first PSI spot scanning proton therapy facility, Gantry 1, have been successfully used for more than 10 years. The purpose of this article is to summarize the author's experience in the beam monitoring technique for dynamic proton scanning. Methods: The spot dose delivery and verification use two independent beam monitoring and computer systems. In this article, the detector construction, electronic system, dosimetry, and quality assurance results are described in detail. The beam flux monitor is calibrated with a Faraday cup. The beam position monitoring is realized by measuring the magnetic fields of deflection magnets with Hall probes before applying the spot and by checking the beam position and width with an ionization strip chamber after the spot delivery. Results: The results of thimble ionization chamber dosimetry measurements are reproducible (with a mean deviation of less than 1% and a standard deviation of 1%). The resolution in the beam position measurement is of the order of a tenth of a millimeter. The tolerance of the beam position delivery and monitoring during scanning is less than 1.5 mm. Conclusions: The experiences gained with the successful operation of Gantry 1 represent a unique and solid background for the development of a new system, Gantry 2, in order to perform new advanced scanning techniques.

  19. Monitoring soil erosion in terraced catchments in Mediterranean regions: a field experiment in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Djuma, Hakan; Zoumides, Christos; Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Abate, Dante; Faka, Marina; Hermon, Sorin

    2016-04-01

    monitored by sediment traps is performed. The scan produces a point cloud with a resolution close to 2 mm. The comparison of the 3D models derived in different times allows detecting changes in the terrain topography, which can be transformed in to erosion rates knowing the soil bulk density. The preliminary results of the monitoring experiment, which started at the beginning of November 2015, show erosion rates an order of magnitude higher in the collapsed sections of the terrace wall in comparison to the preserved ones. A more comprehensive analysis relating erosion rates to precipitation intensity, assessing yearly erosion rates in degraded terraced environments and comparing different monitoring techniques are expected at the end of the rainy season (April).

  20. Stratospheric water vapor results from the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere /LIMS/ experiment on Nimbus 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M., III; Remsberg, E. E.; Gordley, L. L.; Gille, J. C.; Bailey, P.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor results taken from the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere experiment on Nimbus 7 are presented with emphasis on validation studies. Basic radiance data, the indicated orbital precision of the experiment and comparisons made with data collected in simultaneous balloon underflights are described. A plot of pressure versus H2O channel radiance shows the radiance variability as a function of pressure and latitude. Measured precision is in good agreement with calculated values using simulations.

  1. Implementation of Environmental Monitors for NIFFTE and SeaQuest Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenhower, Donald; Niffte Collaboration; Seaquest Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The implementation of environmental monitors for the LANSCE NIFFTE and Fermilab SeaQuest experiments will be discussed. The emphasis will be on the use of a single, low cost, general purpose instrument, as opposed to a system of specialized, multiple subsystems. The implementation uses a Keithley™ 2701 Multimeter/Data Acquisition System with a Keithley™ 7710 solid state multiplexer. The system will be set up to work with MIDAS or CODA as the DAQ interface. It can have multiple types of sensors hooked up, as each channel is independent and can measure any parameter ordinarily associated with a DMM. The inputs can be a mixed composition of thermocouples, thermistors, LVDTs, pressure, humidity, and other sensors. The Keithley™ 2701 is easily controlled via the ``Standard Commands for Programmable Instrumentation'' (SCPI) Ethernet interface in a Linux environment. The different ways in which such a system can be configured as part of the LANSCE NIFFTE and Fermilab SeaQuest slow control systems will be demonstrated. Funding for this work was provided in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

  2. Radiation-induced insulator discharge pulses in the CRRES internal discharge monitor satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Mullen, E. G.; Brautigam, D. H.; Kerns, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) was designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The sixteen insulator samples included twelve planar printed circuit boards and four cables. The samples were fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrated 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. Pulsing began on the seventh orbit, the maximum pulse rate occurred on the seventeenth orbit when 13 pulses occurred, and the pulses slowly diminished to about one per 3 orbits six months later. After 8 months, the radiation belts abruptly increased and the pulse rates attained a new high. These pulse rates were in agreement with laboratory experience on shorter time scales. Several of the samples never pulsed. If the pulses were not confined within IDM, the physical processes could spread to become a full spacecraft anomaly. The IDM results indicate the rate at which small insulator pulses occur. Small pulses are the seeds of larger satellite electrical anomalies. The pulse rates are compared with space radiation intensities, L shell location, and spectral distributions from the radiation spectrometers on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite.

  3. Glance traceability - Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Évora, L. H. R. A.; Molina-Pérez, J.; Pommès, K.; Galvão, K. K.; Maidantchik, C.

    2010-04-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceability and radiation measurements is ensured, as well as simultaneous management of multiples equipment. The software is fully operational, being used by the Radiation Protection Experts of ATLAS and trained users since the first beam of the LHC. Initially developed for the ATLAS detector, the flexibility of the system has allowed its adaptation for the LHCb detector.

  4. iPod-based in-home system for monitoring gaze-stabilization exercise compliance of individuals with vestibular hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the physical therapy setting, physical therapists (PTs) often prescribe exercises for their clients to perform at home. However, it is difficult for PTs to obtain information about their clients’ compliance with the prescribed exercises, the quality of performance and symptom magnitude. We present an iPod-based system for capturing this information from individuals with vestibular hypofunction while they perform gaze stabilization exercises at home. Method The system’s accuracy for measurement of rotational velocity against an independent motion tracker was validated. Then a seven day in-home trial was conducted with 10 individuals to assess the feasibility of implementing the system. Compliance was measured by comparing the recorded frequency and duration of the exercises with the exercise prescription. The velocity and range of motion of head movements was recorded in the pitch and yaw planes. The system also recorded dizziness severity before and after each exercise was performed. Each patient was interviewed briefly after the trial to ascertain ease of use. In addition, an interview was performed with PTs in order to assess how the information would be utilized. Results The correlation of the velocity measurements between the iPod-based system and the motion tracker was 0.99. Half of the subjects were under-compliant with the prescribed exercises. The average head velocity during performance was 140 deg/s in the yaw plane and 101 deg/s in the pitch plane. Conclusions The iPod-based system was able to be used in-home. Interviews with PTs suggest that the quantitative data from the system will be valuable for assisting PTs in understanding exercise performance of patients, documenting progress, making treatment decisions, and communicating patient status to other PTs. PMID:24746068

