Science.gov

Sample records for individual monitoring experiments

  1. Optical absorption properties of electron bubbles and experiments on monitoring individual electron bubbles in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei

    When a free electron is injected into liquid helium, it forms a microscopic bubble essentially free of helium atoms, which is referred to as an electron bubble. It represents a fine example of a quantum-mechanical particle confined in a potential well. In this dissertation, we describe our studies on bubble properties, especially the optical absorption properties of ground state electron bubbles and experiments on imaging individual electron bubbles in liquid helium. We studied the effect of zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the shape of ground state electron bubbles in liquid helium. The results are used to determine the line shape for the 1S to 1P optical transition. The calculated line shape is in very good agreement with the experimental measurements of Grimes and Adams. For 1S to 2P transition, the obtained transition line width agrees well with the measured data of Zipfel over a range of pressure up to 15 bars. Fluctuations in the bubble shape also make other "unallowed" transitions possible. The transition cross-sections from the 1S state to the 1D and 2D states are calculated with magnitude approximately two orders smaller than that of the 1S to 1P and 2P transitions. In our electron bubble imaging experiments, a planar ultrasonic transducer was used to generate strong sound wave pulse in liquid helium. The sound pulse passed through the liquid so as to produce a transient negative pressure over a large volume (˜ 1 cm3). An electron bubble that was passed by the sound pulse exploded for a fraction of a microsecond and grew to have a radius of around 10 microns. While the bubble had this large size it was illuminated with a flash lamp and its position was recorded. In this way, we can determine its position. Through the application of a series of sound pulses, we can then take images along the track of individual electrons. The motion of individual electron bubbles has been successfully monitored. Interesting bubble tracks that may relate to electrons

  2. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  3. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  4. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  5. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  6. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

  7. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  8. Sleep Monitoring Experiment - Skylab Experiment M133

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows equipment for the Skylab's Sleep Monitoring Experiment (M133), a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crewmembers' inflight sleep. The experiment monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this experiment and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  9. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... by all individuals for whom monitoring was conducted and to document doses received during...

  10. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... by all individuals for whom monitoring was conducted and to document doses received during...

  11. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... by all individuals for whom monitoring was conducted and to document doses received during...

  12. 10 CFR 835.702 - Individual monitoring records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual monitoring records. 835.702 Section 835.702 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Records § 835.702 Individual monitoring... individual shall be readily available to that individual. (g) Data necessary to allow future verification...

  13. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative “all modes” failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  14. Using widgets to monitor the LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Caballero, I.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of the LHC experiments requires monitoring systems to verify the correct functioning of different sub-systems and to allow operators to quickly spot problems and issues that may cause loss of information and data. Due to the distributed nature of the collaborations and the different technologies involved, the information data that need to be correlated is usually spread over several databases, web pages and monitoring systems. On the other hand, although the complete set of monitorable aspects is known and fixed, the subset that each person needs to monitor is often different for each individual. Therefore, building a unique monitoring tool that suits every single collaborator becomes close to impossible. A modular approach with a set of customizable widgets, small autonomous portions of HTML and JavaScript, that can be aggregated to form private or public monitoring web pages can be a scalable and robust solution, where the information can be provided by a simple and thin set of web services. Among the different widget development toolkits available today, we have chosen the open project UWA (Unified Widget API) because of its portability to the most popular widget platforms (including iGoogle, Netvibes and Apple Dashboard). As an example, we show how this technology is currently being used to monitor parts of the CMS Computing project.

  15. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

  16. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily used to make inferences about the average causal effect of the experimental manipulation. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing experimental data in order to make inferences about individual differences in causal effects. Approaches to analyzing the data produced by a number of classical designs, and two more novel designs, are discussed. Simulations highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the data produced by each design with respect to internal validity. Results indicate that, although the data produced by standard designs can be used to produce accurate estimates of average causal effects of experimental manipulations, more elaborate designs are often necessary for accurate inferences with respect to individual differences in causal effects. The methods described here can be diversely applied by researchers interested in determining the extent to which individuals respond differentially to an experimental manipulation or treatment, and how differential responsiveness relates to individual participant characteristics. PMID:21744970

  17. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  18. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, E; Alves, J G; Ambrosi, P; Janzekovic, H; Vartiainen, E

    2004-01-01

    A large number of standards are available for radiation protection and individual monitoring purposes. They are published by various organisations, international and national. Moreover, the increasing policy of "Quality" applied to individual monitoring requires the implementation of standards on Quality Assurance (QA) both in technical and management aspects of a dosimetric service. Implementation of standards is not mandatory; therefore, varying degrees of implementation can be found in different European countries. However, for a number of good reasons, a degree of harmonisation within the European Union (EU) of the requirements and procedures for individual monitoring would be desirable. Harmonisation as applied to dosimetric services does not mean that they should all follow exactly the same procedures, but that they should aim to meet the same general requirements, and their results should be comparable. This article aims to compile information on the use of all standards applied within individual monitoring practices, be it on the calibration of dosemeters or on the QA procedures to be applied to the overall dose evaluation process. Both "technical standards" and "quality standards" will be discussed. A list of documents of relevance to subjects such as recommendations and requirements in the field of individual monitoring, whose application could help in the harmonisation of procedures, will also be given. As it is agreed that implementation of quality standards is a relevant framework within which harmonisation can be achieved, guidance on the implementation of quality standards in a dosimetric service is given. Accreditation and approval of dosimetric services will be of relevance in the process of harmonisation of individual monitoring within the EU. In this article, a discussion of various procedures and the meaning of both forms of recognition is also provided. Although most of the text applies to the monitoring of internal and external exposure to

  19. Xrootd Monitoring for the CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Bloom, K.; Bockelman, B.; Bradley, D. C.; Dasu, S.; Sfiligoi, I.; Tadel, A.; Tadel, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Yagil, A.

    2012-12-01

    During spring and summer of 2011, CMS deployed Xrootd-based access for all US T1 and T2 sites. This allows for remote access to all experiment data on disk in the US. It is used for user analysis, visualization, running of jobs at computing sites when data is not available at local sites, and as a fail-over mechanism for data access in jobs. Monitoring of this Xrootd infrastructure is implemented on three levels. Basic service and data availability checks are performed by Nagios probes. The second level uses Xrootd's “summary data” stream; this data is aggregated from all sites and fed into a MonALISA service providing visualization and storage. The third level uses Xrootd's “detailed monitoring” stream, which includes detailed information about users, opened files and individual data transfers. A custom application was developed to process this information. It currently provides a real-time view of the system usage and can store data into ROOT files for detailed analysis. Detailed monitoring allows us to determine dataset popularity and to detect abuses of the system, including sub-optimal usage of the Xrootd protocol and the ROOT prefetching mechanism.

  20. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 5,000 grams of contained uranium-235, uranium-233, or plutonium... submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee for each... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 5,000 grams of contained uranium-235, uranium-233, or plutonium... submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee for each... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material in a quantity exceeding 5,000 grams of contained uranium-235, uranium-233, or plutonium... submit an annual report of the results of individual monitoring carried out by the licensee for each... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30 of... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of individual monitoring. 20.2206 Section 20.2206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2206...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2206 - Reports of individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall file the report required by § 20.2206(b), covering the preceding year, on or before April 30 of... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of individual monitoring. 20.2206 Section 20.2206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2206...

  5. Achievement Monitoring of Individually Paced Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    A study was made to monitor achievement of individually paced instruction. The project concentrated on designing testing procedures in group paced instructional programs to provide information to student, teachers, parents and administrators which could be used in both a formative and summative evaluation. The three objectives of the project were:…

  6. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily…

  7. Radiation monitoring equipment dosimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  8. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  9. Calibration Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M. E.

    2009-11-23

    The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified calibration source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars'. This calibration source, the On-board Calibration Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric calibration program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring instrument sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS instrument sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor instrument sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the instrument payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in instrument senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and calibrated instrument.

  10. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; West, E.; Pratico, J.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 2-10 gm diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approximately 10(exp-5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-200 nm spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nm. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on test particles of silica and polystyrene to determine the photoelectric yields and surface equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. A brief description of an experimental procedure for photoemission studies is given and some preliminary laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust particles are presented.

  11. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  12. Monitoring individual and joint action outcomes in duet music performance.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Janeen D; Kourtis, Dimitrios; Vesper, Cordula; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-07-01

    We investigated whether people monitor the outcomes of their own and their partners' individual actions as well as the outcome of their combined actions when performing joint actions together. Pairs of pianists memorized both parts of a piano duet. Each pianist then performed one part while their partner performed the other; EEG was recorded from both. Auditory outcomes (pitches) associated with keystrokes produced by the pianists were occasionally altered in a way that either did or did not affect the joint auditory outcome (i.e., the harmony of a chord produced by the two pianists' combined pitches). Altered auditory outcomes elicited a feedback-related negativity whether they occurred in the pianist's own part or the partner's part, and whether they affected individual or joint action outcomes. Altered auditory outcomes also elicited a P300 whose amplitude was larger when the alteration affected the joint outcome compared with individual outcomes and when the alteration affected the pianist's own part compared with the partner's part. Thus, musicians engaged in joint actions monitor their own and their partner's actions as well as their combined action outcomes, while at the same time maintaining a distinction between their own and others' actions and between individual and joint outcomes. PMID:23489144

  13. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  14. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. PMID:26979804

  15. Monitoring Spiking Activity of Many Individual Neurons in Invertebrate Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, C.J.; Bruno, A.M.; Humphries, M.D.; Moore-Kochlacs, C.; Sejnowski, T.J.; Wang, J.; Hill, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Optical recording with fast voltage sensitive dyes makes it possible, in suitable preparations, to simultaneously monitor the action potentials of large numbers of individual neurons. Here we describe methods for doing this, including considerations of different dyes and imaging systems, methods for correlating the optical signals with their source neurons, procedures for getting good signals, and the use of Independent Component Analysis for spike-sorting raw optical data into single neuron traces. These combined tools represent a powerful approach for large-scale recording of neural networks with high temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:26238051

  16. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  17. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  18. Education and training issues in individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, P; Kamenopoulou, V

    2011-03-01

    The present article deals with the education and training (E&T) issues of individual monitoring (IM) of ionising radiation, based on the requirements provided by the Basic Safety Standards Euratom Directive and the European Commission Technical Recommendations for IM of external radiation. The structure and the objectives of E&T programmes addressed to the staff of dosimetry services, in order to allow the recognition and ensure the continuity of expertise are discussed. The necessity for the establishment of a national strategy for building competence in IM through information, education, training and retraining programmes, addressed to the individually monitored personnel is underlined. The train the trainers' concept is recognised as being an important tool for optimising resources and transferring the skills necessary for building competence. The conditions under which an efficient train the trainers' approach can be established are discussed. Examples of curricula concerning the key persons involved in the provision of E&T in occupational radiation protection are also given. PMID:21131663

  19. Label-free monitoring of individual DNA hybridization using SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ji; Zeng, Jianbo; Zhao, Fusheng; Santos, Greggy M.; Lin, Steven Hsesheng; Raja, Balakrishnan; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Sequence-specific detection of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level has been instrumental and gradually become a ubiquitous tool in a wide variety of biological and biomedical applications such as clinical diagnostics, biosensors, and drug development. Label-free and amplification-free schemes are of particular interest because they could potentially provide in situ monitoring of individual hybridization events, which may lead to techniques for discriminating subtle variations due to single-base modification without stringency control or repetitive thermal cycling. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for molecular detection and identification by exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance effect when the target molecules are near gold or silver nanostructures. However, effective and robust SERS assays have yet become a reality for trace detection. Recently, we have developed a SERS substrate by shaping nanoporous gold thin films into monolithic submicron disks, called nanoporous gold disks (NPGD). Here we demonstrate in situ monitoring of the same immobilized ssDNA molecules and their individual hybridization events.

  20. Monitoring tools of COMPASS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodlak, M.; Frolov, V.; Huber, S.; Jary, V.; Konorov, I.; Levit, D.; Novy, J.; Salac, R.; Tomsa, J.; Virius, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper briefly introduces the data acquisition system of the COMPASS experiment and is mainly focused on the part that is responsible for the monitoring of the nodes in the whole newly developed data acquisition system of this experiment. The COMPASS is a high energy particle experiment with a fixed target located at the SPS of the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. The hardware of the data acquisition system has been upgraded to use FPGA cards that are responsible for data multiplexing and event building. The software counterpart of the system includes several processes deployed in heterogenous network environment. There are two processes, namely Message Logger and Message Browser, taking care of monitoring. These tools handle messages generated by nodes in the system. While Message Logger collects and saves messages to the database, the Message Browser serves as a graphical interface over the database containing these messages. For better performance, certain database optimizations have been used. Lastly, results of performance tests are presented.

  1. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adrada, J.

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  2. Examining Greek Special Education Teachers' Individual and Collaborative Teaching Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morfidi, Eleni; Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examine Greek special education teachers' individual and collaborative teaching experiences in the context of their literacy instruction. The Five Foci Framework, situated in Vygotskian theory, is utilized in the study's design to examine special education teachers' individual and collaborative experiences…

  3. Working It Out: Workplace Experiences of Individuals with HIV and Individuals with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-two individuals with cancer or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) were interviewed concerning their employment related experiences and concerns. Findings indicated that the decision to tell their supervisor and/or co-workers about their health status varied substantially between individuals with HIV and those with cancer. All study…

  4. Experience with the BEACON core monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.L. ); Icide, C.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The BEACON operational core support system was developed for use in pressurized water reactors to provide an integrated system to perform reactor core monitoring, core measurement reduction, core analysis and follow, and core predictions. It is based on the very fast and accurate three-dimensional SPNOVA nodal program. The experience to date has shown the importance of an accurate integrated system. The benefits accrued are greater for the total system than the benefits that are possible separately.

  5. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2008-09-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average “all modes” failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment.

  6. Lived Experiences of College-Age Transsexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the lived experiences of 4 college-age transsexual individuals. A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to investigate their experiences influencing their later educational persistence. Results suggested that level of discomfort, perceived social supports, level of secrecy, and academic achievement all affected…

  7. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment (both natural and induced) on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  8. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1989-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment-both natural and induced-on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM Experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  9. Serosurveillance to monitor onchocerciasis elimination: the Ugandan experience.

    PubMed

    Oguttu, David; Byamukama, Edson; Katholi, Charles R; Habomugisha, Peace; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank O; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-02-01

    Uganda is the only African country whose onchocerciasis elimination program uses a two-pronged approach of vector control and mass drug distribution. The Ugandan program relies heavily upon the use of serosurveys of children to monitor progress toward elimination. The program has tested over 39,000 individuals from 11 foci for Onchocerca volvulus exposure, using the Ov16 ELISA test. The data show that the Ov16 ELISA is a useful operational tool to monitor onchocerciasis transmission interruption in Africa at the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold of < 0.1% in children. The Ugandan experience has also resulted in a re-examination of the statistical methods used to estimate the boundary of the upper 95% confidence interval for the WHO prevalence threshold when all samples tested are negative. This has resulted in the development of Bayesian and hypergeometric statistical methods that reduce the number of individuals who must be tested to meet the WHO criterion. PMID:24343885

  10. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  11. Experience and assessment of pain in individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Gabre, Pia; Sjöquist, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    The authors review the literature on pain experience and pain assessment in people with cognitive impairments, focusing on individuals with dementia and mental retardation. The impact of cognitive impairments on pain sensation is not well understood, although some observations have been published. For example, research suggests that pain experience can be influenced by neuropathological processes in the brain and memory impairments. Reporting of pain decreases as cognitive impairment increases. In addition, poor verbal skills lead to difficulties in communicating pain. Pain assessment depends primarily on one's ability to describe the dimensions of pain. Individuals with limited ability to report pain can use pain assessment methods that rely on simple cognitive tasks. For individuals who have no ability to report pain, an outside observer must describe the discomfort experienced by interpreting the patient's body language. The authors conclude that further research is needed to develop valid and reliable assessment methods for people with cognitive impairments. PMID:12580355

  12. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  13. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  14. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  15. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  16. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  17. German experiences in local fatigue monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abib, E.; Bergholz, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2012-07-01

    The ageing management of nuclear power plants (NPP) has gained an increasing importance in the last years. The reasons are mainly due to the international context of extending period of plants operation. Moreover, new scientific discoveries, such as the corrosive influence of the medium on the fatigue process (environmentally assisted fatigue - EAF) play an important role and influence the code development (ASME, EAF code cases). The fatigue damage process takes a central position in ageing mechanisms of components. It must be ensured through appropriate evidence that facilities are being operated under allowable boundary conditions. In the design phase of NPP, fatigue analyses are still based on theoretical considerations and empirical values, which are summarized in the design transient catalogue, necessary for licensing. These analyses aim at proving the admissibility of the loads in terms of stress and fatigue usage. These analyses will also provide the fatigue-relevant positions in the NPP and give a basis for future design improvements and optimization of operating modes. The design transients are in practice conservatively correlated with the real transients occurring during operation. Uncertainties reveal very conservative assumptions regarding forecast temperatures, temperature gradients and frequencies of events. During operation of the plant, it has to be recurrently proved, that the plant is being operated under designed boundary conditions. Moreover, operating signals are constantly acquired to enable a fatigue evaluation. For example, in Germany fatigue evaluation is based on decades of experience and regulatory requirements. The rule KTA 3201.4 [1] establishes the rules for qualified fatigue monitoring. The rule DIN 25475-3 [2] on fatigue monitoring systems is available in draft version. Experience shows that some significant differences occur between the design transients and the real occurred transients during plant operation. The reasons for it

  18. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive... a minimum— (a) Each licensee shall monitor occupational exposure to radiation from licensed...