  5. The potential of measuring serum amyloid A in individual ewe milk and in farm bulk milk for monitoring udder health on sheep dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Winter, Petra; Miny, Martina; Fuchs, Klemens; Baumgartner, Walter

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of measuring serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in milk of individual ewes and in farm bulk milk for monitoring udder health. Udder health was calculated by examining a randomly selected group of seven flocks at each farm visit by means of California mastitis test and bacteriological examination of 5749 milk samples. SAA was determined additionally in 267 randomly selected milk samples from six flocks. Thirty-one bulk milk samples from these farms were tested for SCC and SAA levels. Subclinical infections were detected in 29.5% of samples whereas no clinical infections were observed. Intramammary infected udder halves showed significantly elevated SAA concentrations (121.3+/-25.3 microg/ml) in milk compared to the levels of healthy udder halves (8.0+/-1.9 microg/ml; p<0.001). SAA was significantly elevated in sheep with elevated CMT scores and positive bacteriological results. Bulk milk SAA levels ranged from 18.6+/-6.7 to 37.4+/-14.1 microg/ml and showed a positive correlation with bSCC (r=0.38, p=0.018) but not with percent infected glands (r=0.022, p=0.453). This study demonstrated that SAA levels in milk can be used to detect subclinical mastitis in individual ewes whereas further investigations are needed to determine the value of measuring SAA in bulk milk for monitoring flock udder health. PMID:16677674

  6. Effects of Repeated Listening Experiences on the Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Individuals with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Rajinder; Hester, Kasey

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the perception of synthetic speech by individuals with severe intellectual disabilities using a closed-response format task. Method: Participants were 14 individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and a group of 14 typical individuals. A between-groups design was used to compare the performance of the 2 groups on word…

  7. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. II. Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level

    PubMed Central

    DE HERT, MARC; COHEN, DAN; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; LEUCHT, STEFAN; M. NDETEI, DAVID; W. NEWCOMER, JOHN; UWAKWE, RICHARD; ASAI, ITSUO; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; GAUTAM, SHIV; DETRAUX, JOHAN; U. CORRELL, CHRISTOPH

    2011-01-01

    Physical disorders are, compared to the general population, more prevalent in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although this excess morbidity and mortality is largely due to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, the screening and assessment of physical health aspects remains poor, even in developed countries. Moreover, specific patient, provider, treatment and system factors act as barriers to the recognition and to the management of physical diseases in people with SMI. Psychiatrists can play a pivotal role in the improvement of the physical health of these patients by expanding their task from clinical psychiatric care to the monitoring and treatment of crucial physical parameters. At a system level, actions are not easy to realize, especially for developing countries. However, at an individual level, even simple and very basic monitoring and treatment actions, undertaken by the treating clinician, can already improve the problem of suboptimal medical care in this population. Adhering to monitoring and treatment guidelines will result in a substantial enhancement of physical health outcomes. Furthermore, psychiatrists can help educate and motivate people with SMI to address their suboptimal lifestyle, including smoking, unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. The adoption of the recommendations presented in this paper across health care systems throughout the world will contribute to a significant improvement in the medical and related psychiatric health outcomes of patients with SMI. PMID:21633691

  8. Flood Detection and Monitoring by Autonomous Satellite Operations: the ASE Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, F.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Doggett, T.; Davies, A. G.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D. Q.; Rabideau, G.

    2006-05-01

    We developed a satellite-based floodwater classification algorithm, ASE_FLOOD, to autonomously detect, monitor and respond to flooding events as they occur. It monitors selected river locations around the world for flood conditions in near real time through the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE). Normally, an ongoing flood might be missed because of the time required for the spacecraft to send its data to ground controllers for image processing and data analysis. The ASE approach cuts lengthy time lags inherent to taking an observation, transmitting it to the ground for study, and subsequently deciding to direct further satellite observations of an event. By introducing spaceborne data analysis and autonomous decision-making ability, ASE provides an innovative way for early detection, tracking and "rapid response" to dynamic transient flood events without any human intervention or prior knowledge. Tested and proven on NASA's EO-1 spacecraft, ASE's onboard data analysis detects flood/non-flood/cloudy conditions on the ground, and responds to the detected conditions accordingly using its ASE-facilitated autonomous decision making ability. Cloudy scenes and scenes with no significant flooding are dropped and not be transmitted, thereby saving downlink resources. When significant flooding is detected, ASE autonomously triggers the satellite to acquire additional images of the same target or adjacent flood-affected regions on the next orbital passes to track flood progress and map flood extent. This conditional change- based triggering allows the satellite to change its acquisition priorities and retarget its sensors to the emerging flood regions. The ASE approach greatly reduces the response time to floods from 2 weeks down to a possible 3 hours. It optimizes satellite downlink resources by eliminating useless scenes (e.g., cloudy) and preferentially transmitting onboard-derived data of high science value (e.g., time series of floodwater inundation maps). This

  9. Laboratory experiments and continuous fluid monitoring at Campi Flegrei to understand pressure transients in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Chiodini, Giovanni; Pilz, Marco; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The hydrothermal system beneath Campi Flegrei is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by the existence of a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara (Bruno et al. 2007), associated with formation of new fumaroles and the spatial pattern of exhalation vents. Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure tansients in the hydrothermal system of Campi Flegrei shall be studied using a combination of laboratory experiments and continuous pressure/temperature monitoring at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. Four groundwater monitoring sites were installed in September 2013: one in the Fangaia mud pool inside Solfatara and three within the geothermal area of Agnano, which is located roughly 3 km to the East of the Solfatara crater. In 2014 additional sensors were installed in Pisciarelli. Autonomous devices are being used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. Records reveal significant changes of the hydrothermal system in September 2013 at the Agnano main spring during the night from 23 to 24 September. Both, the water level and the water temperature dropped significantly, confirmed by visual inspection of the spa operators. The pool of the main spring almost emptied and the flow rate was significantly reduced, implying a profound change in the system. Similar water level drops occurred in the following months. Gas bubbles are likely to play a major role with respect to spatio-temporal variations in shallow fluid systems below Solfatara. Thus, additional to the field measurements we investigate potential bubble-related mechanisms capable to increase fluid pressure. The BubbleLab at GFZ has been setup. We are able to simulate earthquake ground motions with a shaking table, track the size and velocity of rising bubbles via a camera system, and quantify transients with a set of

  10. Online monitoring for the CDF Run II experiment and the remote operation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arisawa, T.; Fabiani, D.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Ikado, K.; Kubo, T.; Kusakabe, Y.; Maeshima, K.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Plager, C.; Schmidt, E.; /Fermilab /INFN, Pisa /Karlsruhe U.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of the CDF Run II online event monitoring framework, placed well before the physics runs start, allowed to develop coherent monitoring software across all the different subsystems which consequently made maintenance and operation simple and efficient. Only one shift person is needed to monitor the entire CDF detector, including the trigger system. High data quality check is assured in real time and well defined monitoring results are propagated coherently to offline datasets used for physics analyzes. We describe the CDF Run II online event monitoring system and operation, with emphasis on the remote monitoring shift operation started since November 2006 with Pisa-INFN as pilot Institution and exploiting the WEB based access to the data.

  11. Synchronised electrical monitoring and high speed video of bubble growth associated with individual discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troughton, S. C.; Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Henrion, G.; Clyne, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Synchronised electrical current and high speed video information are presented from individual discharges on Al substrates during PEO processing. Exposure time was 8 μs and linear spatial resolution 9 μm. Image sequences were captured for periods of 2 s, during which the sample surface was illuminated with short duration flashes (revealing bubbles formed where the discharge reached the surface of the coating). Correlations were thus established between discharge current, light emission from the discharge channel and (externally-illuminated) dimensions of the bubble as it expanded and contracted. Bubbles reached radii of 500 μm, within periods of 100 μs, with peak growth velocity about 10 m/s. It is deduced that bubble growth occurs as a consequence of the progressive volatilisation of water (electrolyte), without substantial increases in either pressure or temperature within the bubble. Current continues to flow through the discharge as the bubble expands, and this growth (and the related increase in electrical resistance) is thought to be responsible for the current being cut off (soon after the point of maximum radius). A semi-quantitative audit is presented of the transformations between different forms of energy that take place during the lifetime of a discharge.

  12. On-line process monitoring of coffee roasting by resonant laser ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: bridging the gap from industrial batch roasting to flavour formation inside an individual coffee bean.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Schünemann, R; Dorfner, R; Yeretzian, C; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) enables the fast and sensitive on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during coffee roasting. On the one hand, REMPI-TOFMS was applied to monitor roasting gases of an industrial roaster (1500 kg/h capacity), with the aim of determining the roast degree in real-time from the transient chemical signature of VOCs. On the other hand, a previously developed μ-probe sampling device was used to analyse roasting gases from individual coffee beans. The aim was to explore fundamental processes at the individual bean level and link these to phenomena at the batch level. The pioneering single-bean experiments were conducted in two configurations: (1) VOCs formed inside a bean were sampled in situ, i.e. via a drilled μ-hole, from the interior, using a μ-probe (inside). (2) VOCs were sampled on-line in close vicinity of a single coffee bean's surface (outside). The focus was on VOCs originating from hydrolysis and pyrolytic degradation of chlorogenic acids, like feruloyl quinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid. The single bean experiments revealed interesting phenomena. First, differences in time-intensity profiles between inside versus outside (time shift of maximum) were observed and tentatively linked to the permeability of the bean's cell walls material. Second, sharp bursts of some VOCs were observed, while others did exhibit smooth release curves. It is believed that these reflect a direct observation of bean popping during roasting. Finally, discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora was demonstrated based on high-mass volatile markers, exclusively present in spectra of Coffea arabica. PMID:24338878

  13. CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage into glauconitic sands: geochemical and isotopic monitoring of batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Negrel, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    experiment; (2) dissolved iron strongly decreases immediately after CO2 injection; (3) potassium, sodium and fluorine concentrations increase at the start of CO2 injection and then stabilize to levels higher than the pre-injection concentrations, (4) chlorides and sulfates are stable. These variations indicate dissolution/precipitation and surface reactions involving mineral phases such as glauconite, siderite/iron hydroxide. The experimental results were interpreted and the geochemical mechanisms involved were included in geochemical modeling using PHREEQC, an essential step to quantify the overall effect of the combined individual reactions and processes. These mechanisms were corroborated with isotopic ratio variations. E.g. the variations of δ13CDIC (from -15.7 ‰ to -21 ‰ vs. PDB) cannot be explained solely by the CO2 dissolution, and indicate additional chemical processes. Likewise, shifts of δ11B towards more negative values stress the implication of the glauconitic minerals, mainly B-bearing phase in the system. These experimental results, and their numerical simulation, are promising for the development of our indirect geochemical and isotopic monitoring technique.

  14. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    MCID at 3 and 12 months. The discordance rates of achieving or not achieving MCID for ODI were in the range of 19% to 27% for all diagnoses and treatments (decompression with and without fusion). The positive and negative predictive value of 3-months ODI to predict 12-month ODI was 86% and 60% for MCID and 82% and 67% for SCB. CONCLUSIONS Based on their findings, the authors conclude the following: 1) Predictive methods for functional outcome based on early patient experience (i.e., baseline and/or 3-month data) should be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of procedures in patient populations, rather than serving as a proxy for long-term individual patient experience. 2) Prospective longitudinal registries need to span at least 12 months to determine the effectiveness of spine care at the individual patient and practitioner level. PMID:26989974