  2. Mapping individual differences in the experience of a waiting period.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Kate; Andrews, Sara E

    2014-06-01

    Waiting for uncertain news, such as the outcome of a job interview or medical test, is a ubiquitous and difficult but little studied experience. We conducted a longitudinal examination, guided by the predictions of the uncertainty navigation model (Sweeny & Cavanaugh, 2012), to examine broad trends and individual differences in experiences during a consequential waiting period. Fifty students preparing for the California bar exam completed questionnaires at 6 time points: shortly before and after the exam, at 2 intermediate time points during the 4-month waiting period, and immediately before and after learning whether they passed. We identified key individual differences in the overall experience of a waiting period, such that dispositional optimists reported lower levels of anxiety and rumination on average, and defensive pessimists and people uncomfortable with uncertainty reported higher levels. Longitudinal growth curve modeling analyses suggested that waiting is most difficult at the start and end of a waiting period, although people maintained hope and optimism throughout the wait. These temporal trends were generally robust, although some individual differences emerged. These findings provide the first evidence regarding when and for whom waiting periods are most difficult and thus can serve as the basis for future investigations of waiting experiences. PMID:24841102

  3. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  4. Understanding the Lived Experience of Five Individuals with Mobility Aids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tanja; Petrie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our research is to understand the lived experience of people with mobility aids: How do people use their mobility aids and what is their lived experience with them? What problems do mobility aid users have outside the clinic? Our goal is to further study the needs of mobility aid users, mainly wheelchair, walker and prosthesis users, and furthermore, develop a technology platform and an application that supports more independent life for mobility aid users. In our study we interviewed five individuals about their experiences of using mobility aids. The aim was to recognize the main stages of the lived experience with mobility aids in order to understand how technology could help mobility aid users outside the clinic. The stages found in the lived experience with mobility aids are 1) Expectations 2) Getting the mobility aid 3) Using and living with the aid and 4) Change/Abandonment of the aid. In each of these stages we found important issues concerning the lived experience with mobility aids such as the importance of training to use mobility aids, the meaning of peer support, finding information online, what makes a mobility aid good, what kind of issues other people's perceptions may cause and how the built environment poses challenges for people with mobility aids. PMID:27534353

  5. A Characterization of Individual Differences in Prospective Memory Monitoring Using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savine, Adam C.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory--remembering to retrieve and execute future goals--is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in…

  6. Agonistic experience and individual recognition in male Quelea quelea.

    PubMed

    Shawcross, J E; Slater, P J

    1984-01-01

    Male Quelea were moved between groups to assess whether experience of winning or losing in new groups was correlated with their success in competition over food when they were returned to their original groups. No such effect was found. However, differences in time spent feeding after deprivation and in aggressive behaviour were found between groups depending on whether they were made up from high- or low-ranking individuals. In paired encounters there was no evidence that birds threatened unfamiliar individuals more than familiar ones or that they avoided sitting next to them more than familiar birds. This suggests that individual recognition, if it exists at all in these groups, is not important in their agonistic relationships. The rank birds occupied was correlated with beak colour, a probable measure of androgen levels, and with the amount of food consumed after deprivation. The latter result suggests that the same period of deprivation may affect some individuals more than others and this in turn may lead them to compete more for food. PMID:24923828

  7. Monitoring Text Comprehension: Individual Differences in Epistemological Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    Individual differences in the reading comprehension standards of 90 undergraduates were examined. Students were classified as having a dualistic or relativistic conception of knowledge by attitude measures. Data suggest that epistemological beliefs may dictate choice of comprehension criteria and that these epistemological standards may control…

  8. Experiences of Individuals With Liver Cirrhosis: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Khorvash, Farzin; Yousefi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Health-related quality of life in cirrhotic patients is affected by the disease's complications. The purpose of this article was to describe the experiences of individuals with liver cirrhosis during critical illness. The aim was to investigate the disease experiences of liver cirrhosis. The authors conducted a phenomenological qualitative study, using a Colaizzi's seven-step method. Ten participants with liver cirrhosis participated in in-depth interviews. The data from this analysis were transformed into 119 codes, 11 subthemes, and 4 main themes including (1) confronting tension, (2) needs, (3) spirituality, and (4) interaction and effective communication. Findings could be used as a basis for information and emotional and social support interventions, as these can be effective in promoting adjustment to complications of cirrhosis by suitable interventions. Adequate adjustment through adaptation leads to successful completion of treatment and improved quality of life. PMID:26226019

  9. Sixteen years of experience with sterilization monitoring.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J A; Gleason, M J; Merchant, V A

    1994-12-01

    Sterilization in the dental office should be monitored to ascertain proper sterilizer function. Biologic monitoring with calibrated preparations of bacterial spores is the preferred, as well as the only method that actually measures sterilization. A dental school-based sterilization monitoring service for dental practices was established in 1978 at the University of Detroit. This service has grown from 20 participating dental offices to more than 1,500. In 1993, 18,137 biologic monitoring tests were performed. The participants in the service primarily use autoclaves (70%) for heat sterilization, while unsaturated chemical-vapor sterilizers (20%) and dry-heat units (10%) are less common. This article describes the history of sterilization monitoring in dental practices from 1978 to the present through a dental school-based service. PMID:7758029

  10. Monitoring of compliance on an individual treatment through mobile innovations.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, A; Giokas, K; Koutsouris, D

    2015-01-01

    The present work examines the potential of smartphone usage for offering health services to elderly patients. The purpose of this work is the design, development, and implementation of a telemedicine application. This application aims to improve the monitoring mode and increase patient adherence to the instructions assigned by the medical staff. It consists of three parts: the doctor's application (Web Application), the patient's application (Android Application) and the Web Server of the platform, where the database is stored necessary for the smooth operation of the platform. Also the Web Server hosts the doctor's Web Application. The Web Application is based on web front-end technologies, providing the medical personnel with a variety of features and useful actions. These actions and capabilities are mainly relevant to the assignment of instructions to patients and the monitoring of their health progress. The Android Application has been implemented and validated for the Android-based mobile devices operating system and consists of a handy and user-friendly environment, equipped with the right tools so that the patient has the ability to update the system on the progress of his/her health by storing the appropriate measurements. Both applications also provide customization capabilities in regards to the patients' and doctors' profile. PMID:26737982

  11. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoen, R.; Stancu, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Leahu, L.; Martin, B.; Al-Shabibi, A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  12. A Control Chart Based on Cluster-Regression Adjustment for Retrospective Monitoring of Individual Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hong Choon; Alih, Ekele

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for experimental and industrial variables to include a certain proportion of outliers has become a rule rather than an exception. These clusters of outliers, if left undetected, have the capability to distort the mean and the covariance matrix of the Hotelling’s T2 multivariate control charts constructed to monitor individual quality characteristics. The effect of this distortion is that the control chart constructed from it becomes unreliable as it exhibits masking and swamping, a phenomenon in which an out-of-control process is erroneously declared as an in-control process or an in-control process is erroneously declared as out-of-control process. To handle these problems, this article proposes a control chart that is based on cluster-regression adjustment for retrospective monitoring of individual quality characteristics in a multivariate setting. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through Monte Carlo simulation experiments and historical datasets. Results obtained indicate that the proposed method is an improvement over the state-of-art methods in terms of outlier detection as well as keeping masking and swamping rate under control. PMID:25923739

  13. Experiences of Siblings of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Maureen E.; Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identify their self-reported support needs. We conducted in-person semi-structured interviews with 12 siblings aged 7 to 15 of children aged 6 to 15 with ASDs. Employing a qualitative collective case study research method, we conducted cross-case analyses to address our research questions. Three major themes emerged: (a) descriptions of the sibling subsystem (b) cohesion between and among the siblings, and (c) adaptability of the participant siblings to having family members with ASDs. Discussion of these findings and recommendations for future research contributes to the existing literature on siblings of children with disabilities. PMID:22928104

  14. The run control and monitoring system of the CMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Gerry; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; O'Dell, Vivian; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; /CERN /Kyungpook Natl. U. /MIT /UCLA /CERN /INFN, Legnaro

    2007-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN will start taking data in 2008. To configure, control and monitor the experiment during data-taking the Run Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) was developed. This paper describes the architecture and the technology used to implement the RCMS, as well as the deployment and commissioning strategy of this important component of the online software for the CMS experiment.

  15. Multidisciplinary Monitoring Experiments at Kawah Ijen Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Hendra; Pallister, John; Caudron, Corentin

    2014-12-01

    "Wet volcanoes" with crater lakes and extensive hydrothermal systems pose challenges for monitoring and forecasting eruptions. That's because their lakes and hydrothermal systems serve as reservoirs for magmatic heat and fluid emissions, filtering and delaying the surface expressions of magmatic unrest.

  16. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  17. Experiment Dashboard for Monitoring of the LHC Distributed Computing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Devesas Campos, M.; Tarragon Cros, J.; Gaidioz, B.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Lanciotti, E.; Maier, G.; Ollivier, W.; Nowotka, M.; Rocha, R.; Sadykov, T.; Saiz, P.; Sargsyan, L.; Sidorova, I.; Tuckett, D.

    2011-12-01

    LHC experiments are currently taking collisions data. A distributed computing model chosen by the four main LHC experiments allows physicists to benefit from resources spread all over the world. The distributed model and the scale of LHC computing activities increase the level of complexity of middleware, and also the chances of possible failures or inefficiencies in involved components. In order to ensure the required performance and functionality of the LHC computing system, monitoring the status of the distributed sites and services as well as monitoring LHC computing activities are among the key factors. Over the last years, the Experiment Dashboard team has been working on a number of applications that facilitate the monitoring of different activities: including following up jobs, transfers, and also site and service availabilities. This presentation describes Experiment Dashboard applications used by the LHC experiments and experience gained during the first months of data taking.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. PMID:26443545

  19. Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

    2000-04-01

    The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

  20. Space motion sickness monitoring experiment - Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed firsthand report on symptoms and signs of space motion sickness and fluid shift observed by four specially trained crewmembers during Shuttle/Spacelab 1, launched on November 28, 1983 is presented. Results show that three crewmen experienced persistent overall discomfort and vomited repeatedly. Symptom pattern was generally similar to that seen in the individuals preflight, except that prodromalnausea was brief or absent in some cases. Symptoms were clearly modulated by head movement, were exacerbated by unfamiliar visual cues, and could be reduced by physical restraint providing contact cues around the body. The results support the view that space sickness is a form of motion sickness.

  1. Experiences of Self-Monitoring: Successes and Struggles during Treatment for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Lora E.; Swigart, Valerie; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Derro, Nicole; Ewing, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 15 individuals who completed a behavioral weight loss treatment study with the aim of exploring participants’ reflections on their feelings, attitudes and behaviors while using a paper diary to self-monitor their diet. Constant comparative and matrix analysis procedures were used to analyze interview data; the qualitative results were then interfaced with descriptive numerical data on individuals’ adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss. Three categories of self-monitoring experience were identified (a) Well-Disciplined – those who had high adherence to self-monitoring, high weight loss and a “can do” positive approach, (b) Missing the Connection – those who had moderate adherence, moderate to low weight loss, and an “it’s an assignment” approach without integrating self-monitoring into every day life, and (c) Diminished Support – those who had poor adherence, poor weight control, and were adversely affected by co-existing negative factors. Given the variations in how individuals integrated the process of self-monitoring, we need to consider individualizing self-monitoring strategies to improve adherence. PMID:19365099

  2. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  3. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  4. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  5. 42 CFR 82.17 - What types of information could be used to supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? Three types of information could be used: (a) Monitoring data from co-workers, if NIOSH determines they had a common relationship to the radiation... supplement or substitute for individual monitoring data? 82.17 Section 82.17 Public Health PUBLIC...

  6. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolos, S.; Alexandrov, E.; Feng, E.; Hauser, R.; Iakovlev, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2011-12-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ(TDAQ) community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available to remote users through the same set of software tools as being used in the main ATLAS control room. The remote monitoring facilities have been put in place in 2009 to support the ATLAS commissioning and have been improved in face of the first collisions runs based on the feedback which was received from the users. Now the remote monitoring system are in mature state and being actively used by the ATLAS collaboration for running the experiment.

  7. Smart Dynamic Monitoring and Tracking of Individual Sediment Grains: Design Framework and Experimental Evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, G.; Hoey, T.; Sventek, J.; Drysdale, T.; Markham, A.; Hodge, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary sensing equipment is miniaturized to scales that enable implementation of dynamic micro-sensors within natural sediment particles (>c.80mm diameter) containing artificial enclosures. The resulting mobile sensing units record the dynamics of sediment transport from the inertial frame of individual particles, giving an insight on how individual grains experience transporting forces. However, it remains difficult to obtain accurate real-time positional information which is critical for understanding the dynamic data. We have developed a sensing system optimized for monitoring the movement of sediment grains in rivers, which comprises a high-frequency 3-D force unit and an external magnetic telemetry system for accurate positional information. Here we present results from the experimental evaluation of two prototype mobile sensors: the first prototype is a spherically enclosed wireless accelerometer platform (± 6g range) tested through a series of incipient motion experiments under varying slope conditions (0.8 m x 5 m flume, slope range: 0.026 to 0.57, flow increase: 0.037 l.s-2, University of British Columbia). The second prototype is a complete Inertial Measurement Unit (assembly of a 3-axis micro-accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer capable of resolving 9 Degrees Of Freedom for the movement of the unit), enhanced with a 3-axis high-resolution impact sensor calibrated for low frequency/high magnitude impacts (±150g range) and equipped with a system of magnetic coil receivers permitting telemetric tracking of the unit with a 4 Hz frequency. This unit was tested through experiments of sequential displacements under varying flow increase (gradual increase: 0.04 l.s-2, episodic increase: 0.1 l.s-2, 0.9 m x 7.5 m flume, slope: 0.02, University of Glasgow). The position was recorded from a lab-scale Magneto-Inductive tracking system and the positional accuracy was tested by cross-comparison with a video recording. Along with the presented results we

  8. Tailoring Messages to Individual Differences in Monitoring-Blunting Styles to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Latimer, Amy E.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Cox, Ashley; Silvera, Stephanie A. N.; Mowad, Linda; Salovey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether messages matched to individuals' monitoring-blunting coping styles (MBCS) are more effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake than mismatched messages. MBCS refers to the tendency to either attend to and amplify, or distract oneself from and minimize threatening information. Design/Setting: Randomly assigned…

  9. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  10. Monitoring the Progress of the Group in an Individualized Reading Program Based on Behavioral Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Anne; And Others

    An alternative to monitoring instruction via standardized tests is proposed for objective-based individualized instructional programs. The set of behavioral objectives upon which the procedures are based is taken from the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development. Procedures that can be computerized and applied to data from…

  11. Aspects of harmonisation of individual monitoring for external radiation in Europe: conclusions of a EURADOS action.

    PubMed

    Kamenopoulou, V; van Dijk, J W E; Ambrosi, P; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Castellani, C M; Currivan, L; Falk, R; Fantuzzi, E; Figel, M; Alves, J Garcia; Ginjaume, M; Janzekovic, H; Kluszczynski, D; Lopez, M A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Olko, P; Roed, H; Stadtmann, H; Vanhavere, F; Vartiainen, E; Wahl, W; Weeks, A; Wernli, C

    2006-01-01

    Following the publication of the EU Council Directive 96/29, EURADOS coordinated two working groups (WGs) for promoting the process of harmonisation on individual monitoring of occupationally exposed persons in Europe. An overview of the major findings of the second WG is presented. Information on the technical and quality standards and on the accreditation and approval procedures has been compiled. The catalogue of dosimetric services has been updated and extended. An overview of national regulations and standards for protection from radon and other natural sources in workplaces has been made, attempting to combine the results from individual monitoring for external, internal and workplace monitoring. A first status description of the active personal dosemeters, including legislative and technical information, and their implementation has been made. The importance of practical factors on the uncertainty in the dose measurement has been estimated. Even if a big progress has been made towards harmonisation, there is still work to be done. PMID:16581923

  12. Monitoring the growth of individual bacteria using asynchronous magnetic bead rotation sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Paivo; Sinn, Irene; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Newton, Duane W.; Burns, Mark A.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    Continuous growth of individual bacteria has been previously studied by direct observation using optical imaging. However, optical microscopy studies are inherently diffraction limited and limited in the number of individual cells that can be continuously monitored. Here we report on the use of the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) sensor, which is not diffraction limited. The AMBR sensor allows for the measurement of nanoscale growth dynamics of individual bacterial cells, over multiple generations. This torque-based magnetic bead sensor monitors variations in drag caused by the attachment and growth of a single bacterial cell. In this manner, we observed the growth and division of individual E. coli bacteria, with 80 nanometer sensitivity to the cell length. Over the life cycle of a cell we observed up to 300 % increase in the rotational period of the biosensor due to increased cell volume. In addition, we observed single bacterial cell growth response to antibiotics. This work demonstrates a non-microscopy based approach for monitoring individual cell growth dynamics, including cell elongation, generation time, lag time, and division, as well as their sensitivity to antibiotics. PMID:21095112

  13. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciabà, Andrea; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  14. Off-line data quality monitoring for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarise, P.; Agostini, M.; Machado, A. A.; Pandola, L.; Volynets, O.

    2012-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless ββ decay of 76Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda recently started the physics data taking using eight enriched coaxial detectors. The status of the experiment has to be closely monitored in order to promptly identify possible instabilities or problems. The on-line slow control system is complemented by a regular off-line monitoring of data quality. This ensures that data are qualified to be used in the physics analysis and allows to reject data sets which do not meet the minimum quality standards. The off-line data monitoring is entirely performed within the software framework Gelatio. In addition, a relational database, complemented by a web-based interface, was developed to support the off-line monitoring and to automatically provide information to daily assess data quality. The concept and the performance of the off-line monitoring tools were tested and validated during the one-year commissioning phase.

  15. System Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, L.

    2001-01-01

    This systems report describes how the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment was developed. Pertinent design parameters are discussed, along with mission information and system requirements to successfully complete the mission. Environmental testing was performed on the OPM to certify it for spaceflight. This testing included vibration, thermal vacuum, electromagnetic interference and conductance, and toxicity tests. Instrument and monitor subsystem performances, including the reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet, total integrated scatter, atomic oxygen monitor, irradiance monitor, and molecular contamination monitor during the mission are discussed. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. The OPM conducted in situ measurements of a number of material samples. These data may be found in the OPM Science Report. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  16. A new device for monitoring individual activity rhythms of honey bees reveals critical effects of the social environment on behavior.

    PubMed

    Beer, Katharina; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Härtel, Stephan; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    Chronobiological studies of individual activity rhythms in social insects can be constrained by the artificial isolation of individuals from their social context. We present a new experimental set-up that simultaneously measures the temperature rhythm in a queen-less but brood raising mini colony and the walking activity rhythms of singly kept honey bees that have indirect social contact with it. Our approach enables monitoring of individual bees in the social context of a mini colony under controlled laboratory conditions. In a pilot experiment, we show that social contact with the mini colony improves the survival of monitored young individuals and affects locomotor activity patterns of young and old bees. When exposed to conflicting Zeitgebers consisting of a light-dark (LD) cycle that is phase-delayed with respect to the mini colony rhythm, rhythms of young and old bees are socially synchronized with the mini colony rhythm, whereas isolated bees synchronize to the LD cycle. We conclude that the social environment is a stronger Zeitgeber than the LD cycle and that our new experimental set-up is well suited for studying the mechanisms of social entrainment in honey bees. PMID:27380473

  17. The radon monitoring system in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, M. C.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Pun, C. S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H3) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H3 is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10% in a 1-h measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5% at 25 °C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m3. This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor α-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  18. The radiation monitor cosmic X-ray experiment OSO-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive technical description is presented of the Radiation Monitor which is part of the GSFC cosmic X-ray experiment to be flown on the OSO-1 satellite. The theory of operation, fabrication and assembly, and cone angle determination are reported.

  19. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  20. Monitoring the delivery of virtualized resources to the LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Giordano, D.; Field, L.; Spiga, D.; Villazon, L.

    2015-12-01

    The adoption of cloud technologies by the LHC experiments places the fabric management burden of monitoring virtualized resources upon the VO. In addition to monitoring the status of the virtual machines and triaging the results, it must be understood if the resources actually provided match with any agreements relating to the supply. Monitoring the instantiated virtual machines is therefore a fundamental activity and hence this paper describes how the Ganglia monitoring system can be used for the cloud computing resources of the LHC experiments. Expanding upon this, it is then shown how the integral of the time-series monitoring data obtained can be re-purposed to provide a consumer-side accounting record, which can then be compared with the concrete agreements that exist between the supplier of the resources and the consumer. From this alone, it is not clear though how the performance of the resources differ both within and between providers. Hence, the case is made for a benchmarking metric to normalize the data along with some results from a preliminary investigation on obtaining such a metric.

  1. The Planeterrella experiment: from individual initiative to networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, Jean; Provan, Gabrielle; Grimald, Sandrine; Brekke, Asgeir; Flückiger, Erwin; Vanlommel, Petra; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Barthélémy, Mathieu; Garnier, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Space weather is a relatively new discipline, which is still largely unknown amongst the wider public despite its increasing importance in all of our daily lives. Outreach activities can promote awareness of space weather. In particular the visual beauty and excitement of the aurora make these lights a wonderful inspirational hook to enhance understanding of space weather in a general audience. A century ago, the Norwegian experimental physicist Kristian Birkeland, one of the founding fathers of modern space science, demonstrated with his Terrella experiment the formation of the aurora. Recently, a modernized version of the Terrella has been designed. This "Planeterrella" experiment allows the visualization of many phenomena that occur in our space environment. Although the Planeterrella was originally a local project, it has developed to become a very successful international public outreach experiment. We believe that its success is due to mainly two factors (i) the Planeterrella is not patented and the plans are free to any public institute and (ii) the project is widely advertised using national and European scientific networks such as COST ES 0803, as well as press releases, books and web sites. Today, seven Planeterrellas are in operation, four more are under construction in four different countries and several more are being planned. During the last five years, about 50 000 people in Europe have attended live Planeterrella demonstration on the formation of auroral light, the space environment and space weather. Many more have seen the Planeterrella being demonstrated on TV. The Planeterrella received the first international prize for outreach activities from the Europlanet Framework 7 program in 2010 and the French Ministry of Science outreach prize "Le goût des sciences" in November 2012. This paper describes the process that led to the construction of the first Planeterrella and discusses how the Planeterrella project developed to become an international

  2. The Planeterrella experiment: from individual initiative to networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, J.; Provan, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Gronoff, G.; Vanlommel, P.; Brekke, A.; Garnier, P.; Grimald Rochel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather is a relatively new discipline, which is still largely unknown amongst the wider public despite its increasing importance in all of our daily lives. Outreach activities can promote awareness of space weather. In particular the visual beauty and excitement of the aurora make these lights a wonderful inspirational hook to enhance understanding of space weather in a general audience. A century ago, the Norwegian experimental physicist Kristian Birkeland, one of the founding fathers of modern space science, demonstrated with his Terrella experiment the formation of the aurora. Recently, a modernized version of the Terrella has been designed in France. This ';';Planeterrella'' experiment allows the visualization of many phenomena that occur in our space environment. Although the Planeterrella was originally a local project, it has developed to become a very successful international public outreach experiment. We believe that its success is due to mainly two factors (i) the Planeterrella is not patented and the plans are free to any public institute and (ii) the project is widely advertised using national and scientific networks, as well as press releases, books and web sites. Today, nine Planeterrellas are in operation, six more are under construction in five different countries including in the US and several more are being planned. During the last five years, about 55 000 people in Europe have attended live Planeterrella demonstration on the formation of auroral light, the space environment and space weather. Many more have seen the Planeterrella being demonstrated on TV. It is now used for education, outreach, scientific, and artistic purposes. We will describes this process and discuss how the Planeterrella project developed to become an international public outreach phenomenon. We also examine some of the lessons learnt along the way such as patented or not, big or small, automatized or hand-operated, and the cost of the overall project. A star (close

  3. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Thomas F.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. PMID:26529025

  4. Early experience with individual plant evaluations at Davis-Besse

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.L.; Deng, S.F.; Flaherty, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A level 1 probability risk assessment (PRA), including internal floods, is being completed for Toledo Edison's Davis-Besse plant. This effort will be finished by December 1989. A combination of in-house and contractor support has been used in this study. Contractor support focused on transfer of methodology and review of results, while in-house support focused on applications of the methodology. The PRA will form the basis for performing an individual plant examination (IPE) at Davis-Besse. The goals of the IPE must be clearly established before the program is instituted. If the IPE results are to be used for more than meeting the minimum U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, then the complexity of the program increases. For example, use of the IPE results to support changes to technical specifications or emergency operation procedures mandates a more sophisticated approach. Toledo Edison is evaluating how to extend the level 1 PRA to fulfill IPE requirements. Containment analysis is less familiar to in-house staff than is analysis of core cooling systems; contractor support will be required to understand the methods to analyze containment performance and to properly consider uncertainties. An ultimate containment failure analysis is a prerequisite for completing the IPE. Also, the containment analysis must be integrated with, not merely appended to, the core damage analysis.

  5. International project on individual monitoring and radiation exposure levels in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Padovani, R; Le Heron, J; Cruz-Suarez, R; Duran, A; Lefaure, C; Miller, D L; Sim, H K; Vano, E; Rehani, M; Czarwinski, R

    2011-03-01

    Within the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR), a new International Atomic Energy Agency initiative, a Working Group on interventional cardiology, aims to assess staff radiation protection (RP) levels and to propose an international database of occupational exposures. A survey of regulatory bodies (RBs) has provided information at the country level on RP practice in interventional cardiology (IC). Concerning requirements for wearing personal dosemeters, only 57 % of the RB specifies the number and position of dosemeters for staff monitoring. Less than 40 % of the RBs could provide occupational doses. Reported annual median effective dose values (often <0.5 mSv) were lower than expected considering validated data from facility-specific studies, indicating that compliance with continuous individual monitoring is often not achieved in IC. A true assessment of annual personnel doses in IC will never be realised unless a knowledge of monitoring compliance is incorporated into the analysis. PMID:21051431

  6. Negotiating multiple marginalizations: experiences of South Asian LGBQ individuals.

    PubMed

    Sandil, Riddhi; Robinson, Matthew; Brewster, Melanie E; Wong, Stephanie; Geiger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from minority stress (Meyer, 2003) and feminist multicultural (Brown, 1994) theories, the present study investigated the additive and interactive relations between 2 types of external minority stress (heterosexist discrimination and racist events) and 4 internal stress processes related to identifying as a South Asian American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) person (internalized heterosexism, acculturation, enculturation, and outness as LGBQ) with psychological distress. With 142 participants, Pearson's correlations, multiple regression, and simultaneous multiple moderation analyses were conducted. Experiences of heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism were correlated positively with psychological distress and enculturation was correlated negatively. In a test of the additive model, heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism accounted for significant and unique variance in psychological distress, but outness, acculturation, and enculturation did not. To test the interactive model, the simultaneous moderating roles of the internal stress processes were examined in the links between the external minority stressors to psychological distress. Only outness as LGBQ emerged as a moderator. The link between racist events and psychological distress was exacerbated in instances of higher outness, such that respondents with high racist events and high outness reported the highest levels of psychological distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed and future research directions focused on the needs of South Asian American LGBQ people are suggested. PMID:25111543

  7. The Experience of Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacy E.; McMorris, Carly; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience significant stress in their caregiving role, and research findings indicate that chronic stressors can act as a precipitant to crisis. In the present study, we examined the experience of crisis in families of individuals with ASD from early childhood…

  8. Results from radiation monitoring equipment experiment on STS-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, R. G.; Amico, R. L.; Brown, V. L.; Kidd, V. R.

    1984-07-01

    The results from the Radiation Equipment Monitoring (RME) experiment, flown onboard STS-8 are presented and discussed. The RME consists of the HRM-III gamma ray counter and PRM neutron/proton dosimeter. The gamma ray data agree wtih data from previous flights. Large increases in count rates are observed when the Orbiter is in the South Atlantic Anomaly. Neutron/proton dosage is consistent with NASA predictions for STS-8.