  15. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    on the each calibration graphics with different H2 concentration in standard gas mixtures. The graphics represent the power functions. The accuracy of the approximating functions is 3-18 %. At low concentrations (H2 <3 ppm) - error is rather high (about 20%).So we think that 2 ppm is the low limit of measurement. The essential factor is a temperature drift. We estimate this drift as 20mV per 1 degree and make corrections, because measurements were made in wide temperature range (+29 - -20 C). To take this factor we added our network by meteorological sensors. Each sensor network node has a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. All nodes are equal and serve as routers, so there is no need to plan nodes placement in advance Mesh Network protocol. Every node maintains a local routing table with information about one or several neighbors. The signal transmission between nodes and router used radio channel 2.6 GHz. Communication between router and IT server used two methods: cable RS486 and GPRS modem. GPRS connection is unstable and influence on operating stability. There are some problems in using of directional antenna because of the high level of city's radio noises and radio interferences. Nevertheless, a number of experiments with use of different technical solutions allowed us to perform continuous monitoring during 2 months. As a result about 3 million data records were obtained during experimental works. This information provided an opportunity to develop the structure of database management systems to store data and the technology of online data collection from remote sensors. Using the abilities of program software a periodical (12h) automatic export/import was realized. Access to file on remote computers is opened using FTP protocol. Database forms derived tables

  16. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Swart, D. P. J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H. M.; Kerridge, B. J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I. S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; van der A, R. J.; van Oss, R. F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-11-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information and a priori constraints. In total nine different algorithms will be evaluated exploiting the optimal estimation (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Bremen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory), Phillips-Tikhonov regularization (Space Research Organization Netherlands), neural network (Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Tor Vergata University), and data assimilation (German Aerospace Center) approaches. Analysis tools are used to interpret data sets that provide averaging kernels. In the interpretation of these data, the focus is on the vertical resolution, the indicative altitude of the retrieved value, and the fraction of a priori information. The evaluation is completed with a comparison of the results to lidar data from the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations in Andoya (Norway), Observatoire Haute Provence (France), Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Lauder (New Zealand), and Dumont d'Urville (Antarctic) for the years 1997-1999. In total, the comparison involves nearly 1000 ozone profiles and allows the analysis of GOME data measured in different global regions and hence observational circumstances. The main conclusion of this paper is that unambiguous information on the ozone profile can at best be retrieved in the altitude range 15-48 km with a vertical resolution of 10 to 15 km, precision of 5-10%, and a bias up to 5% or 20% depending on the success of recalibration of the input spectra. The sensitivity of retrievals to ozone at lower altitudes varies from scheme to scheme and includes significant influence from a priori assumptions.

  17. Arctic Observing Experiment - An Assessment of Instruments Used to Monitor the Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Johnson, J.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Valentic, T. A.; Henderson, G. R.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.; Zook, J.; Davis, Z.

    2014-12-01

    To understand and predict weather and climate require an accurate observing network that measures the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. Measuring these parameters autonomously in the polar regions is especially challenging. To assess the accuracy of polar measurement networks, we established the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) test site in March 2013 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation and Meteorology (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. We deployed a myriad of data loggers and autonomous buoys, which represent most of the instruments that are commonly deployed by the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) to measure temperature, air pressure and wind. Estimates of temperature over this area have also been analyzed from satellites (e.g., using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (IST)) product, and can complement data from in-situ sensors and provide consistent measurements under clear-sky conditions. Preliminary results reveal that some of the buoys are susceptible to solar heating, icing can block barometers for short periods, and frosting may insulate air temperature sensors and freeze-lock anemometers. Some of these issues may be addressed by simply painting the buoys white to reduce solar heating of the buoys, and using better temperature shields and barometer ports. Nevertheless, frosting of ultrasonic and mechanical anemometers remains a significant challenge. These results will be useful to initiate a protocol to obtain accurate and consistent measurements from the IABP, the Arctic Observing Network (AON), the International Program for Antarctic Buoys, and the Southern Ocean Observing System to monitor polar environments.

  18. Monitoring grazing intensity: an experiment with canopy spectra applied to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Ying; Zheng, Jiajia; Luo, Juhua; Zhang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of grassland grazing intensity (GI) and its detailed spatial distribution are important for grassland management and ecological protection. Remote sensing has great potential in these areas, but its use is still limited. This study analyzed the impacts of grazing on biophysical properties of vegetation and suggested using biomass to quantify GI because of its stability and interpretability. In comparison to a single spectral index, such as the red edge index (REI), combining REI and a cellulose absorption ratio index calculated from hyperspectral data performs better for biomass estimation. Further, an auxiliary spectral index, called the grazing monitoring index (GMI), was developed based on differences in spectral reflectance in the infrared range. Experiments in a grazing area of the Inner Mongolia grassland indicated that GMI can identify GI, with three range intervals (GMI <0, 0-1, and ≥1) used to describe the biomass distribution. The results showed that combining GMI and biomass was more successful than existing approaches for identifying the grassland variability resulting from the spatial heterogeneity of grazing behavior. The thresholds of biomass for four GI levels (ungrazed, lightly grazed, moderately grazed, and heavily grazed) could be determined by the intersections of biomass distributions. In addition, the approach developed at the on-ground canopy scale was extended to remotely sensed Hyperion data. The results showed that the approach could successfully identify the grazing treatments of blocks in the experimental grazing area. Overall, our study provides inspiration and ideas for using satellite remote sensing for evaluating plant production, standing biomass, and livestock impacts.

  19. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  20. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  1. Monitoring extracted beams of the nuclotron accelerator complex for "energy + transmutation" experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Vasil'ev, S. E.; Vishnevskiy, A. V.; Vladimirova, N. M.; Kudashkin, I. V.; Makan'kin, A. M.; Paraipan, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    A monitoring system for measuring absolute intensity and the space—time structure of extracted beams of Nuclotron based on ionization and activation methods has been created and tested. The monitoring system provides a measurement of the absolute intensity of extracted beams with a precision of 10% and beam position with a precision of 0.5 mm.