  9. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Individuals with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Shia T.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Burkholder, Greer A.; Falzon, Louise; Oparil, Suzanne; Overton, Edgar T.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms may contribute to the high cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. To synthesize the current literature on ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in HIV+ individuals, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods Medical databases were searched through November 11, 2015 for studies that reported ABPM results in HIV+ individuals. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled differences between HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals in clinic BP and ABPM measures were calculated using random-effects inverse variance weighted models. Results Of 597 abstracts reviewed, 8 studies with HIV+ cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The 420 HIV+ and 714 HIV- individuals in 7 studies with HIV- comparison groups were pooled for analyses. The pooled absolute nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP declines were 3.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13%, 5.20%) and 2.92% (95% CI: 1.64%, 4.19%) less, respectively, in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. The pooled odds ratio for non-dipping systolic BP (nocturnal systolic BP decline <10%) in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals was 2.72 (95% CI: 1.92, 3.85). Differences in mean clinic, 24-hour, daytime, or nighttime BP were not statistically significant. I2 and heterogeneity chi-squared statistics indicated the presence of high heterogeneity for all outcomes except percent DBP dipping and non-dipping SBP pattern. Conclusions An abnormal diurnal BP pattern may be more common among HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. However, results were heterogeneous for most BP measures, suggesting more research in this area is needed. PMID:26882469

  10. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Zwiener, J. M.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This science data report describes the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment and the data gathered during its 9-mo exposure on the Mir space station. Three independent optical instruments made up OPM: an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a total integrated scatter instrument. Selected materials were exposed to the low-Earth orbit, and their performance monitored in situ by the OPM instruments. Coinvestigators from four NASA Centers, five International Space Station contractors, one university, two Department of Defense organizations, and the Russian space company, Energia, contributed samples to this experiment. These materials included a number of thermal control coatings, optical materials, polymeric films, nanocomposites, and other state-of-the-art materials. Degradation of some materials, including aluminum conversion coatings and Beta cloth, was greater than expected. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  11. Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1993-02-01

    The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

  12. Individualized Mutation Detection in Circulating Tumor DNA for Monitoring Colorectal Tumor Burden Using a Cancer-Associated Gene Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kei A.; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Iwaya, Takeshi; Kume, Kohei; Matsuo, Teppei; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Abiko, Yukito; Akasaka, Risaburo; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Otsuka, Koki; Nishizuka, Satoshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) carries information on tumor burden. However, the mutation spectrum is different among tumors. This study was designed to examine the utility of ctDNA for monitoring tumor burden based on an individual mutation profile. Methodology DNA was extracted from a total of 176 samples, including pre- and post-operational plasma, primary tumors, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), from 44 individuals with colorectal tumor who underwent curative resection of colorectal tumors, as well as nine healthy individuals. Using a panel of 50 cancer-associated genes, tumor-unique mutations were identified by comparing the single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from tumors and PBMCs with an Ion PGM sequencer. A group of the tumor-unique mutations from individual tumors were designated as individual marker mutations (MMs) to trace tumor burden by ctDNA using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). From these experiments, three major objectives were assessed: (a) Tumor-unique mutations; (b) mutation spectrum of a tumor; and (c) changes in allele frequency of the MMs in ctDNA after curative resection of the tumor. Results A total of 128 gene point mutations were identified in 27 colorectal tumors. Twenty-six genes were mutated in at least 1 sample, while 14 genes were found to be mutated in only 1 sample, respectively. An average of 2.7 genes were mutated per tumor. Subsequently, 24 MMs were selected from SNVs for tumor burden monitoring. Among the MMs found by ddPCR with > 0.1% variant allele frequency in plasma DNA, 100% (8 out of 8) exhibited a decrease in post-operation ctDNA, whereas none of the 16 MMs found by ddPCR with < 0.1% variant allele frequency in plasma DNA showed a decrease. Conclusions This panel of 50 cancer-associated genes appeared to be sufficient to identify individual, tumor-unique, mutated ctDNA markers in cancer patients. The MMs showed the clinical utility in monitoring curatively-treated colorectal tumor burden if the allele

  13. Antipsychotic Use and Metabolic Monitoring in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Served in a Medicaid Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lisa M; Damron, Mackenzie; Jones, Kyle B; Weedon, Dean; Carbone, Paul S; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    This study describes antipsychotic use and metabolic monitoring rates among individuals with developmental disabilities enrolled in a subspecialty medical home (N = 826). Four hundred ninety-nine participants (60.4 %) were taking antipsychotics, which was associated with male gender (p = 0.01), intellectual disability with and without autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively), and inversely associated with the youngest and oldest age categories (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Among those taking antipsychotics, annual metabolic monitoring rates ranged from 89 % (lipids) to 99 % (weight). Age was positively associated with glucose (p < 0.001) and lipid monitoring (p < 0.001). Adult participants with dyslipidemia (p < 0.01), prediabetes/diabetes (p = 0.04), and hypertension (p = 0.02) were significantly more likely to obtain lipid monitoring. These values exceeded previously reported rates suggesting the importance of an integrated care model. PMID:26818535

  14. Monitoring of radioactivity in imported foodstuffs - experience gained and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Fattah, A.F.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdul-Majid, S.

    1987-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has had a unique experience in radiation monitoring of imported foodstuffs for possible contamination due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. A considerable amount of various food items is imported by Saudi Arabia and much of it comes from European countries. The quantity of imported food items is greatly increased around the time of the Moslem pilgrimage to Holy Mecca. Furthermore, many additional thousands of live animals (mainly sheep and cows) are imported for sacrificing on a certain day for religious reasons. The radiation monitoring of food items at inlets to the county was not done before and a lot of preparatory work and planning had to be done to initiate the monitoring process. The experience gained in this respect might be of value to other developing countries in a similar position. King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) was directed by the government in about mid-June 1986 to carry out radiological inspection of food items reaching the Jeddah, Yanbu, and Jizan seaports as well as food arrivals at King Abdulaziz International Airport at Jeddah. The KAU team has met with some difficulties in carrying out its inspection responsibilities. These difficulties are of a general nature and might occur, in a similar inspection process, in other developing countries. The problems can be classified essentially into the two categories discussed: (1) problems of an administrative and management nature, and (2) problems of a technical nature.

  15. Novel Diagnostic and Monitoring Tools in Stroke: an Individualized Patient-Centered Precision Medicine Approach.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Sulette; Swanepoel, Albe; Bester, Janette; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-05-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke are the normally protective processes of platelet adhesion and activation. Experimental evidence has shown that the ligand-receptor interactions in ischaemic stroke represent a thrombo-inflammatory cascade, which presents research opportunities into new treatment. However, as anti-platelet drugs have the potential to cause severe side effects in ischaemic stroke patients (as well as other vascular disease patients), it is important to carefully monitor the risk of bleeding and risk of thrombus in patients receiving treatment. Because thrombo-embolic ischaemic stroke is a major health issue, we suggest that the answer to adequate treatment is based on an individualized patient-centered approach, inline with the latest NIH precision medicine approach. A combination of viscoelastic methodologies may be used in a personalized patient-centered regime, including thromboelastography (TEG®) and the lesser used scanning electron microscopy approach (SEM). Thromboelastography provides a dynamic measure of clot formation, strength, and lysis, whereas SEM is a visual structural tool to study patient fibrin structure in great detail. Therefore, we consider the evidence for TEG® and SEM as unique means to confirm stroke diagnosis, screen at-risk patients, and monitor treatment efficacy. Here we argue that the current approach to stroke treatment needs to be restructured and new innovative thought patterns need to be applied, as even approved therapies require close patient monitoring to determine efficacy, match treatment regimens to each patient's individual needs, and assess the risk of dangerous adverse effects. TEG® and SEM have the potential to be a useful tool and could potentially alter the clinical approach to managing ischaemic stroke. As envisaged in the NIH precision medicine approach, this will involve a number of role players and innovative new research ideas, with benefits that will ultimately only be realized in a

  16. ERS-1 and Almaz ocean wave monitoring experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Tilley, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from two ocean wave monitoring experiments conducted in 1991 using the high-altitude ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the low-altitude ex-USSR Almaz 1 SAR are presented. ERS-1 imagery of the Gulf Stream supports the idea that a future wide-swath scansar will be a valuable tool for monitoring large-scale ocean dynamics at high resolution. A direct comparison of ERS-1 and Almaz 1 ocean wave spectra shows major deficiencies in the ERS-1 high range-to-velocity ratio R/V sensor that are partially resolved with the lower-altitude Almaz platform. Optimum wave imaging from space will require both a low R/V and low off-nadir angle.

  17. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T. F.; Kehl, S. R.; Martinelli, R. E.; Hickman, R. E.; Hickman, D. P.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Langston, R. G.; Tamblin, M. W.; Tibon, S.; Chee, L.; Aisek, Jr., A.; DeDrum, Z.; Mettao, M.; Henson, J.

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  18. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring of Voids: Results of Dynamic Modeling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2006-05-01

    Remote, non-invasive detection of voids is a challenging problem for environmental and engineering investigations in karst terrain. Many geophysical methods including gravity, electrical, electromagnetic, magnetic, and seismic have potential to detect voids in the subsurface; lithologic heterogeneity and method- specific sources of noise, however, can mask the geophysical signatures of voids. New developments in automated, autonomous geophysical monitoring technology now allow for void detection using differential geophysics. We propose automated collection of electrical resistivity measurements over time. This dynamic approach exploits changes in subsurface electrical properties related to void growth or water-table fluctuation in order to detect voids that would be difficult or impossible to detect using static imaging approaches. We use a series of synthetic modeling experiments to demonstrate the potential of difference electrical resistivity tomography for finding (1) voids that develop vertically upward under a survey line (e.g., an incipient sinkhole); (2) voids that develop horizontally toward a survey line (e.g., a tunnel); and (3) voids that are influenced by changing hydrologic conditions (e.g., void saturation and draining). Synthetic datasets are simulated with a 3D finite-element model, but the inversion assumes a 2D forward model to mimic conventional practice. The results of the synthetic modeling experiments provide insights useful for planning and implementing field-scale monitoring experiments using electrical methods.

  19. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  20. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Zwiener, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Long term stability of spacecraft materials when exposed to the space environment continues to be a major area of investigation. The natural and induced environment surrounding a spacecraft can decrease material performance and limit useful lifetimes. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment provided the capability to perform the important flight testing of materials and was flown on the Russian Mir Station to study the long term effects of the natural and induced space environment on materials. The core of the OPM in-flight analysis was three independent optical instruments. These instruments included an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a Total Integrated Scatter instrument. The OPM also monitored selected components of the environment including molecular contamination. The OPM was exposed on the exterior of the Mir Docking Module for approximately 8-1/2 months. This report describes the OPM experiment, a brief background of its development, program organization, experiment description, mission overview including space environment definition, performance overview, materials data including flight and ground data, in-depth post flight analysis including ground analysis measurements and a summary discussion of the findings and results.

  1. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  2. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  3. Focus of attention in systems for visual monitoring of experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. E.; Martin, W. N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing a computerized experiment monitoring system for use in a space station or elsewhere is examined. It is shown that the essential challenge of such a system - attaining a reasonable expected running time - can be attacked using the concept of focus of attention and by exploiting parallelism. The use of the Contract Net Protocol for the latter purpose is discussed. The use of ideas from information science to help focus a programs's efforts on those computations likely to bring results is addressed, and the incorporation of those ideas into a design in order to aid the system in deciding upon the best course of action is considered.

  4. The new EC technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Ambrosi, P; Bartlett, D T; Currivan, L; van Dijk, J W E; Fantuzzi, E; Kamenopoulou, V

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the European Commission technical recommendations (TR) for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation is to provide guidance on those aspects of the implementation of the European Union Parliament and Council Directives directly related to individual monitoring of external radiation, and to encourage harmonisation thereof. They are mainly aimed at the management and staff of IM services but also at manufacturers, laboratories supplying type-testing services, national authorities trying to harmonise approval procedures, and government bodies to harmonise regulations and guidance. The TR main topics are: objectives and aims of IM for external radiation; dosimetry concepts; accuracy requirements; calibration, type testing and performance testing; approval procedures; quality assurance and quality control; and dose record keeping. Attention is paid to particular aspects, such as wide energy ranges for the use of personal dosemeters, pulsed fields and non-charged particle equilibrium; and use of active personal dosemeters. The TR give proposals towards achieving harmonisation in IM and the eventual mutual recognition of services and of dose results. PMID:20959338

  5. Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.

    PubMed

    Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

    2006-07-01

    Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

  6. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  7. The Work Experiences of Transgender Individuals: Negotiating the Transition and Career Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Stephanie L.; Tebbe, Esther N.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the work experiences of individuals who have started transitioning from their biological sex to a different gender expression through 18 interviews of transgender-identified individuals. Thirteen of the participants identified as male-to-female transsexuals, 2 participants identified as female-to-male transsexuals, 2…

  8. Asset Building in Rural Communities: The Experience of Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Curley, Jami; Charles, Pajarita

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of low-income rural participants in an asset building program--the Individual Development Account. Using data from the American Dream Demonstration, this study addresses three main questions: (1) What are the individual characteristics associated with saving outcomes among rural IDA participants? (2) What…

  9. Excretion of dengue virus RNA by Aedes aegypti allows non-destructive monitoring of viral dissemination in individual mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Albin; Jiolle, Davy; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Successful transmission of a vector-borne pathogen relies on a complex life cycle in the arthropod vector that requires initial infection of the digestive tract followed by systemic viral dissemination. The time interval between acquisition and subsequent transmission of the pathogen, called the extrinsic incubation period, is one of the most influential parameters of vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the dynamic nature of this process is often ignored because vector competence assays are sacrificial and rely on end-point measurements. Here, we report that individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes release large amounts of dengue virus (DENV) RNA in their excreta that can be non-sacrificially detected over time following oral virus exposure. Further, we demonstrate that detection of DENV RNA in excreta from individual mosquitoes is correlated to systemic viral dissemination with high specificity (0.9–1) albeit moderate sensitivity (0.64–0.89). Finally, we illustrate the potential of our finding to detect biological differences in the dynamics of DENV dissemination in a proof-of-concept experiment. Individual measurements of the time required for systemic viral dissemination, a prerequisite for transmission, will be valuable to monitor the dynamics of DENV vector competence, to carry out quantitative genetics studies, and to evaluate the risk of DENV transmission in field settings. PMID:27117953

  10. Excretion of dengue virus RNA by Aedes aegypti allows non-destructive monitoring of viral dissemination in individual mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Jiolle, Davy; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Successful transmission of a vector-borne pathogen relies on a complex life cycle in the arthropod vector that requires initial infection of the digestive tract followed by systemic viral dissemination. The time interval between acquisition and subsequent transmission of the pathogen, called the extrinsic incubation period, is one of the most influential parameters of vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the dynamic nature of this process is often ignored because vector competence assays are sacrificial and rely on end-point measurements. Here, we report that individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes release large amounts of dengue virus (DENV) RNA in their excreta that can be non-sacrificially detected over time following oral virus exposure. Further, we demonstrate that detection of DENV RNA in excreta from individual mosquitoes is correlated to systemic viral dissemination with high specificity (0.9-1) albeit moderate sensitivity (0.64-0.89). Finally, we illustrate the potential of our finding to detect biological differences in the dynamics of DENV dissemination in a proof-of-concept experiment. Individual measurements of the time required for systemic viral dissemination, a prerequisite for transmission, will be valuable to monitor the dynamics of DENV vector competence, to carry out quantitative genetics studies, and to evaluate the risk of DENV transmission in field settings. PMID:27117953

  11. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  12. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W.; de Craen, Anton J.; Ballieux, Bart E.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background The validity of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is well established in diabetic patients. CGM is also increasingly used for research purposes in normo-glycemic individuals, but the CGM validity in such individuals is unknown. We studied the accuracy of CGM measurements in normo-glycemic individuals by comparing CGM-derived versus venous blood-derived glucose levels and measures of glycemia and glycemic variability. Methods In 34 healthy participants (mean age 65.7 years), glucose was simultaneously measured every 10 minutes, via both an Enlite® CGM sensor, and in venous blood sampled over a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. Results The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40–0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure of glycemia during daytime was 0.22 mmol/L higher when derived from CGM, but no difference was observed during nighttime. Most measures of glycemic variability were lower with CGM than with venous blood sampling (e.g., 24h SD: 1.07 with CGM and 1.26 with venous blood; p-value = 0.004). Conclusion In normo-glycemic individuals, CGM-derived glucose measurements had good agreement with venous glucose levels. However, the measure of glycemia was higher during the day and most measures of glycemic variability were lower when derived from CGM. PMID:26445499

  13. Internal monitoring of GBTx emulator using IPbus for CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Swagata; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Sau, Suman; Chkrabarti, Amlan; Saini, Jogender; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Pal, Sushanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt at GSI. In CBM experiment a precisely time synchronized fault tolerant self-triggered electronics is required for Data Acquisition (DAQ) system in CBM experiments which can support high data rate (up to several TB/s). As a part of the implementation of the DAQ system of Muon Chamber (MUCH) which is one of the important detectors in CBM experiment, a FPGA based Gigabit Transceiver (GBTx) emulator is implemented. Readout chain for MUCH consists of XYTER chips (Front end electronics) which will be directly connected to detector, GBTx emulator, Data Processing Board (DPB) and First level event selector board (FLIB) with backend software interface. GBTx emulator will be connected with the XYTER emulator through LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signalling) line in the front end and in the back end it is connected with DPB through 4.8 Gbps optical link. IPBus over Ethernet is used for internal monitoring of the registers within the GBTx. In IPbus implementation User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack is used in transport layer of OSI model so that GBTx can be controlled remotely. A Python script is used at computer side to drive IPbus controller.

  14. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  15. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  16. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  17. Individuation Experience Predicts Other-Race Effects in Holistic Processing for Both Caucasian and Black Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Cottle, Jasmine; Ubiwa, JoAnna; Miller, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Same-race (SR) faces are recognized better than other-race (OR) faces, and this other-race effect (ORE) is correlated with experience. SR faces are also processed more holistically than OR faces, suggesting one possible mechanism for poorer performance on OR faces. Studies of object expertise have shown that individuating experiences are necessary…

  18. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  19. Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, Sławomir; Krajewski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time

  20. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  1. Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere /LIMS/ experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozewski, R. W.; Hatch, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) radiometer is a satellite-borne six-channel multispectral scanning radiometer using a two-stage methane and ammonia solid-cryogen cooler to cool the (Hg, Cd)Te focal plane to 65 K. The LIMS experiment employs thermal IR limb sounding to provide vertical-profile measurement of temperature and of concentrations of O3, NO3, and H2O in the stratosphere on a global scale. The goals of the experiment and the expected accuracies of the measurements are outlined, and the radiance measured by the radiometer is analyzed. A program of correlative measurements designed for verification and augmentation of the LIMS data is discussed. Detailed descriptions are given of the LIMS components and optics, the detector capsule assembly, the solid-cryogen cooler, the four operational modes of the LIMS system, and the data-processor electronics. It is noted that prelaunch acceptance testing thus far completed indicates that the LIMS specification design requirements have been met, and the experiment's performance goals can be achieved.

  2. Monitoring evolution of stress in individual grains and twins in a magnesium alloy aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Bjorn; Aydiner, Cahit C; Tome, Carlos N; Brown, Donald W; Bernier, Joel V; Lienert, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Crystallographic twinning is a strain accommodation mechanism extensively observed in low-symmetry crystals. In hexagonal metals (HCP), twinning transformation results in abrupt crystallographic reorientation of grain domains, and strongly affects the mechanical response, texture evolution, plastic formability and internal stress evolution. Recent fundamental advances in constitutive descriptions ofHCP's indicate the need for a basic characterization oftwinning mechanisms. Here we use the emerging technique of 3DXRD [9-12], for the first time, to in-situ monitor the twin nucleation and growth in individual grains inside the bulk of a magnesium alloy aggregate. At the same time, we accomplish the first direct measurement of the evolving triaxial stress states in both the parent grain and its twin. We show that the stress state of the twin is radically different from that of the parent and interpret the three-dimensional response in the light of the constraints placed on the parent and the twin by the surrounding polycrystalline medium.

  3. Integrated Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Vulnerable Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heatley, D. J. T.; Kalawsky, R. S.; Neild, I.; Bowman, P. A.

    The inescapable fact that people are living longer today than ever before means that the number of elderly people needing care or medical treatment has never been higher. In response to this there is a growing trend to place the elderly and infirm in residential homes or in sheltered accommodation, where they live in a protective environment while retaining some independence. Current healthcare systems in residential, sheltered, and community settings generally operate on a reactive basis rather than a pre-emptive basis [1]. This means that the people being cared for (the 'clients') are often already clinically ill and in need of medical attention, sometimes urgently, by the time the healthcare system engages, whereupon the treatment and recovery regime can be protracted and costly [2]. Unfortunately, a significant majority of our ageing population do not have the benefit of this level of healthcare [3], despite the evidence that our ageing population are regarded to be at an increased risk of falls [4], malnutrition [5], and failure to take prescribed medication [6]. It is this self-neglect that is of great concern. A far better scheme for all parties is one that continuously monitors clients who, although in fine health at that time, are considered to be at risk and likely to need attention at a time in the future, particularly if they are elderly and live alone. By continually monitoring certain behavioural characteristics of an individual, it is feasible to ascertain their well-being or detect when things deviate from the norm.

  4. Electronic monitoring device event modelling on an individual-subject basis using adaptive Poisson regression.

    PubMed

    Knafl, George J; Fennie, Kristopher P; Bova, Carol; Dieckhaus, Kevin; Williams, Ann B

    2004-03-15

    An adaptive approach to Poisson regression modelling is presented for analysing event data from electronic devices monitoring medication-taking. The emphasis is on applying this approach to data for individual subjects although it also applies to data for multiple subjects. This approach provides for visualization of adherence patterns as well as for objective comparison of actual device use with prescribed medication-taking. Example analyses are presented using data on openings of electronic pill bottle caps monitoring adherence of subjects with HIV undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapies. The modelling approach consists of partitioning the observation period, computing grouped event counts/rates for intervals in this partition, and modelling these event counts/rates in terms of elapsed time after entry into the study using Poisson regression. These models are based on adaptively selected sets of power transforms of elapsed time determined by rule-based heuristic search through arbitrary sets of parametric models, thereby effectively generating a smooth non-parametric regression fit to the data. Models are compared using k-fold likelihood cross-validation. PMID:14981675

  5. Performance of a Portable Sleep Monitoring Device in Individuals with High Versus Low Sleep Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Bessman, Sara C.; Reini, Seth A.; Drummond, Sean P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Portable and automated sleep monitoring technology is becoming widely available to consumers, and one wireless system (WS) has recently surfaced as a research tool for sleep and sleep staging assessment outside the hospital/laboratory; however, previous research findings indicate low sensitivity for wakefulness detection. Because difficulty discriminating between wake and sleep is likely to affect staging performance, we sought to further evaluate the WS by comparing it to the gold-standard polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy (ACT) for overall sleep/wakefulness detection and sleep staging, within high and low sleep efficiency sleepers. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy adults (eight females) underwent concurrent WS, PSG, and ACT assessment in an overnight laboratory study. Epoch-by-epoch agreement was determined by comparing sleep/wakefulness decisions between the WS to both PSG and ACT, and for detection of light, deep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages between the WS and PSG. Results: Sensitivity for wakefulness was low (40%), and an overestimation of total sleep time and underestimation of wake after sleep onset was observed. Prevalence and bias adjusted kappa statistic indicated moderate-to-high agreement between the WS and PSG for sleep staging. However, upon further inspection, WS performance varied by sleep efficiency, with the best performance during high sleep efficiency. Conclusions: The benefit of the WS as a sleep monitoring device over ACT is the ability to assess sleep stages, and our findings suggest this benefit is only realized within high sleep efficiency. Care should be taken to collect data under conditions where this is expected. Citation: Markwald RR, Bessman SC, Reini SA, Drummond SP. Performance of a portable sleep monitoring device in individuals with high versus low sleep efficiency. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):95–103. PMID:26285110

  6. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing; Jensen, Anne; Marcussen, Laurits Faarup; Nielsen, Majken Elley; Roslev, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic pollutants are often biologically active at low concentrations and impact on biota in combination with other abiotic stressors. Traditional toxicity tests may not detect these effects, and there is a need for sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting sublethal effects. We have evaluated an automated infra-red (IR) light-based monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant effects on an individual level. Activity was recorded for 48 h and the sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to the reference chemicals K2 Cr2 O7 at 15, 20 and 25 °C and 2,4-dichlorophenol at 20 °C. Significant effects (P < 0.001) of toxicant concentrations, exposure time and incubation temperatures were observed. At 15 °C, the swimming activity remained unchanged for 48 h at sublethal concentrations of K2 Cr2 O7 whereas activity at 20 and 25 °C was more biphasic with decreases in activity occurring after 12-18 h. A similar biphasic pattern was observed after 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure at 20 °C. EC50 values for 2,4-dichlorophenol and K2 Cr2 O7 determined from automated recording of swimming activity showed increasing toxicity with time corresponding to decreases in EC50 of 0.03-0.07 mg l(-1) h(-1) . EC50 values determined after 48 h were comparable or lower than EC50 values based on visual inspection according to ISO 6341. The results demonstrated that the swimming activity monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent. The method allows EC values to be established at different time points and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26198804

  7. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  8. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, David; Dimitrov, Gancho; Vukotic, Ilija; Aidel, Osman; Schaffer, Rd; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-12-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  9. Spinal-Cord-Injured Individual's Experiences of Having a Partner: A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study.

    PubMed

    Angel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Having a partner is a strong factor in adaptation to the new life situation with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Still, more knowledge in detail about the partner's influences according to the experiences of individuals with SCI could contribute to the understanding of the situation after an injury. The aim of this phenomenological-hermeneutic article is to achieve a deeper understanding of nine individuals' experiences the first 2 years after SCI. In rehabilitation after SCI, the partner supported the SCI individual's life spirit by not giving up and by still seeing possibilities in the future. The partner reinforced the SCI individual's commitment to life by sharing experiences; providing love, trust, and hope; and giving priority to the best things in life for the SCI individual. This implied cohabitation providing concrete help and an intimacy that helped to cope with problems and anxieties and allowed SCI individuals the ability to self-realize. This promoted feelings of profound gratitude but also dependency. Thus, the SCI individual benefitted from the partner's support mentally and physically, which enabled a life that would not otherwise be possible. PMID:25944001

  10. HappyFace as a generic monitoring tool for HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the information and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are always under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the different HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repository, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, the so-called grid-enabled HappyFace. It allows its basic framework to connect directly to the grid user applications and the grid collective services, without involving the monitoring resources in the HEP grid systems. This approach gives HappyFace several advantages: Portability, to provide an independent and generic monitoring system among the HEP grid systems. Eunctionality, to allow users to perform various diagnostic tools in the individual HEP grid systems and grid sites. Elexibility, to make HappyFace beneficial and open for the various distributed grid computing environments. Different grid-enabled modules, to connect to the Ganga job monitoring system and to check the performance of grid transfers among the grid sites, have been implemented. The new HappyFace system has been successfully integrated and now it displays the information and the status of both the monitoring resources and the direct access to the grid user applications and the grid collective

  11. Towards the Disease Biomarker in an Individual Patient Using Statistical Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jasper; Blanchet, Lionel; Engelke, Udo F. H.; Wevers, Ron A.; Buydens, Lutgarde M. C.

    2014-01-01

    In metabolomics, identification of complex diseases is often based on application of (multivariate) statistical techniques to the data. Commonly, each disease requires its own specific diagnostic model, separating healthy and diseased individuals, which is not very practical in a diagnostic setting. Additionally, for orphan diseases such models cannot be constructed due to a lack of available data. An alternative approach adapted from industrial process control is proposed in this study: statistical health monitoring (SHM). In SHM the metabolic profile of an individual is compared to that of healthy people in a multivariate manner. Abnormal metabolite concentrations, or abnormal patterns of concentrations, are indicated by the method. Subsequently, this biomarker can be used for diagnosis. A tremendous advantage here is that only data of healthy people is required to construct the model. The method is applicable in current–population based –clinical practice as well as in personalized health applications. In this study, SHM was successfully applied for diagnosis of several orphan diseases as well as detection of metabotypic abnormalities related to diet and drug intake. PMID:24691487

  12. Airborne Monitoring of Pollution from Individual Ships in the Framework of the IGPS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecken, Jörg; Mellqvist, Johan; Salo, Kent; Ekholm, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The environmental impact of maritime transport has been recognized by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) which sets limits on fuel quality and emission characteristics of ships. The IGPS project (Identification of Gross-Polluting Ships) is a Swedish project aimed at developing a surveillance system for measuring emissions of SO2, NOx and particulate matter from individual vessels at sea as well as at harbors. Equipped on aircrafts, this system can be used for efficient compliance monitoring of ships at open sea. Additionally plumes can be sampled several times to increase the measurement quality. This operation environment also sets special demands on the instrumentation such as fast response times for example. The presented results cover the measurements of four airborne campaigns which were conducted during 2011 and 2012, covering the western Baltic Sea between Denmark, Sweden and Germany as well as the German Bight and the English Channel regions of the North Sea. As platforms, two different airplanes and a helicopter were used respectively. Emission data of more than 150 different vessels was obtained. From the measured emissions the sulfur content in the fuel and the emitted NOx per main engine speed as reference characteristics were determined for the individual ships. Additionally, measurements on the particle size distributions of ship plumes were studied. Furthermore the conducted measurements also showed that the system is flight functional and works fine independent from the type of aircraft.

  13. The Experience of Social Participation in Everyday Contexts among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Experience Sampling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16-45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days.…

  14. Experience with Malleable Objects Influences Shape-based Object Individuation by Infants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Schuler, Jena

    2014-01-01

    Infants’ ability to accurately represent and later recognize previously viewed objects, and conversely, to discriminate novel objects from those previously seen improves remarkably over the first two years of life. During this time, infants acquire extensive experience viewing and manipulating objects and these experiences influence their physical reasoning. Here we posited that infants’ observations of object feature stability (rigid versus malleable) can influence use of those features to individuate two successively viewed objects. We showed 8.5-month-olds a series of objects that could or could not change shape then assessed their use of shape as a basis for object individuation. Infants who explored rigid objects later used shape differences to individuate objects; however, infants who explored malleable objects did not. This outcome suggests that the latter infants did not take into account shape differences during the physical reasoning task and provides further evidence that infants’ attention to object features can be readily modified based on recent experiences. PMID:24561541

  15. A Novel Temperature Monitoring Sensor for Gas-Based Detectors in Large HEP Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Ferrini, M.; Felli, F.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Polimadei, A.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Vendittozzi, C.

    Gaseous detectors are commonly used in HEP (High Energy Physics) experiments to reconstruct the track of elementary particles. They are often made by a very large number of chambers with relatively small individual volume, arranged in thick layers placed approximately all around the vertex of the experiment in order to detect elementary particles produced in any direction. The large volume of gas inside the detector must be monitored for many parameters as they can affect both the efficiency and the working life of the detector. The temperature of the gas inside the individual chambers is a critical parameter to be monitored, as it can both affect the efficiency of the detector and point out on-board electronic circuitry overheating. In this paper we propose a novel gas temperature sensing system based on optical fibre technology. The adopted technology is well suited to make distributed sensing systems with large number of sensors, it is immune to electromagnetic disturbances and it has adequate radiation hardness. A prototype of the basic sensor of the proposed system was tested at the experimental facility for Resistive Plate Chamber characterization available at the INFN laboratories in Frascati. Results are presented and discussed.

  16. Game: GRB and All-Sky Monitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ˜1 keV up to ˜20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of ~1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g., by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB / transient triggers.

  17. GAME: GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João; Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2014-05-01

    We describe the GRB and all-sky monitor experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors ( 1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors ( 15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration ( 20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of 250 kg and a required power of 240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy band extending from 1 keV up to 20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as 250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of 1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g. by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB/transient triggers.

  18. Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

  19. Dried blood spots for monitoring and individualization of antiepileptic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Milosheska, Daniela; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaž

    2015-07-30

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a multi-disciplinary clinical specialty used for optimization and individualization of drug therapy in the general and special populations. Since most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are characterized by pronounced intra- and inter-individual variability, it can be especially valuable as an aid for dosing adjustments in patients with epilepsy. Dried blood spots (DBS) sampling technique is recognized as a suitable alternative for conventional sampling methods as TDM interventions should be applied in the most cost-effective, rational and clinically useful manner. In the present review we summarize the latest trends and applications of DBS in TDM of epilepsy. Quantification of AEDs in DBS was employed in various clinical settings and has been already reported for phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, clonazepam, clobazam, carbamazepine, topiramate, rufinamide, lamotrigine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine and levetiracetam. The major limitation of the published studies are restricted evaluation of critical parameters such as the impact of spotted blood volume, spot homogeneity and haematocrit effect, limited clinical validation and non-established correlations between the DBS and plasma concentrations of AEDs. Standardization of critical technical aspects for appropriate sampling, sample preparation and validation of the analytical procedures for quantification of the drugs, as well as appropriate interpretation of the results are the fields which should get more attention in upcoming studies. Limited data on clinical validation and the fact that this technique has been used in practice only for a few AEDs makes the routine implementation of TDM of AEDs using DBS method a big challenge that should be faced by the pharmaceutical scientists in the future. PMID:25896371

  20. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  1. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  2. Vulnerability and Experiences Related to Social Victimization among Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Moskowitz, Andrew L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to adults without disabilities, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are more likely to experience social victimization. This study examined responses of caregivers of 146 adults with IDD on questionnaires concerning demographics and behavioral characteristics as well as a newly developed Social Vulnerability…

  3. Understanding the Friendship Processes of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kammie Bohlken

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study shed light on the reflective college experiences of 11 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism from a competence rather than a deficit model of disability (Biklen, 2005). Using Goleman's model of Social Intelligence (2006) as a theoretical framework, the cognitive, behavioral, and affective…

  4. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  5. Developing School Laboratories To Promote the Establishment of Individual Experience Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley Springs School District 2, AR.