  2. A scale-up field experiment for the monitoring of a burning process using chemical, audio, and video sensors.

    PubMed

    Stavrakakis, P; Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Statheropoulos, M; Pallis, G C; Pappa, A

    2014-01-01

    Fires are becoming more violent and frequent resulting in major economic losses and long-lasting effects on communities and ecosystems; thus, efficient fire monitoring is becoming a necessity. A novel triple multi-sensor approach was developed for monitoring and studying the burning of dry forest fuel in an open field scheduled experiment; chemical, optical, and acoustical sensors were combined to record the fire spread. The results of this integrated field campaign for real-time monitoring of the fire event are presented and discussed. Chemical analysis, despite its limitations, corresponded to the burning process with a minor time delay. Nevertheless, the evolution profile of CO2, CO, NO, and O2 were detected and monitored. The chemical monitoring of smoke components enabled the observing of the different fire phases (flaming, smoldering) based on the emissions identified in each phase. The analysis of fire acoustical signals presented accurate and timely response to the fire event. In the same content, the use of a thermographic camera, for monitoring the biomass burning, was also considerable (both profiles of the intensities of average gray and red component greater than 230) and presented similar promising potentials to audio results. Further work is needed towards integrating sensors signals for automation purposes leading to potential applications in real situations. PMID:23832773

  3. Systematic review of patients' participation in and experiences of technology-based monitoring of mental health symptoms in the community

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Eoin; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review systematically the literature on patients’ experiences of, and participation in, technology-based monitoring of mental health symptoms. This practice was defined as patients monitoring their mental health symptoms, emotions or behaviours outside of routine clinical appointments by submitting symptom data using technology, with feedback arising from the data (for example, supportive messages or symptom summaries, being sent to the patient, clinician or carer). Design Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines of studies evaluating technology-based symptom monitoring. Tools from narrative synthesis were used to analyse quantitative findings on participation rates and qualitative findings on patient views. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BNI, CINAHL, Cochrane Registers and Web of Science electronic databases were searched using a combination of ‘psychiatry’, ‘symptom monitoring’ and ‘technology’ descriptors. A secondary hand search was performed in grey literature and references. Results 57 papers representing 42 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Technology-based symptom monitoring was used for a range of mental health conditions, either independently of a specific therapeutic intervention or as an integrated component of therapeutic interventions. The majority of studies reported moderate-to-strong rates of participation, though a third reported lower rates. Qualitative feedback suggests that acceptability of monitoring is related to perceived validity, ease of practice, convenient technology, appropriate frequency and helpfulness of feedback, as well as the impact of monitoring on participants’ ability to manage health and personal relationships. Conclusions Such symptom monitoring practices appear to be well accepted and may be a feasible complement to clinical practice. However, there is limited availability of data and heterogeneity of studies. Future research should examine robustly patients’ role

  4. Systematic Review of Articles Describing Experience and Supports of Individuals with Autism Enrolled in College and University Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this…

  5. An Evaluation of Individualized and Pool Slot Development for Public Service Employment: The Vermont Experience. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Robert E.

    Public Service Employment slots can be developed in three ways: (1) by establishing a pool of jobs into which trainees can be placed; (2) by developing individualized slots for each trainee; (3) by combining the pool and individualized approaches. In terms of administrative and cost efficiency, there is little difference between the pool and the…

  6. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J.

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  7. COMMUNITY-MONITORING PROGRAM SURROUNDING THE NEVADA TEST SITE: ONE YEAR OF EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1954, the US Public Health Service and later the US Environmental Protection Agency Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, have been responsible for conducting a program of environmental radiation monitoring and public radiation safety associated with nuclear weapons tests conduc...

  8. The monitoring and prediction of solar particle events--an experience report.

    PubMed

    Heckman, G; Hirman, J; Kunches, J; Balch, C

    1984-01-01

    The routine monitoring and prediction of solar proton events that may be a hazard to personnel and materials in space are a routine service of the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. The services provided are made available to the space centers in the United States for use in their operations. The real time monitoring consists primarily of Space Environment Monitors on both geosynchronous and polar orbiting weather satellites. The monitoring emphasizes proton fluxes but alpha particles, electrons, and in one case, heavier particles, are included. The predictions are of two types; a general outlook made 1 to 3 days in advance, and specific prediction of event size and probability of occurrence made after a solar flare occurs. The accuracy of the prediction made for solar cycle 21 are assessed. PMID:11539624

  9. Increased Mortality Exposure within the Family Rather than Individual Mortality Experiences Triggers Faster Life-History Strategies in Historic Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans. PMID:24421897

  10. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  11. Quantitative hydro-geophysical monitoring and coupled modeling of a controlled irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Rossi, Matteo; Manoli, Gabriele; Pasetto, Damiano; Deiana, Rita; Ferraris, Stefano; Strobbia, Claudio; Putti, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical surveys provide useful indirect information on vadose zone processes. However, the ability to supply a quantitative description of the subsurface phenomena remains to be proven. A controlled infiltration experiment is here extensively monitored by both ERT and GPR surveys. The experimental site is located nearby the campus of the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Turin, Italy, in Grugliasco. The experimental field is chosen for the plain and well-characterized subsoil geometry: the shallower vadose zone is composed by eolic sand with homogeneous isotropic properties. In these quasi-ideal conditions the geophysical data are accurately examined to achieve the potential knowledge on the water processes and to identify possible misleading information. Field ERT data have been compared with numerical simulations using both traditional uncoupled hydrogeophysical inversion and an innovative Bayesian framework for coupled hydrogeophysical modeling. The coupled data assimilation process is able to estimate reliable hydrological parameters and to reproduce the proper evolution of the water plume in the vadose zone. The uncoupled approach leads to misleading estimations of hydrological quantities, that are essentially due to the geophysical inversion procedure. The lack of knowledge in the inversion process may generate artifacts in the geophysical parameter distributions, which shall be translated in uncorrected hydrological states. GPR data are used separately to analyze capabilities and limitations of this technique in unsaturated environment. GPR surveys on the topographic surface could be wrong analyzed if a clear understanding of the wave propagation in the soil is not realized. So, where a straightforward interpretation of direct and reflected waves is not possible, the presence of guided modes of propagation must be deeply examined to achieve useful information on fluid flow dynamics. The results clearly demonstrate that two key points are