    A project was conducted to promote and develop individual Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs in Arkansas through the development of laboratories. It was felt that strong SAE programs enhance the instructional portion of agriculture education, serve as a motivational tool, and improve the relations between the local school and…

  6. The Production and Destruction of Individual Competence: The Role of Vocational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Fatima; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact on individual skill levels of the variables traditionally represented by human capital. The discussion is centred around the way in which education and vocational experience contribute to the process of producing useful skills in the job market or, conversely, of making them obsolete.…

  7. Individual Differences and the Conundrums of User-Centered Design: Two Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce

    2000-01-01

    Discusses individual differences between users of information systems that can influence search performance, and describes two experiments that addressed user-centered design of information systems. Highlights include interaction between cognitive abilities and design features; compensation and capitalization perspectives; recall and precision;…

  8. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  9. Monitoring hyporheic exchanges during a dam controlled experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzé, Clémence; Varnède, Lucie; Durand, Véronique; Pessel, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Precise understanding of the hyporheic exchanges response to stream flow fluctuations remains a great challenge for many environmental and hydrological problems. Multiplication of natural stream restoration programs and anthropic structures removal highlight that a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and ecological functioning of hyporheic exchanges is critical . The objective of this field experiment was to monitor the dynamic exchanges within the hyporheic zone due to an artificial stream head variation. Various types of measurements were performed, using natural tracers and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The dam downstream the studied river reach was successively lowered during two days, and raised during three days, implying river heads variations of about 15cm. The studied area was equipped with CTD probes (measuring the head and the conductivity) within the river, 2 multi-depths water sampling tubes inserted up to one meter depth within the riverbed deposits and 3 ERT profiles with various electrode spacing (20 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm). During the 5 days experiment, water sampling and ERT profiles were done regularly. Estimations of the sediments hydraulic conductivity were obtained by several slug tests in plastic tubes at different depths within the streambed. First results showed that stream fluctuation leads to a rapid hyporheic response according to chloride variations between stream and riverbed sediments. Similar results between geochemical and geophysical tools were found. A decrease in stream head leads to reduce the depth of the mixing zone, as the river gaining conditions intensify. On the contrary, we observed that an increased river head tends to deepen the hyporheic exchange zone.

  10. Individual recognition in crayfish (Cherax dispar): the roles of strength and experience in deciding aggressive encounters.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Wilson, Robbie S

    2007-10-22

    The outcomes of agonistic interactions modulate access to resources and thereby affect fitness. Success in agonistic encounters may depend on intrinsic physical and physiological performance, and on social experience. Here we test the hypothesis that previous experience will override physical strength in determining the outcome of fights in the freshwater crayfish Cherax dispar. Between unfamiliar opponents, greater chelae closing force significantly increases the chances of winning. However, even when the chelae of the original winners were disabled, the winners kept on winning against the same opponents after 30min and 24h. This winner effect disappeared when previous winners encountered unfamiliar individuals. Similarly, a previous loss did not affect the outcomes of subsequent encounters with unknown crayfish. We suggest that this prolonged recognition of individuals and their relative fighting ability is a mechanism that can reduce the number of agonistic encounters experienced by individuals. PMID:17623630

  11. [Individual peculiarities of adaptation to long-term space flights: 24-hour heart rhythm monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevskii, R. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Gol'dberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.; Charl'z, D. B.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Charles, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Presented are results of studying 24-hr variability of the cardiac rhythm which characterizes individual difference in reactions of two crew members to the same set of stresses during a 115-day MIR mission. Spacelab (USA) cardiorecorders were used. Data of monitoring revealed significantly different baseline health statuses of the cosmonauts. These functional differences were also observed in the mission. In one of the cosmonauts, the cardiac regulation changed over to a more economic functioning with the autonomous balance shifted towards enhanced sympathetic activity. After 2-3 months on mission he had almost recovered pre-launch level of regulation. In the other, the regulatory system was appreciably strained at the beginning of the mission as compared with preflight baseline. Later on, on flight months 2-3, this strain kept growing till a drastic depletion of the functional reserve. On return to Earth, this was manifested by a strong stress reaction with a sharp decline in power of high-frequency and grow in power of very low frequency components of the heart rhythm. The data suggest that adaptation to space flight and reactions in the readaptation period are dependent on initial health status of crew members, and functional reserve.

  12. ECOLOGICALLY VALID LONG-TERM MOOD MONITORING OF INDIVIDUALS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER USING SPEECH

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Zahi N.; Provost, Emily Mower; Singh, Satinder; Montgomery, Jennifer; Archer, Christopher; Harrington, Gloria; Mcinnis, Melvin G.

    2016-01-01

    Speech patterns are modulated by the emotional and neurophysiological state of the speaker. There exists a growing body of work that computationally examines this modulation in patients suffering from depression, autism, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the majority of the work in this area focuses on the analysis of structured speech collected in controlled environments. Here we expand on the existing literature by examining bipolar disorder (BP). BP is characterized by mood transitions, varying from a healthy euthymic state to states characterized by mania or depression. The speech patterns associated with these mood states provide a unique opportunity to study the modulations characteristic of mood variation. We describe methodology to collect unstructured speech continuously and unobtrusively via the recording of day-to-day cellular phone conversations. Our pilot investigation suggests that manic and depressive mood states can be recognized from this speech data, providing new insight into the feasibility of unobtrusive, unstructured, and continuous speech-based wellness monitoring for individuals with BP.

  13. Monitoring exocytosis and release from individual mast cells by capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, E.S. |; Lillard, S.J.; McCloskey, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The complex temporal evolution of on-column exocytotic release of serotonin from individual peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored by using capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection with 275-nm excitation was used, and a detection limit of 1.7 amol (S/N = 3; rms) was obtained for serotonin. A physiological running buffer was used to ensure that the cell remained viable throughout. The secretagogue was polymyxin B sulfate (Pmx). Following the injection of a single mast cell into the capillary, electromigration of Pmx toward and past the cell induced degranulation and release of serotonin. The time course of release was registered in the electropherograms with subsecond resolution. Subsequent introduction of SDS caused the cell to lyse completely and allowed the residual serotonin to be quantified. The average amount of serotonin observed per RPMC was 1.6 {+-} 0.6 fmol; the average percentage of serotonin released was 28 {+-} 14%. Events that are consistent with released serontonin from single submicron granules (250 aL each) were evident, each of which contained an average amount of 5.9 {+-} 3 amol. Alternatively, UV movies can be taken of the entire event to provide temporal and spatial information.

  14. Self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose: changing the performance of individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mazze, R S; Pasmantier, R; Murphy, J A; Shamoon, H

    1985-01-01

    Standard reflectance meters were modified by the addition of memory chips capable of storing 440 glucose determinations with corresponding time and date. These modified reflectance meters (MR) were given to 20 individuals with type I diabetes in an effort to determine the level of reliability and accuracy they could achieve on a self-monitoring regimen. During a 6-wk period these subjects measured their capillary blood glucose and recorded the results in a logbook (LB). At 2-wk intervals they visited the clinic. Data from the MR was offloaded onto an Apple IIe microcomputer (Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, California) and presented to the subjects in a graphic format, depicting the level of metabolic control over the previous 2 wk. The performance of subjects for the 6-wk period showed that they averaged 7 omissions from the LB for every 100 MR recordings; 1 added value in the LB for every 200 MR recordings; and 1 error in accurately copying the test value for every 100 determinations. In comparison with subjects who participated in an earlier study in which they were unaware of the memory function of the reflectance meter, performance during the current study improved in all categories. It was also observed that consistency in reliable and accurate record keeping did not diminish throughout the study period. Despite these positive changes in performance, no alteration in glycemic control was found. PMID:4006654

  15. Development of the GRB Monitor for the CALET Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Kotani, Taro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kei; Ohyama, Takuya; Doshida, Takaaki; Kojima, Tohru; Shiraki, Takayuki; Kataoka, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Tomida, Hiroshi; Torii, Shoji

    2009-05-25

    The CALET mission is a Japanese-led effort involving candidate experiments on the International Space Station, planned for launch in 2013. The CALET main detector is a pair conversion telescope which is dedicated to observing high energy electrons and gamma-rays in the GeV-TeV range. CALET can observe gamma-ray bursts over an unprecedented 9 decade energy range from {approx}keV to {approx}TeV with a combination of a gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) with low energy coverage. GBM is now designed as multiple scintillators made of BGO and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators. The prototype LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal with 3 inch diameter and 0.5 inch thickness displays a very good performance: 2.9{+-}0.1% FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV and 4 keV lower energy threshold. Furthermore, degradations in performance by the anticipated proton irradiation in the orbit are not significant. Results on proton-induced background are also presented.

  16. Digital Beam Position Monitor for the Happex Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Kauffman; H. Dong; A. Freyberger; L. Kaufman; J. Musson

    2005-05-16

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high-precision (1 mm), high-bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM-010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The Multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a digital receiver daughter board and digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 4 MHz, and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with a resolution of one mm, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of ten microseconds. The results are available in both analog and digital format.

  17. Digital beam position monitor for the HAPPEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlon Kauffman; John Musson; Hai Dong; Lisa Kaufman; Arne Freyberger

    2005-05-01

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high precision (1um), high bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a RF receiver daughter board and a digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 3 MHz and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with resolution of 1um, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of 1us. The results are available in both the analog and digital format.

  18. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education. PMID:21305979

  19. Macro and micro structures in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex contribute to individual differences in self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Tian, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Kangcheng; Chen, Qunlin; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Individual differences in self-monitoring, which are the capability to adjust behavior to adapt to social situations, influence a wide range of social behaviors. However, understanding of focal differences in brain structures related to individual self-monitoring is minimal, particularly when micro and macro structures are considered simultaneously. The present study investigates the relationship between self-monitoring and brain structure in a relatively large sample of young adults. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and gray matter volume in the dorsal cingulate anterior cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral ventral striatum (VS). Further analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between self-monitoring and white matter (WM) integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior cingulum (ACG) bundle. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and mean radius diffusion (RD). These results shed light on the structural neural basis of variation in self-monitoring. PMID:25958159

  20. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  1. Emotional granularity and social functioning in individuals with schizophrenia: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ballon, Jacob S; Malaspina, Dolores; Gross, James J

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that healthy individuals who fail to differentiate among emotional states (i.e., those with low emotional granularity; EG) have poorer social functioning (SF) than those with high EG. It is unknown, however, whether these associations extend to clinical disorders characterized by impaired SF, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, we compared SF and EG in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and then, within the schizophrenia group, we examined the links between EG and SF. Employing an Experience Sampling Method approach, 77 individuals with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls rated their momentary emotions (sadness, anxiety, anger, and happiness) up to 10 times/day over a two-day period using mobile electronic devices. For each participant, we then calculated the within-subject average correlations among the momentary emotion ratings, producing two EG indices - EGIall for all emotions and EGIneg for negative ones. A subsample of participants with schizophrenia also completed self-report, interview, and ability-based measures of SF. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia displayed significantly poorer SF and lower EGIall, but comparable EGIneg. Within the schizophrenia group, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that EGIall, but not EGIneg, significantly predicted social dysfunction after controlling for emotional awareness, symptoms, and emotional intensity and variability. Our findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia have a relatively intact ability to differentiate among negative emotions in everyday life. However, they experience significant difficulties differentiating between positive and negative emotions, and this may contribute to their social difficulties. PMID:24561000

  2. Generalization on the Basis of Prior Experience Is Predicted by Individual Differences in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lenaert, Bert; van de Ven, Vincent; Kaas, Amanda L; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-01-01

    Generalization on the basis of prior experience is a central feature of human and nonhuman behavior, and anomalies in generalization can give rise to a wide array of problems. For instance, elevated levels of generalization have been shown in individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder. Identifying the individual difference variables that influence the extent to which behavior generalizes to novel stimuli may help our understanding of generalization and its potential maladaptive consequences. In this study, we first present an index of generalization that captures individual differences in generalization in a single continuous measure, thereby surpassing problems associated with traditional analyzing techniques. Further, we investigate whether generalization is predicted by working memory capacity. More precisely, it is hypothesized that generalization is a function of individual differences in the capacity to compare the current situation with previous learning experiences in working memory, and to adjust subsequent behavior accordingly. In a community sample, we found higher levels of generalization in individuals who were less efficient at filtering out irrelevant information from access to working memory. These results suggest that working memory impairments may contribute to elevated and potentially maladaptive levels of generalization. PMID:26763503

  3. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  4. The Experience of Social Participation in Everyday Contexts Among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16-45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days. Multilevel analyses showed that 'solitary/parallel leisure' and 'social activities' were positively associated with interest and involvement. Engaging in these two activities and interacting with friends were positively associated with enjoyment. However, engaging in 'social activities' and having less severe ASD symptoms were associated with in-the-moment anxiety. Severity of ASD and social anxiety moderated experience in social situations. The findings highlight the importance of considering the in-the-moment experience of people with ASD. PMID:26687569

  5. Use of energy deposition spectrometer Liulin for individual monitoring of aircrew.

    PubMed

    Ploc, O; Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Spurny, F; Malušek, A; Dachev, T

    2011-03-01

    Silicon energy deposition spectrometer Liulin was primarily developed for cosmic radiation monitoring onboard spacecrafts. Nowadays, Liulin type detectors are also used to characterise radiation field on board aircraft, at alpine observatories and behind the shielding of heavy ion accelerators. In this work, experiments and calibrations performed in these radiation fields are presented and the method developed for calculation of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) on board aircraft is described. Since 2001, a simple method employing the energy deposition spectra had been used to determine H*(10) on board aircraft but, in 2004, it became clear that the resulting values were strongly biased at locations close to Earth's equator. An improved method for the determination of H*(10) on board aircraft using the Liulin detector was developed. It took into account the composition of the radiation field via the ratio of absorbed doses D(low) and D(neut) reflecting the contributions from low-LET particles and neutrons, respectively. It resulted in much better agreement with the EPCARD computer code for all aircraft locations; relative differences were within 11 % for low-LET and 20 % for neutron components of H*(10). PMID:21186209

  6. The Los Angeles Experience in Monitoring Desegregation: Progress and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicelma J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a case analysis of the role of the Los Angeles (California) School Monitoring Committee in the implementation of school desegregation. Demonstrates how citizen monitoring advisory committees work in desegregated settings and discusses the challenges, problems, and opportunities they are likely to face. (Author/MK)

  7. The Los Angeles Experience in Monitoring Desegregation: Progress and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicelma J.

    This paper presents a case analysis of the role of the Los Angeles School Monitoring Committee in the implementation of school desegregation. The analysis provides information about how citizens' monitoring committees (CMCs) work in the desegregated setting, along with the challenges, problems and opportunities they are likely to face. The paper…

  8. A New Monitoring Method of Individual Particles During Bed Load Transport in a Gravel Bed River.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, M.; Marquis, G.; Roy, A.; Lamarre, H.

    2009-05-01

    Many particle tracers (passive or active) have been developed to study gravel movement in rivers. It remains difficult however to document resting and moving periods and to know how particles travel from one sedimentation site to another. We have developed a new tracking method using the Hobo Pendant G acceleration Data Logger, to quantitatively describe the motion of individual particles from the initiation of movement, through the displacement and to the rest, in a natural gravel river. The Hobo measures the acceleration in three dimensions at a chosen frequency. Hobo Pendant G Acceleration data logger were inserted into 11 artificial rocks and seeded in Ruisseau Béard, a small gravel river in the Yamaska drainage basin (Québec). The hydraulics, particle sizes and bed characteristics of this site are well known. Controlled tests have been performed before the field experiment to understand the response of the instrument. The results allow us to develop an algorithm which classifies the signal into periods of rest and motion. The algorithm can also differentiate the type of motion: vibration, rolling and sliding of the particles. The data allow us to describe the time of movement, the path length and the velocity of the particles. The comparison of the movement and rest periods to the hydraulic conditions (discharge, shear stress, stream power) established the movement threshold and response times. Relations with bed roughness and morphology were also established. Finally, the development of a 2-dimension model helps visualizing the angular variation motion and a 3D model allows the reconstitution of the particle trajectories on the bed. This method offers great potential to track individual particles and to study bedload transport in rivers. This first attempt needs to be further improved especially to retire the degree of precision of the movement detection. The method should also be tested with frequencies higher than one minute, with more particles of

  9. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  10. The Use of Individual Growth and Developmental Indicators for Progress Monitoring and Intervention Decision Making in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring tools have been shown to be essential elements in current approaches to intervention problem-solving models. Such tools have been valuable not only in marking individual children's level of performance relative to peers but also in measuring change in skill level in a way that can be attributed to intervention and development.…

  11. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  12. Experience-Dependent Plasticity Drives Individual Differences in Pheromone-Sensing Neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei Sabrina; Lee, Donghoon; Holy, Timothy E

    2016-08-17

    Different individuals exhibit distinct behaviors, but studying the neuronal basis of individuality is a daunting challenge. Here, we considered this question in the vomeronasal organ, a pheromone-detecting epithelium containing hundreds of distinct neuronal types. Using light-sheet microscopy, we characterized in each animal the abundance of 17 physiologically defined types, altogether recording from half a million sensory neurons. Inter-animal differences were much larger than predicted by chance, and different physiological cell types showed distinct patterns of variability. One neuronal type was present in males and nearly absent in females. Surprisingly, this apparent sexual dimorphism was generated by plasticity, as exposure to female scents or single ligands led to both the elimination of this cell type and alterations in olfactory behavior. That an all-or-none apparent sex difference in neuronal types is controlled by experience-even in a sensory system devoted to "innate" behaviors-highlights the extraordinary role of "nurture" in neural individuality. PMID:27537487

  13. Fission Product Monitoring and Release Data for the Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Mark W. Drigert; Edward L. Reber

    2010-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 26, 2006 until November 6, 2009 in support of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Fuel Development and Qualification program. An important measure of the fuel performance is the quantification of the fission product releases over the duration of the experiment. To provide this data for the inert fission gasses(Kr and Xe), a fission product monitoring system (FPMS) was developed and implemented to monitor the individual capsule effluents for the radioactive species. The FPMS continuously measured the concentrations of various krypton and xenon isotopes in the sweep gas from each AGR-1 capsule to provide an indicator of fuel irradiation performance. Spectrometer systems quantified the concentrations of Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89, Kr-90, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe 135, Xe 135m, Xe-137, Xe-138, and Xe-139 accumulated over repeated eight hour counting intervals.-. To determine initial fuel quality and fuel performance, release activity for each isotope of interest was derived from FPMS measurements and paired with a calculation of the corresponding isotopic production or birthrate. The release activities and birthrates were combined to determine Release-to-Birth ratios for the selected nuclides. R/B values provide indicators of initial fuel quality and fuel performance during irradiation. This paper presents a brief summary of the FPMS, the release to birth ratio data for the AGR-1 experiment and preliminary comparisons of AGR-1 experimental fuels data to fission gas release models.

  14. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage. PMID:25673665

  15. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr.; Houde, E.D.; Rose, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual ``theoretical`` ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a ``switch`` occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  16. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Marine Sciences); Houde, E.D. . Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual theoretical'' ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a switch'' occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  17. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  18. SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans - Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, K.; Balfors, B.; Folkeson, L.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  19. Appraisals and Responses to Experimental Symptom Analogues in Clinical and Nonclinical Individuals With Psychotic Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Thomas A.; Gaynor, Keith J.; Hunter, Mike D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Garety, Philippa A.; Peters, Emmanuelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive models of psychosis suggest that anomalous experiences alone do not always lead to clinical psychosis, with appraisals and responses to experiences being central to understanding the transition to “need for care”. Methods: The appraisals and response styles of Clinical (C; n = 28) and Nonclinical (NC; n = 34) individuals with psychotic experiences were compared following experimental analogues of thought interference (Cards Task) and auditory hallucinations (Virtual Acoustic Space Paradigm). Results: The groups were matched in terms of their psychotic experiences. As predicted, the C group scored higher than the NC group on maladaptive appraisals following both tasks, rated the experience as more personally significant, and was more likely to incorporate the experimental setup into their ongoing experiences. The C group also appraised the Cards Task as more salient, distressing, and threatening; this group scored higher on maladaptive—and lower on adaptive—response styles, than the NC group on both tasks. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with cognitive models of psychosis, with maladaptive appraisals and response styles characterizing the C group only. Clinical applications of both tasks are suggested to facilitate the identification and modification of maladaptive appraisals. PMID:23858493

  20. IDP Camp and Reconstruction Monitoring Experience at SERTIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Allenbach, Bernard; Battiston, Stephanie; Caspard, Mathilde; Fellah, Kader; Giraud, Henri; Montabord, Myldred; Tholey, Nadine; Uribe, Carlos; Yesou, Herve; de Fraipont, Paul

    2010-12-01

    SERTIT's rapid mapping activities covering disasters and damage mapping after a major catastrophic event such as those realized within the framework of International Charter "Space and major disasters" (Charter) and GMES1 programmes are relatively well known, whereas the work carried since 2004 on the exploitation of Earth Observation data for humanitarian aid is less often presented. The aim of this paper is to present this work from mapping and monitoring IDP camp related emergencies to supporting recovery and reconstruction and the context, procedures and examples of this work. A brief introduction to the world of rapid mapping will be given within the context of emergency mapping and monitoring and why this need arises. This is combined with a word on the development of this service with respect to the Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camp mapping. Then, the cases of Sudan 2004, Chad & Sudan 2008 and Yemen 2009 will be treated to show that the Emergency Mapping and Monitoring Service for Displaced Populations is operational. Afterwards, SERTIT's complementary Emergency Recovery Support Service will be demonstrated through the long- term reconstruction monitoring work carried out, post- disaster, following the 2003 Boumerdès earthquake event. Finally, the need for the availability and deployment of this kind of services is highlighted by the reconstruction planning and monitoring requirements in Haiti, amongst other places.

  1. Schizophrenia‐like topological changes in the structural connectome of individuals with subclinical psychotic experiences

    PubMed Central

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Dutt, Anirban; Zammit, Stanley; Evans, C. John; Reichenberg, Abraham; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S.; Jones, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Schizophrenia is often regarded as a “dysconnectivity” disorder and recent work using graph theory has been used to better characterize dysconnectivity of the structural connectome in schizophrenia. However, there are still little data on the topology of connectomes in less severe forms of the condition. Such analysis will identify topological markers of less severe disease states and provide potential predictors of further disease development. Individuals with psychotic experiences (PEs) were identified from a population‐based cohort without relying on participants presenting to clinical services. Such individuals have an increased risk of developing clinically significant psychosis. 123 individuals with PEs and 125 controls were scanned with diffusion‐weighted MRI. Whole‐brain structural connectomes were derived and a range of global and local GT‐metrics were computed. Global efficiency and density were significantly reduced in individuals with PEs. Local efficiency was reduced in a number of regions, including critical network hubs. Further analysis of functional subnetworks showed differential impairment of the default mode network. An additional analysis of pair‐wise connections showed no evidence of differences in individuals with PEs. These results are consistent with previous findings in schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in critical core hubs suggests the brains of individuals with PEs may be particularly predisposed to dysfunction. The absence of any detectable effects in pair‐wise connections illustrates that, at less severe stages of psychosis, white‐matter alterations are subtle and only manifest when examining network topology. This study indicates that topology could be a sensitive biomarker for early stages of psychotic illness. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2629–2643, 2015.© 2015 TheAuthors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25832856

  2. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  3. Towards a comprehensive model for predicting the quality of individual visual experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Hanjalic, Alan; Redi, Judith A.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a lot of effort has been devoted to estimating the Quality of Visual Experience (QoVE) in order to optimize video delivery to the user. For many decades, existing objective metrics mainly focused on estimating the perceived quality of a video, i.e., the extent to which artifacts due to e.g. compression disrupt the appearance of the video. Other aspects of the visual experience, such as enjoyment of the video content, were, however, neglected. In addition, typically Mean Opinion Scores were targeted, deeming the prediction of individual quality preferences too hard of a problem. In this paper, we propose a paradigm shift, and evaluate the opportunity of predicting individual QoVE preferences, in terms of video enjoyment as well as perceived quality. To do so, we explore the potential of features of different nature to be predictive for a user's specific experience with a video. We consider thus not only features related to the perceptual characteristics of a video, but also to its affective content. Furthermore, we also integrate in our framework the information about the user and use context. The results show that effective feature combinations can be identified to estimate the QoVE from the perspective of both the enjoyment and perceived quality.

  4. Temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration in Austria using a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Bliem, Markus; Getzner, Michael; Rodiga-Laßnig, Petra

    2012-07-30

    Temporal stability of values (environmental preferences) is usually considered to be an indicator of the reliability of a valuation instrument because the values can be "reproduced" by follow-up experiments. The objective of this paper is to test temporal stability of individual preferences for river restoration by employing two identical choice experiments with a time difference of one year. We compared the results of two surveys carried out on the stretch of the Danube River between the Austrian capital of Vienna and the border to the Slovak Republic in 2007 and 2008. The choice experiment method considered economic costs and benefits of ecological improvements along the river, in order to value environmental resources. Using a multinomial logit and a mixed logit model for the two samples and a pooled sample, we found that preferences and willingness-to-pay estimates for program attributes are not sensitive to time. The results suggest that, in the absence of an extreme event, individual preferences are robust over a short time period. PMID:22459072

  5. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  6. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  7. Comparing sensory experiences across individuals: recent psychophysical advances illuminate genetic variation in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M

    2000-08-01

    Modern psychophysics has traveled considerably beyond the threshold measures that dominated sensory studies in the first half of this century. Current methods capture the range of perceived intensity from threshold to maximum and promise to provide increasingly accurate comparisons of perceived intensities across individuals. The application of new psychophysical tools to genetic variation in taste allowed us to discover supertasters, individuals who live in particularly intense taste worlds. Because of the anatomy of the taste system, supertasters feel more burn from oral irritants like chili peppers, more creaminess/ viscosity from fats and thickeners in food and may also experience more intense oral pain. Not surprisingly, these sensory differences influence food choices and thus health. A discussion of the milestones on the road to understanding genetic variation in taste must include discussion of some potholes as well. Often our failures have been as instructive as our successes in the effort to evaluate the impact of genetic variation in taste. PMID:10944509

  8. Mothers' Experiences of Facilitated Peer Support Groups and Individual Child Health Nursing Support: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kruske, Sue; Schmied, Virginia; Sutton, Ivy; O'Hare, Joan

    2004-01-01

    The “Early Bird Program” is a support group facilitated by child and family health nurses and offered to families of infants aged 0–8 weeks in South East Sydney, Australia. This paper describes the experiences of 20 women who participated in the Early Bird groups and 20 women who chose to use individual consultations with the child and family health nurse. The qualitative evaluation used focus groups and interviews with the 40 women, and data were analysed using content analysis. Key findings show the Early Bird Program mothers received support and knowledge from both the nurses and each other, while the women who utilised the individual consultations with the nurses sought out and received specific services and information that focused on the baby. The group approach appears to promote group relationships and to empower mothers as a group by de-emphasising the power and expertise of the professional. PMID:17273398

  9. Error-Monitoring in Response to Social Stimuli in Individuals with Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Error-monitoring, or the ability to recognize one's mistakes and implement behavioral changes to prevent further mistakes, may be impaired in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children and adolescents (ages 9-19) with ASD (n = 42) and typical development (n = 42) completed two face processing tasks that required discrimination of either the gender or affect of standardized face stimuli. Post-error slowing and the difference in Error-Related Negativity amplitude between correct and incorrect responses (ERNdiff) were used to index error-monitoring ability. Overall, ERNdiff increased with age. On the Gender Task, individuals with ASD had a smaller ERNdiff than individuals with typical development; however, on the Affect Task, there were no significant diagnostic group differences on ERNdiff. Individuals with ASD may have ERN amplitudes similar to those observed in individuals with typical development in more social contexts compared to less social contexts due to greater consequences for errors, more effortful processing, and/or reduced processing efficiency in these contexts. Across all participants, more post-error slowing on the Affect Task was associated with better social cognitive skills. PMID:25066088

  10. The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M.; Gille, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere is used to obtain vertical profiles and maps of temperature and the concentration of ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid for the region of the stratosphere bounded by the upper troposphere and the lower mesosphere.

  11. Monitoring Urban Quality of Life: The Porto Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Luis Delfim; Martins, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the monitoring system of the urban quality of life developed by the Porto City Council, a new tool being used to support urban planning and management. The two components of this system--a quantitative approach based on statistical indicators and a qualitative analysis based on the citizens' perceptions of the conditions of…

  12. Experiences in monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sustainable land management (SLM) is widely promoted to prevent and mitigate land degradation and desertification, its monitoring and assessment has received much less attention. This paper compiles methodological approaches which to date have been little reported in literature. It draws le...

  13. Monitoring Processes and Metamemory Experience in Patients with Dysexecutive Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Karine; Allain, Phillipe; Kefi, Mohamed Zied; Dubas, Frederic; Le Gall, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether monitoring measures are differentially disturbed in dysexecutive patients after frontal lesions. Twelve dysexecutive patients and 12 healthy controls were administered a paired-associates learning task. Their performances on recall prediction, judgment-of-learning (JOL), and feeling-of-knowing…

  14. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  15. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; /SLAC

    2004-12-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centers. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  16. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  17. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KITO, Aiko; UENO, Takeji

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants’ previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  18. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  19. Experience of Primary Care among Homeless Individuals with Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chrystal, Joya G.; Glover, Dawn L.; Young, Alexander S.; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, Nancy K.; Pollio, David E.; Holt, Cheryl L.; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J.; Kim, Theresa A.; Daigle, Shanette G.; Steward, Jocelyn L.; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons’ needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers. PMID:25659142

  20. The Experiment and Simulation Method to Calibrate the Shear Modulus of Individual ZnO Nanorod.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangbin; Jiang, Chengming; Dai, Bing; Song, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    A general method is presented to directly measure the shear modulus of an individual nanorod using atomic force microscope (AFM). To obtain shear modulus with less experiment error, finite element simulation is employed to simulate the twisting process of a ZnO nanorod. Based on the experimental measurements, the shear modulus of ZnO nanorod with 4 µm in length and 166 nm in radius is characterized to be 9.1 ± 0.2 GPa, which is obviously more accurate than the simple averaged experimental result. PMID:27451763

  1. Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Individual Monitoring of Panels in a Photovoltaic Plant

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Miguel J.; Pernía, Alberto M.; Nuño, Fernando; Díaz, Juan; Villegas, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems proliferating in the last few years due to the high prices of fossil fuels and pollution issues, among others, it is extremely important to monitor the efficiency of these plants and optimize the energy production process. This will also result in improvements related to the maintenance and security of the installation. In order to do so, the main parameters in the plant must be continuously monitored so that the appropriate actions can be carried out. This monitoring should not only be carried out at a global level, but also at panel-level, so that a better understanding of what is actually happening in the PV plant can be obtained. This paper presents a system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that includes all the components required for such monitoring as well as a power supply obtaining the energy required by the sensors from the photovoltaic panels. The system proposed succeeds in identifying all the nodes in the network and provides real-time monitoring while tracking efficiency, features, failures and weaknesses from a single cell up to the whole infrastructure. Thus, the decision-making process is simplified, which contributes to reducing failures, wastes and, consequently, costs. PMID:24487622

  2. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  3. Resilient Individuals Use Positive Emotions to Bounce Back From Negative Emotional Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Tugade, Michele M.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory indicates that resilient individuals “bounce back” from stressful experiences quickly and effectively. Few studies, however, have provided empirical evidence for this theory. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (B. L. Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) is used as a framework for understanding psychological resilience. The authors used a multimethod approach in 3 studies to predict that resilient people use positive emotions to rebound from, and find positive meaning in, stressful encounters. Mediational analyses revealed that the experience of positive emotions contributed, in part, to participants’ abilities to achieve efficient emotion regulation, demonstrated by accelerated cardiovascular recovery from negative emotional arousal (Studies 1 and 2) and by finding positive meaning in negative circumstances (Study 3). Implications for research on resilience and positive emotions are discussed. PMID:14769087

  4. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation. 4. Individual experience, personal adaptation, and social perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stiens, S A; Bergman, S B; Formal, C S