  12. The Source Physics Experiments and Advances in Seismic Explosion Monitoring Predictive Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Antoun, T.; Pitarka, A.; Xu, H.; Vorobiev, O.; Rodgers, A.; Pyle, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Despite many years of study, a number of seismic explosion phenomena remain incompletely understood. These include the generation of S-waves, the variation of absolute amplitudes with emplacement media differences, and the occasional generation of reversed Rayleigh waves. Advances in numerical methods and increased computational power have improved the physics contained in the modeling software and it is possible to couple non-linear source-region effects to far-field propagation codes to predict seismic observables, thereby allowing end-to-end modeling. However, despite the many sensor records from prior nuclear tests, the data available to develop and validate the simulation codes remain limited in important ways. This is particularly the case for the range of both scaled depths of burial and of source media, especially where full near-field to far-field records are available along with key quantitative parameter data such as depth, material properties and yield. For example, two of the most widely used seismic source models, both derived from the best empirical data, Mueller and Murphy (1971) and Denny and Johnson (1989), predict very different amplitudes for greatly overburied explosions. To provide new data to advance predictive explosion modeling capabilities, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is carrying out a series of seven chemical explosions over a range of depths and sizes in the Source Physics Experiments (SPE). These shots are taking place in the Climax Stock granite at the Nevada National Security Site, the location where reversed Rayleigh waves from a nuclear test were first observed in the 1962 HARDHAT event (e.g. Brune and Pomeroy, 1963). Three of the SPE shots have successfully occurred so far, and were well-recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation including seismic, acoustic, EM, and remote sensing. In parallel, detailed site characterization has been conducted using geologic mapping and sampling, borehole geophysics

  13. Seismic aftershock monitoring for on-site inspection purposes. Experience from Integrated Field Exercise 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, P.; Arndt, R.; Villagran, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of the Integrated Field Experiment in 2008 (IFE08) in Kazakhstan was testing the prototype elements of the Seismic aftershock monitoring system (SAMS) for on-site inspection purposes. The task of the SAMS is to collect the facts, which should help to clarify nature of the triggering event. Therefore the SAMS has to be capable to detect and identify events as small as magnitude -2 in the inspection area size up to 1000 km2. Equipment for 30 mini-arrays and 10 3-component stations represented the field equipment of the SAMS. Each mini-array consisted of a central 3-component seismometer and 3 vertical seismometers at the distance about 100 m from the central seismometer. The mini-arrays covered approximately 80% of surrogate inspection area (IA) on the territory of former Semipalatinsk test site. Most of the stations were installed during the first four days of field operations by the seismic sub-team, which consisted of 10 seismologists. SAMS data center comprised 2 IBM Blade centers and 8 working places for data archiving, detection list production and event analysis. A prototype of SAMS software was tested. Average daily amount of collected raw data was 15-30 GB and increased according to the amount of stations entering operation. Routine manual data screening and data analyses were performed by 2-6 subteam members. Automatic screening was used for selected time intervals. Screening was performed using the Sonoview program in frequency domain and using the Geotool and Hypolines programs for screening in time domain. The screening results were merged into the master event list. The master event list served as a basis of detailed analysis of unclear events and events identified to be potentially in the IA. Detailed analysis of events to be potentially in the IA was performed by the Hypoline and Geotool programs. In addition, the Hyposimplex and Hypocenter programs were also used for localization of events. The results of analysis were integrated

  14. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  15. Monitoring signals for vaccine safety: the assessment of individual adverse event reports by an expert advisory committee. Advisory Committee on Causality Assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Collet, J. P.; MacDonald, N.; Cashman, N.; Pless, R.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring vaccine safety is a complex and shared responsibility. It can be carried out in many ways, one of which is the reporting of individual cases of adverse reactions thought to be due to vaccination. The task is difficult because ascribing causality to an individual case report is fraught with challenges. A standardized evaluation instrument--known as the causality assessment form--was therefore developed for use by an expert advisory committee to facilitate the process. By following the several sections in this form, the members of the committee are taken through a series of points to establish causality. These points include the basic criteria for causation such as biological plausibility, the time elapsed between the vaccine administration and the onset of the adverse event, and whether other factors (drugs, chemicals or underlying disease) could account for the adverse symptoms. The form concludes with a consensus assessment of causality, a commentary about the assessment, and advice for further study or follow-up. This method of assessing the more serious cases of adverse reaction reported to vaccination has proven useful in evaluating ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada. Through analyses such as this, new signals can be identified and investigated further. PMID:10743282

  16. Leak Rate Test for a Fiber Beam Monitor Contained in a Vacuum for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mara, Bridget; Lane, Noel; Gross, Eisen; Gray, Frederick; Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions and have determined the leak rate of the FBMs within the constructed vacuum apparatus. This leak rate will be reported, along with preliminary results from tests of the light output from the scintillating fibers. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions

  17. Revising river water quality monitoring networks using discrete entropy theory: the Jajrood River experience.

    PubMed

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Kerachian, Reza

    2011-04-01

    This paper aims at evaluating and revising the spatial and temporal sampling frequencies of the water quality monitoring system of the Jajrood River in the Northern part of Tehran, Iran. This important river system supplies 23% of domestic water demand of the Tehran metropolitan area with population of more than 10 million people. In the proposed methodology, by developing a model for calculating a discrete version of pair-wise spatial information transfer indices (SITIs) for each pair of potential monitoring stations, the pair-wise SITI matrices for all water quality variables are formed. Also, using a similar model, the discrete temporal information transfer indices (TITIs) using the data of the existing monitoring stations are calculated. Then, the curves of the pair-wise SITI versus distance between monitoring stations and TITI versus time lags for all water quality variables are derived. Then, using a group pair-wise comparison matrix, the relative weights of the water quality variables are calculated. In this paper, a micro-genetic-algorithm-based optimization model with the objective of minimizing a weighted average spatial and temporal ITI is developed and for a pre-defined total number of stations, the best combination of monitoring stations is selected. The results show that the existing monitoring system of the Jajrood River should be partially strengthened and in some cases the sampling frequencies should be increased. Based on the results, the proposed approach can be used as an effective tool for evaluating, revising, or redesigning the existing river water quality monitoring systems. PMID:20499162

  18. "It's One of the Hardest Jobs in the World": The Experience and Understanding of Qualified Nurses Who Work with Individuals Diagnosed with Both Learning Disability and Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work…

  19. Fathers' and Mothers' Experiences with Participation in Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Early Intervention Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Kristin Marie

    2012-01-01

    Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) includes a provision for states to provide early intervention (EI) for infants and toddlers demonstrating developmental challenges. Limited data identify how parents, and especially fathers, feel about their experiences participating in Part C EI. This study investigated how fathers…

  20. Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Who Live with Family and Experience Psychiatric Crisis: Who Uses the Emergency Department and Who Stays Home?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Slusarczyk, Maggie; Lunsky, Yona