    1997-03-01

    This learner-directed module highlights contemporary perspectives on personal success in the adjustment and adaptation of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It is the fourth in a series of five modules within the chapter on spinal cord injury rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This module explores models of the multisystem effects on a person after SCI, disablement, theories of adjustment, patient autonomy, quality of life, community experience, adaptations enhancing sexuality, and minimization of pain after SCI. Perspectives of the patient's experience in disablement, interdisciplinary person-centered rehabilitation, and success of the individual in chosen life roles are emphasized. The module is designed to update SCI issues reviewed in past syllabi. PMID:9084370

  5. Three years of operational experience from Schauinsland CTBT monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C

    2008-04-01

    Data from three years of operation of a low-level aerosol sampler and analyzer (RASA) at Schauinsland monitoring station are reported. The system is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The fully automatic system is capable to measure aerosol borne gamma emitters with high sensitivity and routinely quantifies 7Be and 212Pb. The system had a high level of data availability of 90% within the reporting period. A daily screening process rendered 66 tentative identifications of verification relevant radionuclides since the system entered IMS operation in February 2004. Two of these were real events and associated to a plausible source. The remaining 64 cases can consistently be explained by detector background and statistical phenomena. Inter-comparison with data from a weekly sampler operated at the same station shows instabilities of the calibration during the test phase and a good agreement since certification of the system. PMID:18053622

  6. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  7. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  8. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-09-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  9. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort With Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships With Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort, the ratio of sound pressure level to subglottal pressure level, were estimated from the aerodynamic and acoustic signals. Twelve listeners also judged the speech samples for vocal effort using the visual sort and rate method. Results Relationships between RFF and both the aerodynamic and perceptual measures of vocal effort were weak across speakers (R2 = .06–.26). Within speakers, relationships were variable but much stronger on average (R2 = .45–.56). Conclusions RFF showed stronger relationships between both the aerodynamic and perceptual measures of vocal effort when examined within individuals versus across individuals. Future work is necessary to establish these relationships in individuals with voice disorders across the therapeutic process. PMID:25675090

  10. Experiments on individual strategy updating in iterated snowdrift game under random rematching.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning; Wang, Guangchao

    2015-03-01

    How do people actually play the iterated snowdrift games, particularly under random rematching protocol is far from well explored. Two sets of laboratory experiments on snowdrift game were conducted to investigate human strategy updating rules. Four groups of subjects were modeled by experience-weighted attraction learning theory at individual-level. Three out of the four groups (75%) passed model validation. Substantial heterogeneity is observed among the players who update their strategies in four typical types, whereas rare people behave like belief-based learners even under fixed pairing. Most subjects (63.9%) adopt the reinforcement learning (or alike) rules; but, interestingly, the performance of averaged reinforcement learners suffered. It is observed that two factors seem to benefit players in competition, i.e., the sensitivity to their recent experiences and the overall consideration of forgone payoffs. Moreover, subjects with changing opponents tend to learn faster based on their own recent experience, and display more diverse strategy updating rules than they do with fixed opponent. These findings suggest that most of subjects do apply reinforcement learning alike updating rules even under random rematching, although these rules may not improve their performance. The findings help evolutionary biology researchers to understand sophisticated human behavioral strategies in social dilemmas. PMID:25542641

  11. RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF NO, NO2, NOY, AND INDIVIDUAL NOZ SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most appropriate monitoring methods for reactive nitrogen oxides are identified subject to the requirements for diagnostic testing of air quality simulation models. Measurements must be made over 1 h or less and with an uncertainty of

  12. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  13. Using a Web-Based Database to Record and Monitor Athletic Training Students' Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk W.; Williams, Lisa; Janicki, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a documentation recording system employing the Microsoft Structured Query Language (MS-SQL) database used by the Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) for recording and monitoring of athletic training student (ATS) clinical experiences and hours. Background: Monitoring ATSs clinical…

  14. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  15. Dental students' glucometer experience and attitudes toward diabetes counseling, monitoring, and screening: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare glucometer experience and attitudes toward counseling, monitoring, and screening for diabetes between two classes of graduating students at one dental school to determine if there were differences by experience and year of graduation. Dental students graduating in 2010 and 2013 completed a survey about their experience with use of a glucometer as well as their attitudes toward and perceived barriers to performing glucose monitoring, screening, and counseling. Response rates for the two classes were 100 percent and 95.7 percent, respectively. Students in the two classes were in general agreement that activities related to glucose monitoring and counseling of patients with diabetes are within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. Examination of their attitudes toward diabetes monitoring and counseling activities by level of glucometer experience indicated that students with more experience using a glucometer were more likely to consider these activities to be within the scope of dental practice and less likely to perceive barriers to such activities compared to those with little or no experience. In addition, regardless of experience, there was significantly higher endorsement for monitoring of patients who had already been diagnosed than for screening of patients who had not been diagnosed. This study suggests that any strategy to encourage dental students' and dentists' involvement in nontraditional health promotion activities should include ample direct clinical experience with these activities. PMID:25179922

  16. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  17. Hardware report for experiment M133, sleep monitoring on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booher, C. R.; Larue, E. F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was objectively to measure sleep quantity and quality during prolonged space flight with the use of automatic equipment for onboard analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electro-oculographic (EOG) activity and telemetry of sleep stage data.

  18. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  19. Seismogeodetic Monitoring of Structural Deformation during Shaketable Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Saunders, J. K.; Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Melgar, D.; Restrepo, J. I.; Nema, A.; Fleischman, R. B.; Zhang, Z.; Offield, D. G.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate low frequency strong motion recordings are important for understanding free field and building response in large engineered structures. We have developed a seismogeodetic monitoring system based on GPS technology for real-time observations of large earthquakes that can also be used for structural monitoring. The data analysis method implements in a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic displacement, velocity, and tilt from GPS and accelerometer observations. Tilt is one of the major error sources that prevents accelerometer data from being integrated correctly to displacements. The technology is currently operational and streaming real-time observations from remote SIO Geodetic Module packages containing MEMS accelerometers at 17 GPS sites in southern California for the purposes of earthquake early warning and rapid response. The instruments were run in real-time on a four-story structure at the UCSD NEES shaketable to test an inertial force-limiting floor anchorage system as an emerging technology for new seismically resistant buildings. Observations were made during a series of earthquake simulations at five points on the roof of the structure, at the base, and at two nearby reference sites off the structure. Two of the points were also observed with observatory-grade Kinemetrics Episensor accelerometers to compare the performance of the MEMS sensors. The unique asymmetric design of the engineered structure deliberately induced large out-of-plane torsion and tilts of the building. This tested the performance of anchorage components to motions in two lateral directions even though the shaketable generated motions in only one component. We performed a seismogeodetic combination of the accelerometer and GPS data in which we simultaneously estimated tilts to take into account the impact of the rotations on vertical tilts of the accelerometers. The seismogeodetic combination reliably recovers drift at the rooftop, demonstrated

  20. Individual patient data meta-analysis of self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP-SMART): a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; Sheppard, James P; Stevens, Richard; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bove, Alfred; Bray, Emma P; Godwin, Marshal; Green, Beverly; Hebert, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Kantola, Ilkka; Kerry, Sally; Magid, David J; Mant, Jonathan; Margolis, Karen L; McKinstry, Brian; Omboni, Stefano; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Parati, Gianfranco; Qamar, Nashat; Varis, Juha; Verberk, Willem; Wakefield, Bonnie J; McManus, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-monitoring of blood pressure is effective in reducing blood pressure in hypertension. However previous meta-analyses have shown a considerable amount of heterogeneity between studies, only part of which can be accounted for by meta-regression. This may be due to differences in design, recruited populations, intervention components or results among patient subgroups. To further investigate these differences, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of self-monitoring of blood pressure will be performed. Methods and analysis We will identify randomised trials that have compared patients with hypertension who are self-monitoring blood pressure with those who are not and invite trialists to provide IPD including clinic and/or ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure at baseline and all follow-up points where both intervention and control groups were measured. Other data requested will include measurement methodology, length of follow-up, cointerventions, baseline demographic (age, gender) and psychosocial factors (deprivation, quality of life), setting, intensity of self-monitoring, self-monitored blood pressure, comorbidities, lifestyle factors (weight, smoking) and presence or not of antihypertensive treatment. Data on all available patients will be included in order to take an intention-to-treat approach. A two-stage procedure for IPD meta-analysis, stratified by trial and taking into account age, sex, diabetes and baseline systolic BP will be used. Exploratory subgroup analyses will further investigate non-linear relationships between the prespecified variables. Sensitivity analyses will assess the impact of trials which have and have not provided IPD. Ethics and dissemination This study does not include identifiable data. Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and by international conference presentations. Conclusions IPD analysis should help the understanding of which self-monitoring interventions for which

  1. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  2. Stability of monitoring weak changes in multiply scattering media with ambient noise correlation: laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Hadziioannou, Céline; Larose, Eric; Coutant, Olivier; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that small changes can be monitored in a scattering medium by observing phase shifts in the coda. Passive monitoring of weak changes through ambient noise correlation has already been applied to seismology, acoustics, and engineering. Usually, this is done under the assumption that a properly reconstructed Green function (GF), as well as stable background noise sources, is necessary. In order to further develop this monitoring technique, a laboratory experiment was performed in the 2.5 MHz range in a gel with scattering inclusions, comparing an active (pulse-echo) form of monitoring to a passive (correlation) one. Present results show that temperature changes in the medium can be observed even if the GF of the medium is not reconstructed. Moreover, this article establishes that the GF reconstruction in the correlations is not a necessary condition: The only condition to monitoring with correlation (passive experiment) is the relative stability of the background noise structure. PMID:19507951

  3. Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Maritza; Seijas, David; Agreda, Olga; Rodríguez, Maritza

    2006-02-01

    People in developing countries are often considered at greater risk of mercury (Hg) poisoning due to a variety of factors including a lack of awareness regarding their occupational risks. Individuals requiring urine mercury (U-Hg) analysis at the Center for Toxicological Investigations of the University of Carabobo (CITUC), between 1998 and 2002 were studied to identify demographic characteristics associated to U-Hg levels. The studied population included individuals with a history of exposure (or related exposures) to Hg processes, and was comprised of 1159 individuals (65 children, 1094 adults) ages 0.58-79 years old, mean 36.63+/-12.4. Children's geometric mean U-Hg levels were 2.73 microg/g Creatinine (Ct) and in adults 2.55 microg/g Ct. The highest frequency of adults' occupations were shipyard workers (35.47%), dentists (23.5%), lab technicians (11.43%), dental employees 10.42% and miners (10.2%). Chemical laboratory technicians had the highest mean U-Hg (4.46 microg/g Ct). Mean U-Hg levels in female adults (3.45 microg/g Ct) were statistically superior to levels in male adults (2.15 microg/g Ct). Two of the 172 women in reproductive age, had U-Hg levels higher than 78 microg/g Ct. Individuals from Falcon State were found to have the highest mean U-Hg (4.53 microg/g Ct). U-Hg levels higher than permissible limits were found in only 2 states (Carabobo and Bolivar) with a total of 24 cases. Although the results of this investigation were highly variable, the findings can be used to examine circumstances which influence mercury toxicity trends, and possibly used in future studies working to identify Hg exposures. PMID:16399001

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of eculizumab: Rationale for an individualized dosing schedule

    PubMed Central

    Gatault, Philippe; Brachet, Guillaume; Ternant, David; Degenne, Danielle; Récipon, Guillaume; Barbet, Christelle; Gyan, Emmanuel; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Bordes, Cécile; Farrell, Alexandra; Halimi, Jean Michel; Watier, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The annual cost of eculizumab maintenance therapy in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome (aHUS) exceeds $300,000 per patient. A better understanding of eculizumab pharmacokinetics and subsequent individual dose adjustment could reduce this cost. We measured the trough eculizumab concentration in 9 patients with maintenance therapy (aHUS, n = 7; PNH, n = 2) and determined: 1) the intra- and inter-individual variability; 2) the influence of weight on eculizumab pharmacokinetics; and 3) the rate of elimination of eculizumab following discontinuation. A one-compartment model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of eculizumab and predicted complement activity by body weight. Trough eculizumab concentrations were >50 µg/mL in 9/9, >100 µg/mL in 8/9, and >300 µg/mL in 5/9 of patients. Intra-individual variability was low but eculizumab concentrations, closely correlated with patient weight (R2 = 0.66, p = 0.034), varied broadly (55 ± 12 to 733 ± 164 µg/mL). Pharmacokinetic modeling showed that the elimination half-life varied greatly, with an increase from 7.8 d in a patient weighing 100 kg to 19.5 d in a 40 kg patient. We predicted that infusions of 1200 mg could be spaced every 4 or 6 weeks in patients weighing <90 and <70 kg, respectively. In this pilot study, the current recommended use of a fixed eculizumab dose for maintenance therapy is associated with excessively high trough concentrations in many patients. Further prospective larger studies are now required to support an individualized schedule adjusted for patient weight and based on the observed trough serum eculizumab concentration. PMID:26337866

  5. Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachab, A.

    2007-03-28

    The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

  6. A panel of microsatellites to individually identify leopards and its application to leopard monitoring in human dominated landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Leopards are the most widely distributed of the large cats, ranging from Africa to the Russian Far East. Because of habitat fragmentation, high human population densities and the inherent adaptability of this species, they now occupy landscapes close to human settlements. As a result, they are the most common species involved in human wildlife conflict in India, necessitating their monitoring. However, their elusive nature makes such monitoring difficult. Recent advances in DNA methods along with non-invasive sampling techniques can be used to monitor populations and individuals across large landscapes including human dominated ones. In this paper, we describe a DNA-based method for leopard individual identification where we used fecal DNA samples to obtain genetic material. Further, we apply our methods to non-invasive samples collected in a human-dominated landscape to estimate the minimum number of leopards in this human-leopard conflict area in Western India. Results In this study, 25 of the 29 tested cross-specific microsatellite markers showed positive amplification in 37 wild-caught leopards. These loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (four-12 alleles) and heterozygosity (0.05-0.79). Combining data on amplification success (including non-invasive samples) and locus specific polymorphisms, we showed that eight loci provide a sibling probability of identity of 0.0005, suggesting that this panel can be used to discriminate individuals in the wild. When this microsatellite panel was applied to fecal samples collected from a human-dominated landscape, we identified 7 individuals, with a sibling probability of identity of 0.001. Amplification success of field collected scats was up to 72%, and genotype error ranged from 0-7.4%. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the selected panel of eight microsatellite loci can conclusively identify leopards from various kinds of biological samples. Our methods can be used to monitor leopards over small

  7. The fate of early experience following developmental change: longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B; Kreutzer, T

    1990-10-01

    2 strategies were used to investigate the continued impact of early experience and adaptation given subsequent experience and/or developmental change in a poverty sample (N = 190). Groups were defined whose adaptation was similar during the preschool years but consistently different earlier; then these 2 groups were compared in elementary school. In addition, a series of regression analyses was performed in which variance accounted for by near-in or contemporary predictors of adaptation in middle childhood was removed before adding earlier adaptation in subsequent steps. Children showing positive adaptation in the infant/toddler period showed greater rebound in the elementary school years, despite poor functioning in the preschool period. Regression analyses revealed some incremental power of early predictors with intermediate predictors removed. The results were interpreted as supporting Bowlby's thesis that adaptation is always a product of both developmental history and current circumstances. While this research cannot resolve such a complicated issue, it does point to the need for complex formulations to guide research on individual development. PMID:2245730

  8. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  9. Monitoring the Veterinary Medical Student Experience: An Institutional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success. PMID:26421517

  10. The application of multi-parameter flow cytometry to monitor individual microbial cell physiological state.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Christopher J; Nebe-Von-Caron, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The development of multi-parameter flow cytometric techniques in our laboratories has led to a functional classification of the physiological state of single celled micro-organisms, including both yeast and bacteria. This classification is based on the presence or absence of an intact fully polarized cytoplasmic membrane and the transport systems across it. Using these techniques it is possible to resolve a cells physiological state, beyond culturability to include metabolic activity enabling assessment of population heterogeneity. Importantly results are available in real-time, 1-2 min after a sample is taken, enabling informed decisions to be taken about a process. These techniques have been extensively applied by us for monitoring the stress responses of micro-organisms in such diverse areas as brewing, bio-remediation, bio-transformation, food processing and pharmaceutical fermentation, some of which are discussed here. PMID:15217160