    2011-01-01

    Many individuals with intellectual disabilities who live with their families experience mental health problems and ensuing psychiatric emergencies. During periods of crisis, families may require additional services, including going to the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to elucidate demographic, clinical, and crisis features…

  1. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  2. Life Experiences of People Who Stutter, and the Perceived Impact of Stuttering on Quality of Life: Personal Accounts of South African Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompas, Michelle; Ross, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the life experiences of a group of South African adults who stutter and the impact of stuttering on their quality of life. Participants were 16 adults with a mean age of 28.9 and ranging from 20 to 59 years. Methods involved individual interviews designed to explore the life domains of education; social…

  3. We Still Have a Lot to Learn: Learning Experiences of Individuals Age 80 and Older in Care Facilities in a Midwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebert, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the learning experiences of individuals, age 80 and older, in care facilities in a Midwestern state. Even with the well documented growth of the over age 85 demographic, there are few studies about learning that included this demographic or considered the wants and needs of this group. Using a phenomenological…

  4. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  5. Constructing a Theory of Individual Space: Understanding Transnational Migration through the Experience of Return Chinese Immigrants from Canada in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yueya

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on life history research, this study critically examines the transnational experiences of return Chinese immigrants from Canada in Beijing. Through the accounts of their experiences, it explores different integration and reintegration strategies, including self-adjustment, lifelong learning and flexible citizenship. A native concept of…

  6. Am I "That" Talented? The Experiences of Gifted Individuals from Diverse Educational Backgrounds at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Arízaga, María P.; Conejeros-Solar, M. Leonor

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of gifted students at the postsecondary level have not been studied widely. The goal of the present study was to explore and describe gifted students' perceptions of their first year after high school regarding experiences of success and failure. Two focus groups were conducted with 12 students (8 males, 4 females) from…

  7. Electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for monitoring CO2 injection: Demonstration of leakage detection during bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, S. J.; Carrigan, C. R.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring infiltration events in the near subsurface. ERT also shows potential for monitoring CO2 injections, despite deployment challenges in the deep subsurface. We present results from analog bench-scale experiments aimed at evaluating the ability of ERT to quantify the volume and spatial distribution of a gas injected into a brine-saturated porous medium. We injected measured volumes of gas into translucent chambers filled with quartz sand, lined with electrodes, and saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. Between injections, a CCD camera captured high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scanned the chamber. Using the CCD images, quantitative visualization techniques resulted in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution and saturation of the injected gas. Direct comparison to inverted resistivity fields then provided a quantitative measure of the ability of ERT to estimate the total volume of injected gas and its spatial distribution within the chamber. We present results from two experiments designed to represent different injection scenarios: (A) low injection rate and strong capillary barrier, and (B) high injection rate and weaker capillary barrier. Results show that ERT provides good estimates of the shape, size and location of the primary gas plume, but underestimates gas content and does not detect thin pathways of gas from the injection port or within the overlying capillary barrier. However, ERT measurements did detect a change in saturation within the primary plume caused by leakage through the capillary barrier in (B), demonstrating the potential utility of ERT as a leakage-monitoring tool. Repeated ERT scans during our experiments led to degradation in data quality that corresponded with an increase in measured contact resistance. Decreased data quality over time is clearly a

  8. Subsurface monitoring of reservoir pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and water content at the CAES Field Experiment, Pittsfield, Illinois: system design

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, D.D.; Childs, S.W.; Phillips, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    This subsurface-instrumentation design has been developed for the first Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) field experiment to be performed in porous media. Energy storage will be accomplished by alternating the injection and withdrawal of compressed air in a confined sandstone aquifer near Pittsfield, Illinois. The overall experiment objective is to characterize the reservoir's geochemical and thermohydraulic response to imposed CAES conditions. Specific experiment objectives require monitoring: air-bubble development; thermal development; cyclic pressure response; reservoir dehydration; and water coning. Supporting these objectives, four parameters will be continuously monitored at depth in the reservoir. They are: temperature; pressure; pore-air relative humidity; and pore-water content. Reservoir temperatures and pressures will range to maximum values approaching 200/sup 0/C and 300 psi, respectively. Both pore-air relative humidity and pore-water content will range from approx. 0 to 100%. This report discusses: instrumentation design; sensor and sensor system calibration; field installation and testing; and instrument-system operation. No comprehensive off-the-shelf instrument package exists to adequately monitor CAES reservoir parameters at depth. The best available sensors were selected and adapted for use under expected ranges of reservoir conditions. The instrumentation design criteria required: suitable sensor accuracy; continuous monitoring capability; redundancy; maximum sensor integrity; contingency planning; and minimum cost-information ratio. Three wells will be instrumented: the injection/withdrawal (I/W) well and the two instrument wells. Sensors will be deployed by wireline suspension in both open and backfilled (with sand) wellbores. The sensors deployed in the I/W well will be retrievable; the instrument-well sensors will not.

  9. Development and application of a system for monitoring drug abuse: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, V; Foong, K

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring systems are useful epidemiological instruments for assessing the problem of drug abuse. The rapid growth of the drug dependence problem in Malaysia led to increased awareness of the need for a system for continuous monitoring of the situation. Preliminary work on the design of an appropriate monitoring system was initiated in 1976. A fully integrated national reporting system was established in 1978, linking all public services and agencies coming into contact with drug-dependent persons, including law enforcement agencies, drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centres, and social and welfare institutions. The information system included a mechanism for systematic gathering, processing, analysing and presenting essential data on the prevention, control and management of drug abuse problems. It also included reporting on drug-related events, such as hospitalizations and arrests, as well as data on known drug-dependent persons and new cases of dependence. The system has been used for routine monitoring of the extent, trends, patterns and other characteristics of drug abuse problems in Malaysia, providing basic information for policy-making and programme planning. On the basis of data generated by the system, it was estimated that the prevalence rate of drug-dependent persons per 100,000 population increased from 84.3 in 1976 to 754.6 in 1986. It was estimated that there were 119,001 drug-dependent persons in Malaysia in 1986. PMID:2765720

  10. Telemetric Catheter-Based Pressure Sensor for Hemodynamic Monitoring: Experimental Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Urban, Ute; Fassbender, Holger; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Schoth, Felix; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and animal experimental feasibility of a percutaneously implantable pulmonary arterial implant for permanent hemodynamic monitoring. Two systems for measuring pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) as well as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) were developed by modifying a commercially available pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). First, a cable-bound catheter-based system was designed by implementation of a capacitive absolute-pressure sensor in the catheter tip. This system was developed further into a completely implantable telemetric system. The devices were tested in an acute setting in a total of 10 sheep. The implant was placed with its tip in the descending pulmonary artery via the right jugular approach. Results were compared with conventional PAC positioned in the contralateral pulmonary artery using Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Implantation of the monitoring systems was uneventful in 10 animals. Data from two fully functional cable-bound and telemetric pressure monitoring systems were available, with a total of 18,506 measurements. There was an excellent correlation between reference data and the data obtained with the implants (r = 0.9944). Bland-Altman plots indicated a very good agreement between the techniques. We report the development and successful initial test of an implantable catheter-based device for long-term measurement of PAP and PAOP. Both devices may be applicable for hemodynamic monitoring. Further long-term studies for assessing reliability and durability of the device are warranted.

  11. IMPLICATIONS OF INTER-HABITAT VARIATION FOR MONITORING GREAT RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: EMAP-UMR EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great River ecosystems (GREs) are complex mosaics of habitats that vary at multiple scales. GRE monitoring designs can capture some but not all of this variation. Each discrete habitat, however defined, must either be sampled as a separate strata or "resource population", combine...

  12. Therapeutic Relationships with Individuals with Learning Disabilities: A Qualitative Study of the Counselling Psychologists' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel Ann

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic relationship, between client and therapist, is seen as a fundamental aspect in the outcome of therapy in the nonlearning disabled population. Literature suggests that the issues that are important in psychological therapy with the nonlearning disabled population should not lose significance with individuals with learning…

  13. The anticipated transition to adulthood: effects of culture and individual experience on Polish and Finnish adolescents' future orientations.

    PubMed

    Trempala, J; Malmberg, L E

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of a set of individual resources and cultural factors on adolescents' probability estimations of the occurrence of positive future events in three life domains: education, occupation, and family. The hypothesis was that the effects of culture and individual resources are interwoven in the formation process of future orientation. The sample consisted of 352 17-year-old Polish and Finnish girls and boys from vocational and upper secondary schools. The 78-item questionnaire developed by the authors was used to measure different aspects of future orientation (probability, valence, and extension of future events in three life domains) and individual resources (self-esteem, control beliefs, and social knowledge about normatively and the generation gap). Data analysis showed that culture separately affected individual resources and adolescents' expectations. However, the results broadly confirmed the thesis that the culture has a limited effect on adolescents' expectations of the occurrence of future events. Moreover, these data suggested that the influence of sociocultural differences on adolescents' probability estimations is indirect. In the context of the presented data, the authors discuss their model of future orientation. PMID:9540224

  14. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  15. "My" School or "Our" School? The Effects of Individual versus Shared School Experiences on Teacher Perceptions of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Staci D.; Wilcox, Pamela; May, David C.; Clayton, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    While the research in the area of fear of criminal victimization among students at school continues to grow, few studies have focused on the prevalence or correlates of fear of crime at school among teachers. Using data from 1,438 teachers from 54 public high schools in Kentucky, we examined the individual- and school-level predictors of teacher…

  16. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  17. How do individuals' health behaviours respond to an increase in the supply of health care? Evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Fichera, Eleonora; Gray, Ewan; Sutton, Matt

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of the management of long-term conditions depends in part on whether healthcare and health behaviours are complements or substitutes in the health production function. On the one hand, individuals might believe that improved health care can raise the marginal productivity of their own health behaviour and decide to complement health care with additional effort in healthier behaviours. On the other hand, health care can lower the cost of unhealthy behaviours by compensating for their negative effects. Individuals may therefore reduce their effort in healthier lifestyles. Identifying which of these effects prevails is complicated by the endogenous nature of treatment decisions and individuals' behavioural responses. We explore whether the introduction in 2004 of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a financial incentive for family doctors to improve the quality of healthcare, affected the population's weight, smoking and drinking behaviours by applying a sharp regression discontinuity design to a sample of 32,102 individuals in the Health Survey for England (1997-2009). We find that individuals with the targeted health conditions improved their lifestyle behaviours. This complementarity was only statistically significant for smoking, which reduced by 0.7 cigarettes per person per day, equal to 18% of the mean. We investigate whether this change was attributable to the QOF by testing for other discontinuity points, including the introduction of a smoking ban in 2007 and changes to the QOF in 2006. We also examine whether medication and smoking cessation advice are potential mechanisms and find no statistically significant discontinuities for these aspects of health care supply. Our results suggest that a general improvement in healthcare generated by provider incentives can have positive unplanned effects on patients' behaviours. PMID:27183132

  18. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon radiography: a calibration experiment using a water tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond D’Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes. Statistical developments establish the feasibility domain of muon radiography monitoring as a function of target thickness (i.e. opacity). Objects with a thickness comprised between ≈50 ± 30 m water equivalent correspond to the best time resolution. Thinner objects have a degraded time resolution that strongly depends on the zenith angle, whereas thicker objects (like volcanoes) time resolution does not.

  19. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon radiography: a calibration experiment using a water tower.

    PubMed

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond d'Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes. Statistical developments establish the feasibility domain of muon radiography monitoring as a function of target thickness (i.e. opacity). Objects with a thickness comprised between ≈50 ± 30 m water equivalent correspond to the best time resolution. Thinner objects have a degraded time resolution that strongly depends on the zenith angle, whereas thicker objects (like volcanoes) time resolution does not. PMID:26971718

  20. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon radiography: a calibration experiment using a water tower

    PubMed Central

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond d’Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes. Statistical developments establish the feasibility domain of muon radiography monitoring as a function of target thickness (i.e. opacity). Objects with a thickness comprised between ≈50 ± 30 m water equivalent correspond to the best time resolution. Thinner objects have a degraded time resolution that strongly depends on the zenith angle, whereas thicker objects (like volcanoes) time resolution does not. PMID:26971